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Jerusalem artichoke
COLLEGE OF HORTICULTURE
An Assignment Presentation
On
“Jerusalem artichok”
Course No.: B.Sc 5.4 (Potato and Tuber crops)
Present to:-
Mr. S.K.Acharya
College of Horticulture
S.D. Agricultural University,
Jagudan, 384710
Presented by:
Name :-Shubham kumar
Jerusalem artichoke
B.N. - Helianthus tuberosus
Fmaily - Asteraceae
Origin - Native America
Ch. No – 2n = 34
Introduction-
They're tasty, available all winter, exceptionally
easy to grow, completely undemanding, very low-
maintenance and ideal for beginners.
They are also low in calories.
The Jerusalem Artichoke is a perennial
sunflower native to North America.
 It produces knobbly, white-fleshed (or, less
commonly, red-fleshed) tubers that can be eaten raw
or cooked.
 Better suited to cooler climates, they will grow in
places like Florida, though your harvest is likely to be
smaller.
Description of plant-
Helianthus tuberosus is a herbaceous perennial
plant growing to 1.5–3 m (4 ft 11 in–9 ft 10 in) tall
with opposite leaves on the upper part of the stem
but alternate below.
The flowers are yellow and produced in
capitate flowerheads, which are 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in)
in diameter, with 10–20 ray florets and 60 or more
small disc florets.
The tubers are elongated and uneven, typically
7.5–10 cm (3.0–3.9 in) long and 3–5 cm (1.2–2.0 in)
thick, and vaguely resembling ginger root in
appearance, with a crisp texture when raw. They vary
in colour from pale brown to white, red, or purple.
Food use-
The artichoke contains about 2% protein, no oil,
and little starch. It is rich in the carbohydrate inulin
(76%), which is a polymer of the
monosaccharide fructose.
 Tubers stored for any length of time will convert
their inulin into its component fructose. Jerusalem
artichokes have an underlying sweet taste because
of the fructose, which is about one and a half times
as sweet as sucrose.
 Temperature variances have been shown to affect
the amount of inulin the Jerusalem artichoke can
produce. When not in tropical regions, it has been
shown to make less inulin than when it is in a
warmer region
Jerusalem artichoke
Soil & Site:
 Like most plants grown for the roots or
tubers, they need loose, loamy soil.
 They will grow in soils that are slightly
acidic to alkaline, though they do better
in neutral to alkaline.
 A full sun site is required. I've tried
growing them where there is partial
shade, but the tubers are small.
 The soil should be moist, but never
wet or standing water.
Planting:
 All you do is find some in the fall after the flowers
have died, dig up the tubers, and plant them where
you want them to come up next year, about 10-15 cm
(4-6 inches) below the surface of the ground
 For the best results make sure that each one you
plant has at least two sprouts on the tuber - the little
bumps.
 According to commercial growers, the ideal size to
plant is 2 oz tubers. They will always come up where
they have been planted, as you cannot find every
little tuber. So make sure where you plant them, you
don't mind that they are there forever unless you take
drastic, chemical actions.
Maintenance:
 If you just leave them year after year, they will
produce. However, they will get smaller each year
this way. If you want big ones, you have to dig some
tubers up and replant in freshly turned over, loose
soil that is rich in nutrients.
 When you have harvested the crop, put
composted manure on top and turn under. You can
use a tiller, or just turn over with a shovel. The tiller
won't hurt the little tubers.
 When done turning over the soil, any you see on
the surface, just push under the soil and cover. After
that, put down a layer of mulch. They will return the
next spring unless you went through every scrap of
soil with a screen.
Caring -
 General advice is to keep them watered and
earth up the stalks as they grow. There's no doubt
you'll get a larger harvest, with larger tubers if you
do.
They grow so tall (easily reaching ten feet or
more), the plants can suffer wind-rock, or
overshadow other crops. If this is likely to happen,
cut stalks down to around 4 feet (120 cms) high in
mid-summer.
 This will make them bush out and creates more
compact plants. It also discourages flowering
(which begins in autumn) and, instead, encourages
them to put their energy into growing bigger tubers.
Eating Jerusalem Artichokes -
 The drawback to Jerusalem artichokes (and for
some it's an insuperable problem) is that they
contain inulin, a carbohydrate that feeds your gut
bacteria.
 It's part of the reason why this vegetable is low
in calories. It also causes wind.
They do, however, make a delicious soup,
either by themselves or in combination with
carrots, sweet potatoes or even peppers. (To
save my insides, I just make sure that they make
up no more than 50% of the ingredients.)
Harvesting -
 Start harvesting after the first frost, when
the plants begin to die back (around late
autumn—November in the northern
hemisphere).
 Jerusalem Artichokes aren't easy to store
well but one of their advantages is that
they're quite happy left in the ground until
you need them.
 If you do need to store them, ensure you
put them somewhere very cool and with high
humidity to help prevent them from
shrivelling.
Replanting for the following harvest -
 It's not necessary to dig them all up if you've
created a permanent bed for them, but they'll
become congested in a couple of years if you
don't.
 So, in early spring, dig over the bed, removing
all you can find and replant (in the same place if
you wish) the smoothest, biggest ones you come
across.
 This helps ensure less knobbly artichokes in
future years. If you do get heartily sick of them,
then covering the area with weed control fabric
for a couple of years should see them off.
Pests & Diseases
Slugs:
large holes eaten into the tubers are
usually the work of slugs. These pests are
most active in wet summers and on wet
and heavy land.
Sclerotina rot:
This disease appears as a white,
fluffy fungus which even-tually produces
black resting spores. The disease is
worst in cold damp conditions.
Ref-
http://wildfoodshomegarden.com/JerusalemArtichoke.html
https://www.growveg.com/guides/growing-jerusalem-
artichokes-sunchokes/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerusalem_artichoke
http://www.yourgardeninginfo.com/pests-diseases-affecting-
jerusalem-artichoke
Jerusalem artichoke

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Jerusalem artichoke

  • 2. COLLEGE OF HORTICULTURE An Assignment Presentation On “Jerusalem artichok” Course No.: B.Sc 5.4 (Potato and Tuber crops) Present to:- Mr. S.K.Acharya College of Horticulture S.D. Agricultural University, Jagudan, 384710 Presented by: Name :-Shubham kumar
  • 4. B.N. - Helianthus tuberosus Fmaily - Asteraceae Origin - Native America Ch. No – 2n = 34
  • 5. Introduction- They're tasty, available all winter, exceptionally easy to grow, completely undemanding, very low- maintenance and ideal for beginners. They are also low in calories. The Jerusalem Artichoke is a perennial sunflower native to North America.  It produces knobbly, white-fleshed (or, less commonly, red-fleshed) tubers that can be eaten raw or cooked.  Better suited to cooler climates, they will grow in places like Florida, though your harvest is likely to be smaller.
  • 6. Description of plant- Helianthus tuberosus is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 1.5–3 m (4 ft 11 in–9 ft 10 in) tall with opposite leaves on the upper part of the stem but alternate below. The flowers are yellow and produced in capitate flowerheads, which are 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) in diameter, with 10–20 ray florets and 60 or more small disc florets. The tubers are elongated and uneven, typically 7.5–10 cm (3.0–3.9 in) long and 3–5 cm (1.2–2.0 in) thick, and vaguely resembling ginger root in appearance, with a crisp texture when raw. They vary in colour from pale brown to white, red, or purple.
  • 7. Food use- The artichoke contains about 2% protein, no oil, and little starch. It is rich in the carbohydrate inulin (76%), which is a polymer of the monosaccharide fructose.  Tubers stored for any length of time will convert their inulin into its component fructose. Jerusalem artichokes have an underlying sweet taste because of the fructose, which is about one and a half times as sweet as sucrose.  Temperature variances have been shown to affect the amount of inulin the Jerusalem artichoke can produce. When not in tropical regions, it has been shown to make less inulin than when it is in a warmer region
  • 9. Soil & Site:  Like most plants grown for the roots or tubers, they need loose, loamy soil.  They will grow in soils that are slightly acidic to alkaline, though they do better in neutral to alkaline.  A full sun site is required. I've tried growing them where there is partial shade, but the tubers are small.  The soil should be moist, but never wet or standing water.
  • 10. Planting:  All you do is find some in the fall after the flowers have died, dig up the tubers, and plant them where you want them to come up next year, about 10-15 cm (4-6 inches) below the surface of the ground  For the best results make sure that each one you plant has at least two sprouts on the tuber - the little bumps.  According to commercial growers, the ideal size to plant is 2 oz tubers. They will always come up where they have been planted, as you cannot find every little tuber. So make sure where you plant them, you don't mind that they are there forever unless you take drastic, chemical actions.
  • 11. Maintenance:  If you just leave them year after year, they will produce. However, they will get smaller each year this way. If you want big ones, you have to dig some tubers up and replant in freshly turned over, loose soil that is rich in nutrients.  When you have harvested the crop, put composted manure on top and turn under. You can use a tiller, or just turn over with a shovel. The tiller won't hurt the little tubers.  When done turning over the soil, any you see on the surface, just push under the soil and cover. After that, put down a layer of mulch. They will return the next spring unless you went through every scrap of soil with a screen.
  • 12. Caring -  General advice is to keep them watered and earth up the stalks as they grow. There's no doubt you'll get a larger harvest, with larger tubers if you do. They grow so tall (easily reaching ten feet or more), the plants can suffer wind-rock, or overshadow other crops. If this is likely to happen, cut stalks down to around 4 feet (120 cms) high in mid-summer.  This will make them bush out and creates more compact plants. It also discourages flowering (which begins in autumn) and, instead, encourages them to put their energy into growing bigger tubers.
  • 13. Eating Jerusalem Artichokes -  The drawback to Jerusalem artichokes (and for some it's an insuperable problem) is that they contain inulin, a carbohydrate that feeds your gut bacteria.  It's part of the reason why this vegetable is low in calories. It also causes wind. They do, however, make a delicious soup, either by themselves or in combination with carrots, sweet potatoes or even peppers. (To save my insides, I just make sure that they make up no more than 50% of the ingredients.)
  • 14. Harvesting -  Start harvesting after the first frost, when the plants begin to die back (around late autumn—November in the northern hemisphere).  Jerusalem Artichokes aren't easy to store well but one of their advantages is that they're quite happy left in the ground until you need them.  If you do need to store them, ensure you put them somewhere very cool and with high humidity to help prevent them from shrivelling.
  • 15. Replanting for the following harvest -  It's not necessary to dig them all up if you've created a permanent bed for them, but they'll become congested in a couple of years if you don't.  So, in early spring, dig over the bed, removing all you can find and replant (in the same place if you wish) the smoothest, biggest ones you come across.  This helps ensure less knobbly artichokes in future years. If you do get heartily sick of them, then covering the area with weed control fabric for a couple of years should see them off.
  • 16. Pests & Diseases Slugs: large holes eaten into the tubers are usually the work of slugs. These pests are most active in wet summers and on wet and heavy land. Sclerotina rot: This disease appears as a white, fluffy fungus which even-tually produces black resting spores. The disease is worst in cold damp conditions.