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How do agroforestry production systems function and what could they offer for the cocoa sector?

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How do agroforestry production systems function and what could they offer for the cocoa sector?

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How do agroforestry production systems function and what could they offer for the cocoa sector?

  1. 1. How do agroforestry production systems function and what could they offer for the cocoa sector? Fergus Sinclair1,2,4, Jean-Michel Harmand1,3, Philippe Vaast1, 3, Dietmar Stoian1 , Tor Vagen1 and Eduardo Somarriba2 1ICRAF, 2CATIE, 3CIRAD, 4Bangor
  2. 2. Scale landscape A partially deforested watershed in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica where forest area affects water yield and quality farm A dairy farm on the edge of a cloud forest reserve in Costa Rica with open pastures, trees in riparian zones and farm woodland on steep slopes. field Trees (Parkia biglobosa and Adansonia digitata) in crop fields in northern Nigeria Agroforestry – where trees interact with agriculture global Global climate is influenced by agricultural and forest land use across continents Type
  3. 3. The extent of agroforestry • New estimates from analysis of remote sensed images (Zomer et al., 2016*) • Globally in terms of agricultural land area: • nearly half (46%, ~1 billion ha) has >10% tree cover. • almost a third (27%, 6 million km2 (27% of agricultural land) has more than 20% tree cover and just over 1.6 million km2 (7.5%) have more than 50% tree cover • The area with >10% tree cover is home to more than 500 million people (30% of the rural population). • Agroforestry (>10% tree cover) is particularly prevalent (>80% of area) in: • SE Asia • Central and South America * Zomer, R. J. et al. (2016). Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets. Nature - Scientific Reports 6: 29987
  4. 4. The extent of agroforestry • Regional differences mapped • Globally - nearly half the agricultural land area (46%, ~1 billion ha) has more than 10% tree cover. Zomer, R. J. et al. (2016). Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets. Nature - Scientific Reports 6: 29987
  5. 5. The extent of agroforestry • New estimates from analysis of remote sensed images (Zomer et al., 2016*) • Globally - nearly half the agricultural land area (46%, ~1 billion ha) has more than 10% tree cover. * Trabucco, A., Zomer, R.J., Coe, R. and Place, F. (in press). Trees on farmland: a global analysis of agroforestry extent. Agroforestry Systems .
  6. 6. Scope and objectives • improving food (nutrition), fuel and water security, and • increasing income from high value products while • ensuring resource conservation, and • contributing to mitigation and adaptation to CC 2000-2010 sequestered 0.7 Gt CO2 per year across the globe
  7. 7. Vitellaria paradoxa Balanites aegyptiaca Prunus africana
  8. 8. Sclerocarya birrea 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 lemon papaya orange mango guava baobab marula VIT C mg/100g Vitamin C (mg/100g) in flesh
  9. 9. Farmer managed natural regeneration $200 per year and only 10-25% of harvested product sold Crop yield increased 15- 30% depending on tree species, location and crop type Benefits correlated with tree maturity and density 5 million ha, impacting 2.5 million people in southern Niger alone Burkina Faso Mali Niger Senegal
  10. 10. AF0 – agroforestry not recognised Agriculture and forestry are largely separate scientific and policy domains with a largely antagonistic interface where agriculture is a major threat to forest in much of the world although the reverse in post-industrial countries striving to re-forest. Traditional agroforestry practice and local knowledge Agriculture and forestry still conceived as largely separate domains but with an intersection of trees on farms and farming in forests, with a focus on practices at field scale AF1 – agroforestry practices AF2 - lives and landscapes AF3 - integrated land use and livelihood approach across scales from field to planet Sustainable livelihoods approach and the MDGs Ecosystems services approach and the MEA Farming livelihoods recognised as going beyond agriculture and agroforestry to encompass mosaic landscapes where interaction of trees (sometimes in forests) occurs across landscapes where many key ecosystem services that tree cover affects first manifest Agroforestry recognised as an umbrella term for all land uses (the union as well as the intersection of agriculture and forestry) and their impact on livelihoods and environment that can be applied across scales (field, landscape, region, markets, policy domains, global change) where trees and agriculture interact at these scales Scaling-up imperative and the SDGs Sustainability science and social- ecological systems The evolution of the agroforestry paradigm 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Van Noordwijk M, Coe R, Sinclair FL. 2019. Agroforestry paradigms. In: van Noordwijk M, ed. Sustainable development through trees on farms: agroforestry in its fifth decade. Bogor, Indonesia: World Agroforestry (ICRAF) Southeast Asia Regional Program. pp 1−14.
  11. 11. http://blog.worldagroforestry.org/index.php/20 14/12/11/how-many-trees-for-a-chocolate-fix/ https://theconversation.com/how-planting- trees-can-protect-cocoa-plants-against-climate- change-94638
  12. 12. High stakes: chocolate industry aims to achieve sustainable cocoa sector by 2020 Challenge – persistent, interlinked problems in cocoa sector: Ø persistent rural poverty (cocoa income below 'living wage') Ø low productivity (soil fertility decline, pests and diseases) Ø climate change Ø deforestation to expand production Ø competing land uses (food/cash crops, mining) Ø limited producer organizations Ø child labour Ø aging farming population Ø poor rural infrastructure and services Photo: D. Stoian
  13. 13. Scale of solutions vs. problem Cocoa Barometer (2018) Progress regarding coverage of child labor and involvement of farmers in cocoa programs – but insufficient in terms of scale and living income Child labour monitoring and remediation systems International cocoa initiative practices, germplasm, fertility < child labour, education, gender distribution more important than average
  14. 14. Blaser WJ et al. 2018. Climate-smart sustainable agriculture in low-to-intermediate shade agroforests. Nature Sustainability, 1:234-239. Costs and benefits of cocoa agroforests on production, climate adaptation, climate mitigation and biodiversity along a gradient of shade-tree cover - As shade-tree cover increases above 30%, win–win scenarios are less likely to occur - Shade trees may not necessarily compromise production up to ~50% cover
  15. 15. Relationship between shade tree canopy cover (%) and A: CSSVD symptom severity and B: cocoa yield in the main harvest season 2016 Andres et al., 2018. Agroforestry systems can mitigate the severity of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 252: 83–92. - Around 50% shade cover (overlapped between 45%–53%) may be an optimal coping strategy to balance CSSVD symptom severity versus reduced cocoa yield
  16. 16. Fig 1. Mean annual rainfall distribution (mm) across Southern Ghana with GPS points of studied sites marked with red dots, representing the dry, mid and wet regions from North to South. Abdulai I, Jassogne L, Graefe S, Asare R, Van Asten P, et al. (2018) Characterization of cocoa production, income diversification and shade tree management along a climate gradient in Ghana. PLOS ONE 13(4): e0195777. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195777 https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195777
  17. 17. Fig 7. Yield variation between medium and low shade systems along a climatic gradient from dry to mid and wet cocoa regions in Ghana (different letters indicate significant differences at between systems p&lt;0.05). Abdulai I, Jassogne L, Graefe S, Asare R, Van Asten P, et al. (2018) Characterization of cocoa production, income diversification and shade tree management along a climate gradient in Ghana. PLOS ONE 13(4): e0195777. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195777 https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195777
  18. 18. Timber trees Fruit trees 80 % of species have a use value Jagoret et al. 2014. Agroforestry Systems Saj et al. 2017. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability Cocoa stand Complex and multifunctional cocoa systems in Cameroon © P. Jagoret , Cirad
  19. 19. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 5 10 15 Use value (%) Fréquency (%) Milicia excelsa Terminalia superba Ceiba pentandra Ficus mucoso Albizia adianthifolia Canarium schweinfurthii Triplochyton scleroxylon Ficus exasperata Alstonia boonei Pterocarpus soyauxii Pycnanthus angolensis Spathodea campanulata R2 = 0,9142 Dacryodes edulis Elaeis guineensis Citrus sinensisMangifera indica Persea americana Cola nitida Ricinodendron heudelotii Citrus sp. The choice of species has to be done with farmers - First group of species: fruit trees - Second group of species: timber trees, NTFP, service trees Farmers’ assessment of the use value of associated trees in cocoa AFS in central Cameroon Jagoret et al. 2014. Agroforestry Systems
  20. 20. Jagoret et al. 2011. Agroforestry Systems Complex cocoa systems in Cameroon © P. Jagoret , Cirad © JM Harmand, Cirad/ICRAF
  21. 21. Fig 5. Eco-systemic functions of shade trees along a climatic gradient from dry to mid and wet cocoa regions in Ghana. Abdulai I, Jassogne L, Graefe S, Asare R, Van Asten P, et al. (2018) Characterization of cocoa production, income diversification and shade tree management along a climate gradient in Ghana. PLOS ONE 13(4): e0195777. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195777 https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195777
  22. 22. Cocoa prices, 1850-2019 and Living Wage - 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 $/ton,nominalvalues Real cocoa prices (2013 values), 1850-2013 Nominal cocoa prices, 2014-2019 (until May) Adapted from Gilbert (2014) Own elaboration based on ICCO (2019) Agreed minimum price for cocoa from Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana (pending a technical meeting to address details of its implementation on July 3, 2019) Long-term price trend negative – agreed minimum price step in the right direction, but insufficient for a living wage
  23. 23. Basic cocoa math Typical data for smallholders: Ø Farm size: 1-3 ha, with 0.5-2.5 ha cocoa Ø Household size: 5-6 members Ø Cocoa productivity: 300-600 kg/ha Ø Cocoa production: 200-1,500 kg/yr Ø Farmgate cocoa prices: $1,200-2,300/mt (50-80% of F.O.B.) Ø Annual cocoa income: $250-$3,500 per household Ø Annual cocoa income: $40-600 per hh member Ø Poverty threshold: $730/hh member/yr Photo: D. Stoian Cocoa income alone does not allow smallholders to move out of poverty
  24. 24. Cocoa-based livelihoods Livelihood options through cocoa-based agroforestry systems: • provide additional income for women, men and youth: Ø Fuelwood, fodder & timber Ø Fruits, nuts & honey • enhance provision of environmental services: Ø biodiversity conservation Ø carbon sequestration Ø protection of aquifers • attract investments: Ø impact & climate investments Ø environmental service payments Photo: D. Stoian Additional income in the range of $500-1,000/ha/yr can help smallholders move out of poverty
  25. 25. (Jagoret et al. 2011. Agroforestry Systems) 60 % 75 % Contribution of cocoa to livelihoods
  26. 26. Fig 4. Distribution of cocoa and non-cocoa income proportions among farmers along a climate gradient from dry, mid and wet regions in Ghana. Abdulai I, Jassogne L, Graefe S, Asare R, Van Asten P, et al. (2018) Characterization of cocoa production, income diversification and shade tree management along a climate gradient in Ghana. PLOS ONE 13(4): e0195777. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195777 https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195777
  27. 27. SHADED COCOA AND PROVISION OF LIVELIHOODS FOR RURAL FAMILIES
  28. 28. A livelihood is more than a cocoa field … more than a farm …
  29. 29. From Saj et al. 2017. Lessons learned from the long-term analysis of cacao yield and stand structure in central Cameroonian agroforestry systems. Agricultural Systems, 156: 95–104. One management tool: basal area of the cocoa stand (% of total basal area) Basal area of the cocoa stand ≈ 40% of total basal area => best yield of old cocoa plantations : best balance for long term sustainability - High cocoa yield of young plantations with high ratio of basal area of the cocoa stand - Low cocoa yield related to low ratio of basal area of the cocoa stand
  30. 30. 71 a 42 b 24 c 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Age(years) Cocoa plots Cocoa trees Cocoa stems Replacement of dead cocoa trees Coppicing Jagoret et al. 2017. Agroforestry Systems Mean age of cocoa plots, cocoa trees and cocoa stems (data gathered from 4 plots, Central Cameroon). The number above each column corresponds to the mean age. Rehabilitation practices that shape cocoa AFS in Central Cameroon: key management strategy for long-term sustainability - Permanent replacement of dead cocoa trees and coppicing allow the rejuvenation of cocoa stands while increasing cocoa stand basal area - Shade cover allow flexibility in cocoa management (rejuvenation, reduction of too high cocao densities to 1100 /ha)
  31. 31. Advanced cocoa (restoration) math Ø Cocoa restoration – opportunity and need Ø Need: ageing cocoa plantations; lack of diversification Ø Opportunity: diversified agroforestry systems with cocoa and associated products for income generation, food and nutrition Ø Restoration cost (over three years): US$ 6,000-8,000/ha Ø Global area requiring cocoa restoration: 3-5 million ha Ø Required investment (over three years): US$ 18-40 billion Photo: D. Stoian Need for blended finance to pool the required resources for large-scale cocoa restoration
  32. 32. Cocoa yield vs. Carbon storage vs. species richness § Negative relationships between cocoa yield and C storage and between cocoa yield and species richness § Age < 21 years old: C storage < 100 t.ha-1 § Age > 40 years old: cocoa yield < 1500 kg ha-1 § In very old plots, cocoa yield < 1000 kg.ha-1 § Cocoa yield of 1000 kg.ha-1 achievable for C stocks of 100 t.ha-1 and a species richness of 10 species ha-1 Saj S et al, 2019. In : Agroforesterie et services écosystémiques en zone tropicale Ed. Quae, 95-107. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 100 200 300 Rendementaccessible(t.ha-1) C dans la biomasse arborée (t.ha-1) 11-20 ans 21-40 ans 41-60 ans > 60 ans ≤ 10 ans 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 10 20 30 Richesse spécifique arborée 11-20 ans 21-40 ans 41-60 ans > 60 ans ≤ 10 ans (a) (b) Accessibleyield(kgha-1) C in tree biomass (Mg ha-1) Species richness (species ha-1)
  33. 33. SHADEDCOCOA STORE CARBON AND CONSERVE BIODIVERSITY….OPPORTUNITIES FOR CERTIFICATION….
  34. 34. Recycling Input reduction Soil heath Animal health Synergy Economic diversification Social values and diets Fairness Connectivity Land and natural resource governance Participation Biodiversity Co-creation of knowledge Level 5 Build a new global food system based on participation, localness, fairness and justice Level 4 Reconnect consumers and producers through the development of alternative food networks Level 3 Redesign agroecosystems Level 2 Substitute conventional inputs and practices with agroecological alternatives Level 1 Increase efficiency of input use and reduce use of costly, scarce or environmentally damaging inputs TransformationalIncremental AgroecosystemFoodsystem Recycling Input reduction Soil heath Animal health Synergy Economic diversification Social values and diets Fairness Connectivity Land and natural resource governance Participation Biodiversity Co-creation of knowledge
  35. 35. Sinclair F., and Coe, R. (2019). The options by context approach: a paradigm shift in agronomy. Experimental Agriculture 55 (S1), 1-13. Coe, R., Sinclair, F. and Barrios, E. (2014). Scaling up agroforestry requires research ‘in’ rather than ‘for’ development. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6:73–77 Options x Context Three steps to living beyond our means 1. Diverse and inclusive options 2. Planned comparisons embedded in development programmes 3. Tools that match options to contexts Supporting local innovation
  36. 36. 1. Agroecological practices (some targeting particular climate hazards) with performance measures related to purpose evaluated across contexts Current and future climate variability and underlying climate change Social-ecological systems at nested scales 2. Farm scale integration (total factor productivity and resilience of livelihoods) 3. Landscape scale integration (provision of multiple ecosystem services – land equivalent ratio multifunctionality metric) 4. Food system scale integration (from production through to consumption – ecological footprint) Food and nutrition security and well being Value chain development (private sector governance) Policies and institutions (public sector governance) Legislation, taxes, incentives, regulation Value chain upgrading, certification, impact investment Civil society Civil society Civil society

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