SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Welcome




B a s ic A e r o d y n a m ic s
  a n d F lig h t C o n t r o ls




                                   1
Learning Objectives
At the end of this course, you will be able to…
   v Explain the four basic aerodynamic forces that
     act on aircraft
   v Understand how these forces relate to and
     interact with each other
   v Identify common flight controls on aircraft
   v Explain the affect that each control has on the
     flight of an aircraft
   v Identify hybrid flight controls of advanced
     aircraft


                                                       2
Four Basic Forces




                    3
Four Basic Forces
                                        Lift
Bernoulli’s Principle:
   v An increase in the velocity of any fluid is always
     accompanied by a decrease in pressure.
   v Since air behaves like a fluid,
     Bernoulli’s Principle applies.
   v Any time air moves, its
     pressure is lower than when it
     is still.
   v The faster air moves,
     the lower its pressure.


                                                          4
Four Basic Forces
                                    Lift
Air traveling over the curved surface of
a wing has farther to go than air going under.
                     v Air above must move
          lift         faster in order to get to the
                       back at the same time as
                       the air underneath.
                     v Faster air means pressure
                       over the wing drops.
                     v The low pressure above
                       the wing lifts it up!


                                                       5
Four Basic Forces
                                 GRAVITY
Gravity / Weight:

   v All objects have mass, but the weight of an
     object is the result of the force of gravity acting
     on the mass.
   v Since the force applied to the aircraft is the
     same, gravity and weight are equivalent for our
     purposes.




                                                           6
Four Basic Forces
                                GRAVITY
Center of Gravity:
   v The average weight of all parts, fuel, and
     payload is called the center of gravity.
   v In flight, the aircraft rotates about the
     center of gravity.




                                                  7
Four Basic Forces
                                       GRAVITY




                   (D1*W1) + (D2*W2) + (D3*W3) + (D4*W4) + (D5*W5)
Distance to CG =
                                   Total Weight

                                                                     8
Four Basic Forces
v   The purpose of thrust is to
                                    Thrust
  overcome drag, not to lift the
  aircraft: A million pound
  airliner has 4 engines that
  produce a total of only
  200,000 pounds of thrust.
  The wings are doing the
  lifting, not the engines.
v The direction of thrust
  depends on the type of
  engine and where they are
  attached.


                                             9
Four Basic Forces
                                     drag
Definition of Drag:
   v Drag is a mechanical force generated by a solid
     object moving through a liquid.
   v It results from the difference in velocity between
     the object and the fluid.
   v It can be considered to be aerodynamic friction
     that opposes the movement of the aircraft.
   v In layman’s terms it is often known as wind
     resistance.




                                                       10
Four Basic Forces
                                       drag
Types of Drag:
   v Induced drag - Occurs whenever a lifting body
     or a wing or generates lift.
      v   Caused by air under the wing slipping around the
          wingtip to form a vortex which travels out behind the
          wing creating drag.
      v   Also caused by downward force of wind leaving the
          trailing edge of the wing. More drag is thus
          produced at higher angles of attack.




                                                                  11
Four Basic Forces
                                        drag
Types of Drag:
   v Parasitic drag
      v Results from the aircraft pushing air out of the way
        (form drag).
      v Also caused by the friction of air against the actual
        surface of the aircraft (skin friction).
      v Air vortices caused by some surfaces or structures
        on the plane can also cause interference drag.




                                                                12
In the Cockpit
A Guide to Basic Flight Controls




                               13
The flight controls and instrument panel
            are in the front of the cockpit.




                                           14
Flight controls and instrument panels
        vary, but have the same basic functions




“Glass Cockpit”            Side Sticks

                                                  15
The control wheel or yoke is used
               to steer the airplane in different directions.




Turning Left           Straight and Level              Turning Right


         Side Stick                 Some airplanes have a stick rather
                                    than a wheel. Moving the stick to
                                    the right or left is like turning the
                                    wheel, and moving it forward and
                                    backward is like pushing the wheel
                                    forward and back.




                                                                            16
Moving the yoke (or pushing the stick) left or
right moves the ailerons in opposite directions




             Turning Right




 One moves up while the other moves down

                                                17
The ailerons control roll




                            18
Pulling back or pushing forward on the yoke
                     moves the elevators up or down




                            Climbing


  Pulling back on yoke
   moves elevators up,
causing tail to drop and
            nose to rise.



                                                    19
Elevators control pitch




                      20
Pressing rudder pedals on the floor moves the
               rudder left or right to aid turns


                                 Brakes are
                                 located at the
                                 top or “toe” of
                                 the pedal




      Rudder controls yaw
                                                   21
The airspeed indicator shows speed
                     through the air --- not over the ground


                             The pitot tube on
                             the wing catches
                          on-rushing air. This
                                   “ram air” is
                           compared to static
                           air to determine air
                                        speed.


       The static port
measures still air that
is not affected by the
     airplane’s speed
       through the air


                                                           22
The attitude indicator provides an artificial
                 horizon to show the pilot the airplane’s
                        position in relation to the ground




Here, the airplane is banking
     left with its nose on the
     horizon —where brown
 “ground” meets blue “sky.”



                                                              23
The altimeter measures air pressure outside the
            airplane and compares it to air pressure at sea
                                level to determine altitude




     Like clock hands, the long
           hand shows smaller
increments (100s of feet) while
 the shorter hand shows larger
    increments (1,000s of feet).
This altimeter reads 1720 feet.

                                                          24
The turn coordinator shows if the wings are
                  level or banked. The position of the ball
               indicates if the airplane is turning properly




                               Turn Coordinator




The ball is centered when
   the turn is balanced by
                    rudder




                                                           25
The heading indicator displays the
                                     direction of flight




This airplane is heading
  south at 175 degrees.




                                                       26
The vertical speed indicator uses changes in air
        pressure to indicate rate of climb or descent




Airplane is descending at
      190 feet per minute




                                                    27
Radios help communicate with air traffic control
       (ATC) and other pilots. Other radios help
   navigate using ground stations or satellites.




                                               28
Most airplanes have a radar transponder that
     shows their location, speed and altitude to ATC




   An assigned four-digit code
      helps identify a particular
airplane on a controller’s radar
                         screen


                                                   29
Pilots increasingly use GPS satellite navigation


                            GPS can be small, handheld and
                            portable.
                            Flat-panel GPS moving maps and
                            flight displays are just like the
                            ones in airliners and some cars.




    GPS can be used to
    display position and
   ground speed, locate
nearby airports, and plot
   course, distance and
 time to any destination

                                                                30

More Related Content

What's hot

EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICSEASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
soulstalker
 
Parts of an aircraft
Parts of an aircraftParts of an aircraft
Parts of an aircraft
Mohamed Yasser
 
9. approach and landing
9. approach and landing9. approach and landing
9. approach and landing
chococrispis37
 
Flight Controls - Chapter 5
Flight Controls - Chapter 5Flight Controls - Chapter 5
Flight Controls - Chapter 5
junio_oliveira
 
Aircraft ctrl systems
Aircraft ctrl systemsAircraft ctrl systems
Aircraft ctrl systems
KUMARESAN ARUNAGIRI
 
Aircraft landing gear
Aircraft landing gearAircraft landing gear
Aircraft landing gear
Prashant Shukla
 
Me438 Aerodynamics (week 1-2-3)
Me438 Aerodynamics (week 1-2-3)Me438 Aerodynamics (week 1-2-3)
Me438 Aerodynamics (week 1-2-3)
Dr. Bilal Siddiqui, C.Eng., MIMechE, FRAeS
 
Helicopters
HelicoptersHelicopters
Helicopters
lccmechanics
 
Basics of Aerodynamics
Basics of AerodynamicsBasics of Aerodynamics
Basics of Aerodynamics
Zubayer Al Billal Khan
 
Airfoil terminology
Airfoil terminologyAirfoil terminology
Airfoil terminology
Smart Vino
 
Basic aircraft control system
Basic aircraft control systemBasic aircraft control system
Basic aircraft control system
Aeronautical Division
 
Aerodynamics slide
Aerodynamics slideAerodynamics slide
Aerodynamics slide
Linda Jaquiline
 
flight control surfaces
flight control surfacesflight control surfaces
flight control surfaces
swapnil jani
 
Robinson Helicopter Private Lesson 1
Robinson Helicopter Private Lesson 1Robinson Helicopter Private Lesson 1
Robinson Helicopter Private Lesson 1
Heather Howley
 
Parts of Airplanes
Parts of AirplanesParts of Airplanes
Parts of Airplanes
Denise Legore Seawood
 
Basic aerodynamics
Basic aerodynamicsBasic aerodynamics
Basic aerodynamics
Aeronautical Division
 
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICSEASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
soulstalker
 
032 aeroplane performance
032 aeroplane performance032 aeroplane performance
032 aeroplane performance
chococrispis37
 
Basic aircraft control system
Basic aircraft control systemBasic aircraft control system
Basic aircraft control system
Aeronautical Division
 
2aerodinmica 090410143250 Phpapp02
2aerodinmica 090410143250 Phpapp022aerodinmica 090410143250 Phpapp02
2aerodinmica 090410143250 Phpapp02
VerCla
 

What's hot (20)

EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICSEASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
 
Parts of an aircraft
Parts of an aircraftParts of an aircraft
Parts of an aircraft
 
9. approach and landing
9. approach and landing9. approach and landing
9. approach and landing
 
Flight Controls - Chapter 5
Flight Controls - Chapter 5Flight Controls - Chapter 5
Flight Controls - Chapter 5
 
Aircraft ctrl systems
Aircraft ctrl systemsAircraft ctrl systems
Aircraft ctrl systems
 
Aircraft landing gear
Aircraft landing gearAircraft landing gear
Aircraft landing gear
 
Me438 Aerodynamics (week 1-2-3)
Me438 Aerodynamics (week 1-2-3)Me438 Aerodynamics (week 1-2-3)
Me438 Aerodynamics (week 1-2-3)
 
Helicopters
HelicoptersHelicopters
Helicopters
 
Basics of Aerodynamics
Basics of AerodynamicsBasics of Aerodynamics
Basics of Aerodynamics
 
Airfoil terminology
Airfoil terminologyAirfoil terminology
Airfoil terminology
 
Basic aircraft control system
Basic aircraft control systemBasic aircraft control system
Basic aircraft control system
 
Aerodynamics slide
Aerodynamics slideAerodynamics slide
Aerodynamics slide
 
flight control surfaces
flight control surfacesflight control surfaces
flight control surfaces
 
Robinson Helicopter Private Lesson 1
Robinson Helicopter Private Lesson 1Robinson Helicopter Private Lesson 1
Robinson Helicopter Private Lesson 1
 
Parts of Airplanes
Parts of AirplanesParts of Airplanes
Parts of Airplanes
 
Basic aerodynamics
Basic aerodynamicsBasic aerodynamics
Basic aerodynamics
 
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICSEASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
 
032 aeroplane performance
032 aeroplane performance032 aeroplane performance
032 aeroplane performance
 
Basic aircraft control system
Basic aircraft control systemBasic aircraft control system
Basic aircraft control system
 
2aerodinmica 090410143250 Phpapp02
2aerodinmica 090410143250 Phpapp022aerodinmica 090410143250 Phpapp02
2aerodinmica 090410143250 Phpapp02
 

Viewers also liked

Basic Aerodynamics.Ppt
Basic Aerodynamics.PptBasic Aerodynamics.Ppt
Basic Aerodynamics.Ppt
azfa
 
8 Tips for an Awesome Powerpoint Presentation
8 Tips for an Awesome Powerpoint Presentation8 Tips for an Awesome Powerpoint Presentation
8 Tips for an Awesome Powerpoint Presentation
Slides | Presentation Design Agency
 
A-Z Culture Glossary 2017
A-Z Culture Glossary 2017A-Z Culture Glossary 2017
A-Z Culture Glossary 2017
sparks & honey
 
The Minimum Loveable Product
The Minimum Loveable ProductThe Minimum Loveable Product
The Minimum Loveable Product
The Happy Startup School
 
What 33 Successful Entrepreneurs Learned From Failure
What 33 Successful Entrepreneurs Learned From FailureWhat 33 Successful Entrepreneurs Learned From Failure
What 33 Successful Entrepreneurs Learned From Failure
ReferralCandy
 
How People Really Hold and Touch (their Phones)
How People Really Hold and Touch (their Phones)How People Really Hold and Touch (their Phones)
How People Really Hold and Touch (their Phones)
Steven Hoober
 
Upworthy: 10 Ways To Win The Internets
Upworthy: 10 Ways To Win The InternetsUpworthy: 10 Ways To Win The Internets
Upworthy: 10 Ways To Win The Internets
Upworthy
 
Five Killer Ways to Design The Same Slide
Five Killer Ways to Design The Same SlideFive Killer Ways to Design The Same Slide
Five Killer Ways to Design The Same Slide
Crispy Presentations
 
How I got 2.5 Million views on Slideshare (by @nickdemey - Board of Innovation)
How I got 2.5 Million views on Slideshare (by @nickdemey - Board of Innovation)How I got 2.5 Million views on Slideshare (by @nickdemey - Board of Innovation)
How I got 2.5 Million views on Slideshare (by @nickdemey - Board of Innovation)
Board of Innovation
 
The Seven Deadly Social Media Sins
The Seven Deadly Social Media SinsThe Seven Deadly Social Media Sins
The Seven Deadly Social Media Sins
XPLAIN
 
Digital Strategy 101
Digital Strategy 101Digital Strategy 101
Digital Strategy 101
Bud Caddell
 
Design Your Career 2018
Design Your Career 2018Design Your Career 2018
Design Your Career 2018
Slides That Rock
 
Displaying Data
Displaying DataDisplaying Data
Displaying Data
Bipul Deb Nath
 
The History of SEO
The History of SEOThe History of SEO
The History of SEO
HubSpot
 
How To (Really) Get Into Marketing
How To (Really) Get Into MarketingHow To (Really) Get Into Marketing
How To (Really) Get Into Marketing
Ed Fry
 
The Search for Meaning in B2B Marketing
The Search for Meaning in B2B MarketingThe Search for Meaning in B2B Marketing
The Search for Meaning in B2B Marketing
Velocity Partners
 
The What If Technique presented by Motivate Design
The What If Technique presented by Motivate DesignThe What If Technique presented by Motivate Design
The What If Technique presented by Motivate Design
Motivate Design
 
How Google Works
How Google WorksHow Google Works
How Google Works
Eric Schmidt
 
Crap. The Content Marketing Deluge.
Crap. The Content Marketing Deluge.Crap. The Content Marketing Deluge.
Crap. The Content Marketing Deluge.
Velocity Partners
 
10 Powerful Body Language Tips for your next Presentation
10 Powerful Body Language Tips for your next Presentation10 Powerful Body Language Tips for your next Presentation
10 Powerful Body Language Tips for your next Presentation
SOAP Presentations
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Basic Aerodynamics.Ppt
Basic Aerodynamics.PptBasic Aerodynamics.Ppt
Basic Aerodynamics.Ppt
 
8 Tips for an Awesome Powerpoint Presentation
8 Tips for an Awesome Powerpoint Presentation8 Tips for an Awesome Powerpoint Presentation
8 Tips for an Awesome Powerpoint Presentation
 
A-Z Culture Glossary 2017
A-Z Culture Glossary 2017A-Z Culture Glossary 2017
A-Z Culture Glossary 2017
 
The Minimum Loveable Product
The Minimum Loveable ProductThe Minimum Loveable Product
The Minimum Loveable Product
 
What 33 Successful Entrepreneurs Learned From Failure
What 33 Successful Entrepreneurs Learned From FailureWhat 33 Successful Entrepreneurs Learned From Failure
What 33 Successful Entrepreneurs Learned From Failure
 
How People Really Hold and Touch (their Phones)
How People Really Hold and Touch (their Phones)How People Really Hold and Touch (their Phones)
How People Really Hold and Touch (their Phones)
 
Upworthy: 10 Ways To Win The Internets
Upworthy: 10 Ways To Win The InternetsUpworthy: 10 Ways To Win The Internets
Upworthy: 10 Ways To Win The Internets
 
Five Killer Ways to Design The Same Slide
Five Killer Ways to Design The Same SlideFive Killer Ways to Design The Same Slide
Five Killer Ways to Design The Same Slide
 
How I got 2.5 Million views on Slideshare (by @nickdemey - Board of Innovation)
How I got 2.5 Million views on Slideshare (by @nickdemey - Board of Innovation)How I got 2.5 Million views on Slideshare (by @nickdemey - Board of Innovation)
How I got 2.5 Million views on Slideshare (by @nickdemey - Board of Innovation)
 
The Seven Deadly Social Media Sins
The Seven Deadly Social Media SinsThe Seven Deadly Social Media Sins
The Seven Deadly Social Media Sins
 
Digital Strategy 101
Digital Strategy 101Digital Strategy 101
Digital Strategy 101
 
Design Your Career 2018
Design Your Career 2018Design Your Career 2018
Design Your Career 2018
 
Displaying Data
Displaying DataDisplaying Data
Displaying Data
 
The History of SEO
The History of SEOThe History of SEO
The History of SEO
 
How To (Really) Get Into Marketing
How To (Really) Get Into MarketingHow To (Really) Get Into Marketing
How To (Really) Get Into Marketing
 
The Search for Meaning in B2B Marketing
The Search for Meaning in B2B MarketingThe Search for Meaning in B2B Marketing
The Search for Meaning in B2B Marketing
 
The What If Technique presented by Motivate Design
The What If Technique presented by Motivate DesignThe What If Technique presented by Motivate Design
The What If Technique presented by Motivate Design
 
How Google Works
How Google WorksHow Google Works
How Google Works
 
Crap. The Content Marketing Deluge.
Crap. The Content Marketing Deluge.Crap. The Content Marketing Deluge.
Crap. The Content Marketing Deluge.
 
10 Powerful Body Language Tips for your next Presentation
10 Powerful Body Language Tips for your next Presentation10 Powerful Body Language Tips for your next Presentation
10 Powerful Body Language Tips for your next Presentation
 

Similar to Basic Aerodynamics and Flight Controls

FLYING IS FUN
FLYING IS FUNFLYING IS FUN
FLYING IS FUN
ahmad bassiouny
 
31oct
31oct31oct
Principles Of Flight
Principles Of FlightPrinciples Of Flight
Principles Of Flight
Vinayak Kaujalgi, PMP
 
Flying Circuits
Flying Circuits Flying Circuits
Flying Circuits
Aviationshared
 
Praveen
PraveenPraveen
AEROPLANES CREATING LIFT BY GIRISH HARMUKH
AEROPLANES CREATING LIFT BY GIRISH HARMUKHAEROPLANES CREATING LIFT BY GIRISH HARMUKH
AEROPLANES CREATING LIFT BY GIRISH HARMUKH
GIRISH HARMUKH
 
L2 Unit 101 Aircraft Flight Principles & TOF Master 2022 04 Oct 22.pptx
L2 Unit 101 Aircraft Flight Principles & TOF Master 2022 04 Oct 22.pptxL2 Unit 101 Aircraft Flight Principles & TOF Master 2022 04 Oct 22.pptx
L2 Unit 101 Aircraft Flight Principles & TOF Master 2022 04 Oct 22.pptx
MarkWootton9
 
Aircraft Structure - Chapter 2
Aircraft Structure - Chapter 2Aircraft Structure - Chapter 2
Aircraft Structure - Chapter 2
junio_oliveira
 
Physics Presentation Final 1
Physics Presentation Final 1Physics Presentation Final 1
Physics Presentation Final 1
djgoodman23
 
Aeromodelling Instruction manual
Aeromodelling Instruction manualAeromodelling Instruction manual
Aeromodelling Instruction manual
Rahul Jaiswal
 
Advanced Aerodynamics
Advanced  AerodynamicsAdvanced  Aerodynamics
Advanced Aerodynamics
Kevin McNulty
 
Aerodynamics Chapter 4
Aerodynamics Chapter 4Aerodynamics Chapter 4
Aerodynamics Chapter 4
junio_oliveira
 
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
Sael J. Figueroa, CFI, AGI
 
Basic Principles of Flight.pptx
Basic Principles of Flight.pptxBasic Principles of Flight.pptx
Basic Principles of Flight.pptx
RArivazhaganAssistan
 
MOTION IN AIRCRAFTS
MOTION IN AIRCRAFTSMOTION IN AIRCRAFTS
MOTION IN AIRCRAFTS
Saloni rastogi
 
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. FlemingAvb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
715 Squadron
 
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPTAerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
srajanc
 
Aviation history
Aviation historyAviation history
Aviation history
Amidee Azizan Stringfellow
 
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamicsLesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Heather Howley
 
Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
Project Aeroplane (Short Review) Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
Moideen Thashreef
 

Similar to Basic Aerodynamics and Flight Controls (20)

FLYING IS FUN
FLYING IS FUNFLYING IS FUN
FLYING IS FUN
 
31oct
31oct31oct
31oct
 
Principles Of Flight
Principles Of FlightPrinciples Of Flight
Principles Of Flight
 
Flying Circuits
Flying Circuits Flying Circuits
Flying Circuits
 
Praveen
PraveenPraveen
Praveen
 
AEROPLANES CREATING LIFT BY GIRISH HARMUKH
AEROPLANES CREATING LIFT BY GIRISH HARMUKHAEROPLANES CREATING LIFT BY GIRISH HARMUKH
AEROPLANES CREATING LIFT BY GIRISH HARMUKH
 
L2 Unit 101 Aircraft Flight Principles & TOF Master 2022 04 Oct 22.pptx
L2 Unit 101 Aircraft Flight Principles & TOF Master 2022 04 Oct 22.pptxL2 Unit 101 Aircraft Flight Principles & TOF Master 2022 04 Oct 22.pptx
L2 Unit 101 Aircraft Flight Principles & TOF Master 2022 04 Oct 22.pptx
 
Aircraft Structure - Chapter 2
Aircraft Structure - Chapter 2Aircraft Structure - Chapter 2
Aircraft Structure - Chapter 2
 
Physics Presentation Final 1
Physics Presentation Final 1Physics Presentation Final 1
Physics Presentation Final 1
 
Aeromodelling Instruction manual
Aeromodelling Instruction manualAeromodelling Instruction manual
Aeromodelling Instruction manual
 
Advanced Aerodynamics
Advanced  AerodynamicsAdvanced  Aerodynamics
Advanced Aerodynamics
 
Aerodynamics Chapter 4
Aerodynamics Chapter 4Aerodynamics Chapter 4
Aerodynamics Chapter 4
 
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
 
Basic Principles of Flight.pptx
Basic Principles of Flight.pptxBasic Principles of Flight.pptx
Basic Principles of Flight.pptx
 
MOTION IN AIRCRAFTS
MOTION IN AIRCRAFTSMOTION IN AIRCRAFTS
MOTION IN AIRCRAFTS
 
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. FlemingAvb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
 
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPTAerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
 
Aviation history
Aviation historyAviation history
Aviation history
 
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamicsLesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamics
 
Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
Project Aeroplane (Short Review) Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
 

More from Kevin McNulty

Meet NetWeave
Meet NetWeaveMeet NetWeave
Meet NetWeave
Kevin McNulty
 
LinkedIn for Public Relations
LinkedIn for Public RelationsLinkedIn for Public Relations
LinkedIn for Public Relations
Kevin McNulty
 
Rarely Seen Shuttle Activities
Rarely Seen Shuttle ActivitiesRarely Seen Shuttle Activities
Rarely Seen Shuttle Activities
Kevin McNulty
 
Solar System Overview
Solar System OverviewSolar System Overview
Solar System Overview
Kevin McNulty
 
Rockets
RocketsRockets
Rockets
Kevin McNulty
 
Weather 1 - Focus on Microbursts
Weather 1 - Focus on MicroburstsWeather 1 - Focus on Microbursts
Weather 1 - Focus on Microbursts
Kevin McNulty
 
Weather 2 - Focus on Icing
Weather 2 - Focus on IcingWeather 2 - Focus on Icing
Weather 2 - Focus on Icing
Kevin McNulty
 

More from Kevin McNulty (7)

Meet NetWeave
Meet NetWeaveMeet NetWeave
Meet NetWeave
 
LinkedIn for Public Relations
LinkedIn for Public RelationsLinkedIn for Public Relations
LinkedIn for Public Relations
 
Rarely Seen Shuttle Activities
Rarely Seen Shuttle ActivitiesRarely Seen Shuttle Activities
Rarely Seen Shuttle Activities
 
Solar System Overview
Solar System OverviewSolar System Overview
Solar System Overview
 
Rockets
RocketsRockets
Rockets
 
Weather 1 - Focus on Microbursts
Weather 1 - Focus on MicroburstsWeather 1 - Focus on Microbursts
Weather 1 - Focus on Microbursts
 
Weather 2 - Focus on Icing
Weather 2 - Focus on IcingWeather 2 - Focus on Icing
Weather 2 - Focus on Icing
 

Basic Aerodynamics and Flight Controls

  • 1. Welcome B a s ic A e r o d y n a m ic s a n d F lig h t C o n t r o ls 1
  • 2. Learning Objectives At the end of this course, you will be able to… v Explain the four basic aerodynamic forces that act on aircraft v Understand how these forces relate to and interact with each other v Identify common flight controls on aircraft v Explain the affect that each control has on the flight of an aircraft v Identify hybrid flight controls of advanced aircraft 2
  • 4. Four Basic Forces Lift Bernoulli’s Principle: v An increase in the velocity of any fluid is always accompanied by a decrease in pressure. v Since air behaves like a fluid, Bernoulli’s Principle applies. v Any time air moves, its pressure is lower than when it is still. v The faster air moves, the lower its pressure. 4
  • 5. Four Basic Forces Lift Air traveling over the curved surface of a wing has farther to go than air going under. v Air above must move lift faster in order to get to the back at the same time as the air underneath. v Faster air means pressure over the wing drops. v The low pressure above the wing lifts it up! 5
  • 6. Four Basic Forces GRAVITY Gravity / Weight: v All objects have mass, but the weight of an object is the result of the force of gravity acting on the mass. v Since the force applied to the aircraft is the same, gravity and weight are equivalent for our purposes. 6
  • 7. Four Basic Forces GRAVITY Center of Gravity: v The average weight of all parts, fuel, and payload is called the center of gravity. v In flight, the aircraft rotates about the center of gravity. 7
  • 8. Four Basic Forces GRAVITY (D1*W1) + (D2*W2) + (D3*W3) + (D4*W4) + (D5*W5) Distance to CG = Total Weight 8
  • 9. Four Basic Forces v The purpose of thrust is to Thrust overcome drag, not to lift the aircraft: A million pound airliner has 4 engines that produce a total of only 200,000 pounds of thrust. The wings are doing the lifting, not the engines. v The direction of thrust depends on the type of engine and where they are attached. 9
  • 10. Four Basic Forces drag Definition of Drag: v Drag is a mechanical force generated by a solid object moving through a liquid. v It results from the difference in velocity between the object and the fluid. v It can be considered to be aerodynamic friction that opposes the movement of the aircraft. v In layman’s terms it is often known as wind resistance. 10
  • 11. Four Basic Forces drag Types of Drag: v Induced drag - Occurs whenever a lifting body or a wing or generates lift. v Caused by air under the wing slipping around the wingtip to form a vortex which travels out behind the wing creating drag. v Also caused by downward force of wind leaving the trailing edge of the wing. More drag is thus produced at higher angles of attack. 11
  • 12. Four Basic Forces drag Types of Drag: v Parasitic drag v Results from the aircraft pushing air out of the way (form drag). v Also caused by the friction of air against the actual surface of the aircraft (skin friction). v Air vortices caused by some surfaces or structures on the plane can also cause interference drag. 12
  • 13. In the Cockpit A Guide to Basic Flight Controls 13
  • 14. The flight controls and instrument panel are in the front of the cockpit. 14
  • 15. Flight controls and instrument panels vary, but have the same basic functions “Glass Cockpit” Side Sticks 15
  • 16. The control wheel or yoke is used to steer the airplane in different directions. Turning Left Straight and Level Turning Right Side Stick Some airplanes have a stick rather than a wheel. Moving the stick to the right or left is like turning the wheel, and moving it forward and backward is like pushing the wheel forward and back. 16
  • 17. Moving the yoke (or pushing the stick) left or right moves the ailerons in opposite directions Turning Right One moves up while the other moves down 17
  • 19. Pulling back or pushing forward on the yoke moves the elevators up or down Climbing Pulling back on yoke moves elevators up, causing tail to drop and nose to rise. 19
  • 21. Pressing rudder pedals on the floor moves the rudder left or right to aid turns Brakes are located at the top or “toe” of the pedal Rudder controls yaw 21
  • 22. The airspeed indicator shows speed through the air --- not over the ground The pitot tube on the wing catches on-rushing air. This “ram air” is compared to static air to determine air speed. The static port measures still air that is not affected by the airplane’s speed through the air 22
  • 23. The attitude indicator provides an artificial horizon to show the pilot the airplane’s position in relation to the ground Here, the airplane is banking left with its nose on the horizon —where brown “ground” meets blue “sky.” 23
  • 24. The altimeter measures air pressure outside the airplane and compares it to air pressure at sea level to determine altitude Like clock hands, the long hand shows smaller increments (100s of feet) while the shorter hand shows larger increments (1,000s of feet). This altimeter reads 1720 feet. 24
  • 25. The turn coordinator shows if the wings are level or banked. The position of the ball indicates if the airplane is turning properly Turn Coordinator The ball is centered when the turn is balanced by rudder 25
  • 26. The heading indicator displays the direction of flight This airplane is heading south at 175 degrees. 26
  • 27. The vertical speed indicator uses changes in air pressure to indicate rate of climb or descent Airplane is descending at 190 feet per minute 27
  • 28. Radios help communicate with air traffic control (ATC) and other pilots. Other radios help navigate using ground stations or satellites. 28
  • 29. Most airplanes have a radar transponder that shows their location, speed and altitude to ATC An assigned four-digit code helps identify a particular airplane on a controller’s radar screen 29
  • 30. Pilots increasingly use GPS satellite navigation GPS can be small, handheld and portable. Flat-panel GPS moving maps and flight displays are just like the ones in airliners and some cars. GPS can be used to display position and ground speed, locate nearby airports, and plot course, distance and time to any destination 30