GEF/FAO Kagera Transboundary Agro-ecosystem Management Project Uganda To adopt an integrated ecosystems approach for the Tanzania management of land resources to :Rwanda restore degraded lands and improve productivity adapt to climate change and sequester carbon conserve agro-biodiversity and promote sustainable use Burundi increase food security and improve rural livelihoods contribute to the protection of international waters 3
ChallengesNatural resource base and ecosystems are facing increasing pressures :Rapid population growthProgressive reduction in farm sizes (BU, RW)Unsustainable land use and management practicesClimate change and variabilityResulting in poverty, food insecurity, conflict over resourcesNeed for SLM and CCA within an integrated landscape approach 4
Development of SLM catchment plansBased on a participatory and integrated assessment of land and waterresources using the LADA local assessment method:In each catchment – Biophysical data: state of soil, vegetation, water, and impacts on ecosystem services – Socio- economic data: drivers, causes and impacts on livelihoods capitals (financial, natural, social, human) and strategies
Contributions of SLM to CCA: Examples from Burundi• Integrated watershed management (contour lines, fodder plants on CL, agroforestry on farms)• Promotion of agroforestry in buffer zones to avoid encroachment and protect wetlands
Promotion of energy saving cooking stove 96% of energy is from wood causing deforestation Energy saving cooking stoves can reduce pressures on forest and trees Consumes 40 % less than traditional 3 stones Saves women time for wood collection and cooking
River bank stabilisation with bambos Bambos fix soil, sequester carbon and provide economic value (e.g. home furnitures) Project developed a bambo production technology for plant multiplication in tree nursery
Mulching for soil moisture conservation and soil organic carbon
Contributions of SLM to CCA: Examples from Uganda Agroforestry on farms with mangosCalliandra calothyrsus can grow with tolerant to dry spellpositive impact on adjacent crops:- improves soil moisture and soil fertility High value short rotation crops such as cabbages, spinach and carrots are grown- Can be used for fodder during dry season- Increases milk yields and is highlypalatable
Project approach for promoting adoption of SLM practices1. Improved information base on natural resources status and trends (land degradation, biodiversity loss), human pressures and impacts (vulnerability - food insecurity, climate change) and responses (SLM practices in catchments)2. Participatory land management plans developed and implemented in target communities, and micro-catchments (to address issues of tenure, access to resources, conflicts, etc)3. Capacities built on improved SLM practices through FFS, exchange visits, training materials and workshops4. Improved land use and agro-ecosystem management practices tested and adopted through Farmer Field School approaches and community activities in catchments5. Market opportunities and other cost-benefit sharing mechanisms for provision of environmental services identified, demonstrated and promoted for SLM scaling up6. Policy discussions for SLM mainstreaming leading to wide adoption and replication by farmers and herders
Strengthening smallholderfarmers’ capacity forclimate change adaptationthrough land and watermanagement in Ethiopia,Kenya and Tanzania
Output 1 On-the-ground climate-smart sustainable land and water management practices are tested, supported, and strengthened in selected watersheds.Output 2 Technological and management packages and practices to adapt land and water management options to climate change are disseminated to benefit land users, policy makers and relevant stakeholders.Output 3 Mechanisms and options are developed and applied for up-scaling of climate change adaptation practices.
Critical factors in strengthening capacities to adapt1. Increasing soil health2. Water harvesting/ Water-use efficiency3. Livelihood diversification4. Institutional collaboration/ networking and capacity building
Impacts(i) Improved Food security (ii) Soil Fertility improvement( iii) Better water management (iv) Increased resilience
In Kenya the drier conditions of the project areascalled for a focus on conservation agriculture andwater harvesting and water use efficiency
In Tanzania given the reduction of water, therewas need for a complete change in the wayrice farming was done and the selected optionwas the system of Rice intensification (SRI)
In Ethiopia the focus is watershedmanagement and erosion control
Preliminary lessons• Challenge not much a shortage of scientific/local knowledge/adaptation practices, but rather a lack of understanding of the farmers specific constrains to adoption.• Partnership not an easy option but could determine success in CCA. Adaptation could be more knowledge rich than technology driven.• Institutional response: unmanaged systems that are likely to be more vulnerable since, by definition, they lack structures to buffer effect of climate variability.• Build on what exists: CCA action should be anchored in what already exists.• Require more emphasize on land and water : can be extremely effective but require early intervention and good planning.
ConclusionsClimate change adds on existing vulnerabilities such as land degradation and food insecuritySLM practices aiming at restoring soil health, conserving soil and water, and increasing food production enable farmers to become more resilient and adapt to climate variability and changes.
Thank You http://www.fao.org/nr/kagera/en/http://www.fao.org/climatechange/en/ 21