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Conventions on biological diversity


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Conventions on biological diversity

  2. 2. WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY? Biological diversity (Biodiversity) is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. It is measured by two parameters: 1. Alpha diversity which represents the no. of species in a specified area. 2. Beta diversity which represents the turnover of species across space.
  3. 3. A unified view of the traditional three levels at which biological variety has been identified are : 1. Species Diversity 2. Genetic Diversity 3. Ecosystem Diversity The United Nations designated 2011-2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity.
  4. 4. WHY WERE CONVENTIONS ON BIODIVERSITY CREATED? Biological diversity has become a global asset of tremendous value to present and future generations. So, for conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components conventions were created.
  5. 5. CONVENTIONS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER • 1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands • 1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) • 1979 Bonn Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) • 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) • 2001 International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA)
  6. 6. The RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. It was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and came into force in 1975, and it is the only global environmental treaty that deals with a particular ecosystem. Background- Wetlands
  7. 7. BACKGROUND Increasing concern over the rapidity with which large stretches of marshland and wetlands in Europe were being "reclaimed" or otherwise destroyed, with a resulting decline in numbers of waterfowl in 1962 led to formation of Ramsar Convention under the guidance of Prof. G.V.T. Matthews in 2 Feb 1971 at Ramsar of Iran. It came to force in 1975 upon receipt by UNESCO, the Convention Depositary.
  8. 8. MISSION The Convention’s mission is “the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local, regional and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world”. At the centre of the Ramsar philosophy is the “wise use” concept which is defined as “the maintenance of their ecological character, achieved through the implementation of ecosystem approaches, within the context of sustainable development”.
  9. 9. WHY WETLANDS?? • Wetlands provide fundamental ecological services and are regulators of water regimes and sources of biodiversity at all levels. • Wetlands constitute a resource of great economic, scientific, cultural, and recreational value for the community. • Wetlands play a vital role in climate change adaptation and mitigation. • Progressive encroachment on, and loss of, wetlands cause serious irreparable environmental damage to the provision of ecosystem services.
  10. 10. CONVENTION BODIES • The Conference of the Contracting Parties- It is the policy-making body of the Convention. • The Standing Committee- It oversees implementation between meetings of the COP. • Scientific & Technical Review Panel- It is the Convention's scientific advisory body. • The Ramsar Secretariat- The Secretariat in Switzerland carries out the day-to-day work of the Convention.
  11. 11. Contracting Parties or Member States of the Ramsar Convention Members have to- 1) Ensure the conservation and wise use of wetlands it has designated as Wetlands of International Importance 2) including as far as possible the wise use of all wetlands in national environmental planning, and 3) consulting with other Parties about implementation of the Convention.
  12. 12. Today Ramsar Convention has 160 members. India has also been a member of this convention since 1 February 1982. Presently it has 25 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance, with a surface area of 677,131 hectares. Some of them are- a. Ashtamudi Wetland of Kerala b. Bhoj Wetland of Madhya Pradesh c. Deepor Beel of Assam
  13. 13. • The Conference of the Parties adopts a core budget administered by the Ramsar Secretariat. • Ramsar convention celebrates Feb 2nd as World Wetland Day. • By January 2008, more than 1,700 wetlands, have been included in the Ramsar List.
  14. 14. • CITES or Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora is a multilateral treaty, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). • CITES entered into force on July 1, 1975. • CITES aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Background: Asiatic Cheetah
  15. 15. Why we need CITES?? Annually, international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and to include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. Because the trade crosses borders between countries, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation to safeguard certain species from over- exploitation. CITES was conceived in the spirit of such cooperation.
  16. 16. HOW CITES WORKS?? • CITES works by subjecting international trade in specimens of selected species to certain controls. • The species covered by CITES are listed in three Appendices, according to the degree of protection they need.
  17. 17. THREE APPENDIXES • Appendix I includes species threatened with extinction. Trade is permitted only in exceptional circumstances. Eg; Asiatic lion • Appendix II includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival. Eg; Great White Shark • This Appendix contains species that are protected in at least one country, which has asked other CITES Parties for assistance in controlling the trade. Eg; African civet
  18. 18. THE CITES SPECIES • Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 29,000 species of plants are protected by CITES against over-exploitation through international trade. They are listed in the three CITES Appendices. • They include some whole groups, such as primates, cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises), sea turtles, parrots, corals, cacti and orchids.
  20. 20. • CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES(COP)- The member States to CITES are collectively referred to as the Conference of the Parties. Conference of the Parties reviews the implementation of the Convention. Its 15th conference was held in Doha (Qatar) from 13-25 March 2010. • STANDING COMMITTEE- It provides policy guidance to the Secretariat concerning the implementation of the Convention and oversees the management of the Secretariat's budget as well as, coordinates and oversees, the work of other committees.
  21. 21. • The CITES Secretariat- It is administered by UNEP and is located at Geneva, Switzerland. It plays a coordinating, advisory and servicing role in the working of the Convention. • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)- UNEP provides funds and leadership partnership in caring for the environment by enabling nations to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations. UNEP celebrates year 2011 as International Year of Forests and 5th June every year as World Environment Day.
  22. 22. • ANIMAL AND PLANTS COMMITTEE- Their role is to provide technical support to decision- making about these species. These were established at the 6th meeting of the COP (Ottawa, 1987) to fill gaps in biological and other specialized knowledge regarding species of animals and plants that are subject to CITES trade controls.
  23. 23. Convention on Migratory Species It aims to conserve terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratory species throughout their range. It is an intergovernmental treaty, concluded under the aegis of the UNEP, concerned with conservation of wildlife and habitats on a global scale. It has 116 member nations all over the world. It is based in the UN Campus in Bonn, Germany. Background: Spix’s Macaw
  24. 24. Why should migratory species be conserved?? • More at risk of becoming endangered than non-migratory ones because their requirements are greater; • Not only do they need good habitat for reproduction but also during their off-season and all along their migratory routes. • Many migratory species are becoming increasingly rare due to unsustainable exploitation.
  25. 25. CMS AIMS TO CONSERVE- • Populations of European Bats • Cetaceans of the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area • Small Cetaceans of the Baltic, North-East Atlantic, Irish and North Seas • Seals in the Wadden Sea • African-Eurasian Migratory Water birds • Albatrosses and Petrels • Gorillas and their Habitats
  26. 26. Overview of CMS Bodies • The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the CMS decision-making. It reviews the Convention's implementation, adopting budgets, resolutions and recommendations, amends Appendixes and deciding on priorities for future CMS activities. • The Standing Committee (StC) provides policy and administrative guidance between regular meetings of the COP.
  27. 27. • The Scientific Council (ScC) advises the COP and the Secretariat on scientific matters and priorities for research and conservation.
  28. 28. Convention on Biological Diversity The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), is an international legally binding treaty aimed for conservation of biodiversity. CBD entered into force on 29 December 1993 through the initiative of UNEP convened Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts on Biological Diversity . CBD created Nagoya and Cartagena Protocols. Background: One Horned Rhinoceros
  29. 29. CARTAGENA PROTOCOL The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another. It entered into force on 11 September 2003.
  30. 30. NAGOYA PROTOCOL The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way and contributing to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components. It was adopted by CBD at its tenth meeting on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan.
  31. 31. AIMS OF CBD • The conservation of biological diversity • The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity • The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
  32. 32. Convention Bodies • Conference Of Parties(COP)- The Conference of the Parties is the governing body of the Convention, and advances implementation of the Convention through the decisions it takes at its periodic meetings. Its 11th meeting would be held on Oct, 2012 in India. • Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical, and Technological Advice (SBSTTA)- SBSTTA is responsible for providing recommendations to the COP on the technical aspects of the implementation of the Convention. It is mainly made up of government representatives with expertise in relevant fields.
  33. 33. GOALS TO ACHIEVE BY 2020 • Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society • Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use • Improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity • Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services • Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity- building
  34. 34. International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture The IT PGRFA is a comprehensive international agreement which aims at guaranteeing food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world's plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, as well as the fair and equitable benefit sharing arising from its use. It also recognises Farmers' Rights. Background: Vaquita
  35. 35. HISTORY The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture was adopted by the Thirty-First Session of the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations on 3 November 2001 and enforced on 29 June 2004.
  36. 36. The Treaty aims at- • -recognizing the enormous contribution of farmers to the diversity of crops that feed the world; • -establishing a global system to provide farmers, plant breeders and scientists with access to plant genetic materials; • -ensuring that recipients share benefits they derive from the use of these genetic materials with the countries where they have been originated.
  37. 37. THE MULTI-LATERAL SYSTEM • The member countries agree to make their genetic diversity and related information about the crops stored in their gene banks available through MLS. • It will facilitate research, innovation and exchange of information.
  38. 38. GOVERNING BODY • It is the highest organ of the Treaty. • Its basic function is to promote the full implementation of the Treaty, including the provision of policy guidance on the implementation of the Treaty. • The Governing Body holds regular sessions at least once every two years.