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Educational tour of Horticulture students
S.D.A.U. Dantiwada (Gujarat)
Batch- 2015-19
Educational tour
Date- 16/01/2019-28/01/2019
Tour leader-
• Dr Hasmukh Leua
• Miss Shreya
State cover-
• Maharashtra
• Goa
• Karnataka
Outline of tour-
• 4 State agriculture universities
• 4 ICAR centres
• 1 Private sector
• 1 Cooperative sector 2
4 State agriculture universities-
i. Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Maharashtra
ii. Dr Balasaheb Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Maharashtra
iii. University of Agriculture science, Dharvad, Karnataka
iv. University of Horticulture science, Bagalkot, Karnataka
ICAR centres-
• ICAR National Research Centre on pomegranate, Solapur,
Maharashtra
• ICAR National Research Centre on Grapes, Pune
• ICAR Central Coastal Agricultural Research Station, Goa
• Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research, Rajagurunagar
(Maharashtra)
Private sector-
i. Jain Irrigation system, Jalgaon, Maharashtra
Cooperative sector-
i. Kunbi Seva Sangh, Dapoli
3
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth (MPKV),
Rahuri
Date- 17/01/2019
•The Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth (MPKV), Rahuri is the
premier Agricultural University in Maharashtra.
•It has been established for the entire Maharashtra State and started
functioning in March, 1968 with its office at Mumbai.
•The office was shifted to College of Agriculture, Pune in 1969.
•Later on in 1972, four agricultural universities were established in
Maharashtra.
•Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri is having jurisdiction
spread over 10 districts viz. Jalgaon, Nandurbar, Dhule, Nashik,
Ahmednagar, Pune, Solapur, Satara, Sangli and Kolhapur.
•The University is named after the great social reformer "Mahatma
Jyotiba Phule".
4
Mandates-
• To provide education in agriculture and allied sciences.
• To have further advancement of learning and research in
agriculture and allied sciences.
• To integrate and coordinate the teaching of the subjects in the
different faculties of the university.
• To coordinate the education, research and extension education
activities for augmentation of agricultural production.
• To provide integrated agricultural education activities at all
levels for maximum effectiveness and at a minimum cost.
• To undertake and guide extension education programmes.
Goal-
• Sustainable growth of agriculture by interfacing education,
research and extension education initiatives complemented
with efficient and effective institutional, infrastructural support
that will create a proper fit between humanity and its habitat.
5
ATIC (Agricultural Technology
Information Centre)
6
Visit to ATIC (Agricultural Technology Information Centre)
7
Various varieties of different crops released from
MPKV Rahuri are-
• Lime -Phule Sarbati
• Sweet Orange -Phule Mosambi
• French Bean - Phule Suyash
• Turmeric -Phule Swarupa
• Tomato -Phule Raja, Bhagyasree
• Chilli -Phule Jyoti
• Okra -Phule Utkarsh, Phule Vimukta
• Brinjal -Krishna
• Brocoli -Ganesh Brocoli
• Garlic -Phule Baswant
• Bottle Gourd -Samrat
• Onion -Baswant-780, Phule Samarth
• Pomegranate -Arakta, Bhagva, Bhagawa Super
• Drumstick -Bhagya
8
Visit to Central nursery Mahatma Phule Krishi
Vidyapeeth, MPKV, Rahuri
Guide by- Kharde sir,
Agriculture Officer
(Central nursery MPKV)
(1) Lemon-
• Variety –Sai Sarasbati
• Fruiting after 4 year
• Spacing- 6m×6m
• Propagation by- Seed
(2) Guava-
• Variety- Sardar
• Spacing- 6m×6m , 8m×8m
• Propagation- Air layering 9
(3) Sapota-
• Variety- Kalipatti
• Propagation method- inarching propagation
• Time- June July
• Price of plant-70rs/plant
(4) Mango-
• Propagation of mango
1. Epicotyl grafting
2. Softwood grafting
• Propagation time- August- September
• Fruiting after 3 year
• Price of mango plant- 60 rs/plant (Variety –Kesar)
• Rootstock are treated with IBA solution for 2 minute in
5 ppm concentration
10
• Epicotyl grafting in mango-
• Stone/epicotyl grafting is a simple, cheap and quick method
of mango propagation with a success rate of 75-80%.
• For this purpose, stones should be sown in June-July on
raised beds of size 1x3 m.
• The beds should be prepared by mixing soil and FYM in
the proportion of 2:1.
• After germination, seedlings with tender stems having
coppery leaves are lifted with stones still attached.
• The roots and stones are dipped in 0.1% Carbendazim
solution for 5 minutes after washing the soil.
• The seedling stems are headed back leaving 6-8 cm long
stem.
• A 4-6 cm longitudinal cut is made running down through
the middle of the stem.
11
• A wedge shaped cut starting on both sides is made on
the lower part of scion stick.
• The scion stick should be 4-5 months old and 10-15 cm
long containing plumpy terminal buds.
• The scion stick is then inserted in the cleft of the
seedlings and tied with polythene strips.
• The grafts are then planted in polyethylene bags
containing potting mixture.
• The bags are then kept in the shade protecting from
heavy rain.
• The scion stars sprouting 15-20 days after grafting.
• Care should be taken to remove the sprouts on the
rootstocks below the graft union during this period.
• July is the most suitable month for stone grafting.
12
13
Research and development of different variety in
horticulture development, MPKV, Rahuri
(1) Pomegranate-
• Ganesh -1962
• G 137 - 1964
• P-23 - 1986
• P-26 - 1987
• Mridula - 1994
• Bhagwa - 2003
• Phule Bhagwa Super - 2013
• Phule Anardana - 2016
(2) Custard apple
• Phule Jhanki
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(3) Fig-
• Phule Rajwadi
(4) Mango
• Sai Sugandha
• Phule Abhiruchi
(5) Papaya
• Phule Vijaya
(6) Kagzi lime
• Sai Sarbati
(7) Orange
• Phule Mosambi
(8) Banana
• Phule Pride
15
Research Development Project On Cattle Mahatma
Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri
• Phule Triveni breed of cow is developed by Mahatma
Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri.
• Phule Triveni is the cross between 25% Gir, 25%
Jarshey and 50% Hybrid.
• Milk production- 18-20 lit/day
• Average milk production of 3000-3500 litre per
lactation period with 4% fat in milk.
• Fodder- Jowar, african tall maize, lucerne
• Food requirement- 18 kg/day
16
Good milking cow quality-
• Black with white patches
• Tight skin
• Shining on skin
• Large nipple
• Body with narrow front with wide back
17
National Research Centre on Grapes, Pune
Date- 18/01/2019
18
Instructor:-Dr. D.D. Khade
• The ICAR-National Research Centre for Grapes under
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New
Delhi was established on 18th January 1997 at Manjri,
Pune
• Area spread in 100 acre land in which 50% land under
cultivation and 50% land under rootstock preparation.
• Main aim of NRC is to develop the vine quality with
use of strain and also improve anthocyanin and alcohol.
• NRC mainly work on powdery mildew and downy
mildew on 500+ different varietal germplasms are
maintained in NRC.
• Centre celebrates grape day on 3-5 march.
19
Mandate
• Strategic and applied research on safe grape production
and productivity.
• Transfer of technology and capacity building of
stakeholders for enhanced and sustained production of
grapes.
• National Referral Laboratory for Food Safety and
Pesticide residue in fruits.
20
Variety develop from NRC:-
Coloured variety: Green colour:- Manjri Navin
Red colour:- Red Globe
Black colour:- Fantasy Seedless
Juice variety: Thumika
3 Seedless variety: Thompson seedless, Sonaka seedless,
Ambe Sonaka
(Sonaka variety suitable for Gujarat cultivation)
21
Based on this mandate the research is conducted with the
following objectives:
• To collect, characterize, evaluate and
catalogue Vitis germplasm
• To maintain core field germplasms with wide genetic base.
• To develop varieties with economically important traits for
table, wine, raisins and juice.
• To develop appropriate and economically viable agro
techniques for quality grape production.
• To sustain the productivity and quality through management
of biotic and abiotic stresses.
• To develop technologies with minimal dependence on agro
chemical inputs.
• To develop appropriate pre and post harvest technologies
for extended shelf-life and processing into value added
products.
• To develop strategic alliances for research and transfer of
technologies. 22
Head System-
• Advantages of this system are easiness, inexpensiveness,
suitability in high density planting and possibility of
inter cultivation but yield per vine is usually low.
• This method is especially suitable for less vigorous
varieties producing fruitful shoots from basal buds such
as Beauty Seedless, Delight, and Perlette.
• Single shoot is allowed to grow from newly planted
vines, removing side shoots if produced and by help of
stake.
23
• Heading back the main
single stem at a height of
1.2 meters permits side
shoots.
• In general, four laterals at
about 75 cm above ground
level, in all directions are
retained after removing all
other shoots produced.
• Later two secondary's from
each lateral are allowed.
• Vines trained on head
system have bushy shape,
occupy less space and can
be adopted for high density
planting vineyards.
24
Bower / Pandal / Pergola system-
• Two vigorous shoots in opposite
direction are maintained initially
as primary arms and three laterals
spaced at 60 cm are developed on
both sides as secondary arms on
each primary shoot, thus there
will be 12 secondary arms on
each vine.
• This is widely adopted in tropics
throughout world to exploit the
full productive potential of vines,
which show apical dominance
under tropics.
25
26
Procedure of pruning:-
• First open the trench and apply chemical on it.
• Depending upon soil type, the rootstock are joint in
month of jan-feb.
• In sept-oct, scion is ready for the grafting.
• When the two bud sprout on the graft, first pinching are
done.
• Second pinch done when the arm size increase.
• Full canopy cover at 3rd year. After that remain one bud
and prune the arm.
• Double pruning also work on grape.
Few important points about grapes -
• Life of plant is 20 year maximum
• Different types of training like Pandal, Telephone, Head
system.
27
• In grape back pruning, forward pruning and fruit
pruning also work.
• For elongation of berries spray Gibberellic acid 200
ppm.
• Spray 4g in 60 lit of water at 50% flowering time.
• For control pink berries spray 200 ppm GA3 + Acrobat
+ mancozeb mixture 1.6 gm in 10 lit of water.
• For control of powdery mildew before 30 of fruit
seating spray hexaconazol 0.5 ml/1 lit.
• Main pest in grape is stem borer which is maintained
with proper care.
• Hen & chicken disorder – Zn deficiency.
• We also saw different machineries used in viticulture
like wrape around sprayer, juice extractor, disc plough,
powered sprayer, tractor mounted
Contin….
28
Drying of grapes:
• For making dry grapes (kismis) required drying of fresh
and healthy grapes.
For drying grapes three methods followed:-
1. Sun drying
2. Shade drying
3. Mechanical drying
Shade drying house 29
College of Agriculture, Pune
30
Introduction:
• MPKV: Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidhyapeeth College of
Agriculture, Pune
• Location- Maharashtra
• Establishment year: 1969
• No. of Research Station: 23
• Vice-chancellor: Dr. K. P. Vishvanath
• The College of Agriculture, Pune is one of the first five
agricultural colleges established in India.
• In 1969, the College was transferred to the Mahatma Phule
Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri established in that year.
• The B.Sc.(Horti) and PG programme was started in the year
1984 and 1985 respectively.
• The MBA (Agri.) programme was started in the year 2008.
The University headquarter is located in Rahuri, Dist.
Ahmednagar 160 km to the north of Pune.
31
Mandates:
• To provide education in agriculture and allied
sciences.
• To have further advancement of learning and
research in agriculture and allied sciences.
• To integrate and coordinate the teaching of the
subject in the different faculties of the university.
• To coordinate the education, research and
extension education activities for augmentation
of agricultural production.
• To provide integrated agricultural education
activities at all levels for maximum effectiveness
and at a minimum cost.
32
Hi-tech Horticulture Project College of Agriculture,
Pune
Date- 18/01/2019
33
Flower grow as cut flowers
1. Rose
2. Carnation
3. Gerbera
• Total five polyhouse
• Shape of poly house- Aerodynamic
Covering material-
 200 micron & 400 gauge polythene
 Ultraviolet property
 Life of covering material 3 to 4 years
 Cost 55 to 60 rs per square metre
Parameter which are maintained
 Temperature, RH, light, CO2 level
• 3 to 4 crops take in a year
• Peg system for irrigation
• Well drained soil
34
Gerbera-
• Light requirement- 35,000-40,000 lux
• Life span-3-4 year
• Plant price- 35-40 Rs/plant
• Yield- 35-40 flower/plant/year
• Harvesting- Full bloom
Carnation-
• Planting distance- 15×15 cm
• Propagation- Cutting
• Yield- 10-12 flower/plant/year
• Flower price- 4-5 Rs/flower
• Harvesting- Paint brush stage
Rose
• Variety- Duch, Top secret
• Shelf life of rose 6 to 7 year
• Harvesting- Button stage
• Yield- 25-30 flower/plant/year
• Rate of flowers 4-5 Rs/flower
• Corrugated cardboard is used for packaging material
35
Packaging-
• Make bunch of 20 flowers with the arrangement of 4
layer (5 flower in each layer). Wrap flower head with
corrugated fiber board and tie up with rubber band.
Cut the end of stem with proper length. Store at low
temperature and high humidity chamber
36
Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research,
Rajagurunagar (Maharashtra )
37
• Establishment:-
ICAR established National Research Center for Onion
and Garlic in 8th five year plan with its headquarter at
Nasik in 1994. However, due to some working
constraints the center was shifted to Rajguru nagar on
16 june 1998. The center has been upgraded to
Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research since
December 2008.
• Work:-
Research on genetic improvement of onion and garlic,
develop crop production and crop protection practices
with the aim to increase productivity and reduce post-
harvest losses. The knowledge, products, and
technology generated are passed on to the farmers
through various extension workers, as well as public-
private partnership.
38
Propagation of Onion and Garlic
• Propagation of onion- Bulb, Seed
• Seed rate:10-12 Kg/ha
• Required bulbs:1000-1200 Kg/ha
• Propagation of Garlic- Clove, bulbils
• Required cloves:350-500 Kg/ha
Onion sowing for seed production
• Two method of sowing:
1. Seed to Seed method
2. Bulb to Seed method
Isolation distance of Onion:
 1000 m for Foundation seed
 500 m for Certified seed
Isolation distance of Garlic:
 10 m for Foundation seed
 5 m for Certified seed 39
Grading of Onion:
• Grading is an essential operation before sowing of
bulbs and after harvesting of bulbs.
• Grading on the basis of size of bulb.
Two type of grader:-
1. Motor operated
2. Hand operated
40
Storage Structure of onion.
• Storage losses of onion: 40-50%
• Onion bulb stored at 0-4.5°C
• Medium size bulbs (50-80 mm) free from cuts
and bruises are recommended for storage.
41
Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli,
Dist. Ratnagiri.
Date- 21/01/2019
42
• The Konkan region is distinguished from the rest of
Maharashtra State by virtue of its distinct agroclimatic
conditions, soil types, topography, its location between
the Sahyadri ranges and the Arabian sea, crops and
cropping pattern, land holdings, and socio-economic
conditions of the farmers.
• As such, the problems in agriculture and allied sectors
are also entirely different from the other parts of
Maharashtra.
• Due to this uniqueness, the Government of Maharashtra
established the Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth on the 18th
May 1972 to impart education, conduct research on
location specific problems and disseminate the
improved crop production technologies amongst the
farming community.
• The university was renamed as Dr. Balasaheb Sawant
Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli on 12th February
2001. 43
Mandate and Objectives:-
• To Provide education in agriculture and allied sciences
by integrating and co-ordinating teaching in different
faculties and examine the students, confer degrees,
diplomas, certificates and other academic distinctions.
• To provide research base to improve the productivity
of agriculture, horticulture, livestock, fisheries and agri
- allied activities in Konkan region through basic,
applied, adoptive and need based research for attaining
economic growth and self-sufficiency of the State.
• To develop appropriate plans for conservation of
natural resources and their sustainable use.
• To undertake and guide extension education
programmes including first line transfer of technology,
extend technological services for training, conduct
demonstrations and develop appropriate
communication network. 44
Conti….
• To standardize technologies for crop production, protection,
harvesting, marketing, post harvest utilization and also for livestock,
poultry and fisheries for improving the standard of living of the
farmers, farm workers and women of Konkan in general and rural
women in particular.
• To provide necessary production support of nucleus, breeders and
foundation seed of important crops of the region and also generate
revenue through large farms for sustainable growth of the
University.
Research-
• The University caters to the location specific agricultural research
needs of the region. The major research is focused on rice,
horticultural crops, fish production, tools and implements
development, post harvest technology, wasteland reclamation, soil
and water conservation, soil management and animal production.
The research work is being undertaken through state and central
government sponsored research projects at main Campus and 16
research stations of the University. The university has also signed
MoU for collaborative research with a number of national and
international institutes in public and private sector.
45
Softwood grafting in mango
46
Different propagation method recommended in konkan region by
university in different fruits, spices and plantation crops:-
Crop Propagation method
Mango Stone grafting, softwood grafting, veneer grafting
Cashewnut Softwood grafting
Aonla Patch budding
Jackfruit Epicotyl grafting, softwood grafting
Jamun Air layering, Seed
Sapota Inarching
Woodapple Inarch grafting
Blackpepper Runner, cutting and grafting
Kokum Air layering, veneer grafting, approch grafting, softwood grafting
Cinamom Cutting and air layering
Nutmeg Grafting
Cardemom Seed, suckers
Arecanut Seed
Banana Suckers , Tissue culture
47
Crop Name Varieties
1. Fruit , Plantation and Spice crops:-
Mango Ratna, Sindhu, Sindhu-117, Konkar Ruchi, Alphanso, Suvarna, Konkan
Raja, Konkan Samrat
Cashewnut Vengurla 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
Jackfruit Konkan Prolific
Jamun Konkan Bahadoli
Karonda Kokan Bold
Coconut Pratap, Banawali, Konkan Avishkar
Arecanut Sriwardhini
Kokum Konkan Hatish, Konkan Amruta
Cinnamon KonkanTej, Konkan Tejpatta
Nutmeg Konkan Sugandha, Konkan Swad, Konkan Srimanthi
Banana Konkan Safed Velchi
Lemon Konkan Lemon
Different Varieties developed by BSKV university:-
48
1. Vegetable Crops
Dolichos bean Konkan Bhushan
Chilli Konkan Kirti
Tomato Sonali
Cucumber Sheetal
Snake gourd Konkan Shweta
Bitter gourd Konkan Tara
Drumstick Konkan Ruchira
Ridge gourd Konkan Harita
Amaranths Konkan Durangi
Indian bean Konkan Wal 1,2, Konkan Wali
Coriander Konkan Kasturi
Snap melon Konkan Madhur
Tuber crops
Aerial Yam Konkan Kalika
Lesser Yam Konkan Kanchan
Greater Yam Konkan Ghorkand
Sweet Potato Konkan Ashwini
Xanthosoma Konkan Harit parni
49
Centre of Excellence for Mango, Dr BS Konkan
Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli
50
• The Central located in Dapoli Maharashtra state was inaugurated by
agriculture minister of Maharashtra.
• It is home for the famous Alphonso mango considered to be king of mango in
India.
• Mango variety released by Dapoli Institute are-
 Ratna
 Sindhu
 Sindhu 117
 Alphanso
 Konkan Ruchi
 Konkan Raja
 Samrat Suvarna
51
Rejuvenation of old orchard of mango at centre
of excellence
Objectives of rejuvenation
1.To increase the productivity and economic age of plant.
2.To convert the low yielding and inferior varieties/seedling origin trees
into superior and high yielding trees.
3.To exploit the better root system of a plant who has survived in
adverse soil and climatic conditions.
4.To lessen the time of gestation period.
5.To increase the orchard income.
6.To lessen the incidence of diseases and pests.
Principle of rejuvenation
1.Trees have latent buds which are activated by heading back of branches
at certain point to put forth new sprouts which grow into branches
forming fruiting area.
2.When the branches are cut back, imbalance is created in root: shoot ratio
as a result new shoots arise from plant to balance it. 52
Regional Fruit Reasearch Station Vengurla,
Maharastra
Date- 22/01/2019
53
• Date of establishment:- 1957
• Total area:- 68.23 ha
• Important Research crops:- Mango, Cashew, Kokum, Aonla,
Coconut, Sapota, Jackfruit, Jamun, Mangosteen, Lemon, Kodi
kokum, Papanus
• Name of schemes under research area:-
 NARP phase-1
 NARP phase-2
• AICRP on Cashew Improvement
• Establishment of four laboratories for development of fruit crops.
54
Nursery Department
• This station establishment in 1957 by state agricultural
department and handover BSKV Konkan- Dapoli
University in 1972. This station released 23 varieties of
different fruit crops, more than 100 recommendations
and prepared annually 3,00,000 graft of mango and
different fruit crops.
• We seen different fruit crops like Mango, Avocado,
Mangosteen, Surinan Cherry, Valvet Apple, Egg fruit,
Ornamental karonda, Carambola, Cocoa, Aonla,
Lemon, Kokum, Sapota, Jackfruit etc.
• There was different varieties of mango fruit crops like
Konkan Raja, Konkan Ruchi, Konkan Samrat, Sindu,
Alphanso and different exotic varieties like Tomi
Atkins, Kent, Keitt, Lily, Maya etc.
• Wedge Grafting in Jamun.
55
Mango Research Station, Vengurla
Date- 22/01/2019
56
•At Mango Research station we seen different varieties of
Mango like Hybrid 10/1, Saleem, Beganpali, Kodur, Goa,
Alphanso, Najuk Pasand, Konkan Raja, Farnandin,
Hybrid 7/5, Kobri, Kesar, Sindhu, Payri, Vellaicolumban,
Jahagir etc. and also seen different fruit crops like
Mangosteen, Cocoa, Coconut (Coconut polygamy-3),
Kokum, Velvet apple, Avocado, Nutmeg, Clove,
Cinnamon.
Varieties- Parentage
Ratna Neelum × Alphanso
Suvarna Alphanso × Neelum
Sindhu (seedless/ papery stone) Ratna × Alphanso
Konkan Ruchi (For pickle preparation) Neelum × Alphanso
Konkan Samrat(regular and heavy bearer) Tommy Atkins × Alphanso
Konkan Raja (For salad) Himayuddin × Benglora
Mango-
57
2.Jamun:-Konkan Bahadoli (Bold type)
3. Karonda:-Konkan Bold- small seeds
4. Cinnamon:-Konkan Tej
5. Lemon:-Konkan Lemon- seedless variety
6. Kokum:- Kokum Hatis and Kokum Amrita
• For 100% bisexual flowers, the propagation is done through
Grafting.
7. Jackfruit:-Konkan Prolific
8. Nutmeg:-Konkan Sugandha
58
59
ICAR Central Coastal Agricultural Research
Station, Goa
60
• ICAR established the ICAR Research Complex
for Goa in April, 1976 to meet the need of
agricultural research of Goa region.
• The research centre was started in 1975 in Goa
and Lakshadweep under the scheme for
establishment of agricultural and animal science
research station in centrally sponsored areas.
• Area - 83 ha.
There are 5 field of work:
• Crop improvement and protection
• Resource management
• Horticulture
• Fisheries
• Animal husbandry
61
Demonstration unit:
• Vermi-compost unit
• Ornamental garden
• Mango orchard
• Cashew orchard
• Poultry unit
• Nursery unit
Major crops:
• Brinjal- wilt resistant
• Flower crop
• Mango –Munkurad and Hillarioare local variety are used for grafting.
• Cowpea, chilli, okra, some pulses
Cashew :
• Two main varieties of cashew are Agrasen (oblong) and Kaligum
(round).
• Local varieties of cashew released in Goa are Bali-1 and Bali-2.
• Distillation of fenny from cashew apple is done only in Goa.
• Important pests of cashew are- Tea Mosquito bug, stem and root borer.
• Visit to post harvest technology laboratory
62
63
Coconut based on multistory cropping system:
• Year of start: 2011-12
• Total area: 5103 square meter
• Year of planting : 1989
• Spacing :9m × 9m
• Local coconut cultivar: Benaulium and Calangute
Multistory cropping components:
• Black pepper : Paniyur -1, Marecella local -1
• Betel vine : Shilwada-1,2
• Cinnamon : Shiroda 1,2, Konkan Tej
• Banana :Sakri, Nendran, Red banana, Monthan, Robusta.
64
Post Harvest Technology Lab
65
University of Agricultural Science Dharvad
(Karnataka)
66
INTRODUCTION
• Established:1stoct 1986
• Vice-chancellor: Dr. B. S. JANAGOUDAR
• The university has 5 Colleges, 30 research station,
6 extension education unit, 5 Krishi Vigyan
Kendra over 7 districts.
67
Hi-tech horticulture unit, Dharwad
• Establishment :- 2005-06
• It includes modern green houses/Polyhouse, shade houses, net
houses, mist chamber, micro-irrigation & fertigation, hydroponic
units.
• They developed production technologies for capsicum, tomato,
exotic vegetables, rose, gerbera, carnation, orchids, bird of paradise,
anthurium for protected cultivation.
It holds 200 acre area in which-
• 70% outdoor horticulture
• 30% indoor horticulture
• 30 structure for protected cultivation.
• 10 structure for propagation.
• Others for- hybrid seed production
• Hardening of tissue cultured plants
• For various vegetables (Lettuce) & flower crops (Gladiolus,
Tuberose, Rose, China aster, Anthurium, Carnation, Gypsophila,
Bird of paradise)
68
Gerbera Cultivation Unit-
• Light requirement- 35,000-40,000 Lux
• Life span- 3-4 year
• Plant price- 35-40 Rs/plant
• Yield- 35-40 flower/plant/year
• Harvesting- Full bloom
• Once is planted gives flower for 3-5 years if maintained properly.
69
Bird of Paradise in protected cultivation
• Variety:- Mandeln’s grid.
• It flowers terminally.
• 1-10 florets per spike.
• Harvested at 1-3 florets open as cut flower.
• Other will continues to bloom itself.
• 1 plant gives 5-6 flower per year.
Orchid Polyhouse Unit
• Variety:- Sonia-17, Cackis, bakball.
• Require 30-35⁰C temperature maintain by fan
pad system.
• Price:- 35-40 Rs. of tissue cultured plants.
• 15 Rs. per spike
70
Soil less cultivation Unit
• Hydroponics
• Substrate base (other than soil)
• Nutrient is given as directly in available form by using NFT
(Nutrient filling technique).
• Mixture of various liquid fertilizers along with CaSO4,
Ca(NO3)2
• EC maintained in hydroponics 1-1.5 EC, normal – 0.8 EC
• Amide &Ammonia forms are not used in hydroponics.
71
University of Horticultural Science Bagalkot
(Karnatka)
72
Variety release by this university
• Coriander- DDC-46
• Drumstick –Bhagya (KDM-01)
• Capsicum – Apoorva (CP-40)
• Chilli – GCH -94-68
• Chrysanthemum- Dundi
• Black pepper- Adimane
• Garlic- AAS-2 (Color of clove- Pinkish)
• Sapota- DHS-1,2
• Coconut- Kalpatharu, This variety gives better nut yield
90 nuts/palm (15,750 nuts/ha) and copra yield (2779
kg/ha). The oil content in copra is 67.2%. The oil
contains 44.7 percent of lauric acid.
73
Petunia Chrysanthemum
Velvet flower Coleus 74
Bio Control Lab
Bio-organism-
• Any microorganism which helps in the easy availability or
mobilization of nutrients from soil or atmosphere to plants in
available and absorbable form is called bio-organism
Bio-fertilizer-
• A bio-fertilizer is a substance which contains living
microorganisms, when applied to seeds, plant surfaces, or soil,
colonize the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and
promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of
primary nutrients to the host plant.
Some of the important Bio-fertilizers are: -
• Potash mobilizing Bacteria
• Phosphate solubilising Bacteria
• Azospirillum
• Azotobacter
• Rhizobium
75
Bio-fertilizers Wine
76
National Research Center on Pomegranate,
Solapur (Maharashtra)
77
Introduction-
• The ICAR-National Research Centre on Pomegranate, Solapur
(Maharashtra), was established on June 16, 2005 by the Indian
Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, as a step to strengthen
research and development infrastructure for pomegranate crop.
Though Universities and institutes all over the world are having
research programmes on pomegranate, this is the only institution
working solely on pomegranate. The centre was established to fulfill
the growing demand for pomegranate both in domestic and export
market through tapping the immense production potential prevailing
in the country.
Achievements during 2005 to 2018:-
• Integrated disease and insect pest management schedule to mitigate
pomegranate bacterial blight.
• Production of low cost healthy planting materials using hard wood
cuttings
• Bio-hardening of tissue cultured planting materials of pomegranate
cv. Bhagwa
• Protocol for preparation of sparkling wine from pomegranate.
• A process for extraction of virgin pomegranate seed oil.
• Improving water use efficiency in pomegranate 78
Jain Irrigation System Pvt. Ltd., Jalgaon
(Maharashtra)
79
•Jain irrigation company is multi producer company.
•Many of plants established in this company like solar plant, bio gas plant,
water harvesting plants, fruit and veg. proccesing plant, irrigation system
manufacturing plant etc.
•Total area of Jain irrigation pvt. Ltd. is 2000 acre.
•Total 5000 labour and 500 managers and workers work in Jain irrigation.
•About 150 wells, 15 dams are established for water harvesting.
•Jain irrigation also prepares lot of and quality planting material.
Industry Agriculture, Irrigation, Pipe, Food Processing, Solar Energy
Founded Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India (1986)
Headquarters Jalgaon, India
No of locations 29 manufacturing plants worldwide
Area served Worldwide
Key people Bhavarlal Jain (Founder, Chairman)
Ashok B. Jain (Chairman)
80
Drip Irrigation System:-
• Drip irrigation is today’s need because Water – nature’s gift to
mankind is not unlimited and free forever. World water
resources are fast diminishing. The one and only answer to this
problem is Jain Drip Irrigation Systems. “Jain Drip” the name
which you can trust, the only manufacturer of all drip irrigation
components.
• After detailed study of inter–relationship among soil, water,
crop, land terrain and related agro climatic conditions, Jains
designed a suitable and economically viable system to deliver a
measured quantity of water at the root zone of each plant at
regular intervals. This is to ensure that the plants do not suffer
from stress or strain of less and over watering. The system
installed at the farmer’s field is commissioned and training
imparted to the farmer, followed by regular after sales services.
• The result – A totally customized, efficient and long–life system
which ensures saving in water, early maturity and a bountiful
harvest, season after season, year after year. Apart from all this,
savings in labour and fertilizer costs.
81
The advantages of drip irrigation are:
1. Fertilizer and nutrient loss is minimized due to a localized application
and reduced leaching.
2. Water application efficiency is high if managed correctly.
3. Field leveling is not necessary.
4. Fields with irregular shapes are easily accommodated.
5. Moisture within the root zone can be maintained at field capacity.
6. Soil type plays a less important role in the frequency of irrigation.
7. Soil erosion is lessened.
8. Weed growth is lessened.
9. Water distribution is highly uniform, controlled by the output of each
nozzle.
10. Labour cost is less than other irrigation methods.
11. Variation in supply can be regulated by regulating the valves and
drippers.
12. Fertigation can easily be included with minimal waste of fertilizers.
13. Foliage remains dry, reducing the risk of disease.
14. Usually operated at lower pressure than other types of pressurized
irrigation, reducing energy costs.
82
Jain irrigation achievements
83
Sprinkler Irrigation System:-
• Sprinkler Irrigation is a method of applying irrigation water
which is similar to rainfall. Water is distributed through a
system of pipes usually by pumping. It is then sprayed into the
air and irrigated entire soil surface through spray heads so that
it breaks up into small water drops which fall to the ground.
• Sprinklers provide efficient coverage for small to large areas
and are suitable for use on all types of properties. It is also
adaptable to nearly all irrigable soils since sprinklers are
available in a wide range of discharge capacity.
• Jain Sprinkler system is an unique irrigation system. It is
designed to ensure maximum water saving, combining high
quality, affordability and ease of installation. All the products
are made out of high strength & chemical resistance
engineering plastics to achieve functional satisfaction and to
maintain cost economics.
• All sprinklers undergo extensive quality testing in our well
equipped state of the art lab. Moreover, performance of the
products are also tested in the field to ensure uniform water
distribution and higher efficiency 84
PVC pipes & Fitting:-
• Jain PVC Plastic Pipes and Pipe Fittings are available in
a vast range and in various materials. Whatever be your
application. We have the Piping Systems - that can be
installed on surface, buried, slip lined, trench less,
floating and submerged. Jain PVC Plastic pipes can be
used in Fluids transport including, lifting, transporting,
conveying, distributing disposing or tapping of water,
waste-water (drainage & sewage), compressed gases/air,
odorous and corrosive gasses, chemicals and hazardous
wastes/effluents. Solids conveyed include coal ash,
slurries, sand and cables.
• Whatever we manufacture we have aligned with our
conservation policy. Water & Energy conservation and
nature protection with our products like PVC Plastic
Piping Systems, Solar Water heating Systems, Micro
Irrigation Systems, Food Processing and Plastic Sheets.
85
PVC Pipes & Fitting
86
Solar System Plant of Jain Irrigation Pvt. Ltd.
• Total area covered by solar system plant is 500 acre.
• Total electricity produced by solar system is 8.30 MHz.
• Power evacuation level is 33 KV
87
• Tissue Culture - The propagation of a plant by using a
plant part or single cell or group cell in a test tube under
very controlled and hygienic conditions is called "Tissue
Culture".
Jain Tissue culture achievements-
• Jain Tissue culture’, working since 1995 for propagation
and supply of ‘Tissue Culture Planting Material’ in the
country, the ‘Oldest and Biggest Laboratory’ for Banana,
Pomegranate and Strawberry in the world.
• The tissue culture unit is accredited to ISO 9001-2008 for
quality management systems by TUVNORD,
Germany, ‘Certified Tissue Culture Production
Facility’ by Department of Bio-technology, Govt of India
under NCS-TCP, supplies ‘Certified Banana Planting
Material’ which is the only laboratory of its kind in the
country.
• What we offer, we offer you ‘Minimum Resources,
Maximum Produce Technology’ for below mentioned
crops.
88
• Planting material available Jain Irrigation Pvt. Ltd are-
 Banana, Strawberry, Pomegranate.
• Production capacity – 10 million plants/annum
• Commercial experience – 6 year
Advantages of Tissue Culture Planting Material-
1. True to the type of mother plant under well management.
2. Pest and disease free seedlings.
3. Uniform growth, increases yield.
4. Early maturity of crop
5. Round the year planting possible as seedlings are made
available throughout the year.
6. Two successive ratoons are possible in a short duration
which minimizes cost of cultivation.
7. No staggered harvesting.
8. 95% - 98% plants bear bunches.
9. New varieties can be introduced and multiplied in a short
duration
89
Hybrid seed production in onion
Process :-
• Pollinating a female plant of desired var. with a male
pollinator plant of desired variety.
• Production capacity – 20 MT/ annum
Advantage:-
• High yield
• Genetically pure.
Planting Material of Jain Irrigation Pvt. Ltd.
• In Jain irrigation many fruit crops are planted with better
quality and resistance against biotic and abiotic stress.
• In Jain Irrigation Pvt. Ltd. Total 4320 mango plants are
planted.
Mainly growing plants-
• Sapota ( Kalipatti var.)
• Banana (Ventury var.)
• Pomegranate ( Ganesh, Mridula var.)
90
Mango Concentrate, Mango Pulp & Mango
Puree of Jain Irrigation Pvt. Ltd
• These are made from selected
varieties of Mango. Fully
matured Mangoes are harvested,
quickly transported to our fruit
processing plant, inspected and
washed. Selected high quality
fruits go to the controlled
ripening chambers; Fully Ripened
Mango fruits are then washed,
blanched, pulped, deseeded,
centrifuged, homogenized,
concentrated when required,
thermally processed and
aseptically filled maintaining
commercial sterility.
91
92

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Educational tour of Horticulture students, SDAU, Dantiwada (Gujarat)

  • 1. 1 Educational tour of Horticulture students S.D.A.U. Dantiwada (Gujarat) Batch- 2015-19
  • 2. Educational tour Date- 16/01/2019-28/01/2019 Tour leader- • Dr Hasmukh Leua • Miss Shreya State cover- • Maharashtra • Goa • Karnataka Outline of tour- • 4 State agriculture universities • 4 ICAR centres • 1 Private sector • 1 Cooperative sector 2
  • 3. 4 State agriculture universities- i. Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Maharashtra ii. Dr Balasaheb Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Maharashtra iii. University of Agriculture science, Dharvad, Karnataka iv. University of Horticulture science, Bagalkot, Karnataka ICAR centres- • ICAR National Research Centre on pomegranate, Solapur, Maharashtra • ICAR National Research Centre on Grapes, Pune • ICAR Central Coastal Agricultural Research Station, Goa • Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research, Rajagurunagar (Maharashtra) Private sector- i. Jain Irrigation system, Jalgaon, Maharashtra Cooperative sector- i. Kunbi Seva Sangh, Dapoli 3
  • 4. Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth (MPKV), Rahuri Date- 17/01/2019 •The Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth (MPKV), Rahuri is the premier Agricultural University in Maharashtra. •It has been established for the entire Maharashtra State and started functioning in March, 1968 with its office at Mumbai. •The office was shifted to College of Agriculture, Pune in 1969. •Later on in 1972, four agricultural universities were established in Maharashtra. •Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri is having jurisdiction spread over 10 districts viz. Jalgaon, Nandurbar, Dhule, Nashik, Ahmednagar, Pune, Solapur, Satara, Sangli and Kolhapur. •The University is named after the great social reformer "Mahatma Jyotiba Phule". 4
  • 5. Mandates- • To provide education in agriculture and allied sciences. • To have further advancement of learning and research in agriculture and allied sciences. • To integrate and coordinate the teaching of the subjects in the different faculties of the university. • To coordinate the education, research and extension education activities for augmentation of agricultural production. • To provide integrated agricultural education activities at all levels for maximum effectiveness and at a minimum cost. • To undertake and guide extension education programmes. Goal- • Sustainable growth of agriculture by interfacing education, research and extension education initiatives complemented with efficient and effective institutional, infrastructural support that will create a proper fit between humanity and its habitat. 5
  • 7. Visit to ATIC (Agricultural Technology Information Centre) 7
  • 8. Various varieties of different crops released from MPKV Rahuri are- • Lime -Phule Sarbati • Sweet Orange -Phule Mosambi • French Bean - Phule Suyash • Turmeric -Phule Swarupa • Tomato -Phule Raja, Bhagyasree • Chilli -Phule Jyoti • Okra -Phule Utkarsh, Phule Vimukta • Brinjal -Krishna • Brocoli -Ganesh Brocoli • Garlic -Phule Baswant • Bottle Gourd -Samrat • Onion -Baswant-780, Phule Samarth • Pomegranate -Arakta, Bhagva, Bhagawa Super • Drumstick -Bhagya 8
  • 9. Visit to Central nursery Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, MPKV, Rahuri Guide by- Kharde sir, Agriculture Officer (Central nursery MPKV) (1) Lemon- • Variety –Sai Sarasbati • Fruiting after 4 year • Spacing- 6m×6m • Propagation by- Seed (2) Guava- • Variety- Sardar • Spacing- 6m×6m , 8m×8m • Propagation- Air layering 9
  • 10. (3) Sapota- • Variety- Kalipatti • Propagation method- inarching propagation • Time- June July • Price of plant-70rs/plant (4) Mango- • Propagation of mango 1. Epicotyl grafting 2. Softwood grafting • Propagation time- August- September • Fruiting after 3 year • Price of mango plant- 60 rs/plant (Variety –Kesar) • Rootstock are treated with IBA solution for 2 minute in 5 ppm concentration 10
  • 11. • Epicotyl grafting in mango- • Stone/epicotyl grafting is a simple, cheap and quick method of mango propagation with a success rate of 75-80%. • For this purpose, stones should be sown in June-July on raised beds of size 1x3 m. • The beds should be prepared by mixing soil and FYM in the proportion of 2:1. • After germination, seedlings with tender stems having coppery leaves are lifted with stones still attached. • The roots and stones are dipped in 0.1% Carbendazim solution for 5 minutes after washing the soil. • The seedling stems are headed back leaving 6-8 cm long stem. • A 4-6 cm longitudinal cut is made running down through the middle of the stem. 11
  • 12. • A wedge shaped cut starting on both sides is made on the lower part of scion stick. • The scion stick should be 4-5 months old and 10-15 cm long containing plumpy terminal buds. • The scion stick is then inserted in the cleft of the seedlings and tied with polythene strips. • The grafts are then planted in polyethylene bags containing potting mixture. • The bags are then kept in the shade protecting from heavy rain. • The scion stars sprouting 15-20 days after grafting. • Care should be taken to remove the sprouts on the rootstocks below the graft union during this period. • July is the most suitable month for stone grafting. 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. Research and development of different variety in horticulture development, MPKV, Rahuri (1) Pomegranate- • Ganesh -1962 • G 137 - 1964 • P-23 - 1986 • P-26 - 1987 • Mridula - 1994 • Bhagwa - 2003 • Phule Bhagwa Super - 2013 • Phule Anardana - 2016 (2) Custard apple • Phule Jhanki 14
  • 15. (3) Fig- • Phule Rajwadi (4) Mango • Sai Sugandha • Phule Abhiruchi (5) Papaya • Phule Vijaya (6) Kagzi lime • Sai Sarbati (7) Orange • Phule Mosambi (8) Banana • Phule Pride 15
  • 16. Research Development Project On Cattle Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri • Phule Triveni breed of cow is developed by Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri. • Phule Triveni is the cross between 25% Gir, 25% Jarshey and 50% Hybrid. • Milk production- 18-20 lit/day • Average milk production of 3000-3500 litre per lactation period with 4% fat in milk. • Fodder- Jowar, african tall maize, lucerne • Food requirement- 18 kg/day 16
  • 17. Good milking cow quality- • Black with white patches • Tight skin • Shining on skin • Large nipple • Body with narrow front with wide back 17
  • 18. National Research Centre on Grapes, Pune Date- 18/01/2019 18
  • 19. Instructor:-Dr. D.D. Khade • The ICAR-National Research Centre for Grapes under Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi was established on 18th January 1997 at Manjri, Pune • Area spread in 100 acre land in which 50% land under cultivation and 50% land under rootstock preparation. • Main aim of NRC is to develop the vine quality with use of strain and also improve anthocyanin and alcohol. • NRC mainly work on powdery mildew and downy mildew on 500+ different varietal germplasms are maintained in NRC. • Centre celebrates grape day on 3-5 march. 19
  • 20. Mandate • Strategic and applied research on safe grape production and productivity. • Transfer of technology and capacity building of stakeholders for enhanced and sustained production of grapes. • National Referral Laboratory for Food Safety and Pesticide residue in fruits. 20
  • 21. Variety develop from NRC:- Coloured variety: Green colour:- Manjri Navin Red colour:- Red Globe Black colour:- Fantasy Seedless Juice variety: Thumika 3 Seedless variety: Thompson seedless, Sonaka seedless, Ambe Sonaka (Sonaka variety suitable for Gujarat cultivation) 21
  • 22. Based on this mandate the research is conducted with the following objectives: • To collect, characterize, evaluate and catalogue Vitis germplasm • To maintain core field germplasms with wide genetic base. • To develop varieties with economically important traits for table, wine, raisins and juice. • To develop appropriate and economically viable agro techniques for quality grape production. • To sustain the productivity and quality through management of biotic and abiotic stresses. • To develop technologies with minimal dependence on agro chemical inputs. • To develop appropriate pre and post harvest technologies for extended shelf-life and processing into value added products. • To develop strategic alliances for research and transfer of technologies. 22
  • 23. Head System- • Advantages of this system are easiness, inexpensiveness, suitability in high density planting and possibility of inter cultivation but yield per vine is usually low. • This method is especially suitable for less vigorous varieties producing fruitful shoots from basal buds such as Beauty Seedless, Delight, and Perlette. • Single shoot is allowed to grow from newly planted vines, removing side shoots if produced and by help of stake. 23
  • 24. • Heading back the main single stem at a height of 1.2 meters permits side shoots. • In general, four laterals at about 75 cm above ground level, in all directions are retained after removing all other shoots produced. • Later two secondary's from each lateral are allowed. • Vines trained on head system have bushy shape, occupy less space and can be adopted for high density planting vineyards. 24
  • 25. Bower / Pandal / Pergola system- • Two vigorous shoots in opposite direction are maintained initially as primary arms and three laterals spaced at 60 cm are developed on both sides as secondary arms on each primary shoot, thus there will be 12 secondary arms on each vine. • This is widely adopted in tropics throughout world to exploit the full productive potential of vines, which show apical dominance under tropics. 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. Procedure of pruning:- • First open the trench and apply chemical on it. • Depending upon soil type, the rootstock are joint in month of jan-feb. • In sept-oct, scion is ready for the grafting. • When the two bud sprout on the graft, first pinching are done. • Second pinch done when the arm size increase. • Full canopy cover at 3rd year. After that remain one bud and prune the arm. • Double pruning also work on grape. Few important points about grapes - • Life of plant is 20 year maximum • Different types of training like Pandal, Telephone, Head system. 27
  • 28. • In grape back pruning, forward pruning and fruit pruning also work. • For elongation of berries spray Gibberellic acid 200 ppm. • Spray 4g in 60 lit of water at 50% flowering time. • For control pink berries spray 200 ppm GA3 + Acrobat + mancozeb mixture 1.6 gm in 10 lit of water. • For control of powdery mildew before 30 of fruit seating spray hexaconazol 0.5 ml/1 lit. • Main pest in grape is stem borer which is maintained with proper care. • Hen & chicken disorder – Zn deficiency. • We also saw different machineries used in viticulture like wrape around sprayer, juice extractor, disc plough, powered sprayer, tractor mounted Contin…. 28
  • 29. Drying of grapes: • For making dry grapes (kismis) required drying of fresh and healthy grapes. For drying grapes three methods followed:- 1. Sun drying 2. Shade drying 3. Mechanical drying Shade drying house 29
  • 31. Introduction: • MPKV: Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidhyapeeth College of Agriculture, Pune • Location- Maharashtra • Establishment year: 1969 • No. of Research Station: 23 • Vice-chancellor: Dr. K. P. Vishvanath • The College of Agriculture, Pune is one of the first five agricultural colleges established in India. • In 1969, the College was transferred to the Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri established in that year. • The B.Sc.(Horti) and PG programme was started in the year 1984 and 1985 respectively. • The MBA (Agri.) programme was started in the year 2008. The University headquarter is located in Rahuri, Dist. Ahmednagar 160 km to the north of Pune. 31
  • 32. Mandates: • To provide education in agriculture and allied sciences. • To have further advancement of learning and research in agriculture and allied sciences. • To integrate and coordinate the teaching of the subject in the different faculties of the university. • To coordinate the education, research and extension education activities for augmentation of agricultural production. • To provide integrated agricultural education activities at all levels for maximum effectiveness and at a minimum cost. 32
  • 33. Hi-tech Horticulture Project College of Agriculture, Pune Date- 18/01/2019 33
  • 34. Flower grow as cut flowers 1. Rose 2. Carnation 3. Gerbera • Total five polyhouse • Shape of poly house- Aerodynamic Covering material-  200 micron & 400 gauge polythene  Ultraviolet property  Life of covering material 3 to 4 years  Cost 55 to 60 rs per square metre Parameter which are maintained  Temperature, RH, light, CO2 level • 3 to 4 crops take in a year • Peg system for irrigation • Well drained soil 34
  • 35. Gerbera- • Light requirement- 35,000-40,000 lux • Life span-3-4 year • Plant price- 35-40 Rs/plant • Yield- 35-40 flower/plant/year • Harvesting- Full bloom Carnation- • Planting distance- 15×15 cm • Propagation- Cutting • Yield- 10-12 flower/plant/year • Flower price- 4-5 Rs/flower • Harvesting- Paint brush stage Rose • Variety- Duch, Top secret • Shelf life of rose 6 to 7 year • Harvesting- Button stage • Yield- 25-30 flower/plant/year • Rate of flowers 4-5 Rs/flower • Corrugated cardboard is used for packaging material 35
  • 36. Packaging- • Make bunch of 20 flowers with the arrangement of 4 layer (5 flower in each layer). Wrap flower head with corrugated fiber board and tie up with rubber band. Cut the end of stem with proper length. Store at low temperature and high humidity chamber 36
  • 37. Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research, Rajagurunagar (Maharashtra ) 37
  • 38. • Establishment:- ICAR established National Research Center for Onion and Garlic in 8th five year plan with its headquarter at Nasik in 1994. However, due to some working constraints the center was shifted to Rajguru nagar on 16 june 1998. The center has been upgraded to Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research since December 2008. • Work:- Research on genetic improvement of onion and garlic, develop crop production and crop protection practices with the aim to increase productivity and reduce post- harvest losses. The knowledge, products, and technology generated are passed on to the farmers through various extension workers, as well as public- private partnership. 38
  • 39. Propagation of Onion and Garlic • Propagation of onion- Bulb, Seed • Seed rate:10-12 Kg/ha • Required bulbs:1000-1200 Kg/ha • Propagation of Garlic- Clove, bulbils • Required cloves:350-500 Kg/ha Onion sowing for seed production • Two method of sowing: 1. Seed to Seed method 2. Bulb to Seed method Isolation distance of Onion:  1000 m for Foundation seed  500 m for Certified seed Isolation distance of Garlic:  10 m for Foundation seed  5 m for Certified seed 39
  • 40. Grading of Onion: • Grading is an essential operation before sowing of bulbs and after harvesting of bulbs. • Grading on the basis of size of bulb. Two type of grader:- 1. Motor operated 2. Hand operated 40
  • 41. Storage Structure of onion. • Storage losses of onion: 40-50% • Onion bulb stored at 0-4.5°C • Medium size bulbs (50-80 mm) free from cuts and bruises are recommended for storage. 41
  • 42. Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri. Date- 21/01/2019 42
  • 43. • The Konkan region is distinguished from the rest of Maharashtra State by virtue of its distinct agroclimatic conditions, soil types, topography, its location between the Sahyadri ranges and the Arabian sea, crops and cropping pattern, land holdings, and socio-economic conditions of the farmers. • As such, the problems in agriculture and allied sectors are also entirely different from the other parts of Maharashtra. • Due to this uniqueness, the Government of Maharashtra established the Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth on the 18th May 1972 to impart education, conduct research on location specific problems and disseminate the improved crop production technologies amongst the farming community. • The university was renamed as Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli on 12th February 2001. 43
  • 44. Mandate and Objectives:- • To Provide education in agriculture and allied sciences by integrating and co-ordinating teaching in different faculties and examine the students, confer degrees, diplomas, certificates and other academic distinctions. • To provide research base to improve the productivity of agriculture, horticulture, livestock, fisheries and agri - allied activities in Konkan region through basic, applied, adoptive and need based research for attaining economic growth and self-sufficiency of the State. • To develop appropriate plans for conservation of natural resources and their sustainable use. • To undertake and guide extension education programmes including first line transfer of technology, extend technological services for training, conduct demonstrations and develop appropriate communication network. 44
  • 45. Conti…. • To standardize technologies for crop production, protection, harvesting, marketing, post harvest utilization and also for livestock, poultry and fisheries for improving the standard of living of the farmers, farm workers and women of Konkan in general and rural women in particular. • To provide necessary production support of nucleus, breeders and foundation seed of important crops of the region and also generate revenue through large farms for sustainable growth of the University. Research- • The University caters to the location specific agricultural research needs of the region. The major research is focused on rice, horticultural crops, fish production, tools and implements development, post harvest technology, wasteland reclamation, soil and water conservation, soil management and animal production. The research work is being undertaken through state and central government sponsored research projects at main Campus and 16 research stations of the University. The university has also signed MoU for collaborative research with a number of national and international institutes in public and private sector. 45
  • 47. Different propagation method recommended in konkan region by university in different fruits, spices and plantation crops:- Crop Propagation method Mango Stone grafting, softwood grafting, veneer grafting Cashewnut Softwood grafting Aonla Patch budding Jackfruit Epicotyl grafting, softwood grafting Jamun Air layering, Seed Sapota Inarching Woodapple Inarch grafting Blackpepper Runner, cutting and grafting Kokum Air layering, veneer grafting, approch grafting, softwood grafting Cinamom Cutting and air layering Nutmeg Grafting Cardemom Seed, suckers Arecanut Seed Banana Suckers , Tissue culture 47
  • 48. Crop Name Varieties 1. Fruit , Plantation and Spice crops:- Mango Ratna, Sindhu, Sindhu-117, Konkar Ruchi, Alphanso, Suvarna, Konkan Raja, Konkan Samrat Cashewnut Vengurla 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 Jackfruit Konkan Prolific Jamun Konkan Bahadoli Karonda Kokan Bold Coconut Pratap, Banawali, Konkan Avishkar Arecanut Sriwardhini Kokum Konkan Hatish, Konkan Amruta Cinnamon KonkanTej, Konkan Tejpatta Nutmeg Konkan Sugandha, Konkan Swad, Konkan Srimanthi Banana Konkan Safed Velchi Lemon Konkan Lemon Different Varieties developed by BSKV university:- 48
  • 49. 1. Vegetable Crops Dolichos bean Konkan Bhushan Chilli Konkan Kirti Tomato Sonali Cucumber Sheetal Snake gourd Konkan Shweta Bitter gourd Konkan Tara Drumstick Konkan Ruchira Ridge gourd Konkan Harita Amaranths Konkan Durangi Indian bean Konkan Wal 1,2, Konkan Wali Coriander Konkan Kasturi Snap melon Konkan Madhur Tuber crops Aerial Yam Konkan Kalika Lesser Yam Konkan Kanchan Greater Yam Konkan Ghorkand Sweet Potato Konkan Ashwini Xanthosoma Konkan Harit parni 49
  • 50. Centre of Excellence for Mango, Dr BS Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli 50
  • 51. • The Central located in Dapoli Maharashtra state was inaugurated by agriculture minister of Maharashtra. • It is home for the famous Alphonso mango considered to be king of mango in India. • Mango variety released by Dapoli Institute are-  Ratna  Sindhu  Sindhu 117  Alphanso  Konkan Ruchi  Konkan Raja  Samrat Suvarna 51
  • 52. Rejuvenation of old orchard of mango at centre of excellence Objectives of rejuvenation 1.To increase the productivity and economic age of plant. 2.To convert the low yielding and inferior varieties/seedling origin trees into superior and high yielding trees. 3.To exploit the better root system of a plant who has survived in adverse soil and climatic conditions. 4.To lessen the time of gestation period. 5.To increase the orchard income. 6.To lessen the incidence of diseases and pests. Principle of rejuvenation 1.Trees have latent buds which are activated by heading back of branches at certain point to put forth new sprouts which grow into branches forming fruiting area. 2.When the branches are cut back, imbalance is created in root: shoot ratio as a result new shoots arise from plant to balance it. 52
  • 53. Regional Fruit Reasearch Station Vengurla, Maharastra Date- 22/01/2019 53
  • 54. • Date of establishment:- 1957 • Total area:- 68.23 ha • Important Research crops:- Mango, Cashew, Kokum, Aonla, Coconut, Sapota, Jackfruit, Jamun, Mangosteen, Lemon, Kodi kokum, Papanus • Name of schemes under research area:-  NARP phase-1  NARP phase-2 • AICRP on Cashew Improvement • Establishment of four laboratories for development of fruit crops. 54
  • 55. Nursery Department • This station establishment in 1957 by state agricultural department and handover BSKV Konkan- Dapoli University in 1972. This station released 23 varieties of different fruit crops, more than 100 recommendations and prepared annually 3,00,000 graft of mango and different fruit crops. • We seen different fruit crops like Mango, Avocado, Mangosteen, Surinan Cherry, Valvet Apple, Egg fruit, Ornamental karonda, Carambola, Cocoa, Aonla, Lemon, Kokum, Sapota, Jackfruit etc. • There was different varieties of mango fruit crops like Konkan Raja, Konkan Ruchi, Konkan Samrat, Sindu, Alphanso and different exotic varieties like Tomi Atkins, Kent, Keitt, Lily, Maya etc. • Wedge Grafting in Jamun. 55
  • 56. Mango Research Station, Vengurla Date- 22/01/2019 56
  • 57. •At Mango Research station we seen different varieties of Mango like Hybrid 10/1, Saleem, Beganpali, Kodur, Goa, Alphanso, Najuk Pasand, Konkan Raja, Farnandin, Hybrid 7/5, Kobri, Kesar, Sindhu, Payri, Vellaicolumban, Jahagir etc. and also seen different fruit crops like Mangosteen, Cocoa, Coconut (Coconut polygamy-3), Kokum, Velvet apple, Avocado, Nutmeg, Clove, Cinnamon. Varieties- Parentage Ratna Neelum × Alphanso Suvarna Alphanso × Neelum Sindhu (seedless/ papery stone) Ratna × Alphanso Konkan Ruchi (For pickle preparation) Neelum × Alphanso Konkan Samrat(regular and heavy bearer) Tommy Atkins × Alphanso Konkan Raja (For salad) Himayuddin × Benglora Mango- 57
  • 58. 2.Jamun:-Konkan Bahadoli (Bold type) 3. Karonda:-Konkan Bold- small seeds 4. Cinnamon:-Konkan Tej 5. Lemon:-Konkan Lemon- seedless variety 6. Kokum:- Kokum Hatis and Kokum Amrita • For 100% bisexual flowers, the propagation is done through Grafting. 7. Jackfruit:-Konkan Prolific 8. Nutmeg:-Konkan Sugandha 58
  • 59. 59
  • 60. ICAR Central Coastal Agricultural Research Station, Goa 60
  • 61. • ICAR established the ICAR Research Complex for Goa in April, 1976 to meet the need of agricultural research of Goa region. • The research centre was started in 1975 in Goa and Lakshadweep under the scheme for establishment of agricultural and animal science research station in centrally sponsored areas. • Area - 83 ha. There are 5 field of work: • Crop improvement and protection • Resource management • Horticulture • Fisheries • Animal husbandry 61
  • 62. Demonstration unit: • Vermi-compost unit • Ornamental garden • Mango orchard • Cashew orchard • Poultry unit • Nursery unit Major crops: • Brinjal- wilt resistant • Flower crop • Mango –Munkurad and Hillarioare local variety are used for grafting. • Cowpea, chilli, okra, some pulses Cashew : • Two main varieties of cashew are Agrasen (oblong) and Kaligum (round). • Local varieties of cashew released in Goa are Bali-1 and Bali-2. • Distillation of fenny from cashew apple is done only in Goa. • Important pests of cashew are- Tea Mosquito bug, stem and root borer. • Visit to post harvest technology laboratory 62
  • 63. 63
  • 64. Coconut based on multistory cropping system: • Year of start: 2011-12 • Total area: 5103 square meter • Year of planting : 1989 • Spacing :9m × 9m • Local coconut cultivar: Benaulium and Calangute Multistory cropping components: • Black pepper : Paniyur -1, Marecella local -1 • Betel vine : Shilwada-1,2 • Cinnamon : Shiroda 1,2, Konkan Tej • Banana :Sakri, Nendran, Red banana, Monthan, Robusta. 64
  • 66. University of Agricultural Science Dharvad (Karnataka) 66
  • 67. INTRODUCTION • Established:1stoct 1986 • Vice-chancellor: Dr. B. S. JANAGOUDAR • The university has 5 Colleges, 30 research station, 6 extension education unit, 5 Krishi Vigyan Kendra over 7 districts. 67
  • 68. Hi-tech horticulture unit, Dharwad • Establishment :- 2005-06 • It includes modern green houses/Polyhouse, shade houses, net houses, mist chamber, micro-irrigation & fertigation, hydroponic units. • They developed production technologies for capsicum, tomato, exotic vegetables, rose, gerbera, carnation, orchids, bird of paradise, anthurium for protected cultivation. It holds 200 acre area in which- • 70% outdoor horticulture • 30% indoor horticulture • 30 structure for protected cultivation. • 10 structure for propagation. • Others for- hybrid seed production • Hardening of tissue cultured plants • For various vegetables (Lettuce) & flower crops (Gladiolus, Tuberose, Rose, China aster, Anthurium, Carnation, Gypsophila, Bird of paradise) 68
  • 69. Gerbera Cultivation Unit- • Light requirement- 35,000-40,000 Lux • Life span- 3-4 year • Plant price- 35-40 Rs/plant • Yield- 35-40 flower/plant/year • Harvesting- Full bloom • Once is planted gives flower for 3-5 years if maintained properly. 69
  • 70. Bird of Paradise in protected cultivation • Variety:- Mandeln’s grid. • It flowers terminally. • 1-10 florets per spike. • Harvested at 1-3 florets open as cut flower. • Other will continues to bloom itself. • 1 plant gives 5-6 flower per year. Orchid Polyhouse Unit • Variety:- Sonia-17, Cackis, bakball. • Require 30-35⁰C temperature maintain by fan pad system. • Price:- 35-40 Rs. of tissue cultured plants. • 15 Rs. per spike 70
  • 71. Soil less cultivation Unit • Hydroponics • Substrate base (other than soil) • Nutrient is given as directly in available form by using NFT (Nutrient filling technique). • Mixture of various liquid fertilizers along with CaSO4, Ca(NO3)2 • EC maintained in hydroponics 1-1.5 EC, normal – 0.8 EC • Amide &Ammonia forms are not used in hydroponics. 71
  • 72. University of Horticultural Science Bagalkot (Karnatka) 72
  • 73. Variety release by this university • Coriander- DDC-46 • Drumstick –Bhagya (KDM-01) • Capsicum – Apoorva (CP-40) • Chilli – GCH -94-68 • Chrysanthemum- Dundi • Black pepper- Adimane • Garlic- AAS-2 (Color of clove- Pinkish) • Sapota- DHS-1,2 • Coconut- Kalpatharu, This variety gives better nut yield 90 nuts/palm (15,750 nuts/ha) and copra yield (2779 kg/ha). The oil content in copra is 67.2%. The oil contains 44.7 percent of lauric acid. 73
  • 75. Bio Control Lab Bio-organism- • Any microorganism which helps in the easy availability or mobilization of nutrients from soil or atmosphere to plants in available and absorbable form is called bio-organism Bio-fertilizer- • A bio-fertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganisms, when applied to seeds, plant surfaces, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Some of the important Bio-fertilizers are: - • Potash mobilizing Bacteria • Phosphate solubilising Bacteria • Azospirillum • Azotobacter • Rhizobium 75
  • 77. National Research Center on Pomegranate, Solapur (Maharashtra) 77
  • 78. Introduction- • The ICAR-National Research Centre on Pomegranate, Solapur (Maharashtra), was established on June 16, 2005 by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, as a step to strengthen research and development infrastructure for pomegranate crop. Though Universities and institutes all over the world are having research programmes on pomegranate, this is the only institution working solely on pomegranate. The centre was established to fulfill the growing demand for pomegranate both in domestic and export market through tapping the immense production potential prevailing in the country. Achievements during 2005 to 2018:- • Integrated disease and insect pest management schedule to mitigate pomegranate bacterial blight. • Production of low cost healthy planting materials using hard wood cuttings • Bio-hardening of tissue cultured planting materials of pomegranate cv. Bhagwa • Protocol for preparation of sparkling wine from pomegranate. • A process for extraction of virgin pomegranate seed oil. • Improving water use efficiency in pomegranate 78
  • 79. Jain Irrigation System Pvt. Ltd., Jalgaon (Maharashtra) 79
  • 80. •Jain irrigation company is multi producer company. •Many of plants established in this company like solar plant, bio gas plant, water harvesting plants, fruit and veg. proccesing plant, irrigation system manufacturing plant etc. •Total area of Jain irrigation pvt. Ltd. is 2000 acre. •Total 5000 labour and 500 managers and workers work in Jain irrigation. •About 150 wells, 15 dams are established for water harvesting. •Jain irrigation also prepares lot of and quality planting material. Industry Agriculture, Irrigation, Pipe, Food Processing, Solar Energy Founded Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India (1986) Headquarters Jalgaon, India No of locations 29 manufacturing plants worldwide Area served Worldwide Key people Bhavarlal Jain (Founder, Chairman) Ashok B. Jain (Chairman) 80
  • 81. Drip Irrigation System:- • Drip irrigation is today’s need because Water – nature’s gift to mankind is not unlimited and free forever. World water resources are fast diminishing. The one and only answer to this problem is Jain Drip Irrigation Systems. “Jain Drip” the name which you can trust, the only manufacturer of all drip irrigation components. • After detailed study of inter–relationship among soil, water, crop, land terrain and related agro climatic conditions, Jains designed a suitable and economically viable system to deliver a measured quantity of water at the root zone of each plant at regular intervals. This is to ensure that the plants do not suffer from stress or strain of less and over watering. The system installed at the farmer’s field is commissioned and training imparted to the farmer, followed by regular after sales services. • The result – A totally customized, efficient and long–life system which ensures saving in water, early maturity and a bountiful harvest, season after season, year after year. Apart from all this, savings in labour and fertilizer costs. 81
  • 82. The advantages of drip irrigation are: 1. Fertilizer and nutrient loss is minimized due to a localized application and reduced leaching. 2. Water application efficiency is high if managed correctly. 3. Field leveling is not necessary. 4. Fields with irregular shapes are easily accommodated. 5. Moisture within the root zone can be maintained at field capacity. 6. Soil type plays a less important role in the frequency of irrigation. 7. Soil erosion is lessened. 8. Weed growth is lessened. 9. Water distribution is highly uniform, controlled by the output of each nozzle. 10. Labour cost is less than other irrigation methods. 11. Variation in supply can be regulated by regulating the valves and drippers. 12. Fertigation can easily be included with minimal waste of fertilizers. 13. Foliage remains dry, reducing the risk of disease. 14. Usually operated at lower pressure than other types of pressurized irrigation, reducing energy costs. 82
  • 84. Sprinkler Irrigation System:- • Sprinkler Irrigation is a method of applying irrigation water which is similar to rainfall. Water is distributed through a system of pipes usually by pumping. It is then sprayed into the air and irrigated entire soil surface through spray heads so that it breaks up into small water drops which fall to the ground. • Sprinklers provide efficient coverage for small to large areas and are suitable for use on all types of properties. It is also adaptable to nearly all irrigable soils since sprinklers are available in a wide range of discharge capacity. • Jain Sprinkler system is an unique irrigation system. It is designed to ensure maximum water saving, combining high quality, affordability and ease of installation. All the products are made out of high strength & chemical resistance engineering plastics to achieve functional satisfaction and to maintain cost economics. • All sprinklers undergo extensive quality testing in our well equipped state of the art lab. Moreover, performance of the products are also tested in the field to ensure uniform water distribution and higher efficiency 84
  • 85. PVC pipes & Fitting:- • Jain PVC Plastic Pipes and Pipe Fittings are available in a vast range and in various materials. Whatever be your application. We have the Piping Systems - that can be installed on surface, buried, slip lined, trench less, floating and submerged. Jain PVC Plastic pipes can be used in Fluids transport including, lifting, transporting, conveying, distributing disposing or tapping of water, waste-water (drainage & sewage), compressed gases/air, odorous and corrosive gasses, chemicals and hazardous wastes/effluents. Solids conveyed include coal ash, slurries, sand and cables. • Whatever we manufacture we have aligned with our conservation policy. Water & Energy conservation and nature protection with our products like PVC Plastic Piping Systems, Solar Water heating Systems, Micro Irrigation Systems, Food Processing and Plastic Sheets. 85
  • 86. PVC Pipes & Fitting 86
  • 87. Solar System Plant of Jain Irrigation Pvt. Ltd. • Total area covered by solar system plant is 500 acre. • Total electricity produced by solar system is 8.30 MHz. • Power evacuation level is 33 KV 87
  • 88. • Tissue Culture - The propagation of a plant by using a plant part or single cell or group cell in a test tube under very controlled and hygienic conditions is called "Tissue Culture". Jain Tissue culture achievements- • Jain Tissue culture’, working since 1995 for propagation and supply of ‘Tissue Culture Planting Material’ in the country, the ‘Oldest and Biggest Laboratory’ for Banana, Pomegranate and Strawberry in the world. • The tissue culture unit is accredited to ISO 9001-2008 for quality management systems by TUVNORD, Germany, ‘Certified Tissue Culture Production Facility’ by Department of Bio-technology, Govt of India under NCS-TCP, supplies ‘Certified Banana Planting Material’ which is the only laboratory of its kind in the country. • What we offer, we offer you ‘Minimum Resources, Maximum Produce Technology’ for below mentioned crops. 88
  • 89. • Planting material available Jain Irrigation Pvt. Ltd are-  Banana, Strawberry, Pomegranate. • Production capacity – 10 million plants/annum • Commercial experience – 6 year Advantages of Tissue Culture Planting Material- 1. True to the type of mother plant under well management. 2. Pest and disease free seedlings. 3. Uniform growth, increases yield. 4. Early maturity of crop 5. Round the year planting possible as seedlings are made available throughout the year. 6. Two successive ratoons are possible in a short duration which minimizes cost of cultivation. 7. No staggered harvesting. 8. 95% - 98% plants bear bunches. 9. New varieties can be introduced and multiplied in a short duration 89
  • 90. Hybrid seed production in onion Process :- • Pollinating a female plant of desired var. with a male pollinator plant of desired variety. • Production capacity – 20 MT/ annum Advantage:- • High yield • Genetically pure. Planting Material of Jain Irrigation Pvt. Ltd. • In Jain irrigation many fruit crops are planted with better quality and resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. • In Jain Irrigation Pvt. Ltd. Total 4320 mango plants are planted. Mainly growing plants- • Sapota ( Kalipatti var.) • Banana (Ventury var.) • Pomegranate ( Ganesh, Mridula var.) 90
  • 91. Mango Concentrate, Mango Pulp & Mango Puree of Jain Irrigation Pvt. Ltd • These are made from selected varieties of Mango. Fully matured Mangoes are harvested, quickly transported to our fruit processing plant, inspected and washed. Selected high quality fruits go to the controlled ripening chambers; Fully Ripened Mango fruits are then washed, blanched, pulped, deseeded, centrifuged, homogenized, concentrated when required, thermally processed and aseptically filled maintaining commercial sterility. 91
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