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5.15 TYPICAL AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT
             SYSTEMS



             www.part66.blogspot.com
THE EFIS
• The electronic flight instruments have the
  following advantage:
  – Versatile – pilot can select the information
  – Display as required, less clutter
  – Reduce pilot’s workload.
EADI
THE EADI DISPLAY CAPABILITY
•   Pitch and Roll information
•   Slip/ skid inclinometer.
•   Speed and speed error
•   Flight Director information
•   Glide slope and localizer
•   Warning and Status Message
DISPLAYED AS REQUIRED
Some of the display are not available all the
  time. It is displayed when in use. These are:
  – Radio altimeter
  – Decision Height
  – Marker Beacon
  – Rising Runway
  – Glide slope
  – Vertical Nav
EHSI
• Originate from magnetic compass
• The gyro was added to provide stability during
  turn.
• The name was changed to HSI with the added
  function of navigation and flight information.
• With glass cockpit, the name was changed to
  EHSI
EHSI – DISPLAYED INFORMATION
•   Magnetic Heading
•   Radio Steering Command
•   Way Point, Nav Aids
•   Distant to Go
•   ILS steering command
EHSI
Electronic HSI
EICAS - Engine Indication and Crew Alert System
ECAM - Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring
Engine Indication and Crew Alert
• Boeing – EICAS                 • Airbus – ECAM
  – Two Displays                   – Two Displays
     • Top – Engine Parameters        • Top – Engine Parameters
     • Bottom – Blank                 • Pictorial Diagram
  – Fault Situation                – Fault Situation
     • Top - Fault message            • Check list is provided
     • Bottom – Fault                 • System limitation is given
       parameters.
EICAS
Electronic Centralized Aircraft
            Monitor (ECAM)

• The upper ECAM screen displays engine, flaps
  setting, fuel quantity and alert information.
• The lower ECAM displays the various systems
  parameters.
3. Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (ECAM)


• ECAM also known as MFD (Multifunction Display)
• ECAM monitors the overall aircraft systems, including
  its fuel, electrical and engine systems.
• Give the pilots warning when there is a malfunction.
• For example, if an engine begins to lose oil pressure,
  the ECAM might sound an alert, switch the display to
  the page with the oil system information and outline
  the low oil pressure data with a red box.
ECAM A320
ACARS
ARINC COMMUNICATION, ADDRESSING & REPORTING SYSTEM




                  A/C SYSTEMS    ACARS          VHF 3




              AIRLINE            TRANSMISSION
             COMPUTER              NETWORK
              SYSTEM



    MAINTENANCE       FLIGHT         PASSENGER
    OPERATIONS      OPERATIONS        SERVICES
                                                                VHF
                                                        TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER
PURPOSE
• The ACARS is a digital data link for either
  ground-air or air-ground connections. The
  system reduces the flight crew’s workload
  because it transmits routine reports
  automatically and simplifies other reporting
Components
• Management Units (MU)
• Multipurpose Interactive Display Units
  (MPIDU)
• Thermal Printer
MANAGEMENT UNIT (MU)
                                                                                  • Management VHF3
                          Collins
                                                                         VHF 3
                                                                                    Communication
                                                                        ANTENNA




                                                                                  • Respond to the request
        IN            DFDAU FAIL        SEND
                     NUMERIC ENTRY 13 : 02 : 58
      FLT : 0123
D
           0008
A                     1     2       3
T
A                     4     5       6
L
                      7     8       9
I
N
                            0




                                                                                    from ground and
K


         CLR   RET         DEL




    MULTIPURPOSE INTERACTIVE
          DISPLAY UNIT
                                                    MANAGEMENT
                                                       UNIT
                                                                        VHF 3
                                                                        TX/RX       acquire data from
                                                     FLIGHT DATA
                                                                                    FDAU.
                                                   ACQUISTION UNIT

             THERMAL PRINTER
                                                                     AIRCRAFT
                                                                     SYSTEMS
ECAM
ELECTRONIC CENTRALIZED AIRCRAFT MONITORING




WARN                                                        WARN

CAUT                                                        CAUT
                            ECAM
                        CONTROL PANEL


           DMC 1           DMC 3             DMC 2



  FWC 1           SDAC 1             SDAC 1          FWC 2


   A/C SYSTEM SENSORS
                        A/C SYSTEM SENSORS
      RED WARNINGS
                          AMBER WARNINGS      NAV & AFS SENSORS
      SYSTEM PAGES
                           SYSTEM PAGES
       FLIGHT PHASE
EASA PART-66 MODULE 5.15 : TYPICAL AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS
FLIGHT WARNING COMPUTER (FWC)




• 2 FWCs acquire all data to generation the alert
  messages.
  – form the aircraft sensors (mostly Red)
  – Through the SDACs for cautions from the aircraft
    systems (amber)
• Generate codes for ECAM display units.
  – Procedures associated to failures.
  – Status functions (aircraft and procedures).
  – Memo function (reminder of functions/systems, which
    are temporarily used or items of normal checklist).
ECAM COMPONENTS
  SYSTEM DATA ACQUISITION           DISPLAY MANAGEMENT
   CONCENTRATORS (SDAC)                COMPUTER (DMC)
• Acquire cautions inputs and   • Inputs
  input to FWCs.                   – SDAC
• Alert DMCs for display on        – Nav and AFS Sensors
  ECAM                             – FWCs
                                • Process inputs for display
                                   – Graphic
                                   – Generate code
DISPLAY UNIT
4 MODES OF DISPLAY
• Automatic
  – 1. Flight Modes
  – 2. Advisory
  – 3. Failure Mode
• 4. Manual
  – Selection from 12 systems
AUTOMATIC – FLIGHT PHASES

• The flight phases are:
  – Preflight
  – Take off
  – Climb
  – Cruize
  – Descent
  – Approach
  – Post Landing
EXAMPLE OF AUTOMATIC ECAM
              DISPLAY
Pre Take Off           Cruize
ECAM CONTROL PANEL
EFIS
• With the introduction of fully integrated, computer-based
  navigation system, most electro/mechanical instrumentation has
  been replaced with TV type colour displays. The EFIS system
  provides the crew with two displays:
•
• Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator (EADI).
•
• Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI).
•
• The EADI is often referred to as the Primary Flight Display (PFD) and
  the EHSI as the Navigation Display (ND). The EADI and EHSI are
  arranged either side by side, with the EADI positioned on the left,
  or vertically, with the EADI on the top.
•
• SYSTEM LAYOUT
•
• As is the case with conventional flight director systems, a complete EFIS
  installation consists of two systems. The Captain’s EFIS on the left and the
  First Officer’s on the right.
•
• The EFIS comprises the following units:
•
• Symbol Generator (SG).
•
• Display units X 2 (EADI & EHSI).
•
• Control Panel.
•
• Remote Light Sensor
EFIS
                                                                                                                      Honeywell

                                                                                                                               ATT 2                 GS
                                                                                                                         AOA         20      20
                                                                                                                          F
                                                                                                                                       10   10
                                                                                                                                                        G
              FULL                       GS                                      SC
                            WX                         ET                                      REV
              ARC                        TTG
                                                                    MAP
                                                                                 CP                                                    10   10
                                                                                                                         S
                                  DIM           DH           BOT         TOP                                          CMD            20      20
                    CRS                                                                 HDG
                                                                                                                      M .99                           I
                                         TEST                                                                         200DH                        DH 140RA

                                                                RASTER DIM

  AIR                                                                                                  EFIS SG No 1
 DATA
 COMP
           NAV            VLF          FMS           INS 1         INS 2       HDG             ATT
                                                                                                                      Honeywell
            ADF 2                                                                      VOR 2
                                                                               VOR 1                                     CRS                        NAV 1
INERTIAL   ADF 1
           AUTO
             OFF
                                                                             ADF 2
                                                                             ADF 1
                                                                               OFF
                                                                                                                         345
                                                                                                                          +0
                                                                                                                                                  H 2.1NM

   REF               BRG                                                               BRG




                                                                                                                                 W
 SYSTEM                                                                                                               VOR 1



                                                                                                                      ADF 1


                                                                                                                        HDG                         GSPD
NAV AID                                                                                                                 013                       130 KTS

ILS/VOR
                                                                                                       EFIS SG No 3
RAD ALT
                                                                                                                      Honeywell

                                                                                                                               ATT 2                 GS
WEATHER                                                                                                                  AOA         20      20
                                                                                                                          F
 RADAR                                                                                                                                 10   10
                                                                                                                                                        G

                                                                                                                                       10   10
                                                                                                                         S
  DME                                                                                                                 CMD
                                                                                                                      M .99
                                                                                                                                     20      20
            FULL
            ARC
                           WX
                                        GS
                                        TTG
                                                     ET            MAP
                                                                               SC
                                                                               CP
                                                                                          REV                         200DH                        DH 140RA

                  CRS            DIM          DH          BOT        TOP
                                                                                       HDG
  FMS                                  TEST


                                                             RASTER DIM




 AFCS                                                                                                  EFIS SG No 2
                                                                                                                      Honeywell


            NAV            VLF          FMS          INS 1         INS 2        HDG            ATT
                                                                                                                         CRS                        NAV 1
 GPWS                                                                                                                    345
                                                                                                                          +0
                                                                                                                                                  H 2.1NM
             ADF 2                                                                     VOR 2
                                                                               VOR 1
            ADF 1
                                                                             ADF 2
           AUTO
                                                                             ADF 1




                                                                                                                                 W
             OFF                                                              OFF                                     VOR 1
                     BRG                                                               BRG
                                                                                                                      ADF 1


                                                                                                                        HDG                         GSPD
                                                                                                                        013                       130 KTS
FULL                     GS                            SC
             WX                     ET         MAP                REV
ARC                      TTG                           CP


                  DIM          DH        BOT     TOP
       CRS                                                  HDG

                        TEST
EASA PART-66 MODULE 5.15 : TYPICAL AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 5.15 : TYPICAL AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS
EFIS DISPLAY UNITS
• Each display unit consists of the following
  modules:
  – Cathode Ray Tube.
  – Video Monitor Card.
  – Power Supply Unit.
  – Digital Line Receivers.
  – Analog Line Receivers.
  – Convergence Card.
EADI -

   • Display the traditional
     ADI
   • Pitch and Roll attitude
     information
   • Altitudes and speed
     information.
   • Early EFIS - (CRT)
   • Later instrument (LCD)
EADI
• In normal use, the EADI is coupled directly to the autopilot and the display
  is used by the pilot to monitor flight progress.
• Alternatively, steering and attitude (pitch and roll) demand bars help the
  pilot to fly manually.
• The EADI provide steering information to follow, for example:
• a manually input heading;
• a route input on the Flight Management System (FMS);
• a navigation beacon (VOR, ADF, etc.);
• an IRS (Inertial Reference System) track; or,
• an ILS localiser.
• and to:
• climb or descend to a level and maintain that level on reaching;
• follow an ILS glidepath; or,
• follow a Go-around procedure;
EHSI (Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator)
• Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI)
• The Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI) replaces a
  number of different instruments found on a conventional aircraft,
  and may be used to depict some or all of the following information:
• heading flown;
• heading or track selected;
• bearing to or from a navigation beacon (VOR, DME);
• lateral deviation from a selected track;
• ground speed, distance and time to go;
• aeronautical map;
• weather information;
• plus much more information according to design
EHSI




• Display – According to the selected mode
EFIS




P183
FBW-Fly by Wire

• Video to Introduce –   Keep Your Eye For.
Fly By Wire.             • The Instruments
                         • Control Stick
                         • Flying characteristics
FBW Definition
                                                          HYDRAULIC
                                        PROCESSED         PRESSURE
                  COMMAND
                                         COMMAND
                   SIGNAL
                                          SIGNAL
                              SIGNAL
                             CONTROL
                             MODULE
                                                                 SPOILER
                                                                  PANEL
                                       FEEDBACK
                                        SIGNAL
                                                       POWER
       POSITION                                       CONTROL
     TRANSDUCER                                       ACTUATOR

                       COMMAND
                        SIGNAL

          SPEEDBRAKE
             LEVER


            POSITION
          TRANSDUCER




                       ELECTRICAL                   HYDRO-MECHANICAL




• The command from the                            • The electrical signals are
  pilot to move the control                         generated, transmitted
  surfaces transmitted by                           through computer to
  electrical wires.                                 operate a servo.
FBW Example
                                                            HYDRAULIC
                                           PROCESSED        PRESSURE
                     COMMAND
                                            COMMAND
                      SIGNAL
                                             SIGNAL
                                 SIGNAL
                                CONTROL
                                MODULE
                                                                   SPOILER
                                                                    PANEL
                                          FEEDBACK
                                           SIGNAL
                                                         POWER
          POSITION                                      CONTROL
        TRANSDUCER                                      ACTUATOR

                          COMMAND
                           SIGNAL

             SPEEDBRAKE
                LEVER


               POSITION
             TRANSDUCER




                          ELECTRICAL                   HYDRO-MECHANICAL




• For B767 FBW is used to                        • Which actuated the
  control spoiler.                                 solenoid valve, operate
• The lateral signal given by                      the actuator and provide
  the position transducer is                       position feedback to the
  processed by signal                              control module.
  control module.
A320 SIDESTICK CONTROLLER
             • The sidestick

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EASA PART-66 MODULE 5.15 : TYPICAL AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS

  • 1. 5.15 TYPICAL AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS www.part66.blogspot.com
  • 2. THE EFIS • The electronic flight instruments have the following advantage: – Versatile – pilot can select the information – Display as required, less clutter – Reduce pilot’s workload.
  • 4. THE EADI DISPLAY CAPABILITY • Pitch and Roll information • Slip/ skid inclinometer. • Speed and speed error • Flight Director information • Glide slope and localizer • Warning and Status Message
  • 5. DISPLAYED AS REQUIRED Some of the display are not available all the time. It is displayed when in use. These are: – Radio altimeter – Decision Height – Marker Beacon – Rising Runway – Glide slope – Vertical Nav
  • 6. EHSI • Originate from magnetic compass • The gyro was added to provide stability during turn. • The name was changed to HSI with the added function of navigation and flight information. • With glass cockpit, the name was changed to EHSI
  • 7. EHSI – DISPLAYED INFORMATION • Magnetic Heading • Radio Steering Command • Way Point, Nav Aids • Distant to Go • ILS steering command
  • 10. EICAS - Engine Indication and Crew Alert System ECAM - Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring
  • 11. Engine Indication and Crew Alert • Boeing – EICAS • Airbus – ECAM – Two Displays – Two Displays • Top – Engine Parameters • Top – Engine Parameters • Bottom – Blank • Pictorial Diagram – Fault Situation – Fault Situation • Top - Fault message • Check list is provided • Bottom – Fault • System limitation is given parameters.
  • 12. EICAS
  • 13. Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (ECAM) • The upper ECAM screen displays engine, flaps setting, fuel quantity and alert information. • The lower ECAM displays the various systems parameters.
  • 14. 3. Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (ECAM) • ECAM also known as MFD (Multifunction Display) • ECAM monitors the overall aircraft systems, including its fuel, electrical and engine systems. • Give the pilots warning when there is a malfunction. • For example, if an engine begins to lose oil pressure, the ECAM might sound an alert, switch the display to the page with the oil system information and outline the low oil pressure data with a red box.
  • 16. ACARS ARINC COMMUNICATION, ADDRESSING & REPORTING SYSTEM A/C SYSTEMS ACARS VHF 3 AIRLINE TRANSMISSION COMPUTER NETWORK SYSTEM MAINTENANCE FLIGHT PASSENGER OPERATIONS OPERATIONS SERVICES VHF TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER
  • 17. PURPOSE • The ACARS is a digital data link for either ground-air or air-ground connections. The system reduces the flight crew’s workload because it transmits routine reports automatically and simplifies other reporting
  • 18. Components • Management Units (MU) • Multipurpose Interactive Display Units (MPIDU) • Thermal Printer
  • 19. MANAGEMENT UNIT (MU) • Management VHF3 Collins VHF 3 Communication ANTENNA • Respond to the request IN DFDAU FAIL SEND NUMERIC ENTRY 13 : 02 : 58 FLT : 0123 D 0008 A 1 2 3 T A 4 5 6 L 7 8 9 I N 0 from ground and K CLR RET DEL MULTIPURPOSE INTERACTIVE DISPLAY UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT VHF 3 TX/RX acquire data from FLIGHT DATA FDAU. ACQUISTION UNIT THERMAL PRINTER AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS
  • 20. ECAM ELECTRONIC CENTRALIZED AIRCRAFT MONITORING WARN WARN CAUT CAUT ECAM CONTROL PANEL DMC 1 DMC 3 DMC 2 FWC 1 SDAC 1 SDAC 1 FWC 2 A/C SYSTEM SENSORS A/C SYSTEM SENSORS RED WARNINGS AMBER WARNINGS NAV & AFS SENSORS SYSTEM PAGES SYSTEM PAGES FLIGHT PHASE
  • 22. FLIGHT WARNING COMPUTER (FWC) • 2 FWCs acquire all data to generation the alert messages. – form the aircraft sensors (mostly Red) – Through the SDACs for cautions from the aircraft systems (amber) • Generate codes for ECAM display units. – Procedures associated to failures. – Status functions (aircraft and procedures). – Memo function (reminder of functions/systems, which are temporarily used or items of normal checklist).
  • 23. ECAM COMPONENTS SYSTEM DATA ACQUISITION DISPLAY MANAGEMENT CONCENTRATORS (SDAC) COMPUTER (DMC) • Acquire cautions inputs and • Inputs input to FWCs. – SDAC • Alert DMCs for display on – Nav and AFS Sensors ECAM – FWCs • Process inputs for display – Graphic – Generate code
  • 25. 4 MODES OF DISPLAY • Automatic – 1. Flight Modes – 2. Advisory – 3. Failure Mode • 4. Manual – Selection from 12 systems
  • 26. AUTOMATIC – FLIGHT PHASES • The flight phases are: – Preflight – Take off – Climb – Cruize – Descent – Approach – Post Landing
  • 27. EXAMPLE OF AUTOMATIC ECAM DISPLAY Pre Take Off Cruize
  • 29. EFIS • With the introduction of fully integrated, computer-based navigation system, most electro/mechanical instrumentation has been replaced with TV type colour displays. The EFIS system provides the crew with two displays: • • Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator (EADI). • • Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI). • • The EADI is often referred to as the Primary Flight Display (PFD) and the EHSI as the Navigation Display (ND). The EADI and EHSI are arranged either side by side, with the EADI positioned on the left, or vertically, with the EADI on the top. •
  • 30. • SYSTEM LAYOUT • • As is the case with conventional flight director systems, a complete EFIS installation consists of two systems. The Captain’s EFIS on the left and the First Officer’s on the right. • • The EFIS comprises the following units: • • Symbol Generator (SG). • • Display units X 2 (EADI & EHSI). • • Control Panel. • • Remote Light Sensor
  • 31. EFIS Honeywell ATT 2 GS AOA 20 20 F 10 10 G FULL GS SC WX ET REV ARC TTG MAP CP 10 10 S DIM DH BOT TOP CMD 20 20 CRS HDG M .99 I TEST 200DH DH 140RA RASTER DIM AIR EFIS SG No 1 DATA COMP NAV VLF FMS INS 1 INS 2 HDG ATT Honeywell ADF 2 VOR 2 VOR 1 CRS NAV 1 INERTIAL ADF 1 AUTO OFF ADF 2 ADF 1 OFF 345 +0 H 2.1NM REF BRG BRG W SYSTEM VOR 1 ADF 1 HDG GSPD NAV AID 013 130 KTS ILS/VOR EFIS SG No 3 RAD ALT Honeywell ATT 2 GS WEATHER AOA 20 20 F RADAR 10 10 G 10 10 S DME CMD M .99 20 20 FULL ARC WX GS TTG ET MAP SC CP REV 200DH DH 140RA CRS DIM DH BOT TOP HDG FMS TEST RASTER DIM AFCS EFIS SG No 2 Honeywell NAV VLF FMS INS 1 INS 2 HDG ATT CRS NAV 1 GPWS 345 +0 H 2.1NM ADF 2 VOR 2 VOR 1 ADF 1 ADF 2 AUTO ADF 1 W OFF OFF VOR 1 BRG BRG ADF 1 HDG GSPD 013 130 KTS
  • 32. FULL GS SC WX ET MAP REV ARC TTG CP DIM DH BOT TOP CRS HDG TEST
  • 35. EFIS DISPLAY UNITS • Each display unit consists of the following modules: – Cathode Ray Tube. – Video Monitor Card. – Power Supply Unit. – Digital Line Receivers. – Analog Line Receivers. – Convergence Card.
  • 36. EADI - • Display the traditional ADI • Pitch and Roll attitude information • Altitudes and speed information. • Early EFIS - (CRT) • Later instrument (LCD)
  • 37. EADI • In normal use, the EADI is coupled directly to the autopilot and the display is used by the pilot to monitor flight progress. • Alternatively, steering and attitude (pitch and roll) demand bars help the pilot to fly manually. • The EADI provide steering information to follow, for example: • a manually input heading; • a route input on the Flight Management System (FMS); • a navigation beacon (VOR, ADF, etc.); • an IRS (Inertial Reference System) track; or, • an ILS localiser. • and to: • climb or descend to a level and maintain that level on reaching; • follow an ILS glidepath; or, • follow a Go-around procedure;
  • 38. EHSI (Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator) • Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI) • The Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI) replaces a number of different instruments found on a conventional aircraft, and may be used to depict some or all of the following information: • heading flown; • heading or track selected; • bearing to or from a navigation beacon (VOR, DME); • lateral deviation from a selected track; • ground speed, distance and time to go; • aeronautical map; • weather information; • plus much more information according to design
  • 39. EHSI • Display – According to the selected mode
  • 41. FBW-Fly by Wire • Video to Introduce – Keep Your Eye For. Fly By Wire. • The Instruments • Control Stick • Flying characteristics
  • 42. FBW Definition HYDRAULIC PROCESSED PRESSURE COMMAND COMMAND SIGNAL SIGNAL SIGNAL CONTROL MODULE SPOILER PANEL FEEDBACK SIGNAL POWER POSITION CONTROL TRANSDUCER ACTUATOR COMMAND SIGNAL SPEEDBRAKE LEVER POSITION TRANSDUCER ELECTRICAL HYDRO-MECHANICAL • The command from the • The electrical signals are pilot to move the control generated, transmitted surfaces transmitted by through computer to electrical wires. operate a servo.
  • 43. FBW Example HYDRAULIC PROCESSED PRESSURE COMMAND COMMAND SIGNAL SIGNAL SIGNAL CONTROL MODULE SPOILER PANEL FEEDBACK SIGNAL POWER POSITION CONTROL TRANSDUCER ACTUATOR COMMAND SIGNAL SPEEDBRAKE LEVER POSITION TRANSDUCER ELECTRICAL HYDRO-MECHANICAL • For B767 FBW is used to • Which actuated the control spoiler. solenoid valve, operate • The lateral signal given by the actuator and provide the position transducer is position feedback to the processed by signal control module. control module.
  • 44. A320 SIDESTICK CONTROLLER • The sidestick