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SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY
Department of Textile Engineering
Course Code: TEX- 3021
Course title: Wet Processing Technology-II
Submitted To:
MD. ShahidulIslam
Lecturer
Department of Textile
Submitted By:
Nargis SultanaNipu
ID: 2013000400013
Batch: 22nd
Section: A
Submission Date: 27- 08-2015
Abstract:
This project is on RFT dyeing (Right First Time Dyeing) & determination of its limitations &
effect on fabric processing. This is the way to develop new dyeing issue thinking on economic
issue. During the production, we waste time, chemicals, dyes, moneys for a small problem.
Sometimes fault occurs without having any fault. To find such kinds of occurrence I choose the
above topic to get of loses.
Introduction:
Textile sector is the main foreign currency earning sector in Bangladesh because of cheap labor
cost, good working environment, world class product & also safe investment. As a result, textile
sector has grown up in Bangladesh very rapidly since 1985. Now a day’s thousands of textile
industry is available in Bangladesh. On export quantity, we export 80% knit type product & 20%
woven type product. These are the good side of our Textile sector. Textile sector can be divided
in four groups, 1.Yarn manufacturing sector, 2.Fabric manufacturing sector, 3.Wet processing
sector & 4.apparel sector. In Bangladesh textile product has higher % export quantity & most of
them are cotton, for why I have done my project on Study on RFT dyeing & determination of its
limitations & effect on fabric processing. In my work I’ve tried to find out the obstacles to get
RFT dyeing, then I’ve tried to find out solutions of that problems. So in one sentence we may say
that: It is a report on RFT dyeing to find out the proper way of dyeing cotton fabric.
Literature Review
Pre-Treatment Process: Before dyeing the textile material we need to treat that to dye or print
them properly; such processes are known as pre-treatment process. The main purpose of pre-
treatment processes is to obtain fabrics “Free from exterior impurities.” Pre-treatment processes
include fabric inspection, batch preparation, and singeing, desiring, scouring, bleaching &
mercerizing process.
Purpose of Pre-Treatment:
The purpose of pre-treatment is to produce a substance that has-- Free from impurities, Even &
rapid wetting of water, Uniform power of absorption of dyes & chemicals, Minimum fibre
damages, High whiteness, Free from seed husk, Ready for dyeing & finishing.
Inspection of Fabric/Yarn: At first the grey fabric has been checked for faults. It has carried out
visually either on a traditional long inspection table otherwise using inspection machine. If the
faults exceed more than the requirement & those cannot be mended, the goods will be rejected at
this stage.
Singeing: The process of reducing adjacent protruding fibres from the fabric/yarn to improve the
smoothness & to get uniform fabric surface is known as singeing. Usually this process has
carried out by passing into the burner.
Desiring: Desiring is a process to remove size materials from the yarns of the fabrics. After
solubilizing the size compounds are discharged from the surface of the yarn & then the fabric is
washed & rinsed.
Scouring: It is a process by which all natural & additive impurities such as oil, wax, fat, hand
dust etc. are removed to produce hydrophilic & clean textile material. It is one of the vital
processes of wet processing.
Bleaching: Destruction of natural coloring matters to impart pure, permanent & basic white
effects suitable for the production of white finisher, level dyeing & desired printed shade with
the minimum or no tendering or without reducing the tensile strength is called bleaching. The
mostly use bleaching agent is Hydrogen per Oxide (H2O2), which is also known as universal
bleaching agent.
Mercerization: It is a physio-chemical process where cotton/yarn is treated with 15-25% caustic
soda solution at a temperature of 20-30℃. It is necessary to hold the fabric under tension & wash
thoroughly. It is done for increasing luster, fabric strength, dye affinity, abrasion resistance etc.
Dyeing:
The process of coloring the textile material with the help of dyes & various types of chemicals is
known as dyeing. Dyeing process is also known as wet process because the process is saturated
with water/solvent. Dyeing process is carried out by using different types of dyes which can
impart permanent color & that color cannot be faded by any other conditions such as rubbing,
perspiration, light etc.
RFT Dyeing:
RFT dyeing means “Right First Time Dyeing.” This term is used to define the dyeing efficiency,
if the efficiency is more than the dyeing capability of that company is very good otherwise not
good. This term actually defines how we can dye a fabric. If we can complete our dyeing at first
time then we can say that this is RFT dyeing but if we cannot than we say that this is not RFT
dyeing. So we can say that----
“If the dyeing process is completed properly without any fault & there is no need to put the dyed
fabric into the bath to get the proper shade then this dyeing is called RFT dyeing.
Objects of RFT dyeing:
Increase productivity: The productivity of a company can be increased if the RFT
efficiency increased.
Reduce time consumption: If the dyeing completes in first time then it will take less time
than the 2nd time dyeing.
Increase profit: If the productivity increases then the profit will be increased too.
Less fabric damage: If the dyed fabric put 2nd time in a bath then there is a possibility to
damage the fabric. So in a RFT dyeing this possibility is reduced.
Reduce cost: If the dyed fabric dyeing 2nd time then we needs extra dyes & chemicals.
In RFT dyeing we do not need this, so cost will be reduced.
Processinvolved in "Right first time dyeing:
Right first dyeing involves exhaust dyeing using reactive dyes. Exhaust dyeing of cellulose with
reactive dyes is a complex process. It involves the exhaustion of the dye onto the fiber in the
presence of electrolyte and then the addition of alkali to promote the chemical reaction between
the dye and cellulose. The controlled coloration approach has proven to be the basis of a
systematic, structured and successful approach to improve the right-first time production rate.
The level dyeing performance of reactive dyes has benefited from the introduction of controlled
coloration and it is now perceived that shade reproducibility is the major obstacle preventing
zero defect production.
Analytical Survey:
In the floor of production of dyed fabric the main challenge is that to complete the dyeing
process without any faults that means to get proper shade after the first bath. But sometimes the
shade of the fabric does not match & the fabric again put on the bath to get the proper shade. If
the shade is lighter than the sample fabric then we have to bath the fabric with the required dyes
& chemicals. If the shade is deeper than the sample fabric then we have to bath the fabric with
acetic acid to take out the extra dyes. If we put the fabric in the bath 2nd time, this is not RFT
dyeing. By putting the fabric 2nd time in the bath reduce the dyeing efficiency of a dyeing mill.
If we can complete our dyeing process first time then the productivity of a dyeing mill will be
increased. Now the question is why the shade of the fabric does not match easily & how we can
complete our dyeing in 1st time bath. To get the RFT dyeing following problem may be effect
the dyeing process. One of the main problem is to achieve the RFT Dyeing is the very little
calculation variation of chemicals and dyes. Without our knowledge we make mistakes during
getting the chemicals.
Dyeing recipe:
Chemical name Amount(g/l)
Phenolas D-250(detergent) 1
Novolupe Jet (Anticreasing agent) 1
Fafstaring IR (Sequestering aget) 1
Chimistab FG 0.4
Piso OSR 0.5
Soda ash 5
Hydrogen peroxide 50% 2
Catalese BF 0.3
Acetic acid 1
Phenolas CLN-20 1.5
Tex finish AL 0.5
Gielev YDL 0.5
Phenolas P-96 1
Eul Ysin-S 0.3
Teracil t 1
Chimisperse RK 0.5
Glauber salt 40
Faflev DBL 1
Reactive Turquiose Blue G 1.5%
Reactive yellow 4GL 0.5%
When we add chemicals or dyes in a bath, there is a possibility of imbalance dozing which may
vary from the sample recipe. When we dozes the dyes or chemicals manually, this time we may
take dyes or chemicals more or less than the recipe. In a lab the differences of taking more or less
chemicals does not seem but they have the effect during dyeing the fabric. For why, in the lab
we can get the proper dyed sample according to the buyer recommendation, but in the bulk
production the differences are so big & that time the effect of more or less chemicals come in
sight. That’s the main reason for the limitation to get RFT dyeing.
Calculation:
Let, we have to dye a knit cotton fabric with reactive dyes & the shade% is 2. Now if we use
same recipe in lab & bulk production then what will we get is describing below---
In Lab: Shade% 2 means, we have to take two kg dyes for hundred kg knit cotton fabrics. But
in the lab the weight of the fabric sample is so little. That means we require less amount of dye
for dyeing sample fabric. For measuring solid dye: Let, Shade % = 2 (owf) Fabric wt. = 5 grams
M: L = 1:40 According to the above recipe, we need 40ml water for 1gm. fabric That means total
liquor = (40×5) = 200 ml We know that, Dye = Shade% × Fabric wt. So that for the above data,
required dye is-----
Dye = (2 ÷ 100) × 5 = 0.02 × 5 = o.1 gram
So, we need 0.1 gram dye to dye the 5 gram fabric. But this 0.1 amount is difficult to measure in
the digital balance. If we measure then we cannot get proper amount because when we measure
it in the balance there are some factors come in sight. They are -----
Surrounding atmosphere: During the measuring with the balance surrounding atmosphere should
be considered. The pressure of air, humidity & temperature of the air may effect on the
measurement. During the time of measuring we should work in a standard atmosphere & also
neglect the air of pressure.
Wt. of supporting material: In lab we are using a pot or paper to weigh the chemicals. This
supporting material has its own weight. So during the measurement of chemicals the supporting
material’s weight should be avoided.
Accuracy of the machines: The accuracy of the machine is a very important factor. When we
measure something with the balance then we cannot take the exact amount. Let, we will take
0.11 gm. dye for 5 gm. fabric. Here, we take 0.01 gm. dye extra which also has the effect on the
fabric. That means we dyed the fabric with 0.01 gm. extra dye & after dyeing with that extra dye
we get proper shade. First two can be minimized but the third factor we cannot avoid, because
we are not able to take exactly the same amount what we look for. Such as, we have to take
0.110gm. or 0.104gm. or 0.101gm. instead of 0.1 gm.
For Measuring Dye Solution: Sometimes we prepare stock solutions to take the proper amounts
of dyes & chemicals. It is done when we have to take a very little amount because it is
impossible to measure in digital balance. Let, we have to make 5% stock solution of dye. 5%
stock solution means, a solution of 100ml water which contains 5 gm. solid dyes. If the dye is in
liquid form then, 5% stock solution means, a solution of 95 ml water which contains 5ml liquid
dyes.
For the stock solution the formula of the “Dye” will be -- Dye % = (Shade % ÷ Stock solution %)
× fabric wt. So that for the above data, required dye is-----
Dye = (2% ÷ 5%) × 5
= (0.02 ÷ 0.05) × 5
= 0.4 × 5 = 2 ml
So, we need 2ml dye solution to dye the 5 gram fabric. Now, the problem is we have to add the
dye solution in the bath by using the pipette. When we do it manually then we cannot measure
proper amount of solution. By seeing the level of solution in the pipette we take the dye solution.
We may take little more or less amount of solution in the bath. Let, we take 0.1ml more or less
dye solution instead of 2 ml dye solution. Here, we take 0.1ml dye solution more or less than the
required dye solution. That means we dyed the fabric with 1.9 or 2.1ml dye solution & after
dyeing with that we get proper shade.
Here, 100ml dye solution contains 5gm. dye That means, 1ml dye solution contains = (5 ÷ 100)
gm. dye = 0.05 gm. dye So 2.1 ml dye solution contains = (2.1 × 0.05) gm. dye = 0.105 gm. dye
Or, 1.9 ml dye solution contains = (1.9 × 0.05) gm. dye = 0.095 gm. dye That means we dyed the
fabric by using (0.1- 0.105) or (0.1-0.095) gm. i.e. 0.005 gm. more or less dye. So, we get proper
shade by using 0.005 gm. more or less dye. From the above, we find that we are taking 0.005
gm. more or less dye for 5 gm. fabric. Here, 0.005 amounts are very little which is negligible. If
we convert in percentage, then we will find the difference. Here, For 5 gm. fabric we take 0.005
gm. more or less dye For 1 gm. fabric we take (0.005 ÷ 5) gm. more or less dye For 100kg fabric
we take (0.005 ÷ 5) × (100 ×1000) gm. more/less dye
= 0.001 × (100 ×1000) gm. more/less dye
= 100 gm. more or less dye
= 0.1 kg more or less dye
= 0.1% more or less dye
In Bulk production Let, Shade % = 2 (owf) Fabric wt. = 1000 kg M: L = 1:8 According to the
above recipe, We need 8 liter water for 1kg fabric That means total liquor = (1000 × 8) = 8000 L
We know that, Dye = Shade% × Fabric wt. So that for the above data, required dye is-----
Dye = (2 ÷ 100) × 1000 = 0.02 × 1000 = 20kg So
, we need 20kg dye to dye 1000 kg fabric. For Measuring Solid Dye: In the lab we took 0.11 gm.
dye for 5 gm. fabric. For 1000 kg fabric requires = (10002 × 0.11) ÷ 5 gm. dye
= (110000 ÷ 5) gm. dye = 22000 gm. dye = 22 kg dye
No. of Difference = (22 -20) kg
= 2 kg dye
So, in bulk production we dyed the fabric by using 2 kg less dye. For why the shade of the fabric
does not match & the fabric will be put in 2nd time with require amount of dyes & chemicals.
For Measuring Dye Solution: In the lab we took 0.105 gm. dye for 5 gm. Fabric
For 1000 kg fabric requires;
= (10002 × 0.105) ÷ 5gm. dye = (105000 ÷ 5) gm. dye = 21000 gm. dye = 21 kg dye
No. of Difference = (21 -20) kg
= 1 kg dye
So, in bulk production we dyed the fabric by using 1 kg less dye. Or, In the lab we took 0.095
gm. dye for 5 gm. fabric For 1000 kg fabric requires = (10002 × 0.095) ÷5gm. dye
= (95000 ÷ 5) gm. dye
= 19000 gm. dye
= 19 kg dye
No. of Difference = (20 - 19) kg = 1 kg dye
So, in bulk production we dyed the fabric by using 1 kg more dye. So, in bulk production we
dyed the fabric by using 1kg more or less dye. For why the shade of the fabric does not match &
the fabric will be put in the 2nd time to get the proper shade.
Experimental Review:
 Lab Work:
Recipe Amount (g/L
Dye 1%
sequestering agent 0.25 g/l
Glauber salt 20 g/l
Alkali 10 g/l
acetic acid 0.5ml/l
Soap 2 g/l
Temp 60 c
Time 60min
M:L 1:30
Sample wt. 10g
According to the table (Table 2.) we have to take 1 gm. dye for 100 gm. fabric.
So for 10 gm. fabric we need (1×10) ÷ 100 gm. dye
= 0.1 gm. dye
Now, during the weighing of dye we took 0.101 gm. dye to dye and we get the following
resultant dyed fabric---
Figure 1. Lab Sample (dyed with 1.101 gm. dye)
Bulk Production:
Table 3.Dyeing Recipe in Bulk Production
Recipe Amount (g/L
Dye 1%
sequestering agent 0.25 g/l
Glauber salt 20 g/l
Alkali 10 g/l
acetic acid 0.5ml/l
Soap 2 g/l
Temp 60 c
Time 60min
M:L 1:30
Sample wt. 10g
Now, For 180 kg fabric we need (1×180) ÷ 100 kg dye = 1.8 kg dye After dyeing the fabric with
1.8 kg dye we have got the following resultant dyed fabric---
Figure 2. Bulk Sample (dyed with 1.8 kg dye base on lab recipe)
From the above two sample we can easily find that the bulk dyeing is not proper due to the less
amount of using of dye. We needed (1.101×180) ÷ 100 kg dye = 1.98 kg dye that means for the
less of 0.18 kg dyes we got light shade fabric. To get the proper shade we need to dye that fabric
again. To get that shade we need to run the whole dyeing process again which will increase the
process cost. If we took 1.98 kg dye then there was a probability to get the properly dyed shade
on first time dyeing.
Result & Discussions:
Effect Let,the cost of dyes are 10 US Dollar/kg. If, a company has an order of 5000 kg fabrics which
have to be dyed. For, 5000 kg fabric the amount of required dye is = (Shade% × Fabric wt.)
= (2 ÷ 100) × 5000 kg
= 100 kg The cost of 100 kg dye is
= (100 × 10) $ = 1,000 $
Above we found that, for 100 kg fabric we used 0.1% more or less dye. Now, for 100 kg fabric if
we use 100 gm. more dye, then, for 5000 kg fabric we are using
= (5000 × 100) ÷ 100 gm. more dye
= 5000 gm. more dye
= 5kg more dye that means, we are using 105 kg dyes. The cost of 105 kg dye is = (105 × 10) $=
1,050 $
The difference is = (1,050 – 1,000) $= 50 $.
If, daily 2 times that machines run then the amount will be = (50×2) $ = 100 $ for 1 month the
amount will be = (100 × 30) $ = 3,000 $ That means we are wasting 3,000 US Dollar in a month.
The amount of loss is so huge. If we calculate all chemicals from pretreatment to dyeing then the
amount of waste will be increased.
Typical configurationand the setup of the dye bath monitoring system:
A typical dye bath monitoring system such as shown in Figure 1 enables dyers to monitor each
dye concentration in the dye bath while measuring the temperature, pH, and conductivity of the
dyebath simultaneously.
Fig. HueMetrix Dye-It-Right Monitor.
The determination of dye concentrations in real-time works as follows once the dyes are
calibrated:
1. Approximately every 90 seconds during the dyeing process, the instrument takes a micro
sample of dye bath via a small dye bath circulation loop connected to the dye machine.
2. The sample is conditioned, both physically and chemically for optimum spectral analysis.
3. Each micro sample is read with the state-of-the art spectrophotometer and analyzed.
4. The resulting data set (includes dye concentration, exhaustion, temperature, pH, and
conductivity) is recorded by the software.
5. The instruments post-processing software provides certain analysis features to aid dyers in
determining dyeing performance. The system determines individual dye concentrations
according to the Beer-Lambert law (McDonald, 1997): A (λ) = l ǫ (λ) and the additively of
individual dye spectrums when they are mixed (Johnson, 1989).
Probable Solutions:
From the above discussions we can easily find out that the limitation to get the RFT dyeing is
the manual measurement of dyes and chemicals. If we can minimize this problem then we can
get the Right First Time dyeing. For increasing RFT efficiency this problem should be
minimized. I am trying to find out the solutions of this problem. The solutions are given below---
Use Exact Amount of Chemicals: We face problems to get RFT efficiency in bulk production
because of not measuring the exact amount. If we indicate the proper amount use in lab then
during the bulk production we may not face problems to get RFT Dyeing. Such as, if we use 1.01
gm. dye in lab then we need to write the exactly that amount. So during the bulk dyeing people
will calculate according to the 1.01 gm. dye.
Figure: Pipette Machine
Computerized Dozing:
To get the proper & appropriate amount of the dye solutions in the lab we have to use a machine
which can prepare the solutions. Such types of machines are pipette machine, robolab etc.
Specifications of Pipette Machine:
Model no: 10500T30
Manufacturer: USA
Power: 6V, 100mA
Capacity: 10 ml
Functions of pipette machine: It helps us to prepare the exact amount of the solutions. It looks
like a pipette which contains a measuring device on the upper portion of the pipette. The device
contains some buttons & a display. The solutions are made into a pot. Then the pipette machine
is filled with the solutions. Then required amount of the dye solutions are set up in the machine
& then the machine can put the exact amount of the solutions into the bath.
Figure 4. Roblab Machine
Specifications of Rob lab:
 Manufacturer: Tales
 Machine name: Tales Robotics
 Model no: 66100 BramaGR
 Manufacturing year: 2010
 Serial no: 1069
 Total weight: 800 kg
 Electrical features: 220V
 Max. current: 20 amp
 Pay load: 2 kg
Advantages of Roblab:
 80 powders/different dyes can be taken at a time,
 Computer controlled,
 36 pipette can be used at a time,
 After giving instruction no need to do anything
 Save dyes & chemicals,
Disadvantages of Robolab:
 Very costly machine,
 Need proper care,
 Skilled operator is required
 Need enough space to machine set up.
RFT dyeing: Various technologies
Luft-roto plus: Economical exhaust dyeing technology. The Luft-roto plus and selected Levafix,
Remazol and Prodon reactive dyes can reduce exhaust dyeing cycles for cdlulosics by up to 30%
and virtually reduce water and chemical requirements to one-half. This technology was
developed in cooperation with Thies.
Innodye/InnoVat: New jet dyeing concept: Innodye/InnoVat is a flexible and economical new jet
dyeing technology. Developed in conjunction with Brazzoli, this economical system allows rapid
and efficient dyeing with Levafix, Prodon and Remazol reactive dyes and Indanthrene vat dyes.
This technology, therefore, meets demands for increased flexibility and improved color fastness.
The concept comprises the Innodye dyeing unit and the InnoVat dyeing process developed
specifically for this unit. The Innodye unit uses unique vacuum technology that opens up
completely new process options. It includes a patented traversing mechanism with a movable
material basket. Innodye/InnoVat therefore ensures level dyeing even on problematic substrates.
Econtrol: Economical new continuous dyeing: Econtrol is a rapid and reliable method of dyeing
a wide
range of substrates. It does not require steaming or curing and ensures high reproducibility and
excellent fixation. Econtrol is a registered trademark of DyStar. It was developed in conjunction
with Minford's and is based on the Thermo hot flue technology. Econtrol is environment friendly
and dyeing can be carried out without silicate, urea and salt, thus reducing recipe costs and
effluent load. Econtrol is easy to use in the lab and lab-to-bulk reproducibility is very good.
Excellent reproducibility and high fastness levels can be obtained on both lightweight and heavy
decrease the production cost and give more quality products so that the profit margin is
increased. Also this type of dyeing is ecofriendly.
Variables that needs to be monitored for RFT dyeing:
These factors are grouped and ordered accordingly with respect to the stages of dyeing. A typical
dyeing is considered to begin in the laboratory with shade matching and sample dyeing,
continues with the final checks before dyeing, and reaches completion with the post dyeing
quality confirmation. The remainder of this chapter is a detailed analysis of tests to monitor and
control the factors listed in Table 1. It is vital to apply these tests into routine testing and
operating procedures in both in the laboratory and in production. The failure to monitor these
factors, due to fatigue or a lack of standard operating procedure (SOP), prevents dye houses from
achieving a high level of right-first-time production.
Benefits of RFT quality control:
The batch dyer incurs severe financial penalties if a proportion of batches are not dyed correctly
the first time. A color correction added between 24% and 36% to the total dyeing cost of the
initial dyed batch, depending on the dye substrate system and the stage of manufacture at which
dyeing was carried out. Stripping and re-dyeing increased the initial dyeing cost by between
170% and 200%; however, these are direct costs that do not include indirect costs such as loss in
revenue and profit (Park & Shore, 2007). Only a few dye houses worldwide have successfully
achieved RFT production by implementing some of the quality control strategies mentioned in
this chapter. Hence, there have been relatively few case studies published to describe these
projects or to document the success achieved. A number of these dye houses in the US obtained
more than 98% first-time-right dyeing by adapting the RFT technologies introduced here while
achieving significant cost reductions. In addition to the cost savings obtained by RFT processing,
there are several other benefits, including improved quality through shorter processing times,
increased productivity from the same equipment and time frame, improved production planning,
and less capital expenditure on processing equipment (Park & Shore, 2004). RFT processing is
an essential prerequisite to the introduction of automation and robotics.
Conclusions:
After all of this hard work I had reached to this decision that RFT dyeing is very important terms
to get the proper & economical dyeing. If we can increase the RFT efficiency of a dyeing factory
we can save money & time & we can also increase the productivity. Whatever the lack of
knowledge about RFT dyeing among the worker and also the employer is the main problem to
get RFT Dyeing. RFT dyeing can reduce both the time and the dyes & chemical cost. It can
provide a more worthy process to dye the fabrics. If we can successfully integrate the RFT
process then the fabric faults will be minimized regarding with the dye shade%. In the 21st
century we still dye the fabrics in conventional process. To face the challenge of the 21st century
we have to increase the RFT % by increasing knowledge about it & apply the processes
effectively. I hope in near future we will increase the RFT efficiency & we will get proper
dyeing shade at the first time by gathering more knowledge on it & also applying the modern
techniques.
Reference:
http://journal.sapub.org/textile
www.intechopen.com
www.dyehouses.com
www.alternative.pdf
www.textile learner.com

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right first time dyeing

  • 1. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Department of Textile Engineering Course Code: TEX- 3021 Course title: Wet Processing Technology-II Submitted To: MD. ShahidulIslam Lecturer Department of Textile Submitted By: Nargis SultanaNipu ID: 2013000400013 Batch: 22nd Section: A Submission Date: 27- 08-2015
  • 2. Abstract: This project is on RFT dyeing (Right First Time Dyeing) & determination of its limitations & effect on fabric processing. This is the way to develop new dyeing issue thinking on economic issue. During the production, we waste time, chemicals, dyes, moneys for a small problem. Sometimes fault occurs without having any fault. To find such kinds of occurrence I choose the above topic to get of loses. Introduction: Textile sector is the main foreign currency earning sector in Bangladesh because of cheap labor cost, good working environment, world class product & also safe investment. As a result, textile sector has grown up in Bangladesh very rapidly since 1985. Now a day’s thousands of textile industry is available in Bangladesh. On export quantity, we export 80% knit type product & 20% woven type product. These are the good side of our Textile sector. Textile sector can be divided in four groups, 1.Yarn manufacturing sector, 2.Fabric manufacturing sector, 3.Wet processing sector & 4.apparel sector. In Bangladesh textile product has higher % export quantity & most of them are cotton, for why I have done my project on Study on RFT dyeing & determination of its limitations & effect on fabric processing. In my work I’ve tried to find out the obstacles to get RFT dyeing, then I’ve tried to find out solutions of that problems. So in one sentence we may say that: It is a report on RFT dyeing to find out the proper way of dyeing cotton fabric. Literature Review Pre-Treatment Process: Before dyeing the textile material we need to treat that to dye or print them properly; such processes are known as pre-treatment process. The main purpose of pre- treatment processes is to obtain fabrics “Free from exterior impurities.” Pre-treatment processes include fabric inspection, batch preparation, and singeing, desiring, scouring, bleaching & mercerizing process. Purpose of Pre-Treatment: The purpose of pre-treatment is to produce a substance that has-- Free from impurities, Even & rapid wetting of water, Uniform power of absorption of dyes & chemicals, Minimum fibre damages, High whiteness, Free from seed husk, Ready for dyeing & finishing. Inspection of Fabric/Yarn: At first the grey fabric has been checked for faults. It has carried out visually either on a traditional long inspection table otherwise using inspection machine. If the faults exceed more than the requirement & those cannot be mended, the goods will be rejected at this stage.
  • 3. Singeing: The process of reducing adjacent protruding fibres from the fabric/yarn to improve the smoothness & to get uniform fabric surface is known as singeing. Usually this process has carried out by passing into the burner. Desiring: Desiring is a process to remove size materials from the yarns of the fabrics. After solubilizing the size compounds are discharged from the surface of the yarn & then the fabric is washed & rinsed. Scouring: It is a process by which all natural & additive impurities such as oil, wax, fat, hand dust etc. are removed to produce hydrophilic & clean textile material. It is one of the vital processes of wet processing. Bleaching: Destruction of natural coloring matters to impart pure, permanent & basic white effects suitable for the production of white finisher, level dyeing & desired printed shade with the minimum or no tendering or without reducing the tensile strength is called bleaching. The mostly use bleaching agent is Hydrogen per Oxide (H2O2), which is also known as universal bleaching agent. Mercerization: It is a physio-chemical process where cotton/yarn is treated with 15-25% caustic soda solution at a temperature of 20-30℃. It is necessary to hold the fabric under tension & wash thoroughly. It is done for increasing luster, fabric strength, dye affinity, abrasion resistance etc. Dyeing: The process of coloring the textile material with the help of dyes & various types of chemicals is known as dyeing. Dyeing process is also known as wet process because the process is saturated with water/solvent. Dyeing process is carried out by using different types of dyes which can impart permanent color & that color cannot be faded by any other conditions such as rubbing, perspiration, light etc. RFT Dyeing: RFT dyeing means “Right First Time Dyeing.” This term is used to define the dyeing efficiency, if the efficiency is more than the dyeing capability of that company is very good otherwise not good. This term actually defines how we can dye a fabric. If we can complete our dyeing at first time then we can say that this is RFT dyeing but if we cannot than we say that this is not RFT dyeing. So we can say that---- “If the dyeing process is completed properly without any fault & there is no need to put the dyed fabric into the bath to get the proper shade then this dyeing is called RFT dyeing.
  • 4. Objects of RFT dyeing: Increase productivity: The productivity of a company can be increased if the RFT efficiency increased. Reduce time consumption: If the dyeing completes in first time then it will take less time than the 2nd time dyeing. Increase profit: If the productivity increases then the profit will be increased too. Less fabric damage: If the dyed fabric put 2nd time in a bath then there is a possibility to damage the fabric. So in a RFT dyeing this possibility is reduced. Reduce cost: If the dyed fabric dyeing 2nd time then we needs extra dyes & chemicals. In RFT dyeing we do not need this, so cost will be reduced. Processinvolved in "Right first time dyeing: Right first dyeing involves exhaust dyeing using reactive dyes. Exhaust dyeing of cellulose with reactive dyes is a complex process. It involves the exhaustion of the dye onto the fiber in the presence of electrolyte and then the addition of alkali to promote the chemical reaction between the dye and cellulose. The controlled coloration approach has proven to be the basis of a systematic, structured and successful approach to improve the right-first time production rate. The level dyeing performance of reactive dyes has benefited from the introduction of controlled coloration and it is now perceived that shade reproducibility is the major obstacle preventing zero defect production. Analytical Survey: In the floor of production of dyed fabric the main challenge is that to complete the dyeing process without any faults that means to get proper shade after the first bath. But sometimes the shade of the fabric does not match & the fabric again put on the bath to get the proper shade. If the shade is lighter than the sample fabric then we have to bath the fabric with the required dyes & chemicals. If the shade is deeper than the sample fabric then we have to bath the fabric with acetic acid to take out the extra dyes. If we put the fabric in the bath 2nd time, this is not RFT dyeing. By putting the fabric 2nd time in the bath reduce the dyeing efficiency of a dyeing mill. If we can complete our dyeing process first time then the productivity of a dyeing mill will be increased. Now the question is why the shade of the fabric does not match easily & how we can complete our dyeing in 1st time bath. To get the RFT dyeing following problem may be effect the dyeing process. One of the main problem is to achieve the RFT Dyeing is the very little calculation variation of chemicals and dyes. Without our knowledge we make mistakes during getting the chemicals.
  • 5. Dyeing recipe: Chemical name Amount(g/l) Phenolas D-250(detergent) 1 Novolupe Jet (Anticreasing agent) 1 Fafstaring IR (Sequestering aget) 1 Chimistab FG 0.4 Piso OSR 0.5 Soda ash 5 Hydrogen peroxide 50% 2 Catalese BF 0.3 Acetic acid 1 Phenolas CLN-20 1.5 Tex finish AL 0.5 Gielev YDL 0.5 Phenolas P-96 1 Eul Ysin-S 0.3 Teracil t 1 Chimisperse RK 0.5 Glauber salt 40 Faflev DBL 1 Reactive Turquiose Blue G 1.5% Reactive yellow 4GL 0.5% When we add chemicals or dyes in a bath, there is a possibility of imbalance dozing which may vary from the sample recipe. When we dozes the dyes or chemicals manually, this time we may take dyes or chemicals more or less than the recipe. In a lab the differences of taking more or less chemicals does not seem but they have the effect during dyeing the fabric. For why, in the lab we can get the proper dyed sample according to the buyer recommendation, but in the bulk production the differences are so big & that time the effect of more or less chemicals come in sight. That’s the main reason for the limitation to get RFT dyeing.
  • 6. Calculation: Let, we have to dye a knit cotton fabric with reactive dyes & the shade% is 2. Now if we use same recipe in lab & bulk production then what will we get is describing below--- In Lab: Shade% 2 means, we have to take two kg dyes for hundred kg knit cotton fabrics. But in the lab the weight of the fabric sample is so little. That means we require less amount of dye for dyeing sample fabric. For measuring solid dye: Let, Shade % = 2 (owf) Fabric wt. = 5 grams M: L = 1:40 According to the above recipe, we need 40ml water for 1gm. fabric That means total liquor = (40×5) = 200 ml We know that, Dye = Shade% × Fabric wt. So that for the above data, required dye is----- Dye = (2 ÷ 100) × 5 = 0.02 × 5 = o.1 gram So, we need 0.1 gram dye to dye the 5 gram fabric. But this 0.1 amount is difficult to measure in the digital balance. If we measure then we cannot get proper amount because when we measure it in the balance there are some factors come in sight. They are ----- Surrounding atmosphere: During the measuring with the balance surrounding atmosphere should be considered. The pressure of air, humidity & temperature of the air may effect on the measurement. During the time of measuring we should work in a standard atmosphere & also neglect the air of pressure. Wt. of supporting material: In lab we are using a pot or paper to weigh the chemicals. This supporting material has its own weight. So during the measurement of chemicals the supporting material’s weight should be avoided. Accuracy of the machines: The accuracy of the machine is a very important factor. When we measure something with the balance then we cannot take the exact amount. Let, we will take 0.11 gm. dye for 5 gm. fabric. Here, we take 0.01 gm. dye extra which also has the effect on the fabric. That means we dyed the fabric with 0.01 gm. extra dye & after dyeing with that extra dye we get proper shade. First two can be minimized but the third factor we cannot avoid, because we are not able to take exactly the same amount what we look for. Such as, we have to take 0.110gm. or 0.104gm. or 0.101gm. instead of 0.1 gm. For Measuring Dye Solution: Sometimes we prepare stock solutions to take the proper amounts of dyes & chemicals. It is done when we have to take a very little amount because it is impossible to measure in digital balance. Let, we have to make 5% stock solution of dye. 5% stock solution means, a solution of 100ml water which contains 5 gm. solid dyes. If the dye is in liquid form then, 5% stock solution means, a solution of 95 ml water which contains 5ml liquid dyes.
  • 7. For the stock solution the formula of the “Dye” will be -- Dye % = (Shade % ÷ Stock solution %) × fabric wt. So that for the above data, required dye is----- Dye = (2% ÷ 5%) × 5 = (0.02 ÷ 0.05) × 5 = 0.4 × 5 = 2 ml So, we need 2ml dye solution to dye the 5 gram fabric. Now, the problem is we have to add the dye solution in the bath by using the pipette. When we do it manually then we cannot measure proper amount of solution. By seeing the level of solution in the pipette we take the dye solution. We may take little more or less amount of solution in the bath. Let, we take 0.1ml more or less dye solution instead of 2 ml dye solution. Here, we take 0.1ml dye solution more or less than the required dye solution. That means we dyed the fabric with 1.9 or 2.1ml dye solution & after dyeing with that we get proper shade. Here, 100ml dye solution contains 5gm. dye That means, 1ml dye solution contains = (5 ÷ 100) gm. dye = 0.05 gm. dye So 2.1 ml dye solution contains = (2.1 × 0.05) gm. dye = 0.105 gm. dye Or, 1.9 ml dye solution contains = (1.9 × 0.05) gm. dye = 0.095 gm. dye That means we dyed the fabric by using (0.1- 0.105) or (0.1-0.095) gm. i.e. 0.005 gm. more or less dye. So, we get proper shade by using 0.005 gm. more or less dye. From the above, we find that we are taking 0.005 gm. more or less dye for 5 gm. fabric. Here, 0.005 amounts are very little which is negligible. If we convert in percentage, then we will find the difference. Here, For 5 gm. fabric we take 0.005 gm. more or less dye For 1 gm. fabric we take (0.005 ÷ 5) gm. more or less dye For 100kg fabric we take (0.005 ÷ 5) × (100 ×1000) gm. more/less dye = 0.001 × (100 ×1000) gm. more/less dye = 100 gm. more or less dye = 0.1 kg more or less dye = 0.1% more or less dye In Bulk production Let, Shade % = 2 (owf) Fabric wt. = 1000 kg M: L = 1:8 According to the above recipe, We need 8 liter water for 1kg fabric That means total liquor = (1000 × 8) = 8000 L We know that, Dye = Shade% × Fabric wt. So that for the above data, required dye is----- Dye = (2 ÷ 100) × 1000 = 0.02 × 1000 = 20kg So , we need 20kg dye to dye 1000 kg fabric. For Measuring Solid Dye: In the lab we took 0.11 gm. dye for 5 gm. fabric. For 1000 kg fabric requires = (10002 × 0.11) ÷ 5 gm. dye = (110000 ÷ 5) gm. dye = 22000 gm. dye = 22 kg dye
  • 8. No. of Difference = (22 -20) kg = 2 kg dye So, in bulk production we dyed the fabric by using 2 kg less dye. For why the shade of the fabric does not match & the fabric will be put in 2nd time with require amount of dyes & chemicals. For Measuring Dye Solution: In the lab we took 0.105 gm. dye for 5 gm. Fabric For 1000 kg fabric requires; = (10002 × 0.105) ÷ 5gm. dye = (105000 ÷ 5) gm. dye = 21000 gm. dye = 21 kg dye No. of Difference = (21 -20) kg = 1 kg dye So, in bulk production we dyed the fabric by using 1 kg less dye. Or, In the lab we took 0.095 gm. dye for 5 gm. fabric For 1000 kg fabric requires = (10002 × 0.095) ÷5gm. dye = (95000 ÷ 5) gm. dye = 19000 gm. dye = 19 kg dye No. of Difference = (20 - 19) kg = 1 kg dye So, in bulk production we dyed the fabric by using 1 kg more dye. So, in bulk production we dyed the fabric by using 1kg more or less dye. For why the shade of the fabric does not match & the fabric will be put in the 2nd time to get the proper shade. Experimental Review:  Lab Work: Recipe Amount (g/L Dye 1% sequestering agent 0.25 g/l Glauber salt 20 g/l Alkali 10 g/l acetic acid 0.5ml/l Soap 2 g/l Temp 60 c Time 60min M:L 1:30 Sample wt. 10g
  • 9. According to the table (Table 2.) we have to take 1 gm. dye for 100 gm. fabric. So for 10 gm. fabric we need (1×10) ÷ 100 gm. dye = 0.1 gm. dye Now, during the weighing of dye we took 0.101 gm. dye to dye and we get the following resultant dyed fabric--- Figure 1. Lab Sample (dyed with 1.101 gm. dye) Bulk Production: Table 3.Dyeing Recipe in Bulk Production Recipe Amount (g/L Dye 1% sequestering agent 0.25 g/l Glauber salt 20 g/l Alkali 10 g/l acetic acid 0.5ml/l Soap 2 g/l Temp 60 c Time 60min M:L 1:30 Sample wt. 10g
  • 10. Now, For 180 kg fabric we need (1×180) ÷ 100 kg dye = 1.8 kg dye After dyeing the fabric with 1.8 kg dye we have got the following resultant dyed fabric--- Figure 2. Bulk Sample (dyed with 1.8 kg dye base on lab recipe) From the above two sample we can easily find that the bulk dyeing is not proper due to the less amount of using of dye. We needed (1.101×180) ÷ 100 kg dye = 1.98 kg dye that means for the less of 0.18 kg dyes we got light shade fabric. To get the proper shade we need to dye that fabric again. To get that shade we need to run the whole dyeing process again which will increase the process cost. If we took 1.98 kg dye then there was a probability to get the properly dyed shade on first time dyeing. Result & Discussions: Effect Let,the cost of dyes are 10 US Dollar/kg. If, a company has an order of 5000 kg fabrics which have to be dyed. For, 5000 kg fabric the amount of required dye is = (Shade% × Fabric wt.) = (2 ÷ 100) × 5000 kg = 100 kg The cost of 100 kg dye is = (100 × 10) $ = 1,000 $ Above we found that, for 100 kg fabric we used 0.1% more or less dye. Now, for 100 kg fabric if we use 100 gm. more dye, then, for 5000 kg fabric we are using = (5000 × 100) ÷ 100 gm. more dye = 5000 gm. more dye = 5kg more dye that means, we are using 105 kg dyes. The cost of 105 kg dye is = (105 × 10) $= 1,050 $ The difference is = (1,050 – 1,000) $= 50 $.
  • 11. If, daily 2 times that machines run then the amount will be = (50×2) $ = 100 $ for 1 month the amount will be = (100 × 30) $ = 3,000 $ That means we are wasting 3,000 US Dollar in a month. The amount of loss is so huge. If we calculate all chemicals from pretreatment to dyeing then the amount of waste will be increased. Typical configurationand the setup of the dye bath monitoring system: A typical dye bath monitoring system such as shown in Figure 1 enables dyers to monitor each dye concentration in the dye bath while measuring the temperature, pH, and conductivity of the dyebath simultaneously. Fig. HueMetrix Dye-It-Right Monitor. The determination of dye concentrations in real-time works as follows once the dyes are calibrated: 1. Approximately every 90 seconds during the dyeing process, the instrument takes a micro sample of dye bath via a small dye bath circulation loop connected to the dye machine. 2. The sample is conditioned, both physically and chemically for optimum spectral analysis. 3. Each micro sample is read with the state-of-the art spectrophotometer and analyzed. 4. The resulting data set (includes dye concentration, exhaustion, temperature, pH, and conductivity) is recorded by the software. 5. The instruments post-processing software provides certain analysis features to aid dyers in determining dyeing performance. The system determines individual dye concentrations according to the Beer-Lambert law (McDonald, 1997): A (λ) = l ǫ (λ) and the additively of individual dye spectrums when they are mixed (Johnson, 1989).
  • 12. Probable Solutions: From the above discussions we can easily find out that the limitation to get the RFT dyeing is the manual measurement of dyes and chemicals. If we can minimize this problem then we can get the Right First Time dyeing. For increasing RFT efficiency this problem should be minimized. I am trying to find out the solutions of this problem. The solutions are given below--- Use Exact Amount of Chemicals: We face problems to get RFT efficiency in bulk production because of not measuring the exact amount. If we indicate the proper amount use in lab then during the bulk production we may not face problems to get RFT Dyeing. Such as, if we use 1.01 gm. dye in lab then we need to write the exactly that amount. So during the bulk dyeing people will calculate according to the 1.01 gm. dye. Figure: Pipette Machine
  • 13. Computerized Dozing: To get the proper & appropriate amount of the dye solutions in the lab we have to use a machine which can prepare the solutions. Such types of machines are pipette machine, robolab etc. Specifications of Pipette Machine: Model no: 10500T30 Manufacturer: USA Power: 6V, 100mA Capacity: 10 ml Functions of pipette machine: It helps us to prepare the exact amount of the solutions. It looks like a pipette which contains a measuring device on the upper portion of the pipette. The device contains some buttons & a display. The solutions are made into a pot. Then the pipette machine is filled with the solutions. Then required amount of the dye solutions are set up in the machine & then the machine can put the exact amount of the solutions into the bath. Figure 4. Roblab Machine Specifications of Rob lab:  Manufacturer: Tales  Machine name: Tales Robotics  Model no: 66100 BramaGR  Manufacturing year: 2010
  • 14.  Serial no: 1069  Total weight: 800 kg  Electrical features: 220V  Max. current: 20 amp  Pay load: 2 kg Advantages of Roblab:  80 powders/different dyes can be taken at a time,  Computer controlled,  36 pipette can be used at a time,  After giving instruction no need to do anything  Save dyes & chemicals, Disadvantages of Robolab:  Very costly machine,  Need proper care,  Skilled operator is required  Need enough space to machine set up. RFT dyeing: Various technologies Luft-roto plus: Economical exhaust dyeing technology. The Luft-roto plus and selected Levafix, Remazol and Prodon reactive dyes can reduce exhaust dyeing cycles for cdlulosics by up to 30% and virtually reduce water and chemical requirements to one-half. This technology was developed in cooperation with Thies. Innodye/InnoVat: New jet dyeing concept: Innodye/InnoVat is a flexible and economical new jet dyeing technology. Developed in conjunction with Brazzoli, this economical system allows rapid and efficient dyeing with Levafix, Prodon and Remazol reactive dyes and Indanthrene vat dyes. This technology, therefore, meets demands for increased flexibility and improved color fastness. The concept comprises the Innodye dyeing unit and the InnoVat dyeing process developed specifically for this unit. The Innodye unit uses unique vacuum technology that opens up completely new process options. It includes a patented traversing mechanism with a movable material basket. Innodye/InnoVat therefore ensures level dyeing even on problematic substrates. Econtrol: Economical new continuous dyeing: Econtrol is a rapid and reliable method of dyeing a wide range of substrates. It does not require steaming or curing and ensures high reproducibility and excellent fixation. Econtrol is a registered trademark of DyStar. It was developed in conjunction with Minford's and is based on the Thermo hot flue technology. Econtrol is environment friendly and dyeing can be carried out without silicate, urea and salt, thus reducing recipe costs and
  • 15. effluent load. Econtrol is easy to use in the lab and lab-to-bulk reproducibility is very good. Excellent reproducibility and high fastness levels can be obtained on both lightweight and heavy decrease the production cost and give more quality products so that the profit margin is increased. Also this type of dyeing is ecofriendly. Variables that needs to be monitored for RFT dyeing: These factors are grouped and ordered accordingly with respect to the stages of dyeing. A typical dyeing is considered to begin in the laboratory with shade matching and sample dyeing, continues with the final checks before dyeing, and reaches completion with the post dyeing quality confirmation. The remainder of this chapter is a detailed analysis of tests to monitor and control the factors listed in Table 1. It is vital to apply these tests into routine testing and operating procedures in both in the laboratory and in production. The failure to monitor these factors, due to fatigue or a lack of standard operating procedure (SOP), prevents dye houses from achieving a high level of right-first-time production. Benefits of RFT quality control: The batch dyer incurs severe financial penalties if a proportion of batches are not dyed correctly the first time. A color correction added between 24% and 36% to the total dyeing cost of the initial dyed batch, depending on the dye substrate system and the stage of manufacture at which dyeing was carried out. Stripping and re-dyeing increased the initial dyeing cost by between 170% and 200%; however, these are direct costs that do not include indirect costs such as loss in revenue and profit (Park & Shore, 2007). Only a few dye houses worldwide have successfully achieved RFT production by implementing some of the quality control strategies mentioned in this chapter. Hence, there have been relatively few case studies published to describe these projects or to document the success achieved. A number of these dye houses in the US obtained more than 98% first-time-right dyeing by adapting the RFT technologies introduced here while achieving significant cost reductions. In addition to the cost savings obtained by RFT processing, there are several other benefits, including improved quality through shorter processing times, increased productivity from the same equipment and time frame, improved production planning, and less capital expenditure on processing equipment (Park & Shore, 2004). RFT processing is an essential prerequisite to the introduction of automation and robotics. Conclusions: After all of this hard work I had reached to this decision that RFT dyeing is very important terms to get the proper & economical dyeing. If we can increase the RFT efficiency of a dyeing factory we can save money & time & we can also increase the productivity. Whatever the lack of knowledge about RFT dyeing among the worker and also the employer is the main problem to get RFT Dyeing. RFT dyeing can reduce both the time and the dyes & chemical cost. It can provide a more worthy process to dye the fabrics. If we can successfully integrate the RFT
  • 16. process then the fabric faults will be minimized regarding with the dye shade%. In the 21st century we still dye the fabrics in conventional process. To face the challenge of the 21st century we have to increase the RFT % by increasing knowledge about it & apply the processes effectively. I hope in near future we will increase the RFT efficiency & we will get proper dyeing shade at the first time by gathering more knowledge on it & also applying the modern techniques. Reference: http://journal.sapub.org/textile www.intechopen.com www.dyehouses.com www.alternative.pdf www.textile learner.com