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8.4 FLIGHT STABILITY AND
        DYNAMICS



             www.part66.blogspot.com
AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT
Aircraft is completely free to move in any direction

Manoeuvre  dive, climb, turn and roll, or perform
  combinations of these.

Whenever an aircraft changes its attitude in flight, it must turn
  about one or all of these axes.

Axes – imaginary lines passing through the centre of the
  aircraft.



                            AXES ON AIRCRAFT
AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT




      AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT
Longitudinal Axis
o Lengthwise from nose
  to tail through center of
  gravity
o Rotation about this axis
  is called roll
o Rolling is produced by
  movement of ailerons




                       AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT
Lateral Axis
o Spanwise from wingtip
  to wingtip through
  center of gravity
o Rotation about this axis
  is called pitch (nose up
  or nose down)
o Pitching is produced by
  movement of the
  elevators

                       AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT
Normal or Vertical Axis
o Passes from top to
  bottom of the aircraft
  through center of gravity
o Right angle to
  longitudinal and lateral
  axis
o Rotation about this axis is
  called yaw
o Yawing is produced by
  movement of the rudder

                         AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT
STABILITY
o Aircraft characteristic to fly (hands off) in a straight
  and level flight path
o To maintain a uniform flight path and recover from
  the various upsetting forces, such as, local air gusts
  or air density changes that cause deflections from
  the intended flight path
o Aircraft ability to return to original position after
  being disturbed from its flight path
o Changes are corrected automatically relieving the
  pilot from the task of correcting these deviations
                           STABILITY
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
Longitudinal Stability
 Stability about lateral axis 
  motion in pitch
 Longitudinally stable aircraft
  does not tend to put its nose
  down and dive or lift its nose
  and stall
 The aircraft has a tendency to
  keep a constant angle of attack
 Longitudinal Stability
  maintained by the horizontal
  stabilizer
 By correcting nose up or down
  moment will return the
  aircraft to level flight.


                               STABILITY
Lateral Stability
 Stability about longitudinal axis  rolling motion
 Laterally stable aircraft tend to return to the
  original attitude from rolling motion
 Lateral stability is maintained by the wing
  (design)
    a. Dihedral – the upward inclination of the wings
       from their point of attachment
    b. Sweepback – wing leading edges are inclined
       backwards from their points of attachment

                         STABILITY
Lateral Stability




Dihedral               Sweepback


           STABILITY
Directional Stability

 Stability about the vertical axis
 Directionally stable aircraft tends to remain on
  its course in straight and level flight
 Directional stability is maintained by keel
  surface of the vertical stabilizer
 Sweptback wings also aid in directional
  stability (frontal area)
                       STABILITY
Directional Stability




         STABILITY
Types of stability and motion




Stability      Axes           Motion about the Axis
Longitudinal   Lateral        Pitch
Lateral        Longitudinal   Roll
Directional    Normal         Yaw
CONTROL IN FLIGHT

Different control surfaces used to provide
 aircraft control about each of the three axes
Movement of the control surface will change
 the airflow over the aircraft’s surface 
 disturbed the balanced forces
Aircraft controls are designed to be instinctive


                     CONTROL IN FLIGHT
Control surfaces movement
Lateral Control
 Controlling the aircraft about its longitudinal axis (rolling
  motion)
 Provided by the ailerons
 Rolling motion – produce by increasing lift on one wing and
  reduce lift on the opposite wing
 Ailerons
     – Hinged to the trailing edge towards the wingtips and
        form part of a wing
     – Operated from the cockpit by mean of a control wheel
        or control stick or joystick


                           CONTROL IN FLIGHT
Lateral Control
 Sideways movement of the pilot’s control stick will cause the
  aileron on one wing to move upwards
  and, simultaneously, the aileron on the other wing to move
  downwards
 The unequal wing lift on each side of the aircraft produces a
  roll




                           CONTROL IN FLIGHT
Lateral Control
 For aircraft to roll  one aileron deflected upward and one
  downward
 Lowered aileron – lift increase + drag also increase (aileron
  drag or adverse yaw)
 The increased drag tries to turn the aircraft in the direction
  opposite to that desired
 Frise aileron or differential ailerons travel system used to
  overcome the problem of aileron drag




                            CONTROL IN FLIGHT
Aileron Drag/Adverse Yaw




Differential ailerons travel                       Frise aileron




                               CONTROL IN FLIGHT
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
Longitudinal Control
 Controlling the aircraft about the lateral axis (pitching
  motion)
 Provided by elevators
 Elevators are hinged to the trailing edge of the
  horizontal stabilizer
 Pitching motion
     – Forward control column  elevators moves down giving
       the tailplane a positive camber thereby increasing its lift
       on the tail  nose pitch down (dive)
     – Backward control column  elevators moves up giving
       the tailplane a reverse camber, producing negative lift
       on the tail  nose pitch up (climb)

                           CONTROL IN FLIGHT
Longitudinal Control




       CONTROL IN FLIGHT
Directional Control
 Involves rotation about the normal axis (yawing
  motion)
 Controlled by rudder which is hinged to the trailing
  edge of the vertical stabilizer (Fin)
 Movement of rudder is by a pair of rudder pedals
  located in the cockpit
 Yawing motion
     – Yaw to the left move the left pedal forward, rudder is
       moved to the left and the nose will turn to the left
       about normal axis.
     – The opposite effect is obtained from the forward
       movement of the pilot’s right foot.

                          CONTROL IN FLIGHT
Directional Control
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Movable airfoils designed to change the
 attitude of the aircraft about its three axes
 during flight

Divided into three groups:-
    i. primary group
    ii. secondary group
    iii. auxiliary group

                    FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Primary Group
i. Ailerons hinged horizontally at the outboard trailing
     edge of each wing
ii. Elevators hinged horizontally at the rear of each
     horizontal stabiliser
iii. Rudder hinged vertically at the rear of the vertical
     stabiliser

 The ailerons and elevators are operated from the
  cockpit by a control stick or by a control wheel or by a
  joy stick.
 The rudder is operated by foot pedals.

                       FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Secondary Group

Tabs – small auxiliary control surfaces hinged at
 the trailing edge of a main flying control surfaces
Various types of tab and fitted for various reasons
    i.     Trim tab
    ii.    Balance tab
    iii.   Servo tab
    iv.    Spring tab

                         FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Trim Tabs System
 To trim out any unbalanced condition exist during
  flight, without applying any pressure on the primary
  controls
 Each trim tab is hinged to its parent primary control
  surface, but is operated by an independent control
 Trim Tab can be sub divided into two types:
     i.  Fixed trim tabs – Only adjustable on ground before
         flight
     ii. Controllable trim tabs – Can be controlled in flight by
         pilots (control by mechanical linkage or electric motor)


                        FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Trim Tabs System
Fixed trim tab                        Controllable trim tab




                 FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Trim Control
 Trim tab(aileron, rudder, elevator) can be controlled
  manually or electrically
 Manual – control knob or wheel located on the
  centre console
 Electrical – by a thumb switch located on the control
  column for aileron and elevator  rudder trim
  switch located on the centre console adjacent to the
  rudder trim wheel
 During operation, the tabs will always moved in the
  opposite direction from the primary control surfaces

                     FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Elevator Trim




Rudder Trim


Aileron Trim

                FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Manual Control
• To lower the right wing of the airplane and raise the left, the
  aileron tab control wheel is moved to the right and the
  reverse direction is used to lower the left wing.

• To trim the nose up, the elevator tab control wheel is moved
  rearward, and to lower the nose, the wheel is moved forward.

• To yaw to the left, the rudder tab control wheel is moved to
  the left and to yaw to the right, the control wheel is moved to
  the right.

                          FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Electrical Trim Controls
• Electrically operated systems are controlled by
  switches located at the top of the control column.

• These switches are moved forward or aft, to move
  the elevator tab and moving the switch to the left or
  right will move the aileron tab..




                      FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Aileron Trim Controls




      FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Elevator Trim Controls




       FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Rudder Trim Controls




      FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Balance Tabs System
• Assist pilot in moving the control surface (reduce
  pilot’s effort  large control surface)
• Control rod cause the tab to move in the opposite
  direction to the movement of the primary control
  surface  aerodynamic forces acting on the
  tab, assist in moving the main control surface




                     FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Servo Tabs System
• Help in moving large
  primary control surfaces
  (similar to balance tab
  but differs in operation)
• Pilot input from the
  cockpit moves the
  tab, and the tab in turn
  develops forces which
  move the primary
  control surface
• A movement of the tab
  down will cause theFLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  control surface to move
Spring Tabs System
 At high speed , the control
  surfaces become increasingly
  difficult to move due to
  aerodynamic loads
 The spring tab helps to
  overcome this problem
 At low speed the spring tab
  remains in a neutral
  position, inline with the
  control surface.
 Only at high speed, where the
  aerodynamic load is great, the
  tab functions as an aid in
  moving the primary control
  surface.

                          FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Auxiliary Group
 This group of flight control surfaces include:-
      i.      wing flaps
      ii.     spoilers
      iii.    speed brakes
      iv.     leading edge flaps
      v.      slots and slats

 May be divided into two sub-groups;
 Those whose primary purpose is lift augmenting e.g.
  flaps, slots and slats
 those whose primary purpose is lift decreasing e.g. speed
  brakes and spoilers
                         FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Flaps
High lift device hinged on the inboard trailing
 edge of the wing
Controlled from the cockpit, and when not in use
 fits smoothly into the lower surface of each wing
Flaps increases the camber of a wing and
 therefore the lift of the wing, making it possible
 for the speed of the aircraft to be decreased
 without stalling
Flaps are primarily used during take-off and
 landing
                    FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Flaps




FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Plain flaps
• Retracted to form a
  complete section of the
  wing trailing edge

• When in use it is hinged
  downwards




   FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
Split flap
 • This flap is hinged at the
   lower part of the wing
   trailing edge.

 • When lowered, the wing
   top surface is
   unchanged, thus
   eliminating the airflow
   break-away like what
   occurring over the top of
   the plain flap when
   lowering
FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Zap Flap
 • Similar to the split flap
   except that the flap hinge
   travels rearward when
   lowered
 • Increases wing effective
   area as well as its camber
   without changing the
   shape of the top surface
 • Like the split flap there is
   little risk of flow
   separation on top of the
   wing

FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Fowler Flap
 • The fowler is similar to
   the split flap but, when
   in use, it is moved
   rearwards and
   downwards on tracks.

 • This action will increase
   the wing camber and
   also the wing area to
   give additional lift.

FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Slotted Flap
 • A gap or slot formed between
   the flap and the wing structure
 • Air will flow from the wing
   lower surface, through the gap
   and over the top of the flap
 • This airflow will maintain lift
   by speeding up as it passes
   through the slot and
   remaining in contact with the
   flat top surface, even at large
   flap angles
 • Without the slot the upper
   surface airflow would break
   away

FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Slotted Flap




FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Slotted Fowler Flap
 • A Fowler flap with slot
 • Multi-slotted on
   improved design
 • Increase camber and
   area
 • The breakaway of the
   airflow from the flap
   upper surface can be
   delayed until even greater
   angles of flap depression
   by providing two or more
   slots

FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Slotted Fowler Flap




FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Leading edge flap
 • Referred as Krueger’s Flap
 • To increase lift at low speed
 • Increase camber  increase
   lift
 • Leading and trailing edge
   flaps are normally coupled
   to operate together
 • May be lowered
   automatically when the
   aircraft’s speed falls to near
   the stalling speed

FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Slats
 • For low speed operation
   other than take-off or
   landing
 • A small, highly-cambered
   airfoils fitted to the wing
   leading edges
 • May be fixed open, or
   controlled to operate alone
   or jointly with the flaps
 • Some aircraft have slats
   which open automatically
   when the wing angle of
   attack exceeds a
   predetermined value
FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Slats




FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Slot
 • Is a series of suitably
   shaped apertures built
   into the wing structure
   near the wing tips

 • It increase the stalling
   angle by guiding and
   accelerating air from
   below the wing and
   discharging it over the
   upper surface in the
   normal way

FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Airbrakes/Speed brakes
 • Movable panels forming part
   of the contour of the wings or
   fuselage
 • Deflected into the airflow by
   hydraulic actuators to give a
   rapid reduction in speed when
   is required.
 • Used to control speed during
   descent and landing approach
 • Installed on the strongest
   airframe structure able to
   accept the braking loads and
   also where the braking drag
   does not effect the aircraft
   stability
FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
Spoilers
 • Are plates fitted to the
   upper surface of the wing
   and usually deflected
   upward by hydraulic
   actuators
 • The purpose is to disturb
   the smooth airflow across
   the top of the
   wing, thereby increasing
   drag and decreased lift on
   that aircraft

FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary
             Group]
DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS
 The design of some aircraft makes it impossible
  to mount the conventional aileron, elevator and
  rudder control surfaces in their normal positions.
 An example of this is a delta wing type aircraft.
 This has no separate tailplane, and the elevators
  have to be mounted on the wing trailing edges.
 This presents a space problem because the wings
  already house the ailerons and flaps.
 The solution in this case is to use one set of
  control surfaces to perform the function of both.

                    DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS
DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS




       DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS
Elevons
o Use to perform the
  function of both
  elevators and ailerons



o The surfaces are moved
  in the same direction to
  serve as elevators and
  in opposite directions to
                       DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS
Ruddervators
o Prevent hot exhaust
  gases from the turbo-jet
  engine playing on the
  tail unit surfaces, and
  for other design
  considerations, some
  light aircraft have
  tailplanes with very
  pronounced dihedral
  angles
o ‘V’ tailplane with its
  hinged aft control
  surfaces provides DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS
Tailerons
o On some high speed
  aircraft it is often
  necessary to have flaps
  which occupy the entire
  trailing edges of the
  wings, leaving no space
  for the ailerons.
o Controllable tailplane
  move separately.
o Pitch  angling both
  sides either up, or
  down, together
o Roll  angling one side
  up
  and, simultaneously, th
  e other side down DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS

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EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS

  • 1. 8.4 FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS www.part66.blogspot.com
  • 2. AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT Aircraft is completely free to move in any direction Manoeuvre  dive, climb, turn and roll, or perform combinations of these. Whenever an aircraft changes its attitude in flight, it must turn about one or all of these axes. Axes – imaginary lines passing through the centre of the aircraft. AXES ON AIRCRAFT
  • 3. AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT
  • 4. Longitudinal Axis o Lengthwise from nose to tail through center of gravity o Rotation about this axis is called roll o Rolling is produced by movement of ailerons AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT
  • 5. Lateral Axis o Spanwise from wingtip to wingtip through center of gravity o Rotation about this axis is called pitch (nose up or nose down) o Pitching is produced by movement of the elevators AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT
  • 6. Normal or Vertical Axis o Passes from top to bottom of the aircraft through center of gravity o Right angle to longitudinal and lateral axis o Rotation about this axis is called yaw o Yawing is produced by movement of the rudder AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT
  • 7. STABILITY o Aircraft characteristic to fly (hands off) in a straight and level flight path o To maintain a uniform flight path and recover from the various upsetting forces, such as, local air gusts or air density changes that cause deflections from the intended flight path o Aircraft ability to return to original position after being disturbed from its flight path o Changes are corrected automatically relieving the pilot from the task of correcting these deviations STABILITY
  • 9. Longitudinal Stability  Stability about lateral axis  motion in pitch  Longitudinally stable aircraft does not tend to put its nose down and dive or lift its nose and stall  The aircraft has a tendency to keep a constant angle of attack  Longitudinal Stability maintained by the horizontal stabilizer  By correcting nose up or down moment will return the aircraft to level flight. STABILITY
  • 10. Lateral Stability  Stability about longitudinal axis  rolling motion  Laterally stable aircraft tend to return to the original attitude from rolling motion  Lateral stability is maintained by the wing (design) a. Dihedral – the upward inclination of the wings from their point of attachment b. Sweepback – wing leading edges are inclined backwards from their points of attachment STABILITY
  • 11. Lateral Stability Dihedral Sweepback STABILITY
  • 12. Directional Stability  Stability about the vertical axis  Directionally stable aircraft tends to remain on its course in straight and level flight  Directional stability is maintained by keel surface of the vertical stabilizer  Sweptback wings also aid in directional stability (frontal area) STABILITY
  • 14. Types of stability and motion Stability Axes Motion about the Axis Longitudinal Lateral Pitch Lateral Longitudinal Roll Directional Normal Yaw
  • 15. CONTROL IN FLIGHT Different control surfaces used to provide aircraft control about each of the three axes Movement of the control surface will change the airflow over the aircraft’s surface  disturbed the balanced forces Aircraft controls are designed to be instinctive CONTROL IN FLIGHT
  • 17. Lateral Control  Controlling the aircraft about its longitudinal axis (rolling motion)  Provided by the ailerons  Rolling motion – produce by increasing lift on one wing and reduce lift on the opposite wing  Ailerons – Hinged to the trailing edge towards the wingtips and form part of a wing – Operated from the cockpit by mean of a control wheel or control stick or joystick CONTROL IN FLIGHT
  • 18. Lateral Control  Sideways movement of the pilot’s control stick will cause the aileron on one wing to move upwards and, simultaneously, the aileron on the other wing to move downwards  The unequal wing lift on each side of the aircraft produces a roll CONTROL IN FLIGHT
  • 19. Lateral Control  For aircraft to roll  one aileron deflected upward and one downward  Lowered aileron – lift increase + drag also increase (aileron drag or adverse yaw)  The increased drag tries to turn the aircraft in the direction opposite to that desired  Frise aileron or differential ailerons travel system used to overcome the problem of aileron drag CONTROL IN FLIGHT
  • 20. Aileron Drag/Adverse Yaw Differential ailerons travel Frise aileron CONTROL IN FLIGHT
  • 24. Longitudinal Control  Controlling the aircraft about the lateral axis (pitching motion)  Provided by elevators  Elevators are hinged to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer  Pitching motion – Forward control column  elevators moves down giving the tailplane a positive camber thereby increasing its lift on the tail  nose pitch down (dive) – Backward control column  elevators moves up giving the tailplane a reverse camber, producing negative lift on the tail  nose pitch up (climb) CONTROL IN FLIGHT
  • 25. Longitudinal Control CONTROL IN FLIGHT
  • 26. Directional Control  Involves rotation about the normal axis (yawing motion)  Controlled by rudder which is hinged to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer (Fin)  Movement of rudder is by a pair of rudder pedals located in the cockpit  Yawing motion – Yaw to the left move the left pedal forward, rudder is moved to the left and the nose will turn to the left about normal axis. – The opposite effect is obtained from the forward movement of the pilot’s right foot. CONTROL IN FLIGHT
  • 29. FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES Movable airfoils designed to change the attitude of the aircraft about its three axes during flight Divided into three groups:- i. primary group ii. secondary group iii. auxiliary group FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 30. Primary Group i. Ailerons hinged horizontally at the outboard trailing edge of each wing ii. Elevators hinged horizontally at the rear of each horizontal stabiliser iii. Rudder hinged vertically at the rear of the vertical stabiliser  The ailerons and elevators are operated from the cockpit by a control stick or by a control wheel or by a joy stick.  The rudder is operated by foot pedals. FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 31. Secondary Group Tabs – small auxiliary control surfaces hinged at the trailing edge of a main flying control surfaces Various types of tab and fitted for various reasons i. Trim tab ii. Balance tab iii. Servo tab iv. Spring tab FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 32. Trim Tabs System  To trim out any unbalanced condition exist during flight, without applying any pressure on the primary controls  Each trim tab is hinged to its parent primary control surface, but is operated by an independent control  Trim Tab can be sub divided into two types: i. Fixed trim tabs – Only adjustable on ground before flight ii. Controllable trim tabs – Can be controlled in flight by pilots (control by mechanical linkage or electric motor) FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 33. Trim Tabs System Fixed trim tab Controllable trim tab FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 34. Trim Control  Trim tab(aileron, rudder, elevator) can be controlled manually or electrically  Manual – control knob or wheel located on the centre console  Electrical – by a thumb switch located on the control column for aileron and elevator  rudder trim switch located on the centre console adjacent to the rudder trim wheel  During operation, the tabs will always moved in the opposite direction from the primary control surfaces FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 35. Elevator Trim Rudder Trim Aileron Trim FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 36. Manual Control • To lower the right wing of the airplane and raise the left, the aileron tab control wheel is moved to the right and the reverse direction is used to lower the left wing. • To trim the nose up, the elevator tab control wheel is moved rearward, and to lower the nose, the wheel is moved forward. • To yaw to the left, the rudder tab control wheel is moved to the left and to yaw to the right, the control wheel is moved to the right. FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 37. Electrical Trim Controls • Electrically operated systems are controlled by switches located at the top of the control column. • These switches are moved forward or aft, to move the elevator tab and moving the switch to the left or right will move the aileron tab.. FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 38. Aileron Trim Controls FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 39. Elevator Trim Controls FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 40. Rudder Trim Controls FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 41. Balance Tabs System • Assist pilot in moving the control surface (reduce pilot’s effort  large control surface) • Control rod cause the tab to move in the opposite direction to the movement of the primary control surface  aerodynamic forces acting on the tab, assist in moving the main control surface FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 42. Servo Tabs System • Help in moving large primary control surfaces (similar to balance tab but differs in operation) • Pilot input from the cockpit moves the tab, and the tab in turn develops forces which move the primary control surface • A movement of the tab down will cause theFLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES control surface to move
  • 43. Spring Tabs System  At high speed , the control surfaces become increasingly difficult to move due to aerodynamic loads  The spring tab helps to overcome this problem  At low speed the spring tab remains in a neutral position, inline with the control surface.  Only at high speed, where the aerodynamic load is great, the tab functions as an aid in moving the primary control surface. FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 44. Auxiliary Group  This group of flight control surfaces include:- i. wing flaps ii. spoilers iii. speed brakes iv. leading edge flaps v. slots and slats  May be divided into two sub-groups;  Those whose primary purpose is lift augmenting e.g. flaps, slots and slats  those whose primary purpose is lift decreasing e.g. speed brakes and spoilers FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 45. Flaps High lift device hinged on the inboard trailing edge of the wing Controlled from the cockpit, and when not in use fits smoothly into the lower surface of each wing Flaps increases the camber of a wing and therefore the lift of the wing, making it possible for the speed of the aircraft to be decreased without stalling Flaps are primarily used during take-off and landing FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
  • 47. Plain flaps • Retracted to form a complete section of the wing trailing edge • When in use it is hinged downwards FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 48. Split flap • This flap is hinged at the lower part of the wing trailing edge. • When lowered, the wing top surface is unchanged, thus eliminating the airflow break-away like what occurring over the top of the plain flap when lowering FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 49. Zap Flap • Similar to the split flap except that the flap hinge travels rearward when lowered • Increases wing effective area as well as its camber without changing the shape of the top surface • Like the split flap there is little risk of flow separation on top of the wing FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 50. Fowler Flap • The fowler is similar to the split flap but, when in use, it is moved rearwards and downwards on tracks. • This action will increase the wing camber and also the wing area to give additional lift. FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 51. Slotted Flap • A gap or slot formed between the flap and the wing structure • Air will flow from the wing lower surface, through the gap and over the top of the flap • This airflow will maintain lift by speeding up as it passes through the slot and remaining in contact with the flat top surface, even at large flap angles • Without the slot the upper surface airflow would break away FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 52. Slotted Flap FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 53. Slotted Fowler Flap • A Fowler flap with slot • Multi-slotted on improved design • Increase camber and area • The breakaway of the airflow from the flap upper surface can be delayed until even greater angles of flap depression by providing two or more slots FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 54. Slotted Fowler Flap FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 55. Leading edge flap • Referred as Krueger’s Flap • To increase lift at low speed • Increase camber  increase lift • Leading and trailing edge flaps are normally coupled to operate together • May be lowered automatically when the aircraft’s speed falls to near the stalling speed FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 56. Slats • For low speed operation other than take-off or landing • A small, highly-cambered airfoils fitted to the wing leading edges • May be fixed open, or controlled to operate alone or jointly with the flaps • Some aircraft have slats which open automatically when the wing angle of attack exceeds a predetermined value FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 57. Slats FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 58. Slot • Is a series of suitably shaped apertures built into the wing structure near the wing tips • It increase the stalling angle by guiding and accelerating air from below the wing and discharging it over the upper surface in the normal way FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 59. Airbrakes/Speed brakes • Movable panels forming part of the contour of the wings or fuselage • Deflected into the airflow by hydraulic actuators to give a rapid reduction in speed when is required. • Used to control speed during descent and landing approach • Installed on the strongest airframe structure able to accept the braking loads and also where the braking drag does not effect the aircraft stability FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 60. Spoilers • Are plates fitted to the upper surface of the wing and usually deflected upward by hydraulic actuators • The purpose is to disturb the smooth airflow across the top of the wing, thereby increasing drag and decreased lift on that aircraft FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES [Auxiliary Group]
  • 61. DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS  The design of some aircraft makes it impossible to mount the conventional aileron, elevator and rudder control surfaces in their normal positions.  An example of this is a delta wing type aircraft.  This has no separate tailplane, and the elevators have to be mounted on the wing trailing edges.  This presents a space problem because the wings already house the ailerons and flaps.  The solution in this case is to use one set of control surfaces to perform the function of both. DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS
  • 62. DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS
  • 63. Elevons o Use to perform the function of both elevators and ailerons o The surfaces are moved in the same direction to serve as elevators and in opposite directions to DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS
  • 64. Ruddervators o Prevent hot exhaust gases from the turbo-jet engine playing on the tail unit surfaces, and for other design considerations, some light aircraft have tailplanes with very pronounced dihedral angles o ‘V’ tailplane with its hinged aft control surfaces provides DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS
  • 65. Tailerons o On some high speed aircraft it is often necessary to have flaps which occupy the entire trailing edges of the wings, leaving no space for the ailerons. o Controllable tailplane move separately. o Pitch  angling both sides either up, or down, together o Roll  angling one side up and, simultaneously, th e other side down DUAL PURPOSE CONTROLS