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Small cardamom
COLLEGE OF HORTICULTURE
An Assignment Presentation
On
“Small cardamom”
Course No.: OTH:6.4 (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants)
Present to:-
Mr. S.K.Acharya
College of Horticulture
S.D. Agricultural University,
Jagudan, 382710
Presented by:-
Name :-Shubham kumar
B.N. – Elettaria cardamomum
Fmaily - Zingiberaceae
Origin – Western Ghat
Plant part used - Pod
Small cardamom
Medicinal use-
Cardamom is used for digestion problems
including heartburn, intestinal spasms,
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diarrhea,
constipation, liver and gallbladder
complaints, and loss of appetite. It is also
used for common cold and other
infections, cough, bronchitis, sore mouth
and throat, urinary problems, epilepsy,
headache, and high blood pressure.
How does it work?
Cardamom contains chemicals that might treat
intestinal spasms, kill some bacteria, reduce
swelling, and help the immune system.
Nutritional fact-
Cardamom is rich in various vitamins and
micronutrients as well. These include niacin,
pyridoxine, riboflavin, thiamine, vitamin
A, vitaminC, sodium, potassium, calcium,
copper, iron, manganese, magnesium,
phosphorus, and zinc.
Climate and soil
The crop thrives well in regions which
receive a well-distributed annual rainfall
of 1500-2500 mm with a mean
temperature of 15°C to 35°C, relative
humidity of 75-90% and 600-1200 m
above MSL. Cardamom grows
luxuriantly in forest loam soils, which are
generally acidic in nature with a pH
range of 5.5-6.5
Types/cultivars
Based on adaptability, nature of panicle, shape
and size of capsules, the cultivars are categorized
into Malabar, Mysore and Vazhukka. The cultivar
Malabar with a prostrate panicle (panicles
spreading on ground) is widely grown in
Karnataka, while the cultivar Mysore,
characterized with erect panicles is extensively
cultivated in Kerala and parts of Tamil Nadu.
Whereas, the cultivar Vazhukka, a natural hybrid
between Malabar and Mysore types with a
distinct semi-erect (pendent) panicle, is the most
popular cultivar in Kerala.
Propagation
Propagation by vegetative means
through suckers is considered to be the
most preferred method. Production of
planting materials from seeds and
through tissue culture are alternative
methods of propagation. Seedling
propagated plants may not be true to
its parent.
Irrigation
It is essential to irrigate the crop during
January to May. Plants may be irrigated
at an interval of 10-15 days till the onset
of monsoon, by adopting a convenient
method of irrigation either by hose/
sprinkler/mini-sprinkler/drip. In case of
drip irrigation, it needs to be
supplemented with sprinkler irrigation
once in a month.
Fertilizer
A fertilizer does of 75kg nitrogen (N),
75kg phosphorus (P2O5) and 150g
potash (K2O) per ha is recommended
under irrigated condition for high
yielding plantation yielding 100 kg/ha
and above and a dose of 30:60:30 kg/ha
is recommended for gardens under
rainfed condition.
Intercultural operations
Mulching
It is an important cultural practice in
cardamom. Fallen leaves of the shade
trees are utilized for mulching. Sufficient
mulch should be applied during
November-December to reduce the ill
effects of drought, which prevails for
nearly 4-5 months during summer.
Exposing the panicle over mulch is
beneficial for pollination.
Weeding
The first round of weeding is to be
carried in May-June, the second in
August-September and the third in
December-January. Weedicides like
paraquat @625ml in 500 litres of
water may be sprayed in the
interspaces between rows leaving
60cm around the plant base.
Trashing
Trashing consists of removing old
and drying shoots of the plant once
in a year with the onset of monsoon
under rainfed conditions and 2-3
times in high density plantations
provided with irrigated facilities.
Shade regulation
It is very sensitive to moisture stress.
Shade helps to regulate soil moisture as
well as temperature and provides
congenial micro-climate for cardamom.
Excess shade is also quite detrimental and
shade has to be regulated so as to provide
50-60% filtered sunlight. In order to
provide adequate light during monsoon,
shade regulation may be taken up before
the onset of monsoon.
Earthing up
After the monsoon is over, a thin layer of
fresh fertile soil, rich in organic matter
may be earthed up at the base of the
clump, covering up to the collar region be
scraping between the rows or collecting
soil from staggered trenches/check pits.
This encourages new growth.
Harvesting and processing
Cardamom plants normally start bearing two
years after planting. In most of the areas the
peak period of harvest is during October-
November. Picking is carried out at an interval of
15-25 days. Ripe capsules are harvested in order
to get maximum green colour during curing.
After harvest, capsules are dried either in fuel
kiln or electrical drier or in the sun. It has been
found that soaking the freshly harvested green
cardamom capsules in 2% washing soda solution
for 10 minutes prior to drying helps to retain the
green colour during drying.
When drier is used, it should be dried at 45-
50o C for 14-18 hours, while for kiln, over
night drying at 50-60 o C is required. The
capsules kept for drying are spread thinly
and stirred frequently to ensure uniform
drying. The dried capsules are rubbed with
hands or coir mat or wire mesh and
winnowed to remove any foreign matter.
They are then sorted out according to size
and colour, and stored in black polythene
lined gunny bags to retain the green colour
during storage.
Plant protection
Pest
Thrips
Shoot, panicle, capsule/borer
Aphids
Parasitic nematodes
Disease
Katte diseases
Capsule rot
Damping or rhizome rot
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-
supplements/ingredientmono-614-
cardamom.aspx?activeingredientid=614&activeingredie
ntname=cardamom
https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/herbs-
and-spices/health-benefits-of-cardamom.html
Ref-
http://www.spices.res.in/pdf/package/cardamom.pdf

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Small cardamom

  • 2. COLLEGE OF HORTICULTURE An Assignment Presentation On “Small cardamom” Course No.: OTH:6.4 (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants) Present to:- Mr. S.K.Acharya College of Horticulture S.D. Agricultural University, Jagudan, 382710 Presented by:- Name :-Shubham kumar
  • 3. B.N. – Elettaria cardamomum Fmaily - Zingiberaceae Origin – Western Ghat Plant part used - Pod Small cardamom
  • 4. Medicinal use- Cardamom is used for digestion problems including heartburn, intestinal spasms, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diarrhea, constipation, liver and gallbladder complaints, and loss of appetite. It is also used for common cold and other infections, cough, bronchitis, sore mouth and throat, urinary problems, epilepsy, headache, and high blood pressure.
  • 5. How does it work? Cardamom contains chemicals that might treat intestinal spasms, kill some bacteria, reduce swelling, and help the immune system. Nutritional fact- Cardamom is rich in various vitamins and micronutrients as well. These include niacin, pyridoxine, riboflavin, thiamine, vitamin A, vitaminC, sodium, potassium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc.
  • 6.
  • 7. Climate and soil The crop thrives well in regions which receive a well-distributed annual rainfall of 1500-2500 mm with a mean temperature of 15°C to 35°C, relative humidity of 75-90% and 600-1200 m above MSL. Cardamom grows luxuriantly in forest loam soils, which are generally acidic in nature with a pH range of 5.5-6.5
  • 8. Types/cultivars Based on adaptability, nature of panicle, shape and size of capsules, the cultivars are categorized into Malabar, Mysore and Vazhukka. The cultivar Malabar with a prostrate panicle (panicles spreading on ground) is widely grown in Karnataka, while the cultivar Mysore, characterized with erect panicles is extensively cultivated in Kerala and parts of Tamil Nadu. Whereas, the cultivar Vazhukka, a natural hybrid between Malabar and Mysore types with a distinct semi-erect (pendent) panicle, is the most popular cultivar in Kerala.
  • 9. Propagation Propagation by vegetative means through suckers is considered to be the most preferred method. Production of planting materials from seeds and through tissue culture are alternative methods of propagation. Seedling propagated plants may not be true to its parent.
  • 10. Irrigation It is essential to irrigate the crop during January to May. Plants may be irrigated at an interval of 10-15 days till the onset of monsoon, by adopting a convenient method of irrigation either by hose/ sprinkler/mini-sprinkler/drip. In case of drip irrigation, it needs to be supplemented with sprinkler irrigation once in a month.
  • 11. Fertilizer A fertilizer does of 75kg nitrogen (N), 75kg phosphorus (P2O5) and 150g potash (K2O) per ha is recommended under irrigated condition for high yielding plantation yielding 100 kg/ha and above and a dose of 30:60:30 kg/ha is recommended for gardens under rainfed condition.
  • 12. Intercultural operations Mulching It is an important cultural practice in cardamom. Fallen leaves of the shade trees are utilized for mulching. Sufficient mulch should be applied during November-December to reduce the ill effects of drought, which prevails for nearly 4-5 months during summer. Exposing the panicle over mulch is beneficial for pollination.
  • 13. Weeding The first round of weeding is to be carried in May-June, the second in August-September and the third in December-January. Weedicides like paraquat @625ml in 500 litres of water may be sprayed in the interspaces between rows leaving 60cm around the plant base.
  • 14. Trashing Trashing consists of removing old and drying shoots of the plant once in a year with the onset of monsoon under rainfed conditions and 2-3 times in high density plantations provided with irrigated facilities.
  • 15. Shade regulation It is very sensitive to moisture stress. Shade helps to regulate soil moisture as well as temperature and provides congenial micro-climate for cardamom. Excess shade is also quite detrimental and shade has to be regulated so as to provide 50-60% filtered sunlight. In order to provide adequate light during monsoon, shade regulation may be taken up before the onset of monsoon.
  • 16. Earthing up After the monsoon is over, a thin layer of fresh fertile soil, rich in organic matter may be earthed up at the base of the clump, covering up to the collar region be scraping between the rows or collecting soil from staggered trenches/check pits. This encourages new growth.
  • 17. Harvesting and processing Cardamom plants normally start bearing two years after planting. In most of the areas the peak period of harvest is during October- November. Picking is carried out at an interval of 15-25 days. Ripe capsules are harvested in order to get maximum green colour during curing. After harvest, capsules are dried either in fuel kiln or electrical drier or in the sun. It has been found that soaking the freshly harvested green cardamom capsules in 2% washing soda solution for 10 minutes prior to drying helps to retain the green colour during drying.
  • 18. When drier is used, it should be dried at 45- 50o C for 14-18 hours, while for kiln, over night drying at 50-60 o C is required. The capsules kept for drying are spread thinly and stirred frequently to ensure uniform drying. The dried capsules are rubbed with hands or coir mat or wire mesh and winnowed to remove any foreign matter. They are then sorted out according to size and colour, and stored in black polythene lined gunny bags to retain the green colour during storage.
  • 19. Plant protection Pest Thrips Shoot, panicle, capsule/borer Aphids Parasitic nematodes Disease Katte diseases Capsule rot Damping or rhizome rot