Session 1.4 design & devp of agroforestry systems

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Session 1.4 design & devp of agroforestry systems

  1. 1. Design and Development of Agroforestry Systems in Low Rainfall Regions of India for Combating Climate Change M. M. Roy Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342003 INDIA
  2. 2. Low Rainfall Regions in India
  3. 3. Challenges before arid lands Bad irrigation practices Over-cultivation DESERIFICATION Overgrazing Deforestation •Soil Erosion (Wind & Water) •Vegetation Degradation •Salinization •Mined Spoiled Degradation
  4. 4. THE CHALLENGES Periodic droughts debilitate and destabilize poor societies, and contribute to desertification by reducing vegetative cover and water supplies, triggering a desperate exploitation of the remaining resources in order to survive Bad irrigation practices Over-cultivation DESERIFICATION Deforestation Map showing ground water withdrawals as percentage ofOvergrazing ground water recharge based on state level estimates of annual withdrawals (Source NASA/Matt Rodell)
  5. 5. Depletion of ground water Year Year Year Year 203 200 150 1984 1998 2002 2004 135 100 102 86 80 82 49 50 34 25 10 41 2127 26 11 12 0 Safe Drawl as % of Recharge Semi-critical <= 70% 70-90% Critical Over exploited 90-100% >100%
  6. 6. Climatic Risks Light to moderate rainfall events (5-100 mm) Heavy rainfall events (>10cm) Very heavy rainfall events (>15cm) Increase in temperatures, hot days, hot nights, and heat waves Increasing frequency of heavy precipitation events - more droughts and floods
  7. 7. Rajasthan: Land use and water resources
  8. 8. Extent of distribution - 60% area of arid western Rajasthan Prosopis cineraria based traditional agroforestry system Rainfall Zone (mm) >400 Traditional Agro forestry Systems in Hot Arid Regions Agro Forestry System Trees / Shrubs % Density of (no. / Prominent ha) Species P. cineraria - A. nilotica based (11)* 31.40 81 300 - 400 P. cineraria based (8) 14.20 80 Ziziphus spp. - P. cineraria based 200 - 300 (6) 91.70 91 Ziziphus spp. - P. cineraria <200 Salvadora spp. based (7) 12.70 87 *Values in parentheses are total number of trees &/or shrub species in the system
  9. 9. Economics of Traditional Agroforestry Systems of Arid Western Rajasthan AF system P. cineraria-A. nilotica based P. cineraria based Z. spp. - P. cineraria based Z. spp. - P. cineraria Salvadora spp. based (Base year 2000) Expenditure (Rs/ha) Returns (Rs/ha) Gross Net Net Fuel Leaf returns Returns B:C Crops wood fodder (Rs/ha) (Rs/ha) ratio 1850 4103 1230 870 6203 4353 2.3 1550 3670 600 420 4690 3140 2.0 1550 1506 620 600 2726 1176 0.7 1500 1400 500 500 2400 900 0.6
  10. 10. Designing agroforestry systems for multiple benefits in hot arid regions of India Type Row Example Wind break Contour strips Multi-storey Cropping Benefits This may be for protecting farm or field, livestock and farmsteads. Carefully designed field windbreaks reduce wind velocity for controlling wind erosion, increase crop quality and production, and improve water use efficiency, control energy loss and feed intake by livestock, protect and improve human habitat Plantings consisting of tree/shrub rows on the contour or cross-slopes. This reduces sheet and rill water erosion, increase sediment deposition and convey excess water at a controlled grade. System consisting of an over-story of trees or shrubs with an understory of crops or pastures. Well-designed systems yield additional tree based products, improve microclimatic conditions, improve recycling of soil nutrients, reduce excess sub-surface water.
  11. 11. Designing agroforestry systems for multiple benefits in hot arid regions of India Type Block Example Energy plantation Benefits Trees are planted in a block as a separate field within an agricultural or livestockproduction operating unit. The tree to tree distance is decided based on product (wood, firewood, top feed etc.) and rotation cycle (generally less than 10-15 years). The primary purpose is to get tree products in close proximity to agricultural or pasture areas to diversify the farm products. A block planting of closely spaced trees Waste water and/or shrubs placed downslope from agricultural water or waste sources. The utilization primary purpose is to use excess water by plant uptake, and/or intercept and utilize or sequester waste and other pollutants transported in specific situations.
  12. 12. WINDBREAK-SHELTERBELT A windbreak or shelterbelt is a plantation usually made up of one or more rows of trees or shrubs planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and to protect soil from erosion. They are commonly planted around the edges of fields on farms. Five-row and three-row shelterbelts with staggered planting and in pyramidal shape across the wind direction. Suitable trees and shrubs are Acacia nilotica, Acacia tortilis, Cassia siamea and Prosopis juliflora. Windbreak reduces the wind velocity by 20-40% and soil loss by 76%.
  13. 13. After 10 years Khejri + Bajra + Mung TC= 20.31 t C/ha (depth 1 m) Agroforestry systems (10 year rotation) Khejri +Mung
  14. 14. Horti-agri system Ber + Mung TC = 18.28 t C/ha (depth 1 m) (after 10 years)
  15. 15. Silvopastoral system (12 year rotation) Khejri + Cenchrus ciliaris Carbon assimilation Tree : 12.37 t C/ha TC : 35.68 t C/ha (depth 1 m) Above ground : 19.56 t C/ha
  16. 16. Silvopastoral system (12 year rotation) Mopane + Cenchrus ciliaris Carbon assimilation Tree : 7.96 t C/ha TC : 28.59 t C/ha (depth 1 m) Above ground : 18.24 t C/ha
  17. 17. Silvopastoral system (12 year rotation) Hardwickia binata + C. ciliaris Carbon assimilation Tree : 8.78 t C/ha TC : 32.14 t C/ha (depth 1 m) Above ground : 21.36 t C/ha
  18. 18. Ziziphus based horti-pastures (Spread on 90,000 ha in 350-450 mm rainfall) ))) Ber + Cenchrus ciliaris Dry Grass : 1.55 t/ha Fuel wood : 2.64 t/ha Leaf Fodder : 1.87 t/ha Fruit : 2.77 t/ha Net return: 15,000/ha B:C ratio: 2:1 TC=24.41 t C/ha (after 10 years) (depth 1 m)
  19. 19. Economics of Improved Horti-pasture (Ziziphus mauritiana + Cenchrus ciliaris) Expenditure Gross returns Net returns Product (Rs/ha) (Rs/ha) (Rs/ha) Grass 1500 3102 1600 Fuel wood 1000 6400 1640 Leaf 2250 5610 3360 fodder Ber fruits 13500 22160 8660 Total (Base year 2000) 18250 37272 15260
  20. 20. System/Crop Diversification Models • Arable cropping (15%), Agroforestry (35%), Agrihorticulture (20%), Agri-pasture (10%), Silvi-pasture (20%) • Crop Diversification: – Pearl millet (40%), Pulses (30%), oilseed (10%), cluster bean (20%) • Farm size (Aarea) 7 ha • Family size 4-5 adults • Livestock 2 Cows + 2 Calf + 8 Sheep + 8 Goat = 7ACU
  21. 21. The Returns (per ha) Component Gross returns Expenditure Net income B.C. ratio Plant 1,85,550 63,000 1,22,550 - Animal 1,57,700 35,000 1,22,700 - 50,000 - Other Total 50,000 3,93,250 98,000 (Base year 2011); WPI = 212.72 (2000) 2,95,250 4.01
  22. 22. C Sequestration Potential and Rate in different regions of India under crop production with INM C sequestration Potential and Rate 8.00 7.00 6.00 Potential (Mg C ha-1) Rate (Mg C ha-1 Yr-1) 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 Northern India Western India Central India Southern India Eastern India After Pathak et al (2011)
  23. 23. Carbon status in arid zone soils 35.00 Organic C (tons ha-1) 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 665.00 400.00 360.00 327.00 232.90 200.00 Rainfall (mm) Organic carbon up to 45 cm deep soil profile was estimated in crop land + natural rangeland + forest area with long term average rainfall from 665 mm to 200 mm yr-1(Average of all three systems).
  24. 24. Sirohi Annual Rainfall (mm) 591.8 Total C Stock 33.4 (0-60 cm) t ha-1 Pali Annual Rainfall (mm) 539 Total C Stock 33.4 (0-60 cm) t ha-1 Jodhpur Annual Rainfall (mm) 360 Total C Stock 10.9 (0-60 cm) t ha-1 Barmer Annual Rainfall (mm) 277 Total C Stock 10.7 (0-60 cm) t ha-1 Jaisalmer Annual Rainfall (mm) 165 Total C Stock 7.4 (0-60 cm) t ha-1 C status of the arid soils
  25. 25. Soil organic carbon status of different Systems in arid region prevailing at Jodhpur (after 22 years) Systems Pasture Grasses Carbon Sequestered in soil (0-60 cm) (t/ha/y) 0.52 Sole trees 0.72 Silvi-pasture Continuous cropping 0.98 0.36
  26. 26. Trees and Microclimate Moderation Moderation of air temperature beneath tree cover: Monsoon period (07.00 hrs): 0.1ºC to 0.7ºC; Monsoon period (14.00 hrs): 0.6ºC to 2.0ºC. Moderation of soil temperature beneath the tree cover: top soil (10ºC to 16ºC); 0-30 cm (4ºC to 5ºC). 22 per cent higher humidity under canopy of A. tortilis (agri-silviculture system involving cluster bean) in comparison to open field condition.
  27. 27. Feed Blocks Feeding on Feed Blocks during Scarcity Feed Block preparation and utilization of P. juliflora pods
  28. 28. Diversified agroforestry system designed and developed on a farmer’s fields (4.5 ha) at Village Manaklaw (Jodhpur)
  29. 29. Attributes of Diversified agroforestry system (30+ years) Ber orchards (750 trees); Also a a ber nursery Peripheral Trees: A. tortilis, P. juliflora and others: Inside Trees: Prosopis cineraria, Tecomella undulata and Azadirachta indica Ber fruits/y (10.7 t ha-1) Dry fuel wood/y (4 t ha-1) Crop Area: one ha (Pearl millet) Fodder/y (2.4 t ha-1 ) Pasture Species: Three ha (Cenchrus ciliaris) Employment (331 man-days/ha/y) Animals: Eight goats (without purchasing any kind of fodder) Farm waste used to prepare compost within the system Recognized contained system (also by UNCCD) self-
  30. 30. Comparison of Fodder availability from Regenerated and Other Commons (t/ha) Common Land and Poor Livestock Keepers 4.5 3.5 Experiences from Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh 3.95 4 3.4 Source: FES 2009 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 1 0.95 0.5 0 Regenerated Commons Other Commons (Raj) Regenerated Other Commons (MP) (Avg Rajasthan) Commons (Avg MP)
  31. 31. Conclusion Agroforestry based interventions (low carbon farming strategy) have promise in hot arid regions of the country for providing consistent economic returns along with and environmental benefits, including carbon sequestration. They need promotion through various appropriate schemes in operation in this region.
  32. 32. Schemes & AF Systems Schemes • Wasteland development • Watershed development • Dry degraded soils • Salt affected soils • Water logged soils AF Systems Agroforestry/silvo-pasture systems Rehabilitation & restoration of degraded lands/mine spoils Afforestation & reforestation through planting the nitrogen fixing tree species Plantation on field boundaries Shelterbelts/Windbreaks
  33. 33. Future Thrusts  Use of non-conventional sources of energy for agriculture/agroforestry  Effective management and utilization of CPRs, degraded lands, grasslands/grazing lands and agriculture lands  Adequate incentives to farmers for the cause of their environmental services  A policy to facilitate establishment of carbon markets for farmers/other stake holders for better adoption of climate friendly management practices

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