Ex situ conservation


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  • this is cool thanks a lot it helped me a lot i am going to report this on my conservation biology class... many thanks
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Ex situ conservation

  1. 1. Ex-Situ Conservation
  2. 2. Definition: Ex-Situ means literally, "off-site conservation“ the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal outside of its natural habitat; for example, by removing part of the population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, which may be a wild area or within the care of humans.
  3. 3. Purpose Rescue threatened species of plants or animals. Produce material for conservation biology research. Supply material for various purposes to remove or reduce pressure from wild collecting. Make available material for conservation education and display. Produce material for reintroduction, reinforcement, habitat restoration and management.
  4. 4. Methods of Ex-Situ ConservationZoo One of the most conventional methods of ex-situ conservation. Generally they are used for public enjoyment and education But since there are fewer animals in the wild, they also have the additional capabilities for building up numbers through captive breeding programs.
  5. 5. Methods-cont’dAquariaInitially their role has largely been for display and educational purposesBut due to growing threats of aquatic species they are now used for ex-situ breeding programs.
  6. 6. Methods- cont’dPlant Collections Plants are much easier to maintain artificially than animals. They need less care and their requirements for habitat conditions can be provided more readily. It is also much easier to breed plants in captivity. Examples of these are botanical gardens and seed banks or germplasm banks.
  7. 7. Drawbacks of Ex-Situ Conservation This is rarely enough to save a species from extinction and would have to be used as a last resort or as a supplement for in- situ conservation because it cannot recreate the habitat as a whole. The species’ natural evolution and adaptation processes are either halted temporarily or altered by introducing the specimen in an unnatural habitat.
  8. 8. Drawbacks- cont’d Ex-situ conservation techniques are often costly and sometimes slowly drain the financial resources of the government or the organization. Pests or diseases foreign to the species may cripple protected plants and/or animals as they have no natural defense against it.
  9. 9. Drawbacks- cont’dReintroducing the species to the wild may cause the following problems: Behavior: captive-bred species lack the in-situ learning of their wild relatives and can be a disadvantage to the species once they had been released into the wild. Genetic Races: reintroduced populations may have an entirely different genetic make up to the original population. Habitat: it must be present for reintroduction to take place. In cases of destroyed habitats, those areas had to be restored first to allow the captive populations to be reintroduced.
  10. 10.  But despite of these drawbacks, ex-situ conservation had been successful on some levels. An example is the head-starting of the Philippine crocodile in San Mariano, Isabela.
  11. 11. Philippine CrocodileTaxonomy Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Reptilia Order: Crocodylia Family: Crocodylidae Scientific name: Crocodylus mindorensis Common name/s: Philippine crocodile, Mindoro crocodile, Philippine freshwater crocodile, Bukarot
  12. 12. Philippine CrocodileAssessment Information (IUCN) Red List Category and Criteria: Critically Endangered Year Assessed: 1996Geographic Range: Countries: Native: Philippines Habitat and Ecology: Terrestrial nest sites and basking areas Systems: Terrestrial, freshwater
  13. 13. Philippine Crocodile Distribution: islands of Busuanga, Jolo, Luzon, Masbate, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Samar are part of the historical range, but the current distribution is largely unverified - reported to be extirpated from Jolo, Luzon, Masbate and Samar.
  14. 14. Philippine Crocodile Diet: Mainly aquatic invertebrates and small vertebrates. Breeding: This species constructs a relatively small (around 1.5 m wide x 0.5 m tall) mound nest, into which the female deposits between 7 and 20 eggs. Incubation time is approximately 85 days. The female exhibits parental care.
  15. 15. Mabuwaya Foundation contraction of the Filipino words Mabuhay, welcome or long live, and Buwaya, crocodile. The Mabuwaya foundation is an NGO in the Philippines, that is concerned with the conservation of the Philippine crocodile. Currently, its efforts concentrate on educating the people of Luzon where the animal is still found in the wild. Mabuwaya teaches that the crocodile is something to be proud of, and how unsustainable fishing methods threaten both the animal and its environment.
  16. 16. Mabuwaya Foundation This is an organization consisting of Dutch and Philippine conservationists devoted to the protection of the Philippine crocodile. Director: Merlijn Van Weerd Established: 2003 Other institutions involved: Isabela State University and Leiden University in the Netherlands
  17. 17. Head-Starting A type of conservation approach in which young animals are collected from the wild and raised in captivity for a certain period of time to a larger sized in an attempt to increase survival rates before they would be released into the wild.
  18. 18. Research Area: San Mariano, Isabela
  19. 19. Activities Involved Nest Protection:a. Searching crocodile nests- In 2007 two nests were located by farmers in Disulap River and Dinang Creek.- But the nest in Dinang Creek was destroyed while the one in Disulap was being guarded by Bantay Sanktuwaryo (local protection unit).- A third nest was found in August in Dinang Creek and when the research team had gotten there it was already hatching.
  20. 20. b. Guarding crocodile nests- Arrangements were made with Bantay Sanktuwaryo to guard the nest in Disulap 24hrs/day.- 2 members guard the nest and earn P250/day/person.- The guardians camp at a distance (approximately 50m) and prevent people from coming too close to the nest.- Unfortunately, the nest was destroyed by a monitor lizard and rats.
  21. 21. c. Rewarding communities for successful hatched crocodile nests- 12 crocodiles hatched in Dinang Creek in barangay Cadsalan and the Mabuwaya Foundation gave P6,000 to the barangay fund and P500 to the boy who discovered the nest).- A hatching reward scheme was made wherein the community receives P500/per hatchling. Successful hatching would be verified by the team.- The reward money goes to the community development fund and is used for development activities such as assistance to school children and construction of a rice and corn drying pavement.
  22. 22. Head-Start Program Secure permits from DENR- Had submitted an application for a gratuitous permit for a head-start facilities in PAWS (Protected Area Wildlife Service of DENR). This is a requirement under the Wildlife Act (RA 9147).- This would be submitted to PAWB and had requested to the members of the Philippine crocodile recovery team to comment on the proposal, which would be resubmitted to them.- PAWB endorsed the proposal and had requested PAWS in Region 2 to issue the permit.
  23. 23.  Collect hatchling- 12 hatchlings were collected in Dinang Creek on July 2007. Establish infrastructure- A building was made with the permission of the chairman of the committee on environment and also using the same chairman’s land to build the facility.
  24. 24.  Feeding and maintenance- International crocodile experts were consulted to assure crocodiles were taken cared of in their rearing station.- Arrangements were made to the owner of the largest poultry farm in the area to provide structural meat supply to the crocodiles.- Fish and meat is purchased on the market to feed the crocodiles every other day.
  25. 25. - A caretaker was assigned and trained to feed thecrocodiles, clean the drums and provide informationto visitors.
  26. 26.  Information Dissemination- A Philippine crocodile recovery team meeting was held on August 2, 2007 to update all stakeholders on the head-start program and other conservation activities for the Philippine crocodile.- There was also wide media coverage when the facility was opened on August 28, 2007 from ABS-CBN and GMA 7 and also articles were written about it in newspapers like Philippine Daily Inquirer and Philippine Star.- It was also covered by a local radio station, Bombo Radyo.
  27. 27. Results The head-start program was a success despite of the setbacks that had occurred and it had also helped increase the survival rate of the crocodiles. On July 31, 2009 there were 50 crocodiles that were released to the wild in Dicatian Lake, Banrangay Dicatian in the Municipality of Divilacan, Isabela. Ten of the crocodiles have been fitted with radio transmitters and their movements and adaptation would be monitored by the Mabuwaya Foundation and DENR to gather more information as a basis of reintroducing the crocodiles in other locations.