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Landscaping of Highway
2
Presented by
Shubham kumar
M. Sc .(Ag) 1st semester
BAC/M/Hort-V/00640/2019-2020
Department of Horticulture (Vegetable & Floriculture)
Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour
Landscaping of Highway
Presentation
Introduction:
• Loss of vegetation is one of the wrost
consequences of Highway Development. It is the
responsibility of the highway development
agencies to offset this loss by way of following
the approach of Corridor Development &
Management. The highway development agencies
must strive to enhance the aesthetics of the
highway corridor at all possible locations.
Highways should not be looked upon merely as a
means of transportation, but an integral part and
parcel of the physical environment and Socio-
economic milieu.
• Growing of trees along road side is called road
arboriculture. Trees can be grown on both urban as well
as rural roads. The trees should be planted at least 12 m
away from the centre line of the carriage way. The basic
aim of planting the tree away from the centre line is to
maintain clearance at least equal to carriage way width at
the level of crown of trees.
Objectives of Plantation:
The main objectives of planting along the Highways are as follows:
 For aesthetic enhancement of the project corridors and places of
importance by planting selective ornamental trees, landscaping and
turfing with grasses and ornamental shrubs.
 To reduce the impacts of air pollution and dust as trees and shrubs are
known to be natural sink for air pollutants.
 To provide much needed shade on glaring hot roads during summer.
 To reduce the impact of ever increasing noise pollution caused due to
increase in number of vehicles.
 To arrest soil erosion at the embankment slopes.
 Prevention of glare from the headlight of incoming vehicles.
 Moderating the effect of wind and incoming radiation.
 To stabilization of foundation.
 Employment to local people.
Selection of Tree Species for roadside plantations
Plantation is one of the most important constituents of
soft landscaping. Trees, shrubs and climbers have been
used to enhance the soft natural ambience against harsh
elements in most of the enhancement schemes. The
planting species are decided based on the physical
growth characteristics of trees, like form and shape,
foliage pattern, growth rate, branching pattern, soil
characteristics and conditions of the strip like water
logged areas etc. While selecting the species of trees for
landscaping a great care should be taken to choose the
species, which already exist along the project corridor.
• On the other hand, if a pure
avenue of single species is
planted for a considerable
length of the road, it gives a
harmonious and pleasing
look. It is, therefore,
essential that mixtures of
different species should be
avoided and pure avenues of
a single species be planted
over long stretches of road.
This will enhance the
aesthetic quality and will
also render management
easier.
Selection of Plant Types
What kind of plant material should be used?
• If planting is to be done, the landscape architect must
study and know the plants in the region. Plants not
ideally adapted to a particular site will require greater
care. The objectives should be that anything planted
must be able to take care of itself once established. The
requirements of plant establishment relate directly to
surface soil fertility, to stability, to temperature and
moisture, to slope and direction of exposure, and to the
drying effects of surface wind velocities. Therefore,
recognition of adverse physical conditions and
knowledge of means of reducing them to the greatest
extent possible are basic in relation to economical
planting programs. As plants must be adaptable to site
conditions, one important factor relating directly to
design and construction standards is slope gradients
Plantation Pattern
The first row along the Highways will be of
medium sized ornamental trees.
Subsequent rows depending on the availability of
width will comprise of ornamental and/or shade
bearing species, of more height than those in the
first row. In rural sections the last row will always
be of shade bearing tall trees.
Planting of shrubs in the median.
Planting of herbaceous species as ground cover in
the median, special landscapes, and embankment
slopes.
Turfing with grass in the median, special
landscapes, and embankment slopes.
Few pictures during roadside plantation
Species Recommended for Ist and 2nd row of Avenue
Plantations
Sr.
No
SOIL BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME
1. Loamy Delonix regia Gulmohar
2. Cassia fistula Amaltas
3. Bauhinia sps. Kachnar
4. Cassia nodusa Cassia
5. Jacaranda mimosaefolia Jacranda
6. Water logged Terminalia arjuna Arjun
7. Cordia dicotma Lasoda
8. Alkaline soils Terminalia arjuna Arjun
9. Pongamia pinnata Kanji
10. Albizzia lebbek Kala Siris
Shade trees recommended for last row in roadside
avenues
Sr.
No
SOIL BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME
1. Loamy Ficus religiosa Peepal
2. Madhuca indica Mahua
3. Azadirachta indica Neem
4. Tamarindus indica Imli
5. Dalberjia sissoo Shisam
6. Water logged Syzynium cuminii Jamun
7. Terminalia arjuna Arjun
8. Alkaline soils Pongamia pinnata Kanji
9. Azadirachta indica Neem
10. Dalberjia sissoo Shisam
Shade Plants
• One of the main objectives of Roadside Avenue is to provide
shade. The shade trees in the last available row should be planted
at a spacing of 8-12 mtr. These tree species should be of local
significance and should be mostly evergreen in nature, which
ensures no substantial leaf-fall in winters preventing the problem
of blockage of roadside drains.
• Trees with the following characteristics will be planted as shade
trees:
1. Trees with high crown forms secure better visibility and are
therefore ideal.
2. Trees that retain their foliage longest are preferred to deciduous
trees.
3. Trees with long gestation period and having rapid growth and a
capacity to resist fungal and insects attack form ideal avenues.
4. The tree species recommended as shade plants for roadside
avenues are- Arjun, Peepal, Neem, Amaltas, Bottle brush,
Bauhinia, Ashoka etc.
Specifications for avenue plantations
Distance from preceding rows 3.0 mt.
Spacing between plant to plant 8-12 m (6m if high mortality
expected)
Size of the pits 60x60x60 cms (in alkaline soils,
kankar panes to be broken by augur.
In waterlogged areas, mound with
height varying depending on water
level)
No. of plants per km 100 at 10m spacing
167 at 6m spacing
Height of the saplings at the time of
planting
More than 2 m
Survival percentage of plantation 90% after replacement of causalities
in first two years. 80% afterwards
My Diagrammatic representation- landscaping on
highway
Nili gulmoharPili kanerLal kaner Amaltas
Care of Trees
Protection of Trees: After planting the trees have to be
looked after from the attack of stray animals. Following
measures can be adopted for the protection of trees.
 Open brick work guards : Open brick, tree may be
constructed around the trees. Tree guards may be
circular or square in plan. Thickness of tree guard is kept
one brick laid as heading.
 Iron guards : Iron enclosure are made around the trees to
protect them.
 Barbed wire fencing: In this system four wooden bullies
are driven at four corners around the tree pit an bardbed
wire wrapped around them.
 Thorning trees: A protection around the planted tree can
be developed by using thorny cut tree branches. But this
measure is sort of temporary arrangement of tree
protection
Maintenance of Trees
1. Watering : Watering is an essential feature of tree maintenance.
Method of watering and interval of watering depends on type of
tree, the land, climatic conditions, water availability etc.
2. Hoeing : Soil around the tree stem should be kept loose. This helps
in fast growth of the tree.
3. Protection from frost: Plants which are likely to be affected by
cold should be provided protection by covering them by thatching.
4. Keeping trees straight: if plants get inclined they should be given
support with the help of bullies against the slope. This helps keep
the tree up right.
5. Pruning and deforking: Pruning is the process which is useful for
making tree to grow straight and in compact form.
6. Lopping: It is process of train the trees in proper shape during its
growth. Branches interfering the traffic and other adjoining trees
are cut.
7. Felling of trees: Matured trees if not cut in time, will start
decaying. Over matured trees and trees which are very close to
each other should be felled.
Landscaping on highway

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Landscaping on highway

  • 2. 2 Presented by Shubham kumar M. Sc .(Ag) 1st semester BAC/M/Hort-V/00640/2019-2020 Department of Horticulture (Vegetable & Floriculture) Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour Landscaping of Highway Presentation
  • 3. Introduction: • Loss of vegetation is one of the wrost consequences of Highway Development. It is the responsibility of the highway development agencies to offset this loss by way of following the approach of Corridor Development & Management. The highway development agencies must strive to enhance the aesthetics of the highway corridor at all possible locations. Highways should not be looked upon merely as a means of transportation, but an integral part and parcel of the physical environment and Socio- economic milieu.
  • 4. • Growing of trees along road side is called road arboriculture. Trees can be grown on both urban as well as rural roads. The trees should be planted at least 12 m away from the centre line of the carriage way. The basic aim of planting the tree away from the centre line is to maintain clearance at least equal to carriage way width at the level of crown of trees.
  • 5. Objectives of Plantation: The main objectives of planting along the Highways are as follows:  For aesthetic enhancement of the project corridors and places of importance by planting selective ornamental trees, landscaping and turfing with grasses and ornamental shrubs.  To reduce the impacts of air pollution and dust as trees and shrubs are known to be natural sink for air pollutants.  To provide much needed shade on glaring hot roads during summer.  To reduce the impact of ever increasing noise pollution caused due to increase in number of vehicles.  To arrest soil erosion at the embankment slopes.  Prevention of glare from the headlight of incoming vehicles.  Moderating the effect of wind and incoming radiation.  To stabilization of foundation.  Employment to local people.
  • 6. Selection of Tree Species for roadside plantations Plantation is one of the most important constituents of soft landscaping. Trees, shrubs and climbers have been used to enhance the soft natural ambience against harsh elements in most of the enhancement schemes. The planting species are decided based on the physical growth characteristics of trees, like form and shape, foliage pattern, growth rate, branching pattern, soil characteristics and conditions of the strip like water logged areas etc. While selecting the species of trees for landscaping a great care should be taken to choose the species, which already exist along the project corridor.
  • 7. • On the other hand, if a pure avenue of single species is planted for a considerable length of the road, it gives a harmonious and pleasing look. It is, therefore, essential that mixtures of different species should be avoided and pure avenues of a single species be planted over long stretches of road. This will enhance the aesthetic quality and will also render management easier.
  • 8. Selection of Plant Types What kind of plant material should be used? • If planting is to be done, the landscape architect must study and know the plants in the region. Plants not ideally adapted to a particular site will require greater care. The objectives should be that anything planted must be able to take care of itself once established. The requirements of plant establishment relate directly to surface soil fertility, to stability, to temperature and moisture, to slope and direction of exposure, and to the drying effects of surface wind velocities. Therefore, recognition of adverse physical conditions and knowledge of means of reducing them to the greatest extent possible are basic in relation to economical planting programs. As plants must be adaptable to site conditions, one important factor relating directly to design and construction standards is slope gradients
  • 9. Plantation Pattern The first row along the Highways will be of medium sized ornamental trees. Subsequent rows depending on the availability of width will comprise of ornamental and/or shade bearing species, of more height than those in the first row. In rural sections the last row will always be of shade bearing tall trees. Planting of shrubs in the median. Planting of herbaceous species as ground cover in the median, special landscapes, and embankment slopes. Turfing with grass in the median, special landscapes, and embankment slopes.
  • 10. Few pictures during roadside plantation
  • 11. Species Recommended for Ist and 2nd row of Avenue Plantations Sr. No SOIL BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1. Loamy Delonix regia Gulmohar 2. Cassia fistula Amaltas 3. Bauhinia sps. Kachnar 4. Cassia nodusa Cassia 5. Jacaranda mimosaefolia Jacranda 6. Water logged Terminalia arjuna Arjun 7. Cordia dicotma Lasoda 8. Alkaline soils Terminalia arjuna Arjun 9. Pongamia pinnata Kanji 10. Albizzia lebbek Kala Siris
  • 12. Shade trees recommended for last row in roadside avenues Sr. No SOIL BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME 1. Loamy Ficus religiosa Peepal 2. Madhuca indica Mahua 3. Azadirachta indica Neem 4. Tamarindus indica Imli 5. Dalberjia sissoo Shisam 6. Water logged Syzynium cuminii Jamun 7. Terminalia arjuna Arjun 8. Alkaline soils Pongamia pinnata Kanji 9. Azadirachta indica Neem 10. Dalberjia sissoo Shisam
  • 13. Shade Plants • One of the main objectives of Roadside Avenue is to provide shade. The shade trees in the last available row should be planted at a spacing of 8-12 mtr. These tree species should be of local significance and should be mostly evergreen in nature, which ensures no substantial leaf-fall in winters preventing the problem of blockage of roadside drains.
  • 14. • Trees with the following characteristics will be planted as shade trees: 1. Trees with high crown forms secure better visibility and are therefore ideal. 2. Trees that retain their foliage longest are preferred to deciduous trees. 3. Trees with long gestation period and having rapid growth and a capacity to resist fungal and insects attack form ideal avenues. 4. The tree species recommended as shade plants for roadside avenues are- Arjun, Peepal, Neem, Amaltas, Bottle brush, Bauhinia, Ashoka etc.
  • 15. Specifications for avenue plantations Distance from preceding rows 3.0 mt. Spacing between plant to plant 8-12 m (6m if high mortality expected) Size of the pits 60x60x60 cms (in alkaline soils, kankar panes to be broken by augur. In waterlogged areas, mound with height varying depending on water level) No. of plants per km 100 at 10m spacing 167 at 6m spacing Height of the saplings at the time of planting More than 2 m Survival percentage of plantation 90% after replacement of causalities in first two years. 80% afterwards
  • 16. My Diagrammatic representation- landscaping on highway Nili gulmoharPili kanerLal kaner Amaltas
  • 17. Care of Trees Protection of Trees: After planting the trees have to be looked after from the attack of stray animals. Following measures can be adopted for the protection of trees.  Open brick work guards : Open brick, tree may be constructed around the trees. Tree guards may be circular or square in plan. Thickness of tree guard is kept one brick laid as heading.  Iron guards : Iron enclosure are made around the trees to protect them.  Barbed wire fencing: In this system four wooden bullies are driven at four corners around the tree pit an bardbed wire wrapped around them.  Thorning trees: A protection around the planted tree can be developed by using thorny cut tree branches. But this measure is sort of temporary arrangement of tree protection
  • 18. Maintenance of Trees 1. Watering : Watering is an essential feature of tree maintenance. Method of watering and interval of watering depends on type of tree, the land, climatic conditions, water availability etc. 2. Hoeing : Soil around the tree stem should be kept loose. This helps in fast growth of the tree. 3. Protection from frost: Plants which are likely to be affected by cold should be provided protection by covering them by thatching. 4. Keeping trees straight: if plants get inclined they should be given support with the help of bullies against the slope. This helps keep the tree up right. 5. Pruning and deforking: Pruning is the process which is useful for making tree to grow straight and in compact form. 6. Lopping: It is process of train the trees in proper shape during its growth. Branches interfering the traffic and other adjoining trees are cut. 7. Felling of trees: Matured trees if not cut in time, will start decaying. Over matured trees and trees which are very close to each other should be felled.