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Social Systems Theory
#3 Media and Code for Communication




                                  Takashi Iba
                                  Associate Professor
                                  Faculty of Policy Management
                                  Keio University
Social Systems Theory 2012




                 Reflection
“How is social order possible?”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.3, p.116, l.22
Psychic System




        the nexus of
        consciousness
Each system is operationally closed
   (Consciousness cannot be imported
    / exported to another system).

                                  Psychic System
    Psychic System




                                                   the nexus of
                                                   consciousness
the nexus of
consciousness
Social Systems Theory 2012
Class #2 Keywords




         Double Contingency                                                               Communication


                                                                                                                        Communication

                     Perception of little movement of others help them                                   Utterance
                     to expect the other’ s decision.
                                                                         Expectation of
  Expectation of                                                         the decision
  the decision                                                           of Actor A
  of Actor B                                                                              Information                   Understanding


                                                                                          (contingent)   (contingent)    (contingent)
                   Actor A                                 Actor B
Double Contingency



                   Each Actor cannot make decision
                   because it is depend on the alter’ s decision.
                                                                     Expectation of
Expectation of                                                       the decision

                                                       ?
the decision                                                         of Actor A
of Actor B

                          ?                           ?
                              ?
                 Actor A                                   Actor B
Talcott Parsons thought ...


                       Shared Norm / Culture

                   Shared Norm or Culture helps them to expect
                   the others decision.
                                                                 Expectation of
Expectation of                                                   the decision
the decision                                                     of Actor A
of Actor B




                 Actor A                               Actor B
Niklas Luhmann thought ...




                   Perception of little movement of others help them
                   to expect the other’ s decision.
                                                                       Expectation of
Expectation of                                                         the decision
the decision                                                           of Actor A
of Actor B




                 Actor A                                 Actor B
Communication
as the synthesis of three selections:
information, utterance, and understanding


                                             Communication
                       Why it is uttered
                             Utterance



             Information                      Understanding
           What is uttered
              (contingent)   (contingent)      (contingent)

                    Communication-Centered Viewpoint
                        (Not Human-Centered)
Social Systems Theory 2012




 Mission-Driven      Dialogue   Book Reading
Today’s First Dialogue


  What do you think
  when reading these books?
Social Systems Theory 2012




 Mission-Driven      Dialogue   Book Reading
Social Systems Theory 2012
Class #3 Keywords



      Three Kinds of                                                Three Kinds of
      Improbabilities                                                   Media
                         Improbability of
                         Understanding

                                   ?                                               language
                                                                                                                              Utterance
                                                                                                                                          communication               language

                                                                                                                    Information              Understanding




      Improbability of                 Improbability of                                                      communication                                                                        symbolically generalized
      Reaching                         Success                    Utterance                                                                                                     communication
                                                                                                                                                                                                  communication media
                                                                                 Improbability of Reaching
                                                                                                                                                                    Utterance

                                                          Information                                             Understanding
                                                                                                                                                             Information          Understanding




                                                                              media of dissemination
Social Systems Theory 2012




 Mission-Driven      Dialogue   Book Reading
Communication
as the synthesis of three selections:
information, utterance, and understanding


                                            Communication
                       Why it is uttered
                             Utterance



             Information                    Understanding
           What is uttered
              (contingent)   (contingent)    (contingent)
Three Kind of Improbabilities
Improbable
Overcoming Improbabilities
“Seen in the context of evolutionary
achievements, communicative success is
exceedingly improbable. Communication
presupposes beings that exist independently,
with their own environments and their own
information-processing apparatuses. Every being
sifts and processes what he perceives for
himself. Under such circumstances,
how is communication, that is,
coordinated selectivity, possible at all?”


N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.157, l.30
Each system is operationally closed
   (Consciousness cannot be imported
    / exported to another system).

                                  Psychic System
    Psychic System




                                                   the nexus of
                                                   consciousness
the nexus of
consciousness
Improbability of Understanding



                                 Improbability of
                                 Understanding

                                           ?
“At the zero point of evolution, it is, first of all,
improbable that ego understands what alter
means-given that their bodies and minds are
separate and individual. Only in context can
meaning be understood, and context is, initially,
supplied by one's own perceptual field and
memory.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.158, l.12
Improbability of Reaching




                        Improbability of
                        Reaching
“The second improbability refers to reaching the
addressee. It is improbable for a communication
to reach more persons than are present in a
concrete situation... The problem lies in spatial
and temporal extension.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.158, l.22
Improbability of Success


                           Improbability of
                           Success
“The third improbability is success. Even if a
communication is understood by the person it
reaches, this does not guarantee that it
is also accepted and followed.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.158, l.35
“Communication is successful only if ego
accepts the content selected by the
communication (the information) as a premise
of his own behavior. Acceptance can mean
action corresponding to the directives
communicated, but also experience, thinking, or
processing further information under the
assumption that certain information is
correct. Communicative success is the
successful coupling of selections.”


N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.158, l.38
Three Kind of Improbabilities

                    Improbability of
                    Understanding

                              ?




 Improbability of                      Improbability of
                                       Success
 Reaching
“These three improbabilities are not only
obstructions to the reception of any given
communication, not only difficulties in attaining a
goal; they operate as thresholds of
discouragement. Anyone who believes that
communication is hopeless lets it pass. Thus one
must expect that communication as such does
not occur, or if it does occur, that it will
be eliminated in the further course of
evolution.”


N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.159, l.6
“The immanent improbabilities of the
communicative process and the way in which
they are overcome and transformed into
probabilities regulate the construction of
social systems.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.159, l.17
Today’s Second Dialogue
                                                    Improbability of
                                                    Understanding

                                                                ?



 What are three kinds of improbabilities
 on communication?
                                           Improbability of
                                           Reaching




                                             Improbability of
                                             Success
“We would like to call media the evolutionary
achievements that enter at those possible
breaks in communication and that serve in a
functionally adequate way to transform what is
improbable into what is probable.
Corresponding to the three types of
communicative improbability, one can distinguish
three different media that mutually enable
one another, limit one another, and burden
one another with consequent problems.”


N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.160, l.14
ways of
  transforming
what is improbable
       into
 what is probable




      media
Three Kinds of Media
Three Kinds of Media


1. Language

2. Media of dissemination

3. Symbolically generalized communication media
Language



  language                      communication      language
                    Utterance


             Information           Understanding
“The medium that increases, the understandability
of communication beyond the sphere of
perception is language. Language is a medium
distinguished by the use of signs. It uses acoustic
or optical signs for meaning.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.160, l.20
“this concerns a very special technique with the
function of extending the repertoire of
understandable communication almost
indefinitely in practice and thereby guaranteeing
that almost any random event can appear and
be processed as information.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.160, l.31
Media of dissemination



                                                            communication
                 Utterance
                                Improbability of Reaching
         Information                                             Understanding




                             media of dissemination
“As a result of language, media of dissemination,
namely, writing, printing, and electronic
broadcasting, have developed.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.161, l.1
“These developments in language and
dissemination techniques make it even more
doubtful which communication will succeed and
be able to motivate acceptance.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.161, l.14
Symbolically generalized communication media




                                                  symbolically generalized
                                                  communication media
                                communication

                    Utterance


             Information          Understanding
“Success ... lay ... in the development of
symbolically generalized communication media,
which are functionally adequate to this
particular problem.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.161, l.21
“We would like to call "symbolically generalized"
the media that use generalizations to symbolize
the nexus between selection and motivation,
that is, represent it as a unity.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.161, l.25
“Important examples are: truth, love, property /
money, power / law; and also, in rudimentary
form, religious belief, art, and, today, standardized
"basic values." ”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.161, l.27
“In all these cases this in a very different way
and for very different interactive constellations
is a matter of conditioning the selection of
communication so that it also works as a means
of motivation, that is, so that it can adequately
secure acceptance of the proposed selection.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.161, l.30
“The most successful and most relevant
communication in contemporary society is
played out through these media of
communication, and accordingly, the chances of
forming social systems are directed toward the
corresponding functions.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.161, l.34
“One has to understand the process of
sociocultural evolution as the reshaping and
widening of the chances for foreseeable
communication, as the consolidation of
expectations out of which society can form
its social systems.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.159, l.20
“Language, media of dissemination, and
symbolically generalized communication media
are thus evolutionary achievements that
interdependently ground the processing of
information and increase what can be produced
by social communication. This is how society
produces and reproduces itself as a social
system.”




N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.162, l.3
Three Kinds of Media

                                       language                                      communication      language
                                                                         Utterance


                                                                  Information           Understanding




                                                   communication
        Utterance
                       Improbability of Reaching                                                                                                symbolically generalized
                                                                                                                                                communication media
Information                                             Understanding                                                         communication

                                                                                                                  Utterance


                                                                                                           Information          Understanding


                    media of dissemination
“Once communication is set into and kept in
motion, the formation of a bounded social
system cannot be avoided, nor can the
development of further bounded social systems
produced by the transformation of expectations
about what is improbable into what is
sufficiently probable. On the level of social
systems, this is an exclusively autopoietic
process, which produces what enables
it itself.”


N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,
1996                                  Chap.4, p.162, l.7
Overcoming Improbabilities




Three Kinds of Media
1. Language
2. Media of dissemination
3. Symbolically generalized communication media
Today’s Third Dialogue



    What are three kinds of media for overcoming
    improbabilities on communication?
Social Systems Theory 2012
Class #3 Keywords



      Three Kinds of                                                Three Kinds of
      Improbabilities                                                   Media
                         Improbability of
                         Understanding

                                   ?                                               language
                                                                                                                              Utterance
                                                                                                                                          communication               language

                                                                                                                    Information              Understanding




      Improbability of                 Improbability of                                                      communication                                                                        symbolically generalized
      Reaching                         Success                    Utterance                                                                                                     communication
                                                                                                                                                                                                  communication media
                                                                                 Improbability of Reaching
                                                                                                                                                                    Utterance

                                                          Information                                             Understanding
                                                                                                                                                             Information          Understanding




                                                                              media of dissemination
Social Systems Theory 2012




                  Preview
Code and Program for function system

   Code      A / Non-A
             ex.
             Mass Media: information / non-information
             Economy: payment / non-payment
             Law: legal / non-legal (illegal)
             Science: true / non-true (false)

   Program   ex.
             Programs used by Mass Media
              - News
              - Entertainment
              - Advertising
              (code: information / non-information)
Functional Differentiation of Modern Society



                               Economy            Law




                     Academics                            Politics

                                       Society
                                   (Social System)

                         Art                            Religion




                                 Education   Mass Media
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3

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Social Systems Theory 2012 #3

  • 1. Social Systems Theory #3 Media and Code for Communication Takashi Iba Associate Professor Faculty of Policy Management Keio University
  • 2. Social Systems Theory 2012 Reflection
  • 3. “How is social order possible?” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.3, p.116, l.22
  • 4. Psychic System the nexus of consciousness
  • 5. Each system is operationally closed (Consciousness cannot be imported / exported to another system). Psychic System Psychic System the nexus of consciousness the nexus of consciousness
  • 6. Social Systems Theory 2012 Class #2 Keywords Double Contingency Communication Communication Perception of little movement of others help them Utterance to expect the other’ s decision. Expectation of Expectation of the decision the decision of Actor A of Actor B Information Understanding (contingent) (contingent) (contingent) Actor A Actor B
  • 7. Double Contingency Each Actor cannot make decision because it is depend on the alter’ s decision. Expectation of Expectation of the decision ? the decision of Actor A of Actor B ? ? ? Actor A Actor B
  • 8. Talcott Parsons thought ... Shared Norm / Culture Shared Norm or Culture helps them to expect the others decision. Expectation of Expectation of the decision the decision of Actor A of Actor B Actor A Actor B
  • 9. Niklas Luhmann thought ... Perception of little movement of others help them to expect the other’ s decision. Expectation of Expectation of the decision the decision of Actor A of Actor B Actor A Actor B
  • 10. Communication as the synthesis of three selections: information, utterance, and understanding Communication Why it is uttered Utterance Information Understanding What is uttered (contingent) (contingent) (contingent) Communication-Centered Viewpoint (Not Human-Centered)
  • 11.
  • 12. Social Systems Theory 2012 Mission-Driven Dialogue Book Reading
  • 13. Today’s First Dialogue What do you think when reading these books?
  • 14. Social Systems Theory 2012 Mission-Driven Dialogue Book Reading
  • 15. Social Systems Theory 2012 Class #3 Keywords Three Kinds of Three Kinds of Improbabilities Media Improbability of Understanding ? language Utterance communication language Information Understanding Improbability of Improbability of communication symbolically generalized Reaching Success Utterance communication communication media Improbability of Reaching Utterance Information Understanding Information Understanding media of dissemination
  • 16. Social Systems Theory 2012 Mission-Driven Dialogue Book Reading
  • 17. Communication as the synthesis of three selections: information, utterance, and understanding Communication Why it is uttered Utterance Information Understanding What is uttered (contingent) (contingent) (contingent)
  • 18.
  • 19. Three Kind of Improbabilities
  • 22. “Seen in the context of evolutionary achievements, communicative success is exceedingly improbable. Communication presupposes beings that exist independently, with their own environments and their own information-processing apparatuses. Every being sifts and processes what he perceives for himself. Under such circumstances, how is communication, that is, coordinated selectivity, possible at all?” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.157, l.30
  • 23. Each system is operationally closed (Consciousness cannot be imported / exported to another system). Psychic System Psychic System the nexus of consciousness the nexus of consciousness
  • 24. Improbability of Understanding Improbability of Understanding ?
  • 25. “At the zero point of evolution, it is, first of all, improbable that ego understands what alter means-given that their bodies and minds are separate and individual. Only in context can meaning be understood, and context is, initially, supplied by one's own perceptual field and memory.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.158, l.12
  • 26. Improbability of Reaching Improbability of Reaching
  • 27. “The second improbability refers to reaching the addressee. It is improbable for a communication to reach more persons than are present in a concrete situation... The problem lies in spatial and temporal extension.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.158, l.22
  • 28. Improbability of Success Improbability of Success
  • 29. “The third improbability is success. Even if a communication is understood by the person it reaches, this does not guarantee that it is also accepted and followed.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.158, l.35
  • 30. “Communication is successful only if ego accepts the content selected by the communication (the information) as a premise of his own behavior. Acceptance can mean action corresponding to the directives communicated, but also experience, thinking, or processing further information under the assumption that certain information is correct. Communicative success is the successful coupling of selections.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.158, l.38
  • 31. Three Kind of Improbabilities Improbability of Understanding ? Improbability of Improbability of Success Reaching
  • 32. “These three improbabilities are not only obstructions to the reception of any given communication, not only difficulties in attaining a goal; they operate as thresholds of discouragement. Anyone who believes that communication is hopeless lets it pass. Thus one must expect that communication as such does not occur, or if it does occur, that it will be eliminated in the further course of evolution.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.159, l.6
  • 33. “The immanent improbabilities of the communicative process and the way in which they are overcome and transformed into probabilities regulate the construction of social systems.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.159, l.17
  • 34. Today’s Second Dialogue Improbability of Understanding ? What are three kinds of improbabilities on communication? Improbability of Reaching Improbability of Success
  • 35. “We would like to call media the evolutionary achievements that enter at those possible breaks in communication and that serve in a functionally adequate way to transform what is improbable into what is probable. Corresponding to the three types of communicative improbability, one can distinguish three different media that mutually enable one another, limit one another, and burden one another with consequent problems.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.160, l.14
  • 36. ways of transforming what is improbable into what is probable media
  • 37. Three Kinds of Media
  • 38. Three Kinds of Media 1. Language 2. Media of dissemination 3. Symbolically generalized communication media
  • 39. Language language communication language Utterance Information Understanding
  • 40. “The medium that increases, the understandability of communication beyond the sphere of perception is language. Language is a medium distinguished by the use of signs. It uses acoustic or optical signs for meaning.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.160, l.20
  • 41. “this concerns a very special technique with the function of extending the repertoire of understandable communication almost indefinitely in practice and thereby guaranteeing that almost any random event can appear and be processed as information.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.160, l.31
  • 42. Media of dissemination communication Utterance Improbability of Reaching Information Understanding media of dissemination
  • 43. “As a result of language, media of dissemination, namely, writing, printing, and electronic broadcasting, have developed.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.1
  • 44. “These developments in language and dissemination techniques make it even more doubtful which communication will succeed and be able to motivate acceptance.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.14
  • 45. Symbolically generalized communication media symbolically generalized communication media communication Utterance Information Understanding
  • 46. “Success ... lay ... in the development of symbolically generalized communication media, which are functionally adequate to this particular problem.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.21
  • 47. “We would like to call "symbolically generalized" the media that use generalizations to symbolize the nexus between selection and motivation, that is, represent it as a unity.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.25
  • 48. “Important examples are: truth, love, property / money, power / law; and also, in rudimentary form, religious belief, art, and, today, standardized "basic values." ” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.27
  • 49. “In all these cases this in a very different way and for very different interactive constellations is a matter of conditioning the selection of communication so that it also works as a means of motivation, that is, so that it can adequately secure acceptance of the proposed selection.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.30
  • 50. “The most successful and most relevant communication in contemporary society is played out through these media of communication, and accordingly, the chances of forming social systems are directed toward the corresponding functions.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.34
  • 51. “One has to understand the process of sociocultural evolution as the reshaping and widening of the chances for foreseeable communication, as the consolidation of expectations out of which society can form its social systems.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.159, l.20
  • 52. “Language, media of dissemination, and symbolically generalized communication media are thus evolutionary achievements that interdependently ground the processing of information and increase what can be produced by social communication. This is how society produces and reproduces itself as a social system.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.162, l.3
  • 53. Three Kinds of Media language communication language Utterance Information Understanding communication Utterance Improbability of Reaching symbolically generalized communication media Information Understanding communication Utterance Information Understanding media of dissemination
  • 54. “Once communication is set into and kept in motion, the formation of a bounded social system cannot be avoided, nor can the development of further bounded social systems produced by the transformation of expectations about what is improbable into what is sufficiently probable. On the level of social systems, this is an exclusively autopoietic process, which produces what enables it itself.” N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996 Chap.4, p.162, l.7
  • 55. Overcoming Improbabilities Three Kinds of Media 1. Language 2. Media of dissemination 3. Symbolically generalized communication media
  • 56. Today’s Third Dialogue What are three kinds of media for overcoming improbabilities on communication?
  • 57. Social Systems Theory 2012 Class #3 Keywords Three Kinds of Three Kinds of Improbabilities Media Improbability of Understanding ? language Utterance communication language Information Understanding Improbability of Improbability of communication symbolically generalized Reaching Success Utterance communication communication media Improbability of Reaching Utterance Information Understanding Information Understanding media of dissemination
  • 58. Social Systems Theory 2012 Preview
  • 59. Code and Program for function system Code A / Non-A ex. Mass Media: information / non-information Economy: payment / non-payment Law: legal / non-legal (illegal) Science: true / non-true (false) Program ex. Programs used by Mass Media - News - Entertainment - Advertising (code: information / non-information)
  • 60. Functional Differentiation of Modern Society Economy Law Academics Politics Society (Social System) Art Religion Education Mass Media