Mammary gland


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Mammary gland

  2. 2. WHAT IS MAMMARY GLAND..?? A mammary gland is an organ in female mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring. Mammals get their name from the word "mammary“.
  3. 3. MAMMARY GLAND IN MAMMALS… In Humans, the mammary glands are situated on the breasts. In ruminants such as cows, goats, and deer, the mammary glands are contained in their udders. The mammary glands of other mammals that have more than two breasts, such as dogs and cats, are sometimes called dugs.
  5. 5. ORIGIN OF MAMMARY GLAND Origin of Mammary Gland starts from Embryo. Embryo contain 3 layers. Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm
  6. 6. ECTODERMAL CHANGES… First sign of Development : Thickening of Ectodermal Cells. Serious Changes Occur in Ectoderm Layers. Mammary band, Mammary Streak, Mammary Line, Mammary Crest, Mammary hillock and Mammary bud
  7. 7. MAMMOGENESIS IN FETUS Maturation of Mammary Bud Coincided with the Embryo becoming Fetus. Fetus : Term reserved for Placental Mammals(Eutherians). Protherians (Egg Laying): Same Stage of Development as Eutherians. Metatherian : At the Time of Pregnancy.
  8. 8. PRIMARY SPROUT Mammary Bud into Primary Sprout. It is Destined to become a Opening in the teat. These Openings are : Galactophores. Each Galactophore is Pre determined by Primary Sprout from the Mammary bud. No. of Galactophores varey among the Species.
  9. 9. SECONDARY SPROUT From Primary Sprout. Destined to become a Mammary Duct. They become Hollow (Canalized) shortly before the Birth of the Calf. Contain Fat Pad More in Female. Less in Male.
  10. 10. FAT PAD Arises from Mesoderm of Embryo. Important for the Mammal sp of Cattle, Goat, Sheep.
  11. 11. EARLY MAMMOGENESIS IN HUMAN 3-5 Months of Fetal Development have : developed Mammary Bud. At about 5 Month : Surface of the Mammary bud Spreads out and a depression forms at the Surface. Forms Secondary Buds/Epthelial cords.
  12. 12. EPITHELIAL CORD Epithelial cords forms Lactiferous Ducts. Epithelial cords gradually develop and Branch at their Ends and each of them Correspond to a Lactiferous Duct or Opening in the Nipple ina Developed gland.
  13. 13. AT BIRTH Teats are Well Developed Secondary Sprouts are Canalized and have solid Core of the Cells at the end. These Cells continue to Grow and branch. Growth of Sprouts : Limited to the Area around the Gland Cistern. Non Secretory Cells
  14. 14. BIRTH TO PUBERTY Isometric development  Pig : 25-30 Days. : (Similar to the Growth  Rat : 40 Days. Rate of BOdy)  Cattle : 6-8- Months. Length of this Preiod  Human : 10-12 Years. Varrey among the Species. Gland increse in Size from Development of Fat Pad and Connective Tissues.
  15. 15. PUBERTY - CONCEPTION Female releaes FSH and LH from Pituitary gland. These Simulates Ovary to Synthesize and Releases the Sex Hormones. Estrogen (Estradiol) : stimulat the Mammary gland Proliferation. Ducts are Lenghtening and Branched.
  16. 16. TEB(TERMINAL END BUD)DUCT ELONGATES AND BRANCH OCCUR AT THE ACTIVELYGROWING END IN THE STRUCTURE KNOWN AS THE TEB Estrogen :Cells Multiply at the tip of TEB for Elongation Progesterone : Duct and Ductile Cells Multiply for the Widening of the Gland. At the time of Puberty : Both Hormones appear in Mammary Gland.
  17. 17. SHORT CYCLE MAMMALSEG. : RAT, MICE. Absence of Luteal Phase. Because they don’t have Coitus or other Simuli that causes the relaese of Prolactin. Estrus Cycle Mammary Gland Simulated by Estrogen from the Ovary in synergism with Prolactin and Aomatotrop[hin from Pituitary gland. Result : Lengthening and Branching of ducts to TEB. (or Alveoli until the Pregnancy)
  18. 18. LONG CYCLE MAMMALSEG : CATTLE, SHEEP, GOAT. Exhibit the Functional Corpora Lutea (it Secretes Progesterone during Luteal Phase) Progesterone synergizes aith Estrogen, Prolactin and Somatotrophin. During First several Cycles : Duct Lengthening, Branching and Eventually adifferentiation into Lobules and Alveoli takes place.
  19. 19. DURING PREGNANCY Major Portion of the Growth occur and it is Controlled by Hormones. Growth of Hormone is Slow at the Beginning But Accelerate the Growth rate. Non Pregnancy women contain Fat pads. During Pregnancy : Fat pads are Replaced by Ducts, Alveoli, Blood vessels and Connective Tissues.
  20. 20. DURING PREGNANCY CNTD… In Estrus Cycle Both of Hormones elevated during the Pregnancy because there is Lobluo Alveolor Growth is Absent. In Cow : > Progesteron eleveted through the gestation >estrogen eleveted only on the Part of the Seconf part of the Gestation. They Accelerate the rate of Cell Division in Mammary Gland (Especially in TEB)
  21. 21. SECRETION OF MILK Glucose get into Alveolor cells via Glucose Transporter (GLUT) Free Glucose Enters into Golgi Complex via GLUT where Combined with UDP-Galactose. Golgi Membrane : Not Permeable to Dissaccharides. So drows Water osmotiacally to Golgi Compartment.
  22. 22. SYNTHESIS OF HUMAN MILK Hexokinase Glucose ---------------- > Glu-6-Po4 Isomeize Glu-6-Po4--------------- > Pyruvate / Glycerol Glu-6-Po4 IsomeraseGlu-6-Po4 also Enter into Phosphate Shunt to Produce NADPH for Lipid Synthesis.Pyruvate enters into Mitochondria and Produce ATP.
  23. 23. COMPOSITION OF HUMAN BREAST MILK Fat : Total (g/100 ml)4.2 Fatty acids - length 8C (% )trace Polyunsaturated fatty acids (%)14 Protein (g/100 ml)total1.1 casein 0.40.3 a-lactalbumin0.3 lactoferrin (apo-lactoferrin)0.2IgA0.1IgG0.001 lysozyme0.05 serum albumin0.05 ß-lactoglobulin-Carbohydrate (g/100 ml) Lactose7 oligosaccharides0.5Minerals (g/100 ml) calcium0.03 phosphorus0.014 sodium0.015 potassium0.055chlorine0.043
  24. 24. COLOSTRUM This special milk is yellow to orange in color and thick and sticky. It is low in fat, and high in carbohydrates, protein, and antibodies to help keep baby healthy. Colostrum is extremely easy to digest, and is therefore the perfect first food for baby.