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Introduction-
Microgreens entered the produce market in California in the 1980s and 1990s as a garnish in
mostly high‐end restaurants (Lubow 2006; Palmer 2010; Bliss et al. 2014; Kyriacou et al.
2016).Despite their small size, they pack a nutritional punch, often containing higher nutrient
levels than more mature vegetable greens. This makes them a good addition to any diet.
Microgreens: All You Ever Wanted to Know
Abstract: Microgreens have gained increasing popularity as food ingredients in recent years because of their
high nutritional value and diverse sensorial characteristics. Microgreens are edible seedlings including
vegetables and herbs, which have been used, primarily in the restaurant industry, to embellish cuisine since
1996. The rapidly growing microgreen industry faces many challenges. Microgreens share many
characteristics with sprouts, and while they have not been associated with any foodborne illness outbreaks,
they have recently been the subject of seven recalls. Thus, the potential to carry foodborne pathogens is
there, and steps can and should be taken during production to reduce the likelihood of such incidents. One
major limitation to the growth of the microgreen industry is the rapid quality deterioration that occurs soon
after harvest, which keeps prices high and restricts commerce to local sales. Once harvested, microgreens
easily dehydrate, wilt, decay and rapidly lose certain nutrients. Research has explored preharvest and
postharvest interventions, such as calcium treatments, modified atmopsphere packaging, temperature
control, and light, to maintain quality, augment nutritional value, and extend shelf life. However, more work
is needed to optimize both production and storage conditions to improve the safety, quality, and shelf life of
microgreens, thereby expanding potential markets
Articles in popular press outlets and peer reviewed journals have not only promoted their use in
dishes and recipes, but also the growing of these salad greens in private homes (Reinfeld 2013; Kadey
2013; Ruch 2015; Anon. 2016; Chappell 2016; Kadey 2016; Renna et al. 2017).
Several books have further publicized microgreens as functional foods and instructed the novice and
the advanced grower in the production of this crop (Hill 2010; Di Gioia and Santamaria 2015) and
review papers have also been published (Delian et al. 2015; Kyriacou et al. 2016; Mir 2017).
Microgreens have been promoted as way to enhance food and nutrition security and to diversify
agricultural production (Eber et al. 2014). The short production time of microgreens has even lent
itself to implementation in undergraduate biology laboratory exercises (Weber 2017).
What Are Microgreens?
Microgreens are young vegetable greens that are approximately 1–3 inches (2.5–7.5 cm) tall.
They have an aromatic flavor and concentrated nutrient content and come in a variety of colors and
textures.
Microgreens are considered baby plants, falling somewhere between a sprout and baby green.
That said, they shouldn’t be confused with sprouts, which do not have leaves. Sprouts also have a
much shorter growing cycle of 2–7 days, whereas microgreens are usually harvested 7–21 days after
germination, once the plant’s first true leaves have emerged.
Microgreens are more similar to baby greens in that only their stems and leaves are considered edible.
However, unlike baby greens, they are much smaller in size and can be sold before being harvested.
This means that the plants can be bought whole and cut at home, keeping them alive until they are
consumed.
Microgreens are very convenient to grow, as they can be grown in a variety of locations, including
outdoors, in greenhouses and even on your windowsill.
SUMMARY
Microgreens are young vegetable greens that fall somewhere between sprouts and baby leaf
vegetables. They have an intense aromatic flavor and concentrated nutrient content and come
in a variety of colors and textures.
History of immature leafy vegetables
The history of immature vegetables, such as microgreens, started as a food fashion that was tied
to high‐end restaurants and their demand for heirloom, locally sourced, and unique offerings
(Bliss et al. 2014). Although immature vegetables have long been part of our diet, the meteoric
rise of fresh microproduce shipped over long distances is a more recent trend. One of the most
recognized suppliers of microproduce in the US is A Chef’s Garden, a farm that in its current
form has its origins in the 1980s (Lubow 2006). However, microgreens are now produced by
small and large greenhouses throughout the world. Since the 2000s, microgreens have been
propelled into the mainstream as the interest in functional foods that support health and longevity
has become significant (Kyriacou et al. 2016). They are now widely promoted for production in
grouped together with other specialty items such as edible flowers and sprouts (Eber 2012).
Different Types of Microgreens
Microgreens can be grown from many different types of seeds.
The most popular varieties are produced using seeds from the following plant families.
 Brassicaceae family: Cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, watercress, radish and arugula
 Asteraceae family: Lettuce, endive, chicory and radicchio
 Apiaceae family: Dill, carrot, fennel and celery
 Amaryllidaceae family: Garlic, onion, leek
 Amaranthaceae family: Amaranth, quinoa swiss chard, beet and spinach
 Cucurbitaceae family: Melon, cucumber and squash
Cereals such as rice, oats, wheat, corn and barley, as well as legumes like chickpeas, beans and
lentils, are also sometimes grown into microgreens
Here are a few more recommendations that we'd like to suggest:
 Red Lettuce - rich in potassium, red cabbage is known
to have iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium,
calcium, zinc.
 Peas - peas have a good source of vitamin B6, niacin,
vitamin B2, vitamin C, protein, magnesium, and iron.
 Basil - fresh basil holds a subtle peppery flavor and the
taste can also be described as slightly sweet. Basil also
has an excellent source of vitamin K and manganese.
 Arugula - contains powerful antioxidants that can
decrease inflammation and lower the risk of certain
chronic diseases.
 Watercress - fortified with more than 19 essential
vitamins and minerals, watercress is a superfood with
a distinctive flavor.
 Beets - beets have a special kind of sweet, earthy
flavor and have a good source of vitamin B6, vitamin
C, magnesium, folate, potassium, and dietary fiber.
 Cabbage - cabbage has the highest amount of
antioxidants, and an excellent source of calcium,
vitamin B6, fiber, and magnesium.
Microgreens can be sold as blends. This blend
consists of arugula (Eruca sativa), chard (Beta
vulgaris subsp. vulgaris), red cabbage (Brassica
oleracea var. capitate),and sorrel(Rumex acetosa).
Both 4 oz (approx. 110 g) and 8 oz (approx. 220 g)
clam shell packagesareused.Somemicrogreensare
marketed aslive plantsin containerswith a growing
substrateallowing for chefs to harvest microgreens
as needed.

What types of
microgreens are
grown?
For starters, you can grow
different types of salad
greens, leafy vegetables,
herbs and even edible
flowers. Beginners often
start by growing 1-2 types
of seeds such as chia,
broccoli, mustard greens,
cauliflower, or kale. These
are among the easiest to
grow varieties of
microgreens if you are just
getting started.Instead of
just planting one type of
microgreen, you will find
that the different varieties
offer a delightful range of
mild to spicy flavors, and
an attractive array of colors
and textures.

How to grow microgreens
Microgreens are seeds grown in a soil mix or a fiber
mat that grow under indirect sunlight with adequate
moisture. They don't require a lot of maintenance, but
you should keep tabs and give your seedlings about
eight hours of daily sunlight to thrive. Grow lights or
window sills are an excellent way to help your plant
thrive throughout the day. In warm climates,
microgreens can be grown outdoors all year round.
Presoak seeds
Soaking some types of seed will speed up the
germination process. Check the package of the
particular seed on requirements for specific pre-soaking
instructions, usually a few hours to overnight. If it
doesn't mention it, it's safer to assume it's not needed.
After presoaking is complete, rinse and drain the seeds
in a colander.
Grow medium choices for microgreens
The next step in the microgreen growing process is to fill your clean microgreen tray with your
chosen grow medium. Grow medium can be compost, a soil mix or even just a 50/50 blend of
perlite & vermiculite. Try not to overthink this part. Larger seeds usually require soil. Smaller
seeds, like lettuce or kale work great with grow mats or soil. (here's a bit more info on grow
mats, in case you're interested.)
If using our microgreen tray, fill 0.75 inch deep with soil and spread evenly.
Sowing seeds
Sprinkle the seeds over the seed starting mix and potting soil according to the recommended
density for that specific seed.
After sowing, sprinkle a thin layer of soil on top, and press the soil in lightly and then carefully
mist seeds or sprouts with water from a spray bottle. Cover your tray with a clear plastic
vented humidity dome. Alternatively, you can also use a second 1020 tray to create a blackout
Here's a quick rundown of what kind
of supplies you'll need before you
begin growing:
1. seeds
2. Water (best when not
chlorinated city water)
3. seed trays
4. Spray bottle
5. Potting soil, compost or
hydroponic soil mix
6. Plant labels or popsicle sticks
7. Marker for labeling
8. Grow lights or a windowsill
with light.
dome. If you will be using a blackout dome, remove the cover after seeds have germinated. If
you are growing your seeds indoors, place the tray in an area with indirect light, a well-lit
window or under grow lights.
Lighting requirements
For some seeds, it's critical to first have a ‘stacking’ period. This is a period of about 3-5 days
after sowing which maintains a very high humidity, which aids in germination of the seed. It's
not the light that germinates the seed - it's the water. This period is very important for some
varieties. Misting the surface of the seeds, media, and dome accelerates the rate and consistency
of germination.
Rooms with plenty of sunlight probably won't need any additional light. Some micros require
more light, some not as much…so your best guide is to read up on the crop you’re choosing to
grow. In all cases, remember - we are only growing to the first set of true leaves. If the
emerging crop looks ‘leggy’ - give it more light. If growing on stacked racks,
then supplemental lights will be needed for any shelves that get hidden from strong indirect
sunlight. If the leaves exhibit burn spots, your artificial lighting may be too close.
How to water microgreens
It's best if you lightly water at least 2x a day. You can get away with less maintenance, especially
once the seedlings become established. For best results, lightly spray water 1-2x a day, or
before the soil has a chance to dry out. Obviously, keep in mind your own growing environment
as you may need to water more often. Don't allow water to pool or stagnate either. Trying to
skip a watering next time by overwatering now just isn't good practice.
Keep a spray bottle filled with clean, pure water on hand, especially during the germination
phase. During this time, those root hairs are so delicate, we want to be extra gentle with them
while watering.
Tip: Mind the temperature of the room you are growing in-
conditions from 60-75 degrees work for most types. Use a heat
mat for quicker germination of your microgreens if the ambient
temperature gets lower than this.
Harvesting microgreens
Nutritious microgreens are usually ready to harvest anywhere from 7-28 days after planting.
Most are ready to be harvested when they reach 1 - 3 inches tall in length. To harvest, simply
snip just above soil level using clean kitchen shears.
Give your harvested microgreens a rinse and lay them down on paper towels or a clean dish
towel to dry. You can store your harvested microgreens in the refrigerator in a semi-sealed
container or bag (allow a tiny bit of airflow).
To reap the maximum health benefits from microgreens, consume them right after harvesting.
For more information on growing specific varieties of microgreens read our ultimate microgreen
cheat sheet
Health Benefits of Microgreens
Eating vegetables is linked to a lower risk of many diseases
This is likely thanks to the high amounts of vitamins, minerals and beneficial plant compounds they
contain.
Microgreens contain similar and often greater amounts of these nutrients than mature greens. As
such, they may similarly reduce the risk of the following diseases:
 Heart disease: Microgreens are a rich source of polyphenols, a class of antioxidants linked to a
lower risk of heart disease. Animal studies show that microgreens may lower triglyceride and
“bad” LDL cholesterol levels.
 Alzheimer’s disease: Antioxidant-rich foods, including those containing high amounts of
polyphenols,may be linked to a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
 Diabetes: Antioxidants may help reduce the type of stress that can prevent sugar from properly
entering cells. In lab studies, fenugreek microgreens appeared to enhance cellular sugar uptake
by 25–44%
 Certain cancers: Antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, especially those rich in polyphenols,
may lower the risk of various types of cancer. Polyphenol-rich microgreens may be expected to
have similar effects
While this seems promising, note that the number of studies directly measuring the effect of
microgreens on these medical conditions is limited, and none could be found in humans.
How to Include Microgreens in Your Diet
There are many ways to include microgreens in your diet.
They can be incorporated into a variety of dishes, including sandwiches, wraps and salads.
Microgreens may also be blended into smoothies or juiced. Wheatgrass juice is a popular
example of a juiced microgreen.
Another option is to use them as garnishes on pizzas, soups, omelets, curries and other warm
dishes.
Conclusion
Microgreens production to fill the consumer’s plate with nutrition is an excellent adaptive
approach under changing climate and reducing agrarian resources. Although there are several hi-
tech farms in North American and European countries, which are serving people with nutritious
fresh vegetables yet there are very few hi-tech private farms producing microgreens in India.
Being a developing nation, it is impractical to develop hi-tech farms all around the nation and
that too in remote areas; therefore, by utilizing the lowcost microgreens units developed by
DIHAR-DRDO, it would be easy to add nutrition to the diet in remote areas. DIHAR-DRDO is
the first public institution to provide the agro techniques for different microgreen vegetables
under harsh areas to strengthen the availability of fresh nutrientrich food to army personals
deployed and local inhabitants of the area. Double-wall polyench polyhouses which are famous
in the region could be utilized to produce microgreen vegetables under sub-zero temperature
conditions. Monotonous state of mind in remote areas causes fatigue and social sickness;
therefore, by engaging minds in the growing of microgreens could be helpful for minimizing
lassitude among them. Limited studies have been carried out to prove the health benefits of
microgreen vegetables all around the world so there is an immense potential for the study of
different vegetables at the microgreen stage for the identification of functional phytonutrients
from them.
Is Eating Them Risky?
Eating microgreens is generally considered safe.
Nevertheless, one concern is the risk of food poisoning. However, the potential for bacteria
growth is much smaller in microgreens than in sprouts.
Microgreens require slightly less warm and humid conditions than sprouts do, and only the
leaf and stem, rather than the root and seed, are consumed.
That said, if you’re planning on growing microgreens at home, it’s important to buy seeds
from a reputable company and choose growing mediums that are free of contamination with
harmful bacteria such as Salmonella and E. coli.
The most common growing mediums are peat, perlite and vermiculite. Single-use growing
mats produced specifically for growing microgreens are considered very sanitary.

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Microgreens

  • 1. Introduction- Microgreens entered the produce market in California in the 1980s and 1990s as a garnish in mostly high‐end restaurants (Lubow 2006; Palmer 2010; Bliss et al. 2014; Kyriacou et al. 2016).Despite their small size, they pack a nutritional punch, often containing higher nutrient levels than more mature vegetable greens. This makes them a good addition to any diet. Microgreens: All You Ever Wanted to Know Abstract: Microgreens have gained increasing popularity as food ingredients in recent years because of their high nutritional value and diverse sensorial characteristics. Microgreens are edible seedlings including vegetables and herbs, which have been used, primarily in the restaurant industry, to embellish cuisine since 1996. The rapidly growing microgreen industry faces many challenges. Microgreens share many characteristics with sprouts, and while they have not been associated with any foodborne illness outbreaks, they have recently been the subject of seven recalls. Thus, the potential to carry foodborne pathogens is there, and steps can and should be taken during production to reduce the likelihood of such incidents. One major limitation to the growth of the microgreen industry is the rapid quality deterioration that occurs soon after harvest, which keeps prices high and restricts commerce to local sales. Once harvested, microgreens easily dehydrate, wilt, decay and rapidly lose certain nutrients. Research has explored preharvest and postharvest interventions, such as calcium treatments, modified atmopsphere packaging, temperature control, and light, to maintain quality, augment nutritional value, and extend shelf life. However, more work is needed to optimize both production and storage conditions to improve the safety, quality, and shelf life of microgreens, thereby expanding potential markets
  • 2. Articles in popular press outlets and peer reviewed journals have not only promoted their use in dishes and recipes, but also the growing of these salad greens in private homes (Reinfeld 2013; Kadey 2013; Ruch 2015; Anon. 2016; Chappell 2016; Kadey 2016; Renna et al. 2017). Several books have further publicized microgreens as functional foods and instructed the novice and the advanced grower in the production of this crop (Hill 2010; Di Gioia and Santamaria 2015) and review papers have also been published (Delian et al. 2015; Kyriacou et al. 2016; Mir 2017). Microgreens have been promoted as way to enhance food and nutrition security and to diversify agricultural production (Eber et al. 2014). The short production time of microgreens has even lent itself to implementation in undergraduate biology laboratory exercises (Weber 2017). What Are Microgreens? Microgreens are young vegetable greens that are approximately 1–3 inches (2.5–7.5 cm) tall. They have an aromatic flavor and concentrated nutrient content and come in a variety of colors and textures. Microgreens are considered baby plants, falling somewhere between a sprout and baby green. That said, they shouldn’t be confused with sprouts, which do not have leaves. Sprouts also have a much shorter growing cycle of 2–7 days, whereas microgreens are usually harvested 7–21 days after germination, once the plant’s first true leaves have emerged. Microgreens are more similar to baby greens in that only their stems and leaves are considered edible. However, unlike baby greens, they are much smaller in size and can be sold before being harvested. This means that the plants can be bought whole and cut at home, keeping them alive until they are consumed. Microgreens are very convenient to grow, as they can be grown in a variety of locations, including outdoors, in greenhouses and even on your windowsill. SUMMARY Microgreens are young vegetable greens that fall somewhere between sprouts and baby leaf vegetables. They have an intense aromatic flavor and concentrated nutrient content and come in a variety of colors and textures.
  • 3. History of immature leafy vegetables The history of immature vegetables, such as microgreens, started as a food fashion that was tied to high‐end restaurants and their demand for heirloom, locally sourced, and unique offerings (Bliss et al. 2014). Although immature vegetables have long been part of our diet, the meteoric rise of fresh microproduce shipped over long distances is a more recent trend. One of the most recognized suppliers of microproduce in the US is A Chef’s Garden, a farm that in its current form has its origins in the 1980s (Lubow 2006). However, microgreens are now produced by small and large greenhouses throughout the world. Since the 2000s, microgreens have been propelled into the mainstream as the interest in functional foods that support health and longevity has become significant (Kyriacou et al. 2016). They are now widely promoted for production in grouped together with other specialty items such as edible flowers and sprouts (Eber 2012). Different Types of Microgreens Microgreens can be grown from many different types of seeds. The most popular varieties are produced using seeds from the following plant families.  Brassicaceae family: Cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, watercress, radish and arugula  Asteraceae family: Lettuce, endive, chicory and radicchio  Apiaceae family: Dill, carrot, fennel and celery  Amaryllidaceae family: Garlic, onion, leek  Amaranthaceae family: Amaranth, quinoa swiss chard, beet and spinach  Cucurbitaceae family: Melon, cucumber and squash Cereals such as rice, oats, wheat, corn and barley, as well as legumes like chickpeas, beans and lentils, are also sometimes grown into microgreens
  • 4. Here are a few more recommendations that we'd like to suggest:  Red Lettuce - rich in potassium, red cabbage is known to have iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, zinc.  Peas - peas have a good source of vitamin B6, niacin, vitamin B2, vitamin C, protein, magnesium, and iron.  Basil - fresh basil holds a subtle peppery flavor and the taste can also be described as slightly sweet. Basil also has an excellent source of vitamin K and manganese.  Arugula - contains powerful antioxidants that can decrease inflammation and lower the risk of certain chronic diseases.  Watercress - fortified with more than 19 essential vitamins and minerals, watercress is a superfood with a distinctive flavor.  Beets - beets have a special kind of sweet, earthy flavor and have a good source of vitamin B6, vitamin C, magnesium, folate, potassium, and dietary fiber.  Cabbage - cabbage has the highest amount of antioxidants, and an excellent source of calcium, vitamin B6, fiber, and magnesium. Microgreens can be sold as blends. This blend consists of arugula (Eruca sativa), chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris), red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitate),and sorrel(Rumex acetosa). Both 4 oz (approx. 110 g) and 8 oz (approx. 220 g) clam shell packagesareused.Somemicrogreensare marketed aslive plantsin containerswith a growing substrateallowing for chefs to harvest microgreens as needed.  What types of microgreens are grown? For starters, you can grow different types of salad greens, leafy vegetables, herbs and even edible flowers. Beginners often start by growing 1-2 types of seeds such as chia, broccoli, mustard greens, cauliflower, or kale. These are among the easiest to grow varieties of microgreens if you are just getting started.Instead of just planting one type of microgreen, you will find that the different varieties offer a delightful range of mild to spicy flavors, and an attractive array of colors and textures. 
  • 5. How to grow microgreens Microgreens are seeds grown in a soil mix or a fiber mat that grow under indirect sunlight with adequate moisture. They don't require a lot of maintenance, but you should keep tabs and give your seedlings about eight hours of daily sunlight to thrive. Grow lights or window sills are an excellent way to help your plant thrive throughout the day. In warm climates, microgreens can be grown outdoors all year round. Presoak seeds Soaking some types of seed will speed up the germination process. Check the package of the particular seed on requirements for specific pre-soaking instructions, usually a few hours to overnight. If it doesn't mention it, it's safer to assume it's not needed. After presoaking is complete, rinse and drain the seeds in a colander. Grow medium choices for microgreens The next step in the microgreen growing process is to fill your clean microgreen tray with your chosen grow medium. Grow medium can be compost, a soil mix or even just a 50/50 blend of perlite & vermiculite. Try not to overthink this part. Larger seeds usually require soil. Smaller seeds, like lettuce or kale work great with grow mats or soil. (here's a bit more info on grow mats, in case you're interested.) If using our microgreen tray, fill 0.75 inch deep with soil and spread evenly. Sowing seeds Sprinkle the seeds over the seed starting mix and potting soil according to the recommended density for that specific seed. After sowing, sprinkle a thin layer of soil on top, and press the soil in lightly and then carefully mist seeds or sprouts with water from a spray bottle. Cover your tray with a clear plastic vented humidity dome. Alternatively, you can also use a second 1020 tray to create a blackout Here's a quick rundown of what kind of supplies you'll need before you begin growing: 1. seeds 2. Water (best when not chlorinated city water) 3. seed trays 4. Spray bottle 5. Potting soil, compost or hydroponic soil mix 6. Plant labels or popsicle sticks 7. Marker for labeling 8. Grow lights or a windowsill with light.
  • 6. dome. If you will be using a blackout dome, remove the cover after seeds have germinated. If you are growing your seeds indoors, place the tray in an area with indirect light, a well-lit window or under grow lights. Lighting requirements For some seeds, it's critical to first have a ‘stacking’ period. This is a period of about 3-5 days after sowing which maintains a very high humidity, which aids in germination of the seed. It's not the light that germinates the seed - it's the water. This period is very important for some varieties. Misting the surface of the seeds, media, and dome accelerates the rate and consistency of germination. Rooms with plenty of sunlight probably won't need any additional light. Some micros require more light, some not as much…so your best guide is to read up on the crop you’re choosing to grow. In all cases, remember - we are only growing to the first set of true leaves. If the emerging crop looks ‘leggy’ - give it more light. If growing on stacked racks, then supplemental lights will be needed for any shelves that get hidden from strong indirect sunlight. If the leaves exhibit burn spots, your artificial lighting may be too close. How to water microgreens It's best if you lightly water at least 2x a day. You can get away with less maintenance, especially once the seedlings become established. For best results, lightly spray water 1-2x a day, or before the soil has a chance to dry out. Obviously, keep in mind your own growing environment as you may need to water more often. Don't allow water to pool or stagnate either. Trying to skip a watering next time by overwatering now just isn't good practice. Keep a spray bottle filled with clean, pure water on hand, especially during the germination phase. During this time, those root hairs are so delicate, we want to be extra gentle with them while watering. Tip: Mind the temperature of the room you are growing in- conditions from 60-75 degrees work for most types. Use a heat mat for quicker germination of your microgreens if the ambient temperature gets lower than this.
  • 7. Harvesting microgreens Nutritious microgreens are usually ready to harvest anywhere from 7-28 days after planting. Most are ready to be harvested when they reach 1 - 3 inches tall in length. To harvest, simply snip just above soil level using clean kitchen shears. Give your harvested microgreens a rinse and lay them down on paper towels or a clean dish towel to dry. You can store your harvested microgreens in the refrigerator in a semi-sealed container or bag (allow a tiny bit of airflow). To reap the maximum health benefits from microgreens, consume them right after harvesting. For more information on growing specific varieties of microgreens read our ultimate microgreen cheat sheet
  • 8. Health Benefits of Microgreens Eating vegetables is linked to a lower risk of many diseases This is likely thanks to the high amounts of vitamins, minerals and beneficial plant compounds they contain. Microgreens contain similar and often greater amounts of these nutrients than mature greens. As such, they may similarly reduce the risk of the following diseases:  Heart disease: Microgreens are a rich source of polyphenols, a class of antioxidants linked to a lower risk of heart disease. Animal studies show that microgreens may lower triglyceride and “bad” LDL cholesterol levels.  Alzheimer’s disease: Antioxidant-rich foods, including those containing high amounts of polyphenols,may be linked to a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease.  Diabetes: Antioxidants may help reduce the type of stress that can prevent sugar from properly entering cells. In lab studies, fenugreek microgreens appeared to enhance cellular sugar uptake by 25–44%  Certain cancers: Antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, especially those rich in polyphenols, may lower the risk of various types of cancer. Polyphenol-rich microgreens may be expected to have similar effects While this seems promising, note that the number of studies directly measuring the effect of microgreens on these medical conditions is limited, and none could be found in humans. How to Include Microgreens in Your Diet There are many ways to include microgreens in your diet. They can be incorporated into a variety of dishes, including sandwiches, wraps and salads. Microgreens may also be blended into smoothies or juiced. Wheatgrass juice is a popular example of a juiced microgreen. Another option is to use them as garnishes on pizzas, soups, omelets, curries and other warm dishes.
  • 9. Conclusion Microgreens production to fill the consumer’s plate with nutrition is an excellent adaptive approach under changing climate and reducing agrarian resources. Although there are several hi- tech farms in North American and European countries, which are serving people with nutritious fresh vegetables yet there are very few hi-tech private farms producing microgreens in India. Being a developing nation, it is impractical to develop hi-tech farms all around the nation and that too in remote areas; therefore, by utilizing the lowcost microgreens units developed by DIHAR-DRDO, it would be easy to add nutrition to the diet in remote areas. DIHAR-DRDO is the first public institution to provide the agro techniques for different microgreen vegetables under harsh areas to strengthen the availability of fresh nutrientrich food to army personals deployed and local inhabitants of the area. Double-wall polyench polyhouses which are famous in the region could be utilized to produce microgreen vegetables under sub-zero temperature conditions. Monotonous state of mind in remote areas causes fatigue and social sickness; therefore, by engaging minds in the growing of microgreens could be helpful for minimizing lassitude among them. Limited studies have been carried out to prove the health benefits of microgreen vegetables all around the world so there is an immense potential for the study of different vegetables at the microgreen stage for the identification of functional phytonutrients from them. Is Eating Them Risky? Eating microgreens is generally considered safe. Nevertheless, one concern is the risk of food poisoning. However, the potential for bacteria growth is much smaller in microgreens than in sprouts. Microgreens require slightly less warm and humid conditions than sprouts do, and only the leaf and stem, rather than the root and seed, are consumed. That said, if you’re planning on growing microgreens at home, it’s important to buy seeds from a reputable company and choose growing mediums that are free of contamination with harmful bacteria such as Salmonella and E. coli. The most common growing mediums are peat, perlite and vermiculite. Single-use growing mats produced specifically for growing microgreens are considered very sanitary.