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Social Systems Theory
#2 Emergence of Communication as an Event




                                   Takashi Iba
                                   Associate Professor
                                   Faculty of Policy Management
                                   Keio University
http://www.mt-online.de/start/letzte_meldungen_aus_der_region/4219080_Bielefeld_Universitaet_Bielefeld_erwirbt_Nachlass_von_Luhmann.html




                        Niklas Luhmann
“Thus the theory’s design resembles a labyrinth
more than a freeway off into the sunset.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                     Preface p.lii, l.3
“This theory design pushes the presentation to
unusually high levels of abstraction. Our flight
must take place above the clouds, and we must
reckon with a rather thick cloud cover. We must
rely on our instruments.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                     Preface p.lii, l.3
“Abstraction, however, should not be
misunderstood as pure artistry or as a retreat
to a "merely analytically" relevant, formal
science. ... abstraction is an epistemological
necessity.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                     Preface p.lii, l.3
Social Systems Theory



   Studying a sociological theory, Social Systems Theory,
proposed by Niklas Luhmann

   Understanding what’s happening in the information society

   Learning about the media for social change
Social Systems Theory (2012 Spring)

  #1    [Apr 9]    Introduction
  #2    [Apr 16]   Emergence of Communication as an Event
  #3    [Apr 23]   Media and Code for Communication
  #4    [May 1]    Modern Society
  #5    [May 7]    Autopoiesis and Structural Coupling
  #6    [May 14]   Voice and Exit for Social Change
  #7    [May 21]   Scenario Planning: Learning by Making Stories of Future
  #8    [May 28]   Pattern Language, part I: Media for User Participation
  #9    [Jun 4]    Pattern Language, part II: Way of Organizational Change
  #10   [Jun 11]   Creative Collaboration:Value Creation through Communication
  #11   [Jun 18]   Open Collaboration, part I: Collaborative Innovation Networks
  #12   [Jun 25]   Open Collaboration, part II: Open-Source Software Development
  #13   [Jul 2]    Open Collaboration, part III: Wiki and Wikipedia
  #14   [Jul 9]    Exploring Philosophy of Social Change
Social Systems Theory 2012




 Mission-Driven      Dialogue   Book Reading
Understanding What does the concept “communication” mean?
Social Systems Theory 2012




 Mission-Driven      Dialogue   Book Reading
Today’s First Dialogue



                What do you think
                when reading these books?
Social Systems Theory 2012




 Mission-Driven      Dialogue   Book Reading
“How is social order possible?”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.116, l.22
Social Systems Theory 2012
Class #2 Keywords




         Double Contingency                                                               Communication


                                                                                                                        Communication

                     Perception of little movement of others help them                                   Utterance
                     to expect the other’ s decision.
                                                                         Expectation of
  Expectation of                                                         the decision
  the decision                                                           of Actor A
  of Actor B                                                                              Information                   Understanding


                                                                                          (contingent)   (contingent)    (contingent)
                   Actor A                                 Actor B
Double Contingency
    (二重の偶有性)
Psychic System




        the nexus of
        consciousness
Each system is operationally closed
   (Consciousness cannot be imported
    / exported to another system).

                                  Psychic System
    Psychic System




                                                   the nexus of
                                                   consciousness
the nexus of
consciousness
Double Contingency



                   Each Actor cannot make decision
                   because it is depend on the alter’ s decision.
                                                                     Expectation of
Expectation of                                                       the decision

                                                       ?
the decision                                                         of Actor A
of Actor B

                          ?                           ?
                              ?
                 Actor A                                   Actor B
Talcott Parsons thought ...


                       Shared Norm / Culture

                   Shared Norm or Culture helps them to expect
                   the others decision.
                                                                 Expectation of
Expectation of                                                   the decision
the decision                                                     of Actor A
of Actor B




                 Actor A                               Actor B
Niklas Luhmann thought ...




                   Perception of little movement of others help them
                   to expect the other’ s decision.
                                                                       Expectation of
Expectation of                                                         the decision
the decision                                                           of Actor A
of Actor B




                 Actor A                                 Actor B
Contingency
“the concept of contingency ...
This concept results from excluding
necessity and impossibility.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.106, l.11
“Something is contingent insofar as it is neither
necessary nor impossible; it is just what it is (or
was or will be), though it could also be
otherwise.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.106, l.13
“It presupposes the world as it is given, yet it
does not describe the possible in general, but
what is otherwise possible from the viewpoint
of reality.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.106, l.19
“At first, alter tentatively determines his
behavior in a situation that is still unclear. He
begins with a friendly glance, a gesture, a gift and
waits to see whether and how ego receives the
proposed definition of the situation. In light of
this beginning, every subsequent step is an
action with a contingency-reducing,
determining, effect —
be it positive or negative.”


N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.104, l.36
“Highly complex meaning-using systems that are
opaque and incalculable to one another are part
of the infrastructure presupposed by the
theorem of double contingency.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.109, l.18
“They concentrate on what they can observe as
input and output in the other as a system in an
environment and learn self-referentially in their
own observer perspective. They can try to
influence what they observe by their own action
and can learn further from the feedback.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.110, l.11
“In this way an emergent order can arise that is
conditioned by the complexity of the systems
that make it possible but that does not depend on
this complexity’s being calculated or controlled. We
call this emergent order a social system.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.110, l.15
“Nothing forces one to seek the solution for
the problem of double contingency exclusively
in an already existing consensus, thus in the
social dimension. There are functional
equivalents for example, those in the temporal
dimension.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.104, l.32
“Nothing forces one to seek the solution for
the problem of double contingency exclusively
in an already existing consensus, thus in the
social dimension. There are functional
equivalents for example, those in the temporal
dimension.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.104, l.32
“How is social order possible?”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.116, l.22
Today’s Second Dialogue


  What is Double Contingency?



                                What is Luhmann’s understanding
                                how to overcome the situation of
                                double contingency?



                                                     Perception of little movement of others help them
                                                     to expect the other’ s decision.
                                                                                                         Expectation of
                                  Expectation of                                                         the decision
                                  the decision                                                           of Actor A
                                  of Actor B




                                                   Actor A                                 Actor B
Communication
“The elementary process constituting the social
domain as a special reality is a process of
communication.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.138, l.39
Communication-Centered Viewpoint
     (Not Human-Centered)
“If one begins with the concept of meaning, it is
clear from the start that communication is
always a selective occurrence.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.140, l.6
“Communication grasps something out of the
actual referential horizon that it itself
constitutes and leaves other things aside.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.140, l.9
“From now on we will treat communication as a
three-part unity. We will begin from the fact that
three selections must be synthesized in order
for communication to appear as an emergent
occurrence.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.141, l.38
“If one conceptualizes communication as the
synthesis of three selections, as the unity of
information, utterance, and understanding, then
communication is realized if and to the extent
that understanding comes about.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.147, l.19
Communication
as the synthesis of three selections:
information, utterance, and understanding


                                            Communication

                             Utterance



              Information                   Understanding


              (contingent)   (contingent)    (contingent)
“communication constitutes what it chooses, by
virtue of that choice, as a selection, namely, as
information.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.140, l.15
“the selectivity of the information is itself an
aspect of the communication process.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.140, l.21
“What is uttered is not only selected, but also
already a selection - that is why it is uttered.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.140, l.21
“What is decisive is the fact that the third
selection can base itself on a distinction, namely,
the distinction between information and its
utterance.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.140, l.36
“Communication is made possible, so to speak,
from behind, contrary to the temporal course of
the process.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.143, l.14
“The fact that understanding is an indispensable
feature in how communication comes about has
far-reaching significance for comprehending
communication.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.143, l.20
The metaphor of transmission



                Transferring      Communication
                the Information
  Information




   Sender                                Receiver
“The metaphor of transmission is unusable
because it implies too much ontology. It suggests
that the sender gives up something that the
receiver then acquires. This is already incorrect
because the sender does not give up anything in
the sense of losing it. The entire metaphor of
possessing, having, giving, and receiving, the
entire “thing metaphoric” is unsuitable for
understanding communication..”



N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.139, l.17
“Thus understanding normally includes more or
less extensive misunderstandings.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.141, l.34
“Viewed dynamically, the unity of an individual
communication is merely its connectivity.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.148, l.19
Today’s Third Dialogue


  What is Luhmann’s definition of
  “communication”?


                                     What is the advantage for
                                     conceptualizing communication
                                     as such?


                                                      Perception of little movement of others help them
                                                      to expect the other’ s decision.
                                                                                                          Expectation of
                                   Expectation of                                                         the decision
                                   the decision                                                           of Actor A
                                   of Actor B




                                                    Actor A                                 Actor B

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Social Systems Theory 2012 #2

  • 1. Social Systems Theory #2 Emergence of Communication as an Event Takashi Iba Associate Professor Faculty of Policy Management Keio University
  • 3. “Thus the theory’s design resembles a labyrinth more than a freeway off into the sunset.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Preface p.lii, l.3
  • 4. “This theory design pushes the presentation to unusually high levels of abstraction. Our flight must take place above the clouds, and we must reckon with a rather thick cloud cover. We must rely on our instruments.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Preface p.lii, l.3
  • 5. “Abstraction, however, should not be misunderstood as pure artistry or as a retreat to a "merely analytically" relevant, formal science. ... abstraction is an epistemological necessity.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Preface p.lii, l.3
  • 6. Social Systems Theory Studying a sociological theory, Social Systems Theory, proposed by Niklas Luhmann Understanding what’s happening in the information society Learning about the media for social change
  • 7. Social Systems Theory (2012 Spring) #1 [Apr 9] Introduction #2 [Apr 16] Emergence of Communication as an Event #3 [Apr 23] Media and Code for Communication #4 [May 1] Modern Society #5 [May 7] Autopoiesis and Structural Coupling #6 [May 14] Voice and Exit for Social Change #7 [May 21] Scenario Planning: Learning by Making Stories of Future #8 [May 28] Pattern Language, part I: Media for User Participation #9 [Jun 4] Pattern Language, part II: Way of Organizational Change #10 [Jun 11] Creative Collaboration:Value Creation through Communication #11 [Jun 18] Open Collaboration, part I: Collaborative Innovation Networks #12 [Jun 25] Open Collaboration, part II: Open-Source Software Development #13 [Jul 2] Open Collaboration, part III: Wiki and Wikipedia #14 [Jul 9] Exploring Philosophy of Social Change
  • 8.
  • 9. Social Systems Theory 2012 Mission-Driven Dialogue Book Reading
  • 10. Understanding What does the concept “communication” mean?
  • 11. Social Systems Theory 2012 Mission-Driven Dialogue Book Reading
  • 12. Today’s First Dialogue What do you think when reading these books?
  • 13. Social Systems Theory 2012 Mission-Driven Dialogue Book Reading
  • 14. “How is social order possible?” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.116, l.22
  • 15. Social Systems Theory 2012 Class #2 Keywords Double Contingency Communication Communication Perception of little movement of others help them Utterance to expect the other’ s decision. Expectation of Expectation of the decision the decision of Actor A of Actor B Information Understanding (contingent) (contingent) (contingent) Actor A Actor B
  • 16. Double Contingency (二重の偶有性)
  • 17. Psychic System the nexus of consciousness
  • 18. Each system is operationally closed (Consciousness cannot be imported / exported to another system). Psychic System Psychic System the nexus of consciousness the nexus of consciousness
  • 19. Double Contingency Each Actor cannot make decision because it is depend on the alter’ s decision. Expectation of Expectation of the decision ? the decision of Actor A of Actor B ? ? ? Actor A Actor B
  • 20. Talcott Parsons thought ... Shared Norm / Culture Shared Norm or Culture helps them to expect the others decision. Expectation of Expectation of the decision the decision of Actor A of Actor B Actor A Actor B
  • 21. Niklas Luhmann thought ... Perception of little movement of others help them to expect the other’ s decision. Expectation of Expectation of the decision the decision of Actor A of Actor B Actor A Actor B
  • 23. “the concept of contingency ... This concept results from excluding necessity and impossibility.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.106, l.11
  • 24. “Something is contingent insofar as it is neither necessary nor impossible; it is just what it is (or was or will be), though it could also be otherwise.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.106, l.13
  • 25. “It presupposes the world as it is given, yet it does not describe the possible in general, but what is otherwise possible from the viewpoint of reality.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.106, l.19
  • 26. “At first, alter tentatively determines his behavior in a situation that is still unclear. He begins with a friendly glance, a gesture, a gift and waits to see whether and how ego receives the proposed definition of the situation. In light of this beginning, every subsequent step is an action with a contingency-reducing, determining, effect — be it positive or negative.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.104, l.36
  • 27. “Highly complex meaning-using systems that are opaque and incalculable to one another are part of the infrastructure presupposed by the theorem of double contingency.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.109, l.18
  • 28. “They concentrate on what they can observe as input and output in the other as a system in an environment and learn self-referentially in their own observer perspective. They can try to influence what they observe by their own action and can learn further from the feedback.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.110, l.11
  • 29. “In this way an emergent order can arise that is conditioned by the complexity of the systems that make it possible but that does not depend on this complexity’s being calculated or controlled. We call this emergent order a social system.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.110, l.15
  • 30. “Nothing forces one to seek the solution for the problem of double contingency exclusively in an already existing consensus, thus in the social dimension. There are functional equivalents for example, those in the temporal dimension.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.104, l.32
  • 31. “Nothing forces one to seek the solution for the problem of double contingency exclusively in an already existing consensus, thus in the social dimension. There are functional equivalents for example, those in the temporal dimension.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.104, l.32
  • 32. “How is social order possible?” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.116, l.22
  • 33. Today’s Second Dialogue What is Double Contingency? What is Luhmann’s understanding how to overcome the situation of double contingency? Perception of little movement of others help them to expect the other’ s decision. Expectation of Expectation of the decision the decision of Actor A of Actor B Actor A Actor B
  • 35. “The elementary process constituting the social domain as a special reality is a process of communication.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.138, l.39
  • 36. Communication-Centered Viewpoint (Not Human-Centered)
  • 37. “If one begins with the concept of meaning, it is clear from the start that communication is always a selective occurrence.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.140, l.6
  • 38. “Communication grasps something out of the actual referential horizon that it itself constitutes and leaves other things aside.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.140, l.9
  • 39. “From now on we will treat communication as a three-part unity. We will begin from the fact that three selections must be synthesized in order for communication to appear as an emergent occurrence.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.141, l.38
  • 40. “If one conceptualizes communication as the synthesis of three selections, as the unity of information, utterance, and understanding, then communication is realized if and to the extent that understanding comes about.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.147, l.19
  • 41. Communication as the synthesis of three selections: information, utterance, and understanding Communication Utterance Information Understanding (contingent) (contingent) (contingent)
  • 42. “communication constitutes what it chooses, by virtue of that choice, as a selection, namely, as information.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.140, l.15
  • 43. “the selectivity of the information is itself an aspect of the communication process.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.140, l.21
  • 44. “What is uttered is not only selected, but also already a selection - that is why it is uttered.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.140, l.21
  • 45. “What is decisive is the fact that the third selection can base itself on a distinction, namely, the distinction between information and its utterance.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.140, l.36
  • 46. “Communication is made possible, so to speak, from behind, contrary to the temporal course of the process.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.143, l.14
  • 47. “The fact that understanding is an indispensable feature in how communication comes about has far-reaching significance for comprehending communication.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.143, l.20
  • 48. The metaphor of transmission Transferring Communication the Information Information Sender Receiver
  • 49. “The metaphor of transmission is unusable because it implies too much ontology. It suggests that the sender gives up something that the receiver then acquires. This is already incorrect because the sender does not give up anything in the sense of losing it. The entire metaphor of possessing, having, giving, and receiving, the entire “thing metaphoric” is unsuitable for understanding communication..” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.139, l.17
  • 50. “Thus understanding normally includes more or less extensive misunderstandings.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.141, l.34
  • 51. “Viewed dynamically, the unity of an individual communication is merely its connectivity.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.148, l.19
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54. Today’s Third Dialogue What is Luhmann’s definition of “communication”? What is the advantage for conceptualizing communication as such? Perception of little movement of others help them to expect the other’ s decision. Expectation of Expectation of the decision the decision of Actor A of Actor B Actor A Actor B