SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 39
System Analysis and
       Design

           Prepared By:
         Syed Aamir Abbas
         Muhammad Safdar
          MPhil Student
       (Semester-I) 2012-14
     Minhaj University Lahore.
Objectives
   Define the terms system, system analysis, and system design.
   Types of systems.
   Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst.
   List and describe the phases of the systems development life cycle.
   Describe the various data gathering and analysis tools.
   Describe a selection of systems design tools.
   Alternative approaches to Structured analysis & Design to the SLDC

   Explain the role of the maintenance task in the systems development
    life cycle.
Contents
• What is System Analysis and Design?

• System Analyst.

• System Development Life Cycle.

• Feasibility Analysis.

• Design.

• Development

• Implementation.
Systems Analysis and
Design


                       System Analysis and
                        Design: what is it?
        Firstly we will define the system, than system analysis and system design as
        well.



                                    • System
         A set      of detailed methods, procedures and routines
         established or formulation to carry out specify activity,
         perform a duty or solve a problem.
Systems Analysis and
Design

         System Analysis

         The dissection of a system into its component pieces to study how
          those component pieces interact and work.

          (1) The survey and planning

          (2) The study and analysis

          (3) The definition


         System Design

          The process of defining the architecture, components, modules,
          interfaces and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements.
Systems Analysis and
Design


         Need for System Analysis and Design

        Installing a system without proper planning leads to great user
         dissatisfaction and frequently causes the system to fall into
         disuse

         Lends structure to the analysis and design of information
         systems

        A series of processes systematically undertaken to improve a
         business through the use of computerized information systems
Systems Analysis and
Design


             Roles of the System Analyst

        The analyst plays a key role in information systems development
         projects.

        Must understand how to apply technology to solve business
         problems.

        Analyst may serve as change agents who identify the
         organizational improvement.
Systems Analysis and
Design


          Qualities of the System Analyst
         Problem solver

         Communicator

         Strong personal and professional ethics

         Self-disciplined and self-motivated
Systems Analysis and
Design

         System Analyst Recommend, Design, and
         Maintain Many Types of Systems for Users


                       Strategic
                         Level



                   Higher
                   Level
                                           A system analyst
                                           may be involved
           Knowledge                       with any or all of
             Level                         these systems at
                                           each organization
    Operational                            level
      Level
Systems Analysis and
Design



                 OPERATIONAL LEVEL
                      Transaction Processing System (TPS)
         It is a process of large amounts of data for routine business transactions.
              Boundary-Spanning
               Its concerned with the detection of information. It has two primary sources and two
               main sources.

         Primary sources of Information
         (1) Detect information
         (2) Send information into the environment presenting the company in a favorable light.


         Main sources of Information
         (1) Business intelligence.
         (2) Competitive information



              Support the day-to-day operations of the company
               Example: Payroll Processing, Inventory Management.
Systems Analysis and
Design



                    KNOWLEDGE LEVEL
      Office Automation                  System (OAS)
             Supports data workers who share information, but do not usually create new
              knowledge
             Examples: Word processing, Spreadsheets etc.


      Knowledge              Work System (KWS)
            Supports professional workers such as scientists, engineers, and doctors
             Examples: computer-aided design systems, virtual reality systems, investment
             workstations
Systems Analysis and
Design


                                     Higher Level
         Management Information System (MIS)
          To supports data worker who share information but do not usually create new knowledge.
          Example: Word processing, Spreadsheets, Desktop publishing, Email Electronic
          scheduling, Communication through voice mail, Email, Video

         Decision Support System (DSS)
          Aids decision makers in the making of decisions
          Examples: financial planning with what-if analysis, budgeting with modeling


         Expert System (ES)

          Captures and uses the knowledge of an expert for solving a particular problem which leads
          to a conclusion or recommendation.
          Examples: MYCIN (an early xpert system that used artificial intelligence ;
          XCON (eXpert CONfigurer)
Systems Analysis and
Design



                       Strategic Level
         Executive Support System (ESS)
             Helps executives to make unstructured strategic decisions in an informed way
              Examples: drill-down analysis, status access


         Group Decision Support System (GDSS)
             Permit group members to interact with electronic support
              Examples: email, Lotus Notes



         Computer-Supported Collaborative Work System
          (CSCWS)
             CSCWS is a more general term of GDSS. It may include software support called
              “groupware” for team collaboration via network computers.
               Example: video conferencing, Web survey system
Systems Analysis and
Design

             Integrating New Technologies into
                    Traditional Systems

         Ecommerce and Web Systems.

         Enterprise Resource Planning Systems.

         Wireless Systems.

         Open Source Software.

         Need for Systems Analysis and Design.
Systems Analysis and
Design

        Systems analysts need to be aware that integrating
              technologies affects all types of system
Systems Analysis and
Design


           Ecommerce and Web Systems

       Benefits
             Increasing user awareness of the availability of a service,
              product, industry, person, or group.

             The possibility of 24-hour access for users.

             Improving the usefulness and usability of interface design.

             Creating a system that can extend globally rather than remain
              local, thus reaching people in remote locations without worry
              of the time zone in which they are located.
Systems Analysis and
Design

    Enterprise Resource Planning Systems
                   (ERPS)

         Performs integration of many information systems existing
          on different management levels and within different
          functions
          Example: SAP, Oracle
Systems Analysis and
Design


                       Wireless Systems
         System analyst may be asked to design standard or wireless
          communication networks that integrate voice, video and email
          into  organizational  intranets    or    industry   extranets

         System analyst may also be asked to develop intelligent agents

         Example: Microsoft's new software based on Bayesian statistics

         Wireless communication is referred as m-commerce (mobile
          commerce)
Systems Analysis and
Design


         Open Source Software (OSS)
        An alternative of traditional software development where
         proprietary code is hidden from the users

        Open source software is free to distribute, share and modify

         Characterized as a philosophy rather than simply the process of
         creating new software

        Example: Linux Operating System, Apache Web Server,
         Mozilla Firefox Web browser, Koha, Newgenlib, Evergreen,
         OPALS, Greenstone, DSpace, Plone, Drupal, Eprint, and Joomla.
Systems Analysis and
Design

              SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE
                    CYCLE (SDLC)
         Typically the SDLC has 7 steps in the in the development and
          improvement        of        a        computer        system
Systems Analysis and
Design

                 IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS,
              OPPORTUNITIES, AND OBJECTIVES

       Activity:
          Interviewing user management
          Summarizing the knowledge obtained
          Estimating the scope of the project
          Documenting the results
       Output:
            Feasibility report containing problem definition and objective
             summaries from which management can make a decision on
             whether to proceed with the proposed project
Systems Analysis and
Design

                 DETERMINING HUMAN
              INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
      Activity:
            Interviewing
            Sampling and investing hard data
            Questionnaires
            Observe the decision maker’s behavior and environment
            Prototyping
            Learn the who, what, where, when, how, and why of the
             current system
      Output:
            Analyst understands how users accomplish their work when
             interacting with a computer; and begin to know how to make
             the new system more useful and usable. The analyst should
             also know the business functions and have complete
             information on the people, goals, data and procedure involved
Systems Analysis and
Design




               ANALYZING SYSTEM NEEDS
      Activity:
          Create data flow diagrams.
          Complete the data dictionary.
          Analyze the structured decisions made.
          Prepare and present the system proposal.



      Output:
            Recommendation on what, if anything, should be done.
Systems Analysis and
Design

          DESIGNING THE RECOMMENDED
                    SYSTEM
         Activity:
             Design procedures for data entry
             Design the human-computer interface
             Design system controls
             Design files and/or database
             Design backup procedures

         Output
             Model of the actual system
Systems Analysis and
Design

         DEVELOPING AND DOCUMENTING
                  SOFTWARE
        Activity:
          System analyst works with programmers to develop any original
           software
          Works with users to develop effective documentation
          Programmers design, code, and remove syntactical errors from
           computer programs
          Document software with help files, procedure manuals, and Web
           sites with Frequently Asked Questions

        Output:
          Computer programs
          System documentation
Systems Analysis and
Design


        TESTING AND MAINTAINING THE
                  SYSTEM
      Activity:
            Test the information system
            System maintenance
            Maintenance documentation


      Output:
          Problems, if any
          Updated programs
          Documentation
Systems Analysis and
Design

             IMPLEMENTING AND EVALUATING
                     THE SYSTEM

      Activity:
          Train users
          Analyst plans smooth conversion from old system to new
           system
          Review and evaluate system


      Output:
          Trained personnel
          Installed system
Systems Analysis and
Design



             THE IMPACT OF MAINTENANCE

      Maintenance is performed for two reasons

            Removing software errors.

            Enhancing existing software.
Systems Analysis and
Design

            RESOURCE CONSUMPTION OVER
                       THE SYSTEM LIFE
Systems Analysis and
Design


                FEASIBILITY ANALYSES

        Technical Feasibility: can we build it?

        Economic Feasibility: should we build it?

        Organizational Feasibility: if we build it, will they come?
Systems Analysis and
Design


               TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY: CAN WE
                        BUILD IT?
        Familiarity with application: less familiarity more risk.

         Familiarity with technology: less familiarity generates more
         risk.

        Project size: large projects have more risk.

         Compatibility: the hard it is so integrate the systems with the
         company’s existing technology, the higher the risk will be.
Systems Analysis and
Design


           ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY: SHOULD WE BUILD IT?


        Development Costs.

        Annual operating costs.

        Annual benefits (cost saving and revenues).

        Intangible costs and benefits.
Systems Analysis and
Design


           ORGANIZATIONAL FEASIBILITY: IF WE BUILD IT,
                      WILL THEY COME?

        Project champion(s).

        Senior management.

        Users.

        Other stakeholders.

        Is the project strategically aligned with the business.
Systems Analysis and
Design


          OBJECT-ORIENTED SYSTEMS
         ANALYSIS AND DESIGN (OOSAD)

        Analysis is performed on a small part of the system followed by
         design and implementation. The development cycle repeats with
         analysis, design and implementation of the next part and this
         repeats until the project is complete
Systems Analysis and
Design

          ALTERNATE APPROACHES TO STRUCTURED
         ANALYSIS AND DESIGN AND TO THE SYSTEMS
                DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE

        Agile approach.

        Prototyping

        Ethics

        Project champion Approach

        Soft Systems Methodology (SSM)

        Multiview
Systems Analysis and
Design

                            SUMMARY
        Information is a key resource.

        Systems analysts deal with many types of information systems.

        Integration of traditional systems with new technologies.

        Roles, qualities and skills of the systems analyst.

        The systems Development Life Cycle.

        Feasibility Analysis.

        Alternate Approaches to structured analysis and design and to the
         SDLC.
Systems Analysis and
Design

                        REFERENCES
         Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E.
          Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011

         Systems Analysis and Design / Alan Dennis, Berbara Haley Wixom and
          Roberta M. Roth.-4th th.- New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

         Dictionary of Computer and Information Technology / S. K. Bansal.-
          New Delhi: A. P. H. Publishing, 2009.
Q/A
 ?
System Analysis and Design

More Related Content

What's hot

Decision Support System(DSS)
Decision Support System(DSS)Decision Support System(DSS)
Decision Support System(DSS)Sayantan Sur
 
Chapter 1- INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by DEEPA (1).pptx
Chapter 1- INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by DEEPA (1).pptxChapter 1- INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by DEEPA (1).pptx
Chapter 1- INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by DEEPA (1).pptxanumayived
 
Six major types of information systems
Six major types of information systemsSix major types of information systems
Six major types of information systemsMohanraj V
 
System Analysis and Design 6th edition chapter 14
System Analysis and Design 6th edition chapter 14System Analysis and Design 6th edition chapter 14
System Analysis and Design 6th edition chapter 14Matthew McKenzie
 
System concepts, elements and types of systems ppt
System concepts, elements and types of systems pptSystem concepts, elements and types of systems ppt
System concepts, elements and types of systems pptShobhit Sharma
 
System Analysis and Design
System Analysis and DesignSystem Analysis and Design
System Analysis and DesignJoel Briza
 
System Analysis and Design slides by yared yenealem DTU Ethiopia
System Analysis and Design slides by yared yenealem DTU EthiopiaSystem Analysis and Design slides by yared yenealem DTU Ethiopia
System Analysis and Design slides by yared yenealem DTU EthiopiaDebre Tabor University
 
Software Configuration Management (SCM)
Software Configuration Management (SCM)Software Configuration Management (SCM)
Software Configuration Management (SCM)Er. Shiva K. Shrestha
 
Management Information System (MIS)
Management Information System (MIS)Management Information System (MIS)
Management Information System (MIS)Navneet Jingar
 
Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP)
Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP)Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP)
Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP)Makan Singh
 
Software Engineering - Ch1
Software Engineering - Ch1Software Engineering - Ch1
Software Engineering - Ch1Siddharth Ayer
 
SRS(software requirement specification)
SRS(software requirement specification)SRS(software requirement specification)
SRS(software requirement specification)Akash Kumar Dhameja
 
Software Process Models
Software Process ModelsSoftware Process Models
Software Process ModelsHassan A-j
 
System Analysis and Design
System Analysis and Design System Analysis and Design
System Analysis and Design Matthew McKenzie
 

What's hot (20)

Decision Support System(DSS)
Decision Support System(DSS)Decision Support System(DSS)
Decision Support System(DSS)
 
Chapter 1- INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by DEEPA (1).pptx
Chapter 1- INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by DEEPA (1).pptxChapter 1- INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by DEEPA (1).pptx
Chapter 1- INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by DEEPA (1).pptx
 
Database Management System ppt
Database Management System pptDatabase Management System ppt
Database Management System ppt
 
Six major types of information systems
Six major types of information systemsSix major types of information systems
Six major types of information systems
 
Decision Support System
Decision Support SystemDecision Support System
Decision Support System
 
System Analysis and Design 6th edition chapter 14
System Analysis and Design 6th edition chapter 14System Analysis and Design 6th edition chapter 14
System Analysis and Design 6th edition chapter 14
 
System concepts, elements and types of systems ppt
System concepts, elements and types of systems pptSystem concepts, elements and types of systems ppt
System concepts, elements and types of systems ppt
 
Cocomo model
Cocomo modelCocomo model
Cocomo model
 
Information system
Information systemInformation system
Information system
 
Role of system analyst
Role of system analystRole of system analyst
Role of system analyst
 
System Analysis and Design
System Analysis and DesignSystem Analysis and Design
System Analysis and Design
 
System Analysis and Design slides by yared yenealem DTU Ethiopia
System Analysis and Design slides by yared yenealem DTU EthiopiaSystem Analysis and Design slides by yared yenealem DTU Ethiopia
System Analysis and Design slides by yared yenealem DTU Ethiopia
 
Software Configuration Management (SCM)
Software Configuration Management (SCM)Software Configuration Management (SCM)
Software Configuration Management (SCM)
 
Management Information System (MIS)
Management Information System (MIS)Management Information System (MIS)
Management Information System (MIS)
 
Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP)
Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP)Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP)
Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP)
 
System design
System designSystem design
System design
 
Software Engineering - Ch1
Software Engineering - Ch1Software Engineering - Ch1
Software Engineering - Ch1
 
SRS(software requirement specification)
SRS(software requirement specification)SRS(software requirement specification)
SRS(software requirement specification)
 
Software Process Models
Software Process ModelsSoftware Process Models
Software Process Models
 
System Analysis and Design
System Analysis and Design System Analysis and Design
System Analysis and Design
 

Viewers also liked

System Analysis & Designing : Elements of a System [In short]
System Analysis & Designing : Elements of a System [In short]System Analysis & Designing : Elements of a System [In short]
System Analysis & Designing : Elements of a System [In short]Abir Maheshwari
 
analysis and design of information system
analysis and design of information systemanalysis and design of information system
analysis and design of information systemRenu Sharma
 
System Design and Analysis 1
System Design and Analysis 1System Design and Analysis 1
System Design and Analysis 1Boeun Tim
 
System Analysis And Design Management Information System
System Analysis And Design Management Information SystemSystem Analysis And Design Management Information System
System Analysis And Design Management Information Systemnayanav
 
System analysis and design
System analysis and design System analysis and design
System analysis and design Razan Al Ryalat
 
The impact of environment on organisational structure
The impact of environment on organisational structureThe impact of environment on organisational structure
The impact of environment on organisational structureSunilkumar Mange
 
2 introduction to data structure
2  introduction to data structure2  introduction to data structure
2 introduction to data structureMahmoud Alfarra
 
Data Structure & Algorithms | Computer Science
Data Structure & Algorithms | Computer ScienceData Structure & Algorithms | Computer Science
Data Structure & Algorithms | Computer ScienceTransweb Global Inc
 
System analysis and design chapter 2
System analysis and design chapter 2System analysis and design chapter 2
System analysis and design chapter 2Einrez Pugao
 
System Analysis and Design Proposal presentation
System Analysis and Design Proposal presentationSystem Analysis and Design Proposal presentation
System Analysis and Design Proposal presentationLeslie Ybañez
 
Process flow chart 6 stages powerpoint templates 0712
Process flow chart 6 stages powerpoint templates 0712Process flow chart 6 stages powerpoint templates 0712
Process flow chart 6 stages powerpoint templates 0712SlideTeam.net
 
Flow chart powerpoint presentation slides ppt templates
Flow chart powerpoint presentation slides ppt templatesFlow chart powerpoint presentation slides ppt templates
Flow chart powerpoint presentation slides ppt templatesSlideTeam.net
 
System testing ppt
System testing pptSystem testing ppt
System testing pptL ESHWAR
 
Testing (System Analysis and Design)
Testing (System Analysis and Design)Testing (System Analysis and Design)
Testing (System Analysis and Design)Areeb Khan
 
System testing
System testingSystem testing
System testingSlideshare
 
HSC Context and data flow diagrams ( DFD )
HSC Context and data flow diagrams ( DFD )HSC Context and data flow diagrams ( DFD )
HSC Context and data flow diagrams ( DFD )greg robertson
 
Testing concepts ppt
Testing concepts pptTesting concepts ppt
Testing concepts pptRathna Priya
 
The core concept of marketing
The core concept of marketingThe core concept of marketing
The core concept of marketingnitinsoni02
 

Viewers also liked (20)

System Analysis & Designing : Elements of a System [In short]
System Analysis & Designing : Elements of a System [In short]System Analysis & Designing : Elements of a System [In short]
System Analysis & Designing : Elements of a System [In short]
 
analysis and design of information system
analysis and design of information systemanalysis and design of information system
analysis and design of information system
 
System Design and Analysis 1
System Design and Analysis 1System Design and Analysis 1
System Design and Analysis 1
 
System Analysis And Design Management Information System
System Analysis And Design Management Information SystemSystem Analysis And Design Management Information System
System Analysis And Design Management Information System
 
System analysis and design
System analysis and design System analysis and design
System analysis and design
 
The impact of environment on organisational structure
The impact of environment on organisational structureThe impact of environment on organisational structure
The impact of environment on organisational structure
 
2 introduction to data structure
2  introduction to data structure2  introduction to data structure
2 introduction to data structure
 
Data Structure & Algorithms | Computer Science
Data Structure & Algorithms | Computer ScienceData Structure & Algorithms | Computer Science
Data Structure & Algorithms | Computer Science
 
System analysis and design chapter 2
System analysis and design chapter 2System analysis and design chapter 2
System analysis and design chapter 2
 
System Analysis and Design Proposal presentation
System Analysis and Design Proposal presentationSystem Analysis and Design Proposal presentation
System Analysis and Design Proposal presentation
 
Process flow chart 6 stages powerpoint templates 0712
Process flow chart 6 stages powerpoint templates 0712Process flow chart 6 stages powerpoint templates 0712
Process flow chart 6 stages powerpoint templates 0712
 
Flow chart powerpoint presentation slides ppt templates
Flow chart powerpoint presentation slides ppt templatesFlow chart powerpoint presentation slides ppt templates
Flow chart powerpoint presentation slides ppt templates
 
System testing ppt
System testing pptSystem testing ppt
System testing ppt
 
Testing (System Analysis and Design)
Testing (System Analysis and Design)Testing (System Analysis and Design)
Testing (System Analysis and Design)
 
System testing
System testingSystem testing
System testing
 
System testing
System testingSystem testing
System testing
 
System testing
System testingSystem testing
System testing
 
HSC Context and data flow diagrams ( DFD )
HSC Context and data flow diagrams ( DFD )HSC Context and data flow diagrams ( DFD )
HSC Context and data flow diagrams ( DFD )
 
Testing concepts ppt
Testing concepts pptTesting concepts ppt
Testing concepts ppt
 
The core concept of marketing
The core concept of marketingThe core concept of marketing
The core concept of marketing
 

Similar to System Analysis and Design

sadfinal2007-121022230733-phpapp01.pdf
sadfinal2007-121022230733-phpapp01.pdfsadfinal2007-121022230733-phpapp01.pdf
sadfinal2007-121022230733-phpapp01.pdfshoukatali154717
 
Over view of system analysis and design
Over view of system analysis and designOver view of system analysis and design
Over view of system analysis and designSaroj Dhakal
 
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2 BSIT 3B LALALA .pptx
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2 BSIT 3B LALALA .pptxSAD REPORTING GROUP 2 BSIT 3B LALALA .pptx
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2 BSIT 3B LALALA .pptxJakeariesMacarayo
 
SAD Reviewer
SAD ReviewerSAD Reviewer
SAD Reviewerermell61
 
Mis321 ch1
Mis321 ch1Mis321 ch1
Mis321 ch1benkaro3
 
Systems analysis and design
Systems analysis and designSystems analysis and design
Systems analysis and designArnel Llemit
 
Systems analysis and design
Systems analysis and designSystems analysis and design
Systems analysis and designPrisky Octian
 
Systems Analysis and Design
Systems Analysis and DesignSystems Analysis and Design
Systems Analysis and DesignPRISKY OCTIAN
 
SAD ASSIGN :)
SAD ASSIGN :)SAD ASSIGN :)
SAD ASSIGN :)Roy Reyes
 
Decision Support Systems: Concept, Constructing a DSS, Executive Information ...
Decision Support Systems: Concept, Constructing a DSS, Executive Information ...Decision Support Systems: Concept, Constructing a DSS, Executive Information ...
Decision Support Systems: Concept, Constructing a DSS, Executive Information ...Ashish Hande
 
Chapter 1,2,3 Module I -Foundations for SD.pptx
Chapter 1,2,3 Module I -Foundations for SD.pptxChapter 1,2,3 Module I -Foundations for SD.pptx
Chapter 1,2,3 Module I -Foundations for SD.pptxTimmyChok1
 
DSS Presentation1.pptx
DSS Presentation1.pptxDSS Presentation1.pptx
DSS Presentation1.pptxLuciaMakwasha1
 
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2BCFGGGGHHHJJJJ.pptx
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2BCFGGGGHHHJJJJ.pptxSAD REPORTING GROUP 2BCFGGGGHHHJJJJ.pptx
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2BCFGGGGHHHJJJJ.pptxJakeariesMacarayo
 
Information Technology for Managers Module 3 PPT.pdf
Information Technology for Managers  Module 3 PPT.pdfInformation Technology for Managers  Module 3 PPT.pdf
Information Technology for Managers Module 3 PPT.pdfT S Nanjudeswaraswamy
 
System_Analysis_and_Design_Assignment_New2.ppt
System_Analysis_and_Design_Assignment_New2.pptSystem_Analysis_and_Design_Assignment_New2.ppt
System_Analysis_and_Design_Assignment_New2.pptMarissaPedragosa
 

Similar to System Analysis and Design (20)

sadfinal2007-121022230733-phpapp01.pdf
sadfinal2007-121022230733-phpapp01.pdfsadfinal2007-121022230733-phpapp01.pdf
sadfinal2007-121022230733-phpapp01.pdf
 
Over view of system analysis and design
Over view of system analysis and designOver view of system analysis and design
Over view of system analysis and design
 
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2 BSIT 3B LALALA .pptx
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2 BSIT 3B LALALA .pptxSAD REPORTING GROUP 2 BSIT 3B LALALA .pptx
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2 BSIT 3B LALALA .pptx
 
SAD Reviewer
SAD ReviewerSAD Reviewer
SAD Reviewer
 
Mis321 ch1
Mis321 ch1Mis321 ch1
Mis321 ch1
 
System Analysis and design Class 1
System Analysis and design Class 1System Analysis and design Class 1
System Analysis and design Class 1
 
Systems analysis and design
Systems analysis and designSystems analysis and design
Systems analysis and design
 
Systems analysis and design
Systems analysis and designSystems analysis and design
Systems analysis and design
 
Systems Analysis and Design
Systems Analysis and DesignSystems Analysis and Design
Systems Analysis and Design
 
Information systems
Information systemsInformation systems
Information systems
 
SAD ASSIGN :)
SAD ASSIGN :)SAD ASSIGN :)
SAD ASSIGN :)
 
Chapter01 1
Chapter01 1Chapter01 1
Chapter01 1
 
Decision Support Systems: Concept, Constructing a DSS, Executive Information ...
Decision Support Systems: Concept, Constructing a DSS, Executive Information ...Decision Support Systems: Concept, Constructing a DSS, Executive Information ...
Decision Support Systems: Concept, Constructing a DSS, Executive Information ...
 
Chapter01
Chapter01Chapter01
Chapter01
 
Chapter01
Chapter01Chapter01
Chapter01
 
Chapter 1,2,3 Module I -Foundations for SD.pptx
Chapter 1,2,3 Module I -Foundations for SD.pptxChapter 1,2,3 Module I -Foundations for SD.pptx
Chapter 1,2,3 Module I -Foundations for SD.pptx
 
DSS Presentation1.pptx
DSS Presentation1.pptxDSS Presentation1.pptx
DSS Presentation1.pptx
 
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2BCFGGGGHHHJJJJ.pptx
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2BCFGGGGHHHJJJJ.pptxSAD REPORTING GROUP 2BCFGGGGHHHJJJJ.pptx
SAD REPORTING GROUP 2BCFGGGGHHHJJJJ.pptx
 
Information Technology for Managers Module 3 PPT.pdf
Information Technology for Managers  Module 3 PPT.pdfInformation Technology for Managers  Module 3 PPT.pdf
Information Technology for Managers Module 3 PPT.pdf
 
System_Analysis_and_Design_Assignment_New2.ppt
System_Analysis_and_Design_Assignment_New2.pptSystem_Analysis_and_Design_Assignment_New2.ppt
System_Analysis_and_Design_Assignment_New2.ppt
 

Recently uploaded

Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfRich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfJerry Chew
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17Celine George
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi RajagopalEADTU
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjMohammed Sikander
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxneillewis46
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................MirzaAbrarBaig5
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppCeline George
 
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfFICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfPondicherry University
 
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes GuàrdiaPersonalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes GuàrdiaEADTU
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxLimon Prince
 
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxThe Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxVishal Singh
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽中 央社
 
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSAnaAcapella
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxMarlene Maheu
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...EduSkills OECD
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
 
Supporting Newcomer Multilingual Learners
Supporting Newcomer  Multilingual LearnersSupporting Newcomer  Multilingual Learners
Supporting Newcomer Multilingual Learners
 
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfRich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
 
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfFICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
 
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes GuàrdiaPersonalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
 
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxThe Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
 
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
 
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
 
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
 

System Analysis and Design

  • 1. System Analysis and Design Prepared By: Syed Aamir Abbas Muhammad Safdar MPhil Student (Semester-I) 2012-14 Minhaj University Lahore.
  • 2. Objectives  Define the terms system, system analysis, and system design.  Types of systems.  Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst.  List and describe the phases of the systems development life cycle.  Describe the various data gathering and analysis tools.  Describe a selection of systems design tools.  Alternative approaches to Structured analysis & Design to the SLDC  Explain the role of the maintenance task in the systems development life cycle.
  • 3. Contents • What is System Analysis and Design? • System Analyst. • System Development Life Cycle. • Feasibility Analysis. • Design. • Development • Implementation.
  • 4. Systems Analysis and Design System Analysis and Design: what is it? Firstly we will define the system, than system analysis and system design as well. • System A set of detailed methods, procedures and routines established or formulation to carry out specify activity, perform a duty or solve a problem.
  • 5. Systems Analysis and Design  System Analysis  The dissection of a system into its component pieces to study how those component pieces interact and work. (1) The survey and planning (2) The study and analysis (3) The definition  System Design The process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements.
  • 6. Systems Analysis and Design Need for System Analysis and Design  Installing a system without proper planning leads to great user dissatisfaction and frequently causes the system to fall into disuse  Lends structure to the analysis and design of information systems  A series of processes systematically undertaken to improve a business through the use of computerized information systems
  • 7. Systems Analysis and Design Roles of the System Analyst  The analyst plays a key role in information systems development projects.  Must understand how to apply technology to solve business problems.  Analyst may serve as change agents who identify the organizational improvement.
  • 8. Systems Analysis and Design Qualities of the System Analyst  Problem solver  Communicator  Strong personal and professional ethics  Self-disciplined and self-motivated
  • 9. Systems Analysis and Design System Analyst Recommend, Design, and Maintain Many Types of Systems for Users Strategic Level Higher Level A system analyst may be involved Knowledge with any or all of Level these systems at each organization Operational level Level
  • 10. Systems Analysis and Design OPERATIONAL LEVEL Transaction Processing System (TPS) It is a process of large amounts of data for routine business transactions.  Boundary-Spanning Its concerned with the detection of information. It has two primary sources and two main sources. Primary sources of Information (1) Detect information (2) Send information into the environment presenting the company in a favorable light. Main sources of Information (1) Business intelligence. (2) Competitive information  Support the day-to-day operations of the company Example: Payroll Processing, Inventory Management.
  • 11. Systems Analysis and Design KNOWLEDGE LEVEL  Office Automation System (OAS)  Supports data workers who share information, but do not usually create new knowledge Examples: Word processing, Spreadsheets etc.  Knowledge Work System (KWS)  Supports professional workers such as scientists, engineers, and doctors Examples: computer-aided design systems, virtual reality systems, investment workstations
  • 12. Systems Analysis and Design Higher Level  Management Information System (MIS) To supports data worker who share information but do not usually create new knowledge. Example: Word processing, Spreadsheets, Desktop publishing, Email Electronic scheduling, Communication through voice mail, Email, Video  Decision Support System (DSS) Aids decision makers in the making of decisions Examples: financial planning with what-if analysis, budgeting with modeling  Expert System (ES) Captures and uses the knowledge of an expert for solving a particular problem which leads to a conclusion or recommendation. Examples: MYCIN (an early xpert system that used artificial intelligence ; XCON (eXpert CONfigurer)
  • 13. Systems Analysis and Design Strategic Level  Executive Support System (ESS)  Helps executives to make unstructured strategic decisions in an informed way Examples: drill-down analysis, status access  Group Decision Support System (GDSS)  Permit group members to interact with electronic support Examples: email, Lotus Notes  Computer-Supported Collaborative Work System (CSCWS)  CSCWS is a more general term of GDSS. It may include software support called “groupware” for team collaboration via network computers. Example: video conferencing, Web survey system
  • 14. Systems Analysis and Design Integrating New Technologies into Traditional Systems  Ecommerce and Web Systems.  Enterprise Resource Planning Systems.  Wireless Systems.  Open Source Software.  Need for Systems Analysis and Design.
  • 15. Systems Analysis and Design Systems analysts need to be aware that integrating technologies affects all types of system
  • 16. Systems Analysis and Design Ecommerce and Web Systems  Benefits  Increasing user awareness of the availability of a service, product, industry, person, or group.  The possibility of 24-hour access for users.  Improving the usefulness and usability of interface design.  Creating a system that can extend globally rather than remain local, thus reaching people in remote locations without worry of the time zone in which they are located.
  • 17. Systems Analysis and Design Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERPS)  Performs integration of many information systems existing on different management levels and within different functions Example: SAP, Oracle
  • 18. Systems Analysis and Design Wireless Systems  System analyst may be asked to design standard or wireless communication networks that integrate voice, video and email into organizational intranets or industry extranets  System analyst may also be asked to develop intelligent agents  Example: Microsoft's new software based on Bayesian statistics  Wireless communication is referred as m-commerce (mobile commerce)
  • 19. Systems Analysis and Design Open Source Software (OSS)  An alternative of traditional software development where proprietary code is hidden from the users  Open source software is free to distribute, share and modify  Characterized as a philosophy rather than simply the process of creating new software  Example: Linux Operating System, Apache Web Server, Mozilla Firefox Web browser, Koha, Newgenlib, Evergreen, OPALS, Greenstone, DSpace, Plone, Drupal, Eprint, and Joomla.
  • 20. Systems Analysis and Design SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)  Typically the SDLC has 7 steps in the in the development and improvement of a computer system
  • 21. Systems Analysis and Design IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND OBJECTIVES  Activity:  Interviewing user management  Summarizing the knowledge obtained  Estimating the scope of the project  Documenting the results  Output:  Feasibility report containing problem definition and objective summaries from which management can make a decision on whether to proceed with the proposed project
  • 22. Systems Analysis and Design DETERMINING HUMAN INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS  Activity:  Interviewing  Sampling and investing hard data  Questionnaires  Observe the decision maker’s behavior and environment  Prototyping  Learn the who, what, where, when, how, and why of the current system  Output:  Analyst understands how users accomplish their work when interacting with a computer; and begin to know how to make the new system more useful and usable. The analyst should also know the business functions and have complete information on the people, goals, data and procedure involved
  • 23. Systems Analysis and Design ANALYZING SYSTEM NEEDS  Activity:  Create data flow diagrams.  Complete the data dictionary.  Analyze the structured decisions made.  Prepare and present the system proposal.  Output:  Recommendation on what, if anything, should be done.
  • 24. Systems Analysis and Design DESIGNING THE RECOMMENDED SYSTEM  Activity:  Design procedures for data entry  Design the human-computer interface  Design system controls  Design files and/or database  Design backup procedures  Output  Model of the actual system
  • 25. Systems Analysis and Design DEVELOPING AND DOCUMENTING SOFTWARE  Activity:  System analyst works with programmers to develop any original software  Works with users to develop effective documentation  Programmers design, code, and remove syntactical errors from computer programs  Document software with help files, procedure manuals, and Web sites with Frequently Asked Questions  Output:  Computer programs  System documentation
  • 26. Systems Analysis and Design TESTING AND MAINTAINING THE SYSTEM  Activity:  Test the information system  System maintenance  Maintenance documentation  Output:  Problems, if any  Updated programs  Documentation
  • 27. Systems Analysis and Design IMPLEMENTING AND EVALUATING THE SYSTEM  Activity:  Train users  Analyst plans smooth conversion from old system to new system  Review and evaluate system  Output:  Trained personnel  Installed system
  • 28. Systems Analysis and Design THE IMPACT OF MAINTENANCE  Maintenance is performed for two reasons  Removing software errors.  Enhancing existing software.
  • 29. Systems Analysis and Design RESOURCE CONSUMPTION OVER THE SYSTEM LIFE
  • 30. Systems Analysis and Design FEASIBILITY ANALYSES  Technical Feasibility: can we build it?  Economic Feasibility: should we build it?  Organizational Feasibility: if we build it, will they come?
  • 31. Systems Analysis and Design TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY: CAN WE BUILD IT?  Familiarity with application: less familiarity more risk.  Familiarity with technology: less familiarity generates more risk.  Project size: large projects have more risk.  Compatibility: the hard it is so integrate the systems with the company’s existing technology, the higher the risk will be.
  • 32. Systems Analysis and Design ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY: SHOULD WE BUILD IT?  Development Costs.  Annual operating costs.  Annual benefits (cost saving and revenues).  Intangible costs and benefits.
  • 33. Systems Analysis and Design ORGANIZATIONAL FEASIBILITY: IF WE BUILD IT, WILL THEY COME?  Project champion(s).  Senior management.  Users.  Other stakeholders.  Is the project strategically aligned with the business.
  • 34. Systems Analysis and Design OBJECT-ORIENTED SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN (OOSAD)  Analysis is performed on a small part of the system followed by design and implementation. The development cycle repeats with analysis, design and implementation of the next part and this repeats until the project is complete
  • 35. Systems Analysis and Design ALTERNATE APPROACHES TO STRUCTURED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN AND TO THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE  Agile approach.  Prototyping  Ethics  Project champion Approach  Soft Systems Methodology (SSM)  Multiview
  • 36. Systems Analysis and Design SUMMARY  Information is a key resource.  Systems analysts deal with many types of information systems.  Integration of traditional systems with new technologies.  Roles, qualities and skills of the systems analyst.  The systems Development Life Cycle.  Feasibility Analysis.  Alternate Approaches to structured analysis and design and to the SDLC.
  • 37. Systems Analysis and Design REFERENCES  Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011  Systems Analysis and Design / Alan Dennis, Berbara Haley Wixom and Roberta M. Roth.-4th th.- New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.  Dictionary of Computer and Information Technology / S. K. Bansal.- New Delhi: A. P. H. Publishing, 2009.
  • 38. Q/A ?

Editor's Notes

  1. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  2. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  3. Dictionary of Computer and Information Technology / S. K. Bansal.- New Delhi: A. P. H. Publishing, 2009.
  4. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  5. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  6.  Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011. Systems Analysis and Design / Alan Dennis, Berbara Haley Wixom and Roberta M. Roth.-4thth.- New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.
  7. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  8. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  9.  Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011 http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_boundary_spanning_roles_or_boundary_extension_in_management
  10. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  11. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  12. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  13. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  14. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  15. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  16. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  17. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  18. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  19. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  20. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  21. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  22. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  23. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  24. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  25. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  26. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  27. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  28. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  29. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  30. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  31. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  32. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  33. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011
  34. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prototype http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/project_champion http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_Systems_Methodology http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?search=multiview&title=Special%3ASearch
  35. Systems Analysis and Design / by Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall- 8th ed.- New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011Systems Analysis and Design / Alan Dennis, Berbara Haley Wixom and Roberta M. Roth.-4thth.- New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.Dictionary of Computer and Information Technology / S. K. Bansal.- New Delhi: A. P. H. Publishing, 2009.