Abby: please create a title slide with an image of conservation agriculture (ideally) or system of rice intensification – does not need to look too diversified; we will save that for the next title slide
We are all aware of the need to double food production by 2050, brought out by reviews by Foley et al. 2011 and others. Thus we face the dual challenge of producing enough food for a growing population while meeting environmental goals. This review [and the qualitative estimates that produce the figures] state a need to reduce environmental damage. However there is a pressing need to consider the contributions of ag landscapes to sustainaining key ecosystem functions & services. Our review aims to address the knowledge gap in this area; we have 2 main objectives
First: assessing the current scale of Agroecological Intensification (AEI approaches) Including a meta-analysis of outcomes –Productivity and –Ecosystem Services andSecond: Synthesis on global estimates of the role and potential of AEI. _____________There is little information on the scale and scalability of AEI, this information does exist for conventional agriculture, therefore we are missing out!
Examples of AEI Systems range from Conservation Agriculture and Forest Farming to Holistic Range Management (this list is not exhaustive!); we are investigating [2 key questions]
What practices does the AEI system include?What functions and services does the AEI system seek to achieve?
We know that some practices are cross-cutting; and are investigating the suites of practices associated with each AEI system as well as their outcomes for key ecosystem functions and services.
As the review unfolds , we are evaluating which practices are core components of each system, usually included, sometimes included, rarely included, and those that are at odds with the AEI approach. Similarly, we are investigating which ecosystem functions and services are core outcomes of the AEI approach, usual outcomes, sometimes pursured, incidenta benefits, and those that are not pursued.
Broad scale reviews show he extent of global agricultural lands [ pasture lands shown in orange and croplands shown in green], but synthetic data on AEI systems is sparse or absent. A core challenge is how to get these broad scale data [to articulate with plot-to-field scale studies of practices and outcomes. ______Based on FOA general stats and similar data.
Using conservation agriculture as an example, plot-to-farm scale practices include minimizing soil disturbance, maintaining soil cover, diverse crop rotations and actively managing for ecosystem services. _________________________From Milder et al 2011Figure 1. Alternative conceptions of conservation agriculture and their major foci and scale of implementation. Astraditionally defined, CA encompasses a set of resource-conserving plot-scale agronomic practices (inner-most box).Recent implementation of CA in smallholder settings often takes a more integrated approach to management acrossmultiple plots, including perennial trees and shrubs, livestock, fallows, and wooded areas (middle box). At a largerscale (outer-most box), ecoagriculture, integrated watershed management, and other landscape scale approachesaddress conservation, food security, and land regeneration in the context of land-use mosaics, wildlife habitat,protected areas, and watershed functions. Even broader views that consider political, economic, institutional, andmarket variables can also be valuable. Factors indicated at each scale are illustrative examples, not a comprehensivelist.
We have some idea about the extent of conservation agriculture by continent, measured by Derpsch et al. 2010 as no till farming; as no till is just one of the suite of practices that characterize conservation agriculture this may underestimate the extent of CA practices._______________Note that the authors used no-till as a synonym with CA in this studyFrom the Performance and Potential of Conservation Agriculture for Climate Change Adaptation & Mitigation in Sub-Saharan Africa
Benefits of conservation agriculture [contributions to ecosystem functions & services] that have been documented in Africa include:We are working to identify similar field data for other AEI practices, and their representative systems, world wide as part of our synthetic review. ___________________________________________Data table from Appendix 2: Potential of Conservation Agriculture for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Milder et al. 2011Country specific sources:Kenya: (Kaumbutho and Kienzle, 2007Uganda: (Nyende et al., 2007)Zambia: (Haggblade and Tembo, 2003)
Ask Fabrice and Jeff which logos and contact info to include
Agroecological Approaches to Increasing Productivity and Securing Ecosystem Services
Agroecological Approaches to IncreasingProductivity and Securing Ecosystem ServicesKelly Garbach, University of California-DavisFabrice DeClerck, Bioversity InternationalJeffrey Milder, EcoAgriculture PartnersToby Hodgkin, Platform on Agrobiodiversity Research Photo: IFAD
Project objectives1. Assess the current scale of agroecological intensification (AEI) approaches2. Meta-review of outcomes: ● Productivity ● Ecosystem services3. Global estimates of potential contribution of AEI to food supply & ecosystem services
Examples of AEI Systems● Conservation Agriculture● Forest Farming● Mixed Crop Animal● Permaculture● Polyculture● Silvopastoral Systems● Agroforestry● No-Till Agriculture● System of Rice Intensification● Organic Agriculture● Holisitic Range Management
Examples of AEI Systems● Conservation Agriculture● Forest Farming● Mixed Crop Animal ●What practices does the AEI● Permaculture system include?● Polyculture● Silvopastoral Syst.● Agroforestry ●What functions and services● No-Till Agriculture● System of Rice Intens. does the AEI system seek to● Organic Agriculture achieve?● Holisitic Range Mgmt.
AEI Systems Practices● Conservation Agriculture Cons. tillage Crop rotation● Forest Farming● Mixed Crop Animal Soil cover Biol. pest control● Permaculture Mgmt. native Etc.● Polyculture pollinators● Silvopastoral Systems● Agroforestry Functions & services● No-Till Agriculture ↓ Pollution Soil fertility● System of Rice Intens. Nutrient retention Yield vs. conventional● Organic Agriculture Erosion control Pollination● Holisitic Range Mgmt. Etc.
CoreAEI Systems Practices Usual Sometimes● Conservation Agriculture Cons. tillage Crop rotation Rare● Forest Farming At Odds● Mixed Crop Animal Soil cover Biol. pest control● Permaculture Mgmt. native Etc.● Polyculture pollinators Core● Silvopastoral Systems Usual Sometimes● Agroforestry Functions & services Incidental● No-Till Agriculture Not pursued ↓ Pollution Soil fertility● System of Rice Intens. Nutrient retention Yield vs. conventional● Organic Agriculture Erosion control Pollination● Holisitic Range Mgmt. Etc.
Extent of global agricultural lands Source: Foley et al. 2011
Conservation agriculture agronomic practices other components landscape scale landscape scale farm scale plot scale •Minimize soil disturbance •Irrigation •Permanent soil cover •Micro-scale H2O harvesting •Diverse crop rotations •Holistic biomass management •Farm-scale H2O harvesting for livestock & soil fertility •Mosaic of crop & non-crop •Management for E.S. areas •Diverse crop rotations •Perennial vegetation •Watershed mgmt. •Management of shifting & •Formal & informal conservation permanent cultivation areas (biodiversity & E.S.) Milder et al. 2011
Area under conservation agriculture(no-till farming) by continent Source: Derpsch et al. 2010
Benefits of conservation agriculture in AfricaKenya Improved soil quality, labor reduced, reduced costs, increased cropping areaUganda Labor reduced, income augmented, product diversity, increased biodiversity and resilient land-use systems, improved water quality and reduced erosionZambia Improved soil structure and water retention, reduced need for chemical fertilizers, increased crop yield Data: Kaumbutho & Kienzle, 2007; Nyende et al., 2007; Haggblade & Tembo, 2003. Table: Milder et al. 2011 .
Thanks! Fabrice DeClerck, Bioversity International email@example.com Kelly Garbach, University of California-Davis firstname.lastname@example.org Jeffrey Milder, EcoAgriculture Partners email@example.com Toby Hodgkin, PAR firstname.lastname@example.org