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In situ and ex situ conservation

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In situ and ex situ conservation of plant

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In situ and ex situ conservation

  1. 1. PLANT CONSERVATION AND BIOTECHNOLOGY M.THILAKAR LS1154 FOURTH YEAR, M.Sc. LIFE SCIENCES BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSTIY TIRUCHIRAPALLI. BIO DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Importance's of bio diversity  Loss of bio diversity  Conservation of biodiversity  Regulations/ laws relating to protected areas (pas)  Role of bio technology in plant conservation 1. In situ  Protected areas  Bio sphere reserves  National parks  Tiger reserves  Wild life sanctuaries 2. Ex situ  Gene sanctuaries  In vitro storage methods  Pollen banks  DNA banks  Botanical gardens  Experimental garden  Conclusion 16-SEPT-14 LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Biodiversity is - Degree of variation on life forms.  It is the totality of genes, species and ecosystems of a region. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 3
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY  Biological diversity is the very basis of human survival and economic development as it provides food, housing, clothing, medicine and industrial raw material.  A wide range of industrial materials are directly obtained from biological resources :  Rubber, oil, fiber, building material, timber and paper all are obtained from biological resources.  80% of the world population depends on medicines obtained from nature (Behera et al., 2008). 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 4
  5. 5. LOSS OF BIO DIVERSITY  The main causes of biodiversity loss are:  Habitat destruction, Invasive species, Pollution, Population, Over-exploitation and climatic changes, introduction of exotic species.  Destruction of the habitat is the biggest threat to biodiversity.  Habitats can also be damaged by flooding, lack of water, climate changes, salination etc., all phenomena which may be both natural and man-made.  Global warming affects plants, animals and microorganisms, both by changing their habitats and by direct effects of temperature.  Climatic changes also affect species at cellular level and can alter the genetic makeup of the cell. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 5
  6. 6. CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY  Protecting the loss of Biodiversity.  Both in situ and ex situ methods of biodiversity conservation are equally important.  It is now recognized that ex situ techniques can be efficiently used to complement in situ methods, and they may represent the only option for conserving certain highly endangered and rare species (Ramsay et al., 2000).  Preserving the habitat is the most important issue in the conservation of biodiversity.  Since chemical pesticides are responsible for a large number of animal deaths occurring every year, minimizing the use of chemical pesticides is another technique for the survival of biodiversity.  Conservation of biodiversity through establishment of protected areas like National Park, Wild life sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, Marine Reserves etc. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 6
  7. 7. ROLE OF BIO TECHNOLOGY IN PLANT CONSERVATION 1. IN SITU  BIO SPHERE RESERVES  NATIONAL PARKS  TIGER RESERVES  WILD LIFE SANCTUARIES 2. EX SITU  SELECTION OF SUPERIOR GERM PLASM  FIELD GENE BAKS  BOTANICAL GARDENS  EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 7
  8. 8. PROTECTED AREAS (PAs)  The PAs are constituted and governed under the provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, which has been amended from time to time, with the changing ground realities concerning wildlife crime control and PAs management.  Implementation of this Act is further complemented by other Acts viz.  Indian Forest Act, 1972,  Forest (Conservation) Act,1980,  Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and  Biological Diversity Act, 2002 and  The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.  In order to strengthen and synergize global wildlife conservation efforts, India is a member to major international conventions viz.  Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES),  International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN),  International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, UNESCO-World Heritage Committee and Convention on Migratory Species (CMS). 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 8
  9. 9.  SOURCE : http://www.moef.nic.in/downloadspubl ic-informationprotected-area-network 16-SEPT-14 STATE WISE DETAILS OF THE PROTECTED AREA NETWORK OF INDIA LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 9
  10. 10. TAMIL NADU 16-SEPT-14  SOURCE : http://www.moef.nic.in/Ddownloadspublic- informationprotected-area-network LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 10
  11. 11. In situ Protected Areas  BIO SPHERE RESERVES  NATIONAL PARKS  TIGER RESERVES  WILD LIFE SANCTUARIES 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 11
  12. 12. BIO SPHERE RESERVE  A biosphere reserve is an area proposed by its habitats, ratified by a national committee, and designated by UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) program in 1971, which demonstrates innovative approaches to living and working in harmony with nature.  The term ‘biosphere’ refers to All of the land, water and atmosphere that supply life on earth.  The word ‘reserve’ means that it is a Special area recognized for balancing conservation with sustainable use.  Each biosphere reserve demonstrates practical approaches to balancing conservation and human use of an area. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 12
  13. 13. Biosphere reserves of India  The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves in India, which protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 13
  14. 14. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 14
  15. 15. NATIONAL PARKS  A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.  National Park is an area having adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance.  The National Park is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment.  Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a symbol of national pride.  Furthermore, an international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas.  National parks are almost always open to visitors.  Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 15
  16. 16. OBJECTIVES  To protect natural biodiversity along with its underlying ecological structure and supporting environmental processes, and to promote education and recreation. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 16
  17. 17. NATIONAL PARKS VS WILD LIFE SANCTUARY NATIONAL PARKS  In a National Park no rights are allowed.  No grazing of any livestock shall also be permitted inside a National Park.  While In addition, from a National Park requires recommendation of the National Board for Wildlife WILD LIFE SANCTUARY  Certain rights can be allowed.  In a Sanctuary, the Chief Wildlife Warden may regulate, control or prohibit it.  While any removal or exploitation of wildlife or forest produce from a Sanctuary requires the recommendation of the State Board for Wildlife, removal etc., 16-SEPT-14 Rights of people living inside. LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 17
  18. 18. WILD LIFE SANCTUARIES  A wildlife refuge, also called a wildlife sanctuary, is a naturally occurring sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting, predation or competition, it is a protected area, a geographic territory within which wildlife is protected.  IUCN Category IV Protected Area.  Such wildlife refuges are generally officially designated territories.  It is created by government legislation, publicly or privately owned.  The Chernobyl nuclear accident site has accidentally become a wildlife refuge.  India has 515 animal sanctuaries, referred to as Wildlife sanctuaries.  Among these, the 41 Tiger Reserves are governed by Project Tiger 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 18
  19. 19. WILD LIFE SANCTUARIES OF INDIA SOURCE : http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/wildlife/ 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 19
  20. 20. 16-SEPT-14 LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 20
  21. 21. TIGER RESERVES  There are 47 tiger reserves in India (5-28-2014) which are governed by Project Tiger which is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 21
  22. 22. TIGER RESERVES OF INDIA 16-SEPT-14 SOURECE : http://www.wpsi-india.org/tiger/tiger_reserves.php LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 22
  23. 23. EX SITU 16-SEPT-14  Ex-situ conservation of plant genetic resources can be achieved through different methods such as  Gene Sanctuaries  Seed banks,  Field gene banks,  In vitro storage methods,  Pollen banks and  DNA banks. LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 23
  24. 24. Gene Sanctuaries  The genetic diversity is sometimes conserved under natural habitat.  In other words, areas of great genetic diversity are protected from human interference.  Gene sanctuary is generally established in the center of diversity or microcenter.  India has setup its first gene sanctuary in the Garo Hills of Assam for wild relatives of citrus.  Efforts are also being made to setup gene sanctuaries for banana, sugarcane, rice and Mango. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 24
  25. 25. SELECTION OF SUPERIOR GERM PLASM  Gene banks are also known as germplasm banks.  Gene bank refers to a place or organization where germplasm can be conserved in living state.  Germplasm are stored in the form of seeds, pollen or in vitro cultures or in the case of a field gene bank, as plants growing in the field.  Gene banks are mainly of two types :  1) Seed gene banks and  2) Field gene banks 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 25
  26. 26. Seed Gene Bank:  A place where germplasm is conserved in the form of seeds is called seed gene bank.  Seeds are very convenient for storage because they occupy smaller space than whole plants.  However, seeds of all crops can not be stored at low temperature in the seed banks.  The germplasm of only orthodox species can be conserved in seed banks.  In the seed banks, there are three types of conservation, viz.  1) Short term,  2) Medium term and  3) Long term.  Base collections are conserved for long term (50 years or more) at 18 or 20°C.  Active collections are stored for short term (3-5 years) at 5-10 0 C. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 26
  27. 27. Seed Gene Bank: ADVANTAGES  1. Large number of germplasm samples or entire variability can be conserved in a very small space.  2. In seed banks, handling of germplasm is easy.  3. Germplasm is conserved under pathogen and insect free environment. DISADVANTAGES  1. Seeds of recalcitrant species can not be stored in seed banks.  2. Failure of power supply may lead to loss of viability and there by loss of germplasm.  3. It requires periodical evaluation of seed viability. After some time multiplication is essential to get new or fresh seeds of storage. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 27
  28. 28.  Field gene banks or living collections are the main conservation strategy for long-lived perennials, recalcitrant species and vegetative propagated species.  Furthermore, out-breeders require controlled pollination for regeneration from seed.  When displayed, the plants have an important educational value and can easily be accessed for research purposes.  Field gene bank is one of the techniques in the strategy for plant genetic conservation.  It is an ex situ method where genetic variation is maintained away from its original location and samples of a species, subspecies or variety are transferred and conserved as living collections.  Field gene bank is the most common method of conserving genetic resources with recalcitrant seeds and vegetatively propagated plants. 16-SEPT-14 FIELD GENE BANKS LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 29
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  30. 30. In vitro Storage Methods  The storage of germplasm in laboratory conditions (in vitro) is specially suited for the long-term conservation of recalcitrant species and vegetatively propagated species.  They can be stored at low temperature under slow growth conditions or cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen at -196ºC.  Cryopreservation has so far been successful with only a relatively few species but is a very promising development for long-term storage (WCMC, 1992).  The main limitation of in vitro storage is the need for special equipment, techniques and trained staff.  However, more research is necessary to define the mechanisms of desiccation and chilling injury and to investigate methods of alleviating it (Eberhart, Roos & Towill, 1991). 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 31
  31. 31. Pollen Banks  Pollen preservation may be useful for base collections of species that do not produce orthodox seeds.  It requires little space but some cytoplasmic genes would be lost.  Like seeds, pollen can be divided into desiccation tolerant and intolerant.  However, information about storage characteristics of pollen from wild species is fragmentary, existing mainly for some crop relatives and for medicinal and forest species (Eberhart, Roos & Towill, 1991). 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 32
  32. 32. DNA Banks  The creation of a network of DNA banks is ex situ conservation and more precisely germplasm collections can allow large quantities of genetic resources (genes, DNA) to be stored quickly and at low cost and could act as an insurance policy against rapid loss of the world's gene pool.  It could be used in molecular phylogenetic and systematics of extinct taxa and genes can be distributed via the polypeptide chain reaction (PCR) using primers supplied by the users (Adams et al., 1994).  DNA samples have been mainly used for bio-prospecting and assessment of biodiversity studies.  Its use in conservation is limited as whole plants cannot be reconstituted from DNA but the genetic material can be introduced to other genotypes for plant breeding and enhancement purposes. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 33
  33. 33. BOTANIC GARDEN 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 34
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  35. 35. EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 36
  36. 36. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 37
  37. 37. REFERENCES  Global Biodiversity Strategy – WRI, IUCN and UNEP 1992.  BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION, Dushyant kumar et al., 2013. Indian J.Sci.Res.4(1):183-186.  Biotechnology and Conservation of Plant Biodiversity, Carlos et al., 2013. Resources (2):73-95; doi:10.3390/resources2020073  http://www.moef.nic.in/divisionscsurvBR_Guidelines.pdf  http://www.moef.nic.in/downloadspublic-informationprotected-area- network.pdf  http://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/pocketk/44/default.asp  http://agriinfo.in/default.aspx?page=topic&superid=3&topicid=2116  http://www.bgci.org/worldwide/article/0032/  https://www.en.Wikipedia.org  http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/wildlife  http://www.wpsi-india.org/tiger/tiger_reserves.php 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 38
  38. 38. 16-SEPT-14LS 1154 - M.THILAKAR 39

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