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Stress at work
What is Stress ?
Stress at work
• Stress - General concept describing a ‘load’ on the
system
• Stressor - A specific problem, issue, challenge,
personal conflict (External / Internal)
• Strain - The prolonged impact of a stressor on the
system (overload), fatigue, precursor to illness.
• Stress Reaction - An individual response to a given
stressor (physiological, behavioural, emotional,
cognitive, signs and symptoms)
A Conceptual Understanding
When you leave office today.
Study this small story,
Hope that makes a BIG change
in YOU
Professor began his class by holding up a
glass with some water in it.
He held it up for all to see & asked the
students……
“How much do you think this glass
weighs?”
..the students answered
'50gms!' .... '100gms!' .....'125gms'
“I really don't know unless I weigh it,”
said the professor, “but, my question is:
What would happen if I held it up like this
for a few minutes?”
'Nothing' …..the students said.
'Ok what would happen if I held it up like
this for an hour?' the professor asked.
'Your arm would begin to ache' said one of
the student
“You're right, now what would happen if I
held it for a day?”
“Your arm could go numb, you might have
severe muscle stress & paralysis & have to
go to hospital for sure!”
….. ventured another student & all the
students laughed
“Very good.
But during all this, did the weight of the
glass change?”
asked the professor.
'No‘…. Was the answer.
“Then what caused the arm ache & the
muscle stress?”
The students were puzzled.
“What should I do now to come out of
pain?” asked professor again.
“Put the glass down!” said one of the
students
“Exactly!” said the professor.
Life's problems are something like this.
Hold it for a few minutes in your head & they
seem OK.
Think of them for a long time & they begin to
ache.
Hold it even longer & they begin to paralyze
you. You will not be able to do anything.
It's important to think of the
challenges or problems in your life,
but EVEN MORE IMPORTANT is
to ‘PUT THEM DOWN' at the end
of every day before You go to sleep.
That way, you are not stressed, you
wake up every day fresh &strong &
can handle any issue, any challenge
that comes your way!
'PUT THE GLASS DOWN
TODAY! '
So, When you leave office today,
Remember friend to
STRESS IS NOT NECESSARILY BADSTRESS IS NOT NECESSARILY BAD
AND AS SUCH!AND AS SUCH!
• IT ALSO HAS A POSITIVE VALUE
EXAMPLES:
• PERFORMANCE IN SPORTS
• PERFORMANCE IN ACTING
STRESS IS WHEN YOUSTRESS IS WHEN YOU
CONFRONTCONFRONT
• OPPORTUNITIES
• CONSTRIANTS
• DEMANDS
ARE YOUARE YOU
A Zero StressA Zero Stress
Individual?Individual?
Can You Fight WithCan You Fight With
Darkness?Darkness?
Darkness IsDarkness Is
OnlyOnly
Absence ofAbsence of
LightLight
Bring Light InBring Light In
AndAnd
DarknessDarkness
Can YouCan You
FightFight
WithWith
Hunger?Hunger?
Hunger Is OnlyHunger Is Only
Absence of FoodAbsence of Food
Take Food And HungerTake Food And Hunger
DisappearsDisappears
Can You Fight WithCan You Fight With
Confusion?Confusion?
Confusion Is Only Absence of ClarityConfusion Is Only Absence of Clarity
GetGet ClarityClarity And ConfusionAnd Confusion
DisappearsDisappears
Can You Fight WithCan You Fight With
Poverty?Poverty?
Poverty IsPoverty Is
OnlyOnly
Absence ofAbsence of
RichesRiches
Earn Money AndEarn Money And
PovertyPoverty
DisappearsDisappears
Can You Fight WithCan You Fight With
Stress?Stress?
STRESSSTRESS
is only Absence ofis only Absence of
AA
LIFE IS FULL OF Situations &LIFE IS FULL OF Situations &
SituationsSituations
UNMANAGEABLE SITUATIONUNMANAGEABLE SITUATION
PROBLEMPROBLEM
FEARFEAR
WORRYWORRY
(MIND)(MIND) (BODY)(BODY)
STRESSSTRESS
TENSIONTENSION STRAINSTRAIN
Symptoms of StressSymptoms of Stress
• Fatigue
• Headaches
• Insomnia
• Heart palpitations
• Decrease in
concentration/memory
• Loss of sense of
humor
• Anxiety
• Depression
• Anger
• Irritability
• Increased/decreased
eating
• Crying
• Yelling
Harmful Effects of StressHarmful Effects of Stress
When stress becomes excessive it can be very
damaging. It can harm:
• Health
• Happiness
• Work performance
• Team spirit and co-operation
• Relationships
• Personal development
EFFECT OF STRESSEFFECT OF STRESS
Stress can manifest in many ways, but the four most
common are:-
 Physical: Sometimes stress can contribute to conditions
like headaches, high blood pressure, chest pains and
stomach aches.
Emotional: Stress can contribute to anger, sadness and
anxiety.
 Behavioral: Sometimes people react to stress by crying,
drinking excessively, or nervous habits like nail biting.
 Cognitive: Stress can impact cognitive functions like
concentration and memory.
Reasons for Stress In Teams
Organizational:
• Overwork
• Feeling of being undervalued
• Poor communications
• Job ambiguity
• Conflict with colleagues
Environmental:
• Poor physical working conditions or job design
• Heat
• Noise
Personal:
• Ill health
• Relationship problems
• Financial difficulties
• Family worries
• Addictions
Harmful Effects Of Stress In aHarmful Effects Of Stress In a
TeamTeam
The impact of excessive stress on
teamwork is also harmful, and it can
damage:
• Individual work performance
• Team performance
• Working relationships
• Cooperation between team members
• Team spirit
STAGES OF STRESS
ALARM STAGEALARM STAGE
As you begin to experience a stressful
event or perceive something to be
stressful psychological changes occur in
your body. This experience or perception
disrupts your body’s normal balance and
immediately your body begins to respond
to the stressor(s) as effectively as
possible.
EXAMPLESEXAMPLES
Cardiac - increased heart rate
Respiratory - increased respiration
Skin - decreased temperature
Hormonal - increased stimulation of
adrenal genes which produce an adrenal
rush.
RESISTANCE STAGERESISTANCE STAGE
During this stage your body tries to cope
or adapt to the stressors by beginning a
process of repairing any damage the
stressor has caused. Your friends, family
or co-workers may notice changes in you
before you do so it is important to examine
their feedback to make sure you do not
reach overload.
EXAMPLESEXAMPLES
Behavior indicators include: lack of
enthusiasm for family, school, work or life
in general, withdrawal, change in eating
habits, insomnia, hypersomnia, anger,
fatigue.
Cognitive Indicators include: poor problem
solving, confusion, nightmares, hyper-
vigilance.
RESISTANCE STAGERESISTANCE STAGE
MORE EXAMPLESMORE EXAMPLES
Emotional indicators include:
tearfulness
fear
anxiety
panic
guilt
agitation
depression
overwhelmed.
EXHAUSTION STAGEEXHAUSTION STAGE
During this stage the stressor is not
being managed effectively and the body
and mind are not able to repair the
damage.
EXAMPLESEXAMPLES
Digestive disorders, withdrawal,
headaches, tension, insomnia, loss of
temper.
The causes of stressThe causes of stress
High Stress Cause:
•Harm the Heart, promote clogged
arteries.
•Surge of stress harmones in the blood-
stream – weakens the body’s immune
defences.
•Heartburn
•Cold sores to asthma
•Cancer
•People say they’re too busy to stop
and deal with stress.
•By learning to calm down, can
actually feel less busy
Categories of StressorsCategories of Stressors
Exraorganizational
Stressors
•Social &
Technological
changes
•Family problems
•Relocation
•Economic &
Financial conditions
•Race & Class
•Residential &
Community
conditions
Organizational
Stressors
•High-stress jobs
•Job role
•Poor working
conditions
•Organizational
politics
•Poor work
relationships
Group
Stressors
•Absence of
group
cohesivenes
•Absence of
support from
group
members
•Conflicts
related to the
group
Individual
Stressors
•Role conflict
& ambiguity
•Type A
characteristics
•Locus of
control
•Learned
helplessness
•Self-efficacy
•Psychological
hardiness
R
RESULT IN JOB STRESS IN THE INDIVIDUAL
EXTERNAL STRESSORSEXTERNAL STRESSORS
• Physical Environment: Noise, Heat
• Social: Rudeness, Aggressiveness
• Organizational: Regulations, Deadlines
• Major Life Events: Death of a Relative, New Baby
• Daily Hassles: Traffic, Vehicle Breakdown
Internal StressorsInternal Stressors
• Lifestyle choices: Not enough sleep, Overloaded
schedule.
• Negative self-talk: Pessimistic thinking, Self-
criticism.
• Mind traps: Unrealistic expectations, Taking
things personally.
• Stressful personality types: Perfectionist,
Workaholic
• Emotional disorders caused by stress
– Anxiety
– Panic attack
– Depression
– Adjustment disorders
• Behavioural disorders caused by stress
– Conduct disorders
– Eating disorders
– Alcoholism
– Discuss the relationship between stress and
illness
Work Related StressWork Related Stress
• Decreased quality and/or quantity of work.
• Loss of the sense of humor.
• Working late or more obsessively than usual.
• Sudden increase in accidents.
• Difficulty in communicating and getting along
with others.
• Apathy
• Sudden reversal of usual behavior.
LEVELS OF STRESSLEVELS OF STRESS
EUSTRESSEUSTRESS
Eustress or positive stress occurs when your
level of stress is high enough to motivate you to
move into action to get things accomplished.
DISTRESSDISTRESS
Distress or negative stress occurs when your
level of stress is either too high or too low
and your body and/or mind begin to respond
negatively to the stressors.
SOURCES FOR STRESSSOURCES FOR STRESS
ENVIRONMENTAL
• UNCERTAINITES IN FACORS:
• SOCIAL
• ECONOMICAL
• POLITICAL
• TECHNOLOGICAL
• LEGAL
Contd…Contd…
ORGANISATIONAL:
• TASK DEMANDS
• INTERPERSONAL FACTORS
• ROLE EFFECIVENESS DEMANDS
• ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE
• LEADERSHIP
• AGE OF THE ORGANISATION
Contd…Contd…
INDIVIDUAL
• FAMILY PROBLEMS
• ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
• ATTITUDINAL FACTORS
• SELF IMAGE
STUDIES SHOWS:
•The most stressful situations are things
we can’t control.
• We can’t change the past.
• We can’t predict the future.
• Only thing is we can control the present.
Practice this technique – regain a sense
of control – and ease stress.
Stress at work

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Stress at work

  • 4. • Stress - General concept describing a ‘load’ on the system • Stressor - A specific problem, issue, challenge, personal conflict (External / Internal) • Strain - The prolonged impact of a stressor on the system (overload), fatigue, precursor to illness. • Stress Reaction - An individual response to a given stressor (physiological, behavioural, emotional, cognitive, signs and symptoms) A Conceptual Understanding
  • 5. When you leave office today. Study this small story, Hope that makes a BIG change in YOU
  • 6. Professor began his class by holding up a glass with some water in it. He held it up for all to see & asked the students…… “How much do you think this glass weighs?” ..the students answered '50gms!' .... '100gms!' .....'125gms'
  • 7. “I really don't know unless I weigh it,” said the professor, “but, my question is: What would happen if I held it up like this for a few minutes?” 'Nothing' …..the students said.
  • 8. 'Ok what would happen if I held it up like this for an hour?' the professor asked. 'Your arm would begin to ache' said one of the student
  • 9. “You're right, now what would happen if I held it for a day?” “Your arm could go numb, you might have severe muscle stress & paralysis & have to go to hospital for sure!” ….. ventured another student & all the students laughed
  • 10. “Very good. But during all this, did the weight of the glass change?” asked the professor. 'No‘…. Was the answer.
  • 11. “Then what caused the arm ache & the muscle stress?” The students were puzzled. “What should I do now to come out of pain?” asked professor again. “Put the glass down!” said one of the students
  • 12. “Exactly!” said the professor. Life's problems are something like this. Hold it for a few minutes in your head & they seem OK. Think of them for a long time & they begin to ache. Hold it even longer & they begin to paralyze you. You will not be able to do anything.
  • 13. It's important to think of the challenges or problems in your life, but EVEN MORE IMPORTANT is to ‘PUT THEM DOWN' at the end of every day before You go to sleep. That way, you are not stressed, you wake up every day fresh &strong & can handle any issue, any challenge that comes your way!
  • 14. 'PUT THE GLASS DOWN TODAY! ' So, When you leave office today, Remember friend to
  • 15. STRESS IS NOT NECESSARILY BADSTRESS IS NOT NECESSARILY BAD AND AS SUCH!AND AS SUCH! • IT ALSO HAS A POSITIVE VALUE EXAMPLES: • PERFORMANCE IN SPORTS • PERFORMANCE IN ACTING
  • 16. STRESS IS WHEN YOUSTRESS IS WHEN YOU CONFRONTCONFRONT • OPPORTUNITIES • CONSTRIANTS • DEMANDS
  • 17. ARE YOUARE YOU A Zero StressA Zero Stress Individual?Individual?
  • 18. Can You Fight WithCan You Fight With Darkness?Darkness? Darkness IsDarkness Is OnlyOnly Absence ofAbsence of LightLight Bring Light InBring Light In AndAnd DarknessDarkness
  • 19. Can YouCan You FightFight WithWith Hunger?Hunger? Hunger Is OnlyHunger Is Only Absence of FoodAbsence of Food Take Food And HungerTake Food And Hunger DisappearsDisappears
  • 20. Can You Fight WithCan You Fight With Confusion?Confusion? Confusion Is Only Absence of ClarityConfusion Is Only Absence of Clarity GetGet ClarityClarity And ConfusionAnd Confusion DisappearsDisappears
  • 21. Can You Fight WithCan You Fight With Poverty?Poverty? Poverty IsPoverty Is OnlyOnly Absence ofAbsence of RichesRiches Earn Money AndEarn Money And PovertyPoverty DisappearsDisappears
  • 22. Can You Fight WithCan You Fight With Stress?Stress? STRESSSTRESS is only Absence ofis only Absence of AA
  • 23. LIFE IS FULL OF Situations &LIFE IS FULL OF Situations & SituationsSituations UNMANAGEABLE SITUATIONUNMANAGEABLE SITUATION PROBLEMPROBLEM FEARFEAR WORRYWORRY (MIND)(MIND) (BODY)(BODY) STRESSSTRESS TENSIONTENSION STRAINSTRAIN
  • 24. Symptoms of StressSymptoms of Stress • Fatigue • Headaches • Insomnia • Heart palpitations • Decrease in concentration/memory • Loss of sense of humor • Anxiety • Depression • Anger • Irritability • Increased/decreased eating • Crying • Yelling
  • 25. Harmful Effects of StressHarmful Effects of Stress When stress becomes excessive it can be very damaging. It can harm: • Health • Happiness • Work performance • Team spirit and co-operation • Relationships • Personal development
  • 26. EFFECT OF STRESSEFFECT OF STRESS Stress can manifest in many ways, but the four most common are:-  Physical: Sometimes stress can contribute to conditions like headaches, high blood pressure, chest pains and stomach aches. Emotional: Stress can contribute to anger, sadness and anxiety.  Behavioral: Sometimes people react to stress by crying, drinking excessively, or nervous habits like nail biting.  Cognitive: Stress can impact cognitive functions like concentration and memory.
  • 27. Reasons for Stress In Teams Organizational: • Overwork • Feeling of being undervalued • Poor communications • Job ambiguity • Conflict with colleagues Environmental: • Poor physical working conditions or job design • Heat • Noise Personal: • Ill health • Relationship problems • Financial difficulties • Family worries • Addictions
  • 28. Harmful Effects Of Stress In aHarmful Effects Of Stress In a TeamTeam The impact of excessive stress on teamwork is also harmful, and it can damage: • Individual work performance • Team performance • Working relationships • Cooperation between team members • Team spirit
  • 30. ALARM STAGEALARM STAGE As you begin to experience a stressful event or perceive something to be stressful psychological changes occur in your body. This experience or perception disrupts your body’s normal balance and immediately your body begins to respond to the stressor(s) as effectively as possible.
  • 31. EXAMPLESEXAMPLES Cardiac - increased heart rate Respiratory - increased respiration Skin - decreased temperature Hormonal - increased stimulation of adrenal genes which produce an adrenal rush.
  • 32. RESISTANCE STAGERESISTANCE STAGE During this stage your body tries to cope or adapt to the stressors by beginning a process of repairing any damage the stressor has caused. Your friends, family or co-workers may notice changes in you before you do so it is important to examine their feedback to make sure you do not reach overload.
  • 33. EXAMPLESEXAMPLES Behavior indicators include: lack of enthusiasm for family, school, work or life in general, withdrawal, change in eating habits, insomnia, hypersomnia, anger, fatigue. Cognitive Indicators include: poor problem solving, confusion, nightmares, hyper- vigilance.
  • 34. RESISTANCE STAGERESISTANCE STAGE MORE EXAMPLESMORE EXAMPLES Emotional indicators include: tearfulness fear anxiety panic guilt agitation depression overwhelmed.
  • 35. EXHAUSTION STAGEEXHAUSTION STAGE During this stage the stressor is not being managed effectively and the body and mind are not able to repair the damage.
  • 37. The causes of stressThe causes of stress
  • 38. High Stress Cause: •Harm the Heart, promote clogged arteries. •Surge of stress harmones in the blood- stream – weakens the body’s immune defences. •Heartburn •Cold sores to asthma •Cancer
  • 39. •People say they’re too busy to stop and deal with stress. •By learning to calm down, can actually feel less busy
  • 40. Categories of StressorsCategories of Stressors Exraorganizational Stressors •Social & Technological changes •Family problems •Relocation •Economic & Financial conditions •Race & Class •Residential & Community conditions Organizational Stressors •High-stress jobs •Job role •Poor working conditions •Organizational politics •Poor work relationships Group Stressors •Absence of group cohesivenes •Absence of support from group members •Conflicts related to the group Individual Stressors •Role conflict & ambiguity •Type A characteristics •Locus of control •Learned helplessness •Self-efficacy •Psychological hardiness R RESULT IN JOB STRESS IN THE INDIVIDUAL
  • 41. EXTERNAL STRESSORSEXTERNAL STRESSORS • Physical Environment: Noise, Heat • Social: Rudeness, Aggressiveness • Organizational: Regulations, Deadlines • Major Life Events: Death of a Relative, New Baby • Daily Hassles: Traffic, Vehicle Breakdown
  • 42. Internal StressorsInternal Stressors • Lifestyle choices: Not enough sleep, Overloaded schedule. • Negative self-talk: Pessimistic thinking, Self- criticism. • Mind traps: Unrealistic expectations, Taking things personally. • Stressful personality types: Perfectionist, Workaholic
  • 43. • Emotional disorders caused by stress – Anxiety – Panic attack – Depression – Adjustment disorders • Behavioural disorders caused by stress – Conduct disorders – Eating disorders – Alcoholism – Discuss the relationship between stress and illness
  • 44. Work Related StressWork Related Stress • Decreased quality and/or quantity of work. • Loss of the sense of humor. • Working late or more obsessively than usual. • Sudden increase in accidents. • Difficulty in communicating and getting along with others. • Apathy • Sudden reversal of usual behavior.
  • 46. EUSTRESSEUSTRESS Eustress or positive stress occurs when your level of stress is high enough to motivate you to move into action to get things accomplished.
  • 47. DISTRESSDISTRESS Distress or negative stress occurs when your level of stress is either too high or too low and your body and/or mind begin to respond negatively to the stressors.
  • 48. SOURCES FOR STRESSSOURCES FOR STRESS ENVIRONMENTAL • UNCERTAINITES IN FACORS: • SOCIAL • ECONOMICAL • POLITICAL • TECHNOLOGICAL • LEGAL
  • 49. Contd…Contd… ORGANISATIONAL: • TASK DEMANDS • INTERPERSONAL FACTORS • ROLE EFFECIVENESS DEMANDS • ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE • LEADERSHIP • AGE OF THE ORGANISATION
  • 50. Contd…Contd… INDIVIDUAL • FAMILY PROBLEMS • ECONOMIC PROBLEMS • ATTITUDINAL FACTORS • SELF IMAGE
  • 51. STUDIES SHOWS: •The most stressful situations are things we can’t control. • We can’t change the past. • We can’t predict the future. • Only thing is we can control the present. Practice this technique – regain a sense of control – and ease stress.