SUPPLEMENTARY AND COMPLEMENTARY INHERITANCES

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SUPPLEMENTARY AND COMPLEMENTARY INHERITANCES

  1. 1. COMPLEMENTARY INHERITANCE & SUPPLEMENTARY INHERITANCE SUBMITED BY, M.THILAKAR, BHARAHTIDSASAN UNIVERSITY, TIRUCHIRAPALLI LS1154.
  2. 2. CELL : BASIC UNIT OF LIFE Cellls are the basic unit of life. PROKARYTE : Less than thousand of mm long and lacks a complicated system of internal membranes and membranous organouls. EUKARYOTE : Larger then prokaryotes. Contain complicated internal membranes. They contain Cytoplasm, Nuleus, DNA, RNA, etc.,
  3. 3. CONT..... Hall mark of all Eukaryote cells is that their Hereditary material is contained within a large Membranes bounded strucuture called nucleus. Nuclei of Eukaryote cell is provoded a safe haven for DNA, which is organised into discrete structure called Cromosomes. Genes are located in Cromosome. Consisit of one Double Strand DNA molecule with an assortment of Proteins. In Prokarytes : Plasmids – Circular.
  4. 4. Mendelism  Father of Genetics.  1822 – 1884.  Gardening  Pea plants.  Natural History of Society, Brunn.  Correns,  De vries,  Tshermark @ 1900.
  5. 5. Pea Plant  Pea plants are Self Fertilizing plants.  Cross ploniation is not difficult.  Artificial Fertilzation is almost success.  Short Life cycles.
  6. 6.  Law of Dominance : Of the two alleles, one Allele expresses its Character in F1. Law of Segregation : During Gamete formation, the Genes of a pair separate in Mieosis and each gamete receives only one / gamete. Law of independent Assortment : genes for each pair of character seperate independently from those of other characters during gamete formation.
  7. 7. COMPLEMENTARY INHERITANCE
  8. 8. COMPLEMENTARY GENES Two or More Allelic dominant genes interact with each another to produce a Character ; But one gene cannot produce that character in the Absence of other. Action of these Independent genes are Complementary. It’s a Non allelic gene Interaction.
  9. 9. Experiment 1 : INERITANCE IN SWEET PEA PLANT Bateson and Punnet Flower color in Sweet pea plant, Lathyrus odoratus. Two varieties of Flower colors. 1. Red color, 2. White colorRed color : due to te Pigment Anthocyanin,from a colorless substance Chromogen bythe action of Enzyme.
  10. 10.  Parents : White x White Ccaa x ccAAGAMETES : Ca x cAF1 : CcAa RedF1 x F1 :Gametes : CA Ca ca caChromogen + Enzyme = Anthocyanin. Gene C : Chromogen Gene A : Enzyme Ratio = 9 : 7
  11. 11. INHERITANCE OF FLOWER COLOR IN SWEET PEA F2 : GAMETES CA Ca Ca Ca CA CCAA CCAa CCAa CcAa RED RED RED RED Ca CCAa Ccaa Ccaa Ccaa RED WHITE RED WHITE cA CcAA CcAa CcAa CcAa RED RED WHITE WHITE ca CcAa Ccaa Ccaa Ccaa RED WHITE WHITE WHITE
  12. 12. RESULTS F2 GENERATIONS : RED = 9 WHITE = 7 Ratio = 9:7 Two or More Allelic dominant genes interact with each another to produce a SINGLE Character. But SINGLE gene cannot produce that character in the Absence of other. Action of these Independent genes are Complementary.
  13. 13. Experiment 2 : PERICARP COLOR IN GRAINS OF BARELY Two varieties of Pericarp colors in grains. 1. Red color, 2. White color. Red color : due to the Pigment Anthocyanin, from a colorless substance Chromogen by the action of Enzyme. If the enzyme absent, Anthocyanin can not be synthesized in cells. So anthocyanin needs both of Chromogen and enzyme.
  14. 14. PARENTS : WHTIE GRAIN x WHITE GRAIN ReRejj x rereJJGAMETES : Rej x reJF1 : RereJj Red GrainF1 x F1 :GAMETES : ReJ reJ ReJ reJ
  15. 15. INHERITANCE OF PERICARP COLOR INBARELYF2Ratio = 9 : 7 GAMETE ReJ Rej reJ Rej S ReJ ReReJJ ReReJj RereJj RereJj RED RED RED RED Rej ReReJj ReRejj RereJj Rerejj RED WHITE RED WHITE reJ RereJJ RereJj rereJJ rereJj RED RED WHITE WHITE Rej RereJj Rerejj rereJj rerejj RED WHITE WHITE WHITE
  16. 16. RESULTS : F2 GENERATIONS : RED = 9 WHITE = 7 Ratio =9:7 Two or More Allelic dominant genes interact with each another to produce a SINGLE Character. But SINGLE gene cannot produce that character in the Absence of other. Action of these Independent genes are Complementary.
  17. 17. SUPPLLEMENTARY INHERITANCE
  18. 18. SUPPLLEMENTARY GENES Two independent pairs of dominant genes, which interact in a such way that each dominant gene produces its effect whether the other is present or not. But even second dominannt gene is added to first, a new character is expressed. Non allelic interactions
  19. 19. Experiment – 1 INERITANCE OF COMBS IN FOWLS Bateson and Punnet in 1908. In Fowls, Four types of Combs. 1. Rose, 2. Pea, 3. Walnut, 4.Single Rose – R, Pea – P. Rrpp Produces Single Comb type. If R + P = Walnut.
  20. 20.  PARENTS : RED COMB MALE x PEA COMB FEMALE RRpp x rrPPGAMETES : Rp x RpF1 : RrPP WALNUTF1 X F1 :GAMETES : RP Rp rP rp
  21. 21. INHERITANCE OF COMBS IN FOWLSF2 :GAMETES RP Rp rP rpRP RRPP RRRp RrPP RrPp Walnut Walnut Walnut WalnutRp RRpp RRpp RrPp Rrpp Walnut ROSE Walnut ROSErP RrPP RrPp rrPP rrPp Walnut Walnut PEA PEARp RrPp Rrpp rrPp Rrpp Walnut ROSE PEA Single
  22. 22. RESULTS : F2 GENERATIONS : WALNUT = 9 ROSE = 3 PEA = 3 SINGLE = 1 Ratio = 9 : 3 : 3 : 1 Two independent pairs of dominant genes interact in a such way. Each dominant gene produces its effect whether the other is present or not. But even second dominant gene is added to first, a new character is expressed.
  23. 23. Experiment – 2 Coat color in Mice Studied by Castle. 3 Types of Mice : 1. Agouti, 2. Black, 3. Albino.Agouti - Dominant to Black and Albino.Albino - Recessive to Agouti and Balck.Black - Dominant ot Albino and Recessive to Agouti.
  24. 24.  PARENTS : BLACK MALE x ALBINO FEMALE Bbaa x bbAA GAMETES : Ba x Ba F1 : BbAa AgoutiF1 x F1 :GAMETES : BA Ba bA ba
  25. 25. INHERITANCE IN COATS OFMICE GAMETE BA Ba bA baF2 : S BA BBAA BBAa BbAA BbAa AGOUTI AGOUTI AGOUTI AGOUTI Ba BBAa Bbaa BbAa Bbaa AGOUTI BLACK AGOUTI BLACK bA BbAA BbAa bbAA bbAa AGOUTI AGOUTI ALBINO ALBINO ba BbAa Bbaa bbAa Bbaa AGOUTI BLACK ALBINO ALBINO
  26. 26. RESULTS : F2 GENERATIONS :o AGOUTI = 9 BLACK =3 ALBINO = 4Ratio = 9 : 3 : 4o Two independent pairs of dominant genes interact in a such way. Each dominant gene produces its effect whether the other is present or not. But even second dominant gene is added to first, a new character is expressed.
  27. 27. REFERENCES 1. GENETICS By Dr. P MEYYAN, SARAS PUBLICATION. 2. PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS By D PETER SNUSTAD AND MICHAEL J SIMMONS JOHN WILEY & SONS.
  28. 28. thank you……….

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