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Protection and Conservation of Endangered and Economically Important.pptx

Protection and Conservation of Endangered and Economically Important Species

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Protection and
Conservation of Endangered
and Economically Important
Species
Lesson 1
Biodiversity as the flexibility among living
things from all sources and the ecological
complexes of which they are a member of
including differences within and between
species and between ecosystems. They also
perform an important role in keeping the
stability in the ecosystem.
Philippines, being a global biodiversity hotspot is
teeming with flora and fauna. This bountiful biodiversity
serves many purposes such as biological resources,
ecosystem services and, social benefits (Shah, 2014).
With a rich flora and fauna, we have an abundant
biological resource for foods, commercial merchandise,
and natural construction materials, even ingredients for
medicinal and pharmaceutical uses.
Moreover, rich flora accounts for climate
stability since plants freely absorb carbon
dioxide and produce oxygen. The social
benefits derived from biodiversity include
environmental research, recreation, and
tourism. To top it all, biodiversity boosts
our economy.
Economically important species or species
that have actual or potential value in trade or
utilization for commercial purposes are
valuable sources of income for people.
Rattan is a good example of an economically
important species that is primarily used for
the construction of furniture.
The value of species can be divided into
three categories:
1. Direct Economic Value
This term collectively refers to the utilization of biological
resources either for direct consumption or for commercial
purposes. Cutting bamboo poles from the forest is a good
example of direct economic value for direct consumption
as material for native furniture or bamboo huts and
cottages. Meanwhile, medicines that are developed from
plant or animal extract are examples of direct economic
value for commercial purposes.
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Protection and Conservation of Endangered and Economically Important.pptx

  • 1. Protection and Conservation of Endangered and Economically Important Species Lesson 1
  • 2. Biodiversity as the flexibility among living things from all sources and the ecological complexes of which they are a member of including differences within and between species and between ecosystems. They also perform an important role in keeping the stability in the ecosystem.
  • 3. Philippines, being a global biodiversity hotspot is teeming with flora and fauna. This bountiful biodiversity serves many purposes such as biological resources, ecosystem services and, social benefits (Shah, 2014). With a rich flora and fauna, we have an abundant biological resource for foods, commercial merchandise, and natural construction materials, even ingredients for medicinal and pharmaceutical uses.
  • 4. Moreover, rich flora accounts for climate stability since plants freely absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. The social benefits derived from biodiversity include environmental research, recreation, and tourism. To top it all, biodiversity boosts our economy.
  • 5. Economically important species or species that have actual or potential value in trade or utilization for commercial purposes are valuable sources of income for people. Rattan is a good example of an economically important species that is primarily used for the construction of furniture.
  • 6. The value of species can be divided into three categories: 1. Direct Economic Value This term collectively refers to the utilization of biological resources either for direct consumption or for commercial purposes. Cutting bamboo poles from the forest is a good example of direct economic value for direct consumption as material for native furniture or bamboo huts and cottages. Meanwhile, medicines that are developed from plant or animal extract are examples of direct economic value for commercial purposes.
  • 7. 2. Indirect Economic Value There are benefits produced by species even without us using them. For example, certain plant species maintain the chemical quality of natural water bodies, prevent soil erosion and floods, cycle minerals in the soil, and absorb pollutants. Several animals also play many roles in the ecosystem. The following are some roles of species in the ecosystem:
  • 8. •Bees are important pollinators to most crops. In addition to their ecological niche. They are also a food source to predators like birds, spiders, lizards, and other animals. •Spiders and lizards are natural biocontrols against mosquitoes and other insects. •Ants aid in rebuilding soil nutrients, enhance soil structure, permit water and air to pass through the soil easily, sustain energy, and improve biodiversity.
  • 9. •Earthworms turn and fertilize the soil, allowing water and oxygen to reach plant roots. They eat a wide variety of organic materials and provide food for many different organisms. •Bats are one of the pollinators of the durian flower which blooms only at night. •Frogs regulate the insect population. To keep things in balance, they use lots of survival tools. Some run away and play dead.
  • 10. 3. Aesthetic Value The aesthetic value of species refers to the feeling of pleasure derived from the appreciation of high biodiversity in a certain area. These include a panoramic view of tropical forests or species diversity of plants and animals that lead to recreation and tourism. Among the well-known places in the Philippines appreciated for high biodiversity are: Tubbataha Reef in Sulo Sea, Sumilon Island in South- Eastern Cebu, Eden Farm in Davao, and Initao National Park in Misamis Oriental, Mindanao.
  • 11. Stability in Ecosystem A stable ecosystem is necessary to sustain its population across generations. It is where situations are held constant by negative response systems working within the ecosystem. The following are the principles of ecosystem stability: • Ecosystems dispose of waste and replenish nutrients by recycling all elements; • Ecosystems use sunlight as the source of energy; • The size of a consumer population is maintained such that overgrazing and other forms of overuse do not occur; and • Biodiversity is maintained.
  • 12. Benefits of High Biodiversity in Preserving the Balance of an Ecosystem High biodiversity helps maintain the stability of ecosystem and boosts its productivity. A bigger number of plant species indicates a higher diversity of crops; higher species diversity ascertains natural continuity for all living organisms, and healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters. Healthy biodiversity provides several ecosystem services: protection of water resources, soil formation and protection, nutrient storage and recycling, pollution breakdown and absorption, contribution to climate stability and maintenance of ecosystems.
  • 13. Threats to Biodiversity Humans are showered with the numerous benefits obtained from high species biodiversity. However, their anthropogenic activities have become threats to biodiversity due to destruction or loss of habitat; such as when humans resort to kaingin to clear forest for farming.
  • 14. Furthermore, humans cause biological pollution when they intentionally or accidentally introduce alien species that compete with the native species, thus becoming an invasive species threatening shifts in biodiversity. An example of this biological pollution is the introduction of Rhinella marina or canetoad to combat insect pests in sugar cane plantations. However, it becomes a problem as it eats other smaller animals in competition with the less superior native amphibian the Limnonectes magnus or bakbak.
  • 15. Illegal logging, indiscriminate mining, and poaching are also examples of how human overexploits biodiversity leading to a major decrease of flora and fauna population thus endangering species up to the brink of extinction.
  • 17. Endangered species refers to species or subspecies that are not critically endangered but whose survival in the wild is unlikely to thrive if unwanted human factors continue operating.
  • 18. Critically endangered species refers to a species or subspecies that are facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future, such as the avian species Philippine Eagle shown in Figure 1. To determine whether any wildlife species/subspecies is threatened, the following internationally accepted criteria have been used: • present or threatened destruction; • adjustment or restriction of its habitat and range; • over-consumption for commercial, entertainment or leisure, scientific, or scholastic intentions; • inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanism; and • other natural or manmade factors affecting the existence of wildlife
  • 19. Endemic species means species or subspecies which is naturally thriving and seen only within a specific place in the country. These are the Golden-crowned flying fox, Negros naked-backed fruit bat, Philippine tube-nosed fruit bat, Panay bushy-tailed cloud rat, Ilin hairy-tailed cloud rat, Visayan warty pig, Calamian hog deer, Visayan spotted deer, and tamaraw (See figure 2).
  • 21. Protection and Conservation Measures To address the biodiversity concerns, the Philippines has issued Republic Act No. 9147 also known as the “Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act”. It is an act providing for the conservation and protection of wildlife resources and their habitats to promote ecological balance and enhance biological diversity. Under this act, the provision shall be enforceable for all wildlife species found in all areas of the country, including protected areas under RA 7586 and critical habitats. This act shall also apply to exotic species which are traded, cultured, maintained, and/or bred in captivity or propagated in the country.
  • 22. Critical habitats were designated outside protected areas and were subjected to stringent protection from any form of exploitation or destruction which may be detrimental to the survival of threatened species dependent therein imposing penalties over violation of this act.
  • 23. Center of Plant Diversity was also established to protect and preserve endemic plant species. Mt. Kitanglad in Bukidnon, Mt. Apo in Davao, and Agusan Marsh in Agusan del Sur are examples of the established center of plant diversity in Mindanao.
  • 24. Identification of research sites is also another initiative to promote protection and conservation of wildlife, an example of which sites in Mindanao are Mt. Kitanglad Range in Bukidnon and Camiguin islands. In addition, the government has launched the National Greening Program to mitigate deforestation by funding and providing local farmers with economically important plant species such as cacao, falcate, and fruit trees.