SlideShare a Scribd company logo
SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY
Course title: Wet Processing Technology-II
Course Code: TEX- 3021
Assignment on Effluent Treatment Plant
Submitted to: Md. Shahidul Islam
Lecturer
Department of textile Engineering
Submitted by:
Md. Mazadul Islam Ripon
ID: 2013000400016
Barch: 22nd
Section: A
Submission date: 25/08/15
Introduction:
The effluent treatment plant is designed to treat the effluent coming from different areas of the
plant. The treatment of different effluents varies with the type of effluent.
Water is recycled from effluent coming from textile & chemical industries using series of
operations i.e. coagulation, flocculation, aeration, and filtration techniques mainly reverse
osmosis. The effluent produce has high BOD, COD, pH, TSS, TDS and Color material. This
study includes characterization of effluent and making of process flow sheet of Effluent
Treatment Plant after visit to various locations in industrial areas. Points of optimization were
identified in various unit operations involved considering the total cost incurred during the whole
process. It was identified that automation and use of highly substantive dyes during coloration
stages (dyeing & printing) in a textile mill considerably reduces the amount of effluent produced.
Effect of different mesh sizes of coagulating agents was (also) studied in conjugation mixing
speed. It was noted that use of poly phosphazene membranes instead of polyamides for reverse
osmosis plants, as they possess better resistance at high pH and temperature.
Nature of Effluent:
Waste generated in textile industry is essentially based on water- based effluent generated in the
various processes. Textile industry originates a complex huge volume of waste water containing
various chemical used in dyeing, printing and finishing processes. Many dyes which causes
intensive color in the waste water. The effluent generated in different step or processes is well
beyond the standard and thus it is highly polluted and dangerous.
Water Consumption in Textile processing
The production of textile goods involves spinning (fiber to yarn), weaving / knitting (yarn to
fabric), chemical (wet) processing, and garment manufacturing. The majority of the water
consumption (72%) takes place in the chemical (wet) processing of textiles. The water is
required for preparing the fabric for dyeing, printing and finishing operations, Intermediate
washing / rinsing operations and machine cleaning.
Other major uses of water in the textile industry
 Steam generation (boiler feed water)
 Water treatment plant (reject stream, periodic cleaning of reverse osmosis plant,
regeneration and washing of demineralization, softener plant, back wash of media
filters);
 Cooling (processing machines, cooling tower);
 Humidification (spinning process); and
 Domestic purposes (irrigation of lawn and garden, sanitation, cleaning, drinking and
miscellaneous uses).
ETP System for Dyeing Industries
Textile dyeing industries need huge quantity of water for textile dyeing, which they normally
pump out repeatedly from the ground or natural water sources resulting in depletion of ground
water level.
In the dyeing process textile industries generate huge quantity of toxic effluent containing colors,
sodium sulphate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and traces of other salts. These are
generated after dyeing and after washing of garments / fabrics. After dyeing the waste water
produced is called Dye Bath water and after washing the waste water generated is called wash
water. Dye Bath contains higher solids in the range 4-5% whereas wash water contains only 0.5-
1% solids.
Based on the above mentioned fact “SSP” has developed a technology which can process such
harmful toxic effluent water and transform it into reusable water. Thus the textile industries will
have the advantage of using the same water in the dying process repeatedly, also the salt used for
dyeing can be reused or sold in the market. The technology offered by SSP can overcome all
problems pertaining to environmental pollution in respect to textile dying industries.
Needof ETP
Water is basic necessity of life used for many purposes one of which is industrial use. Industries
generally take water from rivers or lakes but they have to pay heavy taxes for that. So its
necessary for them to recycle that to reduce cost and also conserve it. Main function of this ETP
is to clean GCP effluent and recycle it for further use.
The basic thrust of the technology is to convert entire quantity of effluent to zero level by
separating water and salt using evaporation and separation technology. The concept and the
treatment is based on the removal of the entire COD/BOD and the condensate coming out to
meet the fresh water quality requirement in the process.
Effluent Generation and Characteristics
Wet processing of textiles involves, in addition to extensive amounts of water and dyes, a
number of inorganic and organic chemicals, detergents, soaps and finishing chemicals to aid in
the dyeing process to impart the desired properties to dyed textile products. Residual chemicals
often remain in the effluent from these processes. In addition, natural impurities such as waxes,
proteins and pigment, and other impurities used in processing such as spinning oils, sizing
chemicals and oil stains present in cotton textiles, are removed during desizing, scouring and
bleaching operations. This results in an effluent of poor quality, which is high in BOD and COD
load. Table 4.1 lists typical values of various water quality parameters in untreated effluent from
the processing of fabric using reactive, sulfur and vat dyes and compares these to the DOE
effluent standards for discharge into an inland surface water body (e.g. river, lake, etc.). As
demonstrated, the effluent from textile industries is heavily polluted.
Effluent Treatment Plant Design
Textile industries (fabric dyeing and chemical treatment industries) are classified according to
the Environmental Conservation Rules 1997 as Red category industries, and therefore an ETP
must be designed and constructed to treat plant effluent. The effluent from the plant must meet
the national effluent discharge quality standards, including the “Quality Standards for Classified
Industries”, before discharge to the environment. These quality standards must be ensured at the
moment of beginning trial production. The waste discharge standards differ according to the final
disposal place of the effluent. The effluent standards are presented in Tables 4.3 and 4.4 (also
included in Part 1). It is the DOE’s mandate to enforce this legislation, and this guide provides
the tools required to assess the ETPs proposed by textile industries in the EMP/EIA.
Discharge Quality Standard for Classified Industries
There are various types of ETPs and their design will vary depending on the quantity and quality
of the effluent, amount of money available for construction, operation and maintenance, and the
amount of land available. There are three mechanisms for treatment which are: Physical,
Chemical and Biological. These mechanisms will often be used together in a single ETP.
There are generally four levels of treatment, as described below:
 Preliminary: Removal of large solids such as rags, sticks, grit and grease that may result
in damage to equipment or operational problems (Physical);
 Primary: Removal of floating and setteable materials, i.e. suspended solids and organic
matter (Physical and Chemical);
 Secondary: Removal of biodegradable organic matter and suspended solids (Biological
and Chemical);
 Tertiary: Removal of residual suspended solids / dissolved solids (Physical, Chemical
and Biological)
There are many ways of combining the operations and processes in an ETP:
 A properly designed biological treatment plant, which typically includes screening,
equalization, pH control, aeration, and settling, can efficiently satisfy BOD, pH, TSS, oil
and grease requirements. However the compounds in industrial effluent may be toxic to
the microorganisms so pretreatment may be necessary. Most dyes are complex chemicals
and are difficult for microbes to degrade so there is usually very little color removal.
 Another option is a physico-chemical treatment plant, which typically includes screening,
equalization, pH control, chemical storage tanks, mixing unit, flocculation unit, settling
unit and sludge dewatering. This type of treatment will remove much of the color
depending on the processes used. It can be difficult to reduce BOD and COD to meet
effluent standards and it is not possible to remove TDS.
 Most often, physico-chemical treatment will be combined with biological treatment. The
typical components of such a plant are screening, equalization, and pH control, chemical
storage, mixing, flocculation, primary settling, aeration, and secondary settling. The
physico-chemical treatment always comes before the biological treatment units. Using a
combination of treatments will generally reduce pollutant levels to below the discharge
standards. 4-8
 Another form of biological treatment is the reed bed, which can be used with a settling
tank, or in combination with other treatment processes It presents a natural method of
treating effluent which is often lower in capital, operation and maintenance costs. Reed
beds can contribute to a reduction in color, a decrease in COD, an increase dissolved
oxygen and a reduction in heavy metals, but function best with some form of
pretreatment.
As discussed, there are many options for the design of an ETP. The type of plant and the various
components of the plant will depend on the characteristics of the effluent. In evaluating an ETP
design in an application for an ECC, it is necessary to determine whether the components of the
ETP are sized correctly for the flow and to assess whether the effluent is likely to meet the
requirements of the discharge standards.
Overview of Stages in ETP Assessment Procedure:
Shows the ETP assessment procedure. There are 3 stages for reviewing an ETP design and
checklists are provided for each. As indicated, in any stage if the information provided for the
proposed ETP is found to be inadequate, incorrect or outside the guideline values, the industry
must be consulted to provide or correct the
information.
Effluent Treatment plant of a Garments Washing unit:
Description of Effluent Treatment Plant Process Sequence in Textile Industry
Cooling & mixing
After primary filtration, the liquor passes to cooling and mixing tank in which uniform mixing of
effluents from various process takes place. A paddle mixer is provided for mixing. Cooling of
the effluent may be done with the help of cooling tower.
Neutralization
The effluent is pumped to a tank in which it is neutralized by acid or alkali dozing. The tank has
an automatic dosing controller which at automatically control the dose of acid or alkali to
maintain the required PH.
Co-Agulation
Then the effluent is pumped to the co-agulation tank. Chemical co-agulation very effective for
removal of color and suspended materials, aluminum, ferrous sulphates, ferric chloride,
chlorinate dcopper etc. to increase the efficiency of co-agualtion, co – agulation gain may be
added for example polyacrylate.
Setting & Separation of Sludge
Some of the soluble organic matter and light suspended solids will form a blanket of flocculent
matter with the co-agulants. The blanket is skimmed of to another tank and the remaining
solution is moved to pressure filter.
Pressure Filter
For pressure filtration vacuum pumps may be used to force through the filter and suspended
flocks are collected in the pressure fine filter.
Discharging to drain
After filtration the purified water sent to drain which eventually reach to the river or anywhere
else.
Process Diagram o ETP
Process Description
1. Inlet Launder
The purpose of launder is to flow the effluent of gas scrubber to distribution chamber Inlet
channel is designed for a surge flow of 1950m3/hr @ slope of 2% so water flows at 1.5m/s(self-
cleaning velocity).Self-cleaning velocity is that velocity at which if the sludge flows it will not
get accumulated in the launder.
2. Distribution on chamber
Purpose of distribution chamber is to divide the flow (design flow of 1140m3/hr) into two equal
flows. In case if one of the thickener is closed then there would be no distribution so selection of
pipes is done on this criteria. The size of gates is designed such that there is equal distribution
always.
3. Flash Mixer
There are two flash mixers designed for a flow of 1140m3/hr with a retention time of 60 sec. So
its volume must lie around 19m3. In flash mixer alum (coagulant) acts upon sludge so that
suspended solids settle down. In addition pH of sludge is also raised by lime as it is required to
have a pH of 7-9. Polyelectrolyte (flocculants) also acts upon to fasten the process of
coagulation.
Pic-Flash mixer
4. Chemical action of alum & lime
Al2 (SO4)3.12H 2 O 2Al3+ + 3SO42- + 12H2O
SO42-+H2O HSO4-+ OH- (Cause pH change)
Ca (OH) 2 Ca2+ + 2OH- (Cause pH change)
The basic water causes Al(OH) 3 to precipitate bringing small particles with them and then
making water clear. Fe2O3 is removed mainly by coagulation. The polyelectrolyte makes big
lumps of the coagulated particles so they settle down.
Chemical dosing
5. Clarifier
The clarifier separates the treated slurry from clean water. The sludge settles down and cleans
water at the top flows down to the cooling tower from where it is cooled and recycled. According
to PG the SS content in this water must not be greater than 100 ppm. The clarifier has a racker
arm which extracts the sludge out of clarifier. In case if sludge height goes higher than the racker
arm then it will automatically lift up and then settle down taking sludge with it. From here sludge
is pumped to sludge tank.
Pic- Clarifier
A GENERAL STRUCTURE OF CLARIFIER
Suspended Carrier Tank
In the first tank, organisms are grown on the inside of special plastic rings. This tank performs
most of the treatment. The organisms appear as a thin brown film on the rings.
Sludge tank
In the sludge tank the sludge is continuously agitated in order to prevent settlement of sludge.
Each tank has capacity of 224m3 and can hold for 8 hrs. Main purpose of the tank is to hold
sludge for transfer to filter press. From sludge tank the sludge is pumped to filter press by filter
press feed pump. In the second tank organisms which are suspended in the tank perform the rest
of the treatment. The organisms are very small and appear as a fine brown sludge (called
Activated Sludge) in the tank.
Sludge tank
Secondary Clarifier
The third tank is a clarifier in which the suspended organisms are separated from the treated
effluent by settling. The settled organisms are pumped back to the second tank to keep them in
the system.
Pic- Secondary Clarifier
Filter press
Sludge from the sludge tank will be pumped to the Filter Press equipments for dewatering
purpose. According to performance guarantee the cake moisture should not be more than 20%.
For this purpose different types of filters are used namely- gravity setters, gravity belt filters,
centrifuges, vacuum or pressure belt filters and filter press. But among these filter press is most
efficient and economical. Other filtration systems offer high pressure filtration, but only the filter
press has both high pressure capability and efficient filter cake removal. The filter elements are
constructed of lightweight polypropylene. They are extremely corrosion resistant and virtually
eliminate plate breakage.
Pic- Filter Press
Filter process
Polishing
The treated effluent from the clarifier is further treated by flocculation with chemicals followed
by Dissolved Air Flotation. This step polishes the effluent before discharge to the river.
Dewatering
Dewatering is accomplished by pumping a slurry or sludge into chambers surrounded by filter
membranes. As pumping pressure is increased the filtrate is forced through the accumulated filter
cake and membrane until the chamber is full of solid filter cake. The chambers are formed by
two recessed plates held together under hydraulic pressure. The hydraulic ram moves the
follower against the stack of filter plates closing the press. The ram continues to apply sealing
pressure of sufficient force to counteract the high internal compaction pressures.
The head stock and tail stock are held in place by specially engineered side rail support bars. The
filtrate passes through the membrane and is directed by channels in the plates and drain ports to
the head stock for discharge. The filtrate typically contains less than 15 PPM suspended solids.
The filter cake is easily removed by simply reversing the hydraulic ram, thus opening the press.
The lightweight plates may then be moved apart, permitting the compacted cake to fall from the
chambers. Higher the internal pressure, the greater the solids compaction. The standard press is
constructed to withstand 100 PSI compaction pressure producing a hard dry cake. The special
high pressure press can withstand 225 PSI for sludge more difficult to dewater.
Ozone Treatment for Textile Effluent Treatment Plant COD, Color Removal Ozone
Wastewater
The use of ozone in textile effluent treatment appears to be a very attractive alternative with
considerable application potential. Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent when compared with
other well knows oxidizing agents. Ozone is capable of causing the degradation of dyes.
Advantages of Ozone Generator in Textile Industry Effluent Treatment Plants
 Ozone reduces COD.
 Ozone reduces BOD.
 Ozone removes Color.
 Ozone eliminates Odor.
 Ozonation increases the biodegradation effectiveness.
 Decomposes rapidly, leaving no harmful byproducts.
 Increase efficiency of Filter.
Benefits of Ozone Generator in Textile Industry Effluent Treatment Plants
 Due to its unstable physical property, it should be generated at the point of application for
use in treatment purposes.
 After chemical oxidation residual ozone reverts to oxygen.
 Environment friendly gas.
 Can be retrofitted to existing and new treatment plant.
 Low operating cost.
 Easy to operate & handle.
Conclusion
The textile industry is one of the leading sectors in the Bangladeshi economy as it contributes
nearly 14 percent to the total industrial production (business.mapsofindia.com). The untreated
textile wastewater can cause rapid depletion of dissolved oxygen if it is directly discharged into
the surface water sources due to its high BOD value. The effluents with high levels of BOD and
COD values are highly toxic to biological life. The high alkalinity and traces of chromium which
is employed in dyes adversely affect the aquatic life and also interfere with the biological
treatment processes (Palamthodiet al., 2011).The quality of such effluent can be analyzed by
their physicochemical and biological analysis. Monitoring of the environmental parameters of
the effluent would allow having, at any time, a precise idea on performance evaluation of ETP
and if necessary, appropriate measures may be undertaken to prevent adverse impact on
environment. The obtained results were very much useful in identification and rectification of
operational and maintenance problems and it can be also utilized to establish methods for
improved.
References:
1. Manual of Environment & forestry Division Under ministry of environment of
Bangladesh
2. www.environmentalscience.com
3. http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/search/label/ETP
4. http://www.slideshare.net/JaidevSingh/effluent-treatment-plant-design-operation-and-
analysis-of-waste-water-16567872
5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wastewater_treatment#Wastewater_treatment_plants
6. http://www.bkchemicalsprojects.com/effluent-treatment-plants-etp.html
7. http://water.worldbank.org/shw-resource-guide/infrastructure/menu-technical-
options/wastewater-treatment
Effluent treatment plant

More Related Content

What's hot

common effluent treatment plant
common effluent treatment plantcommon effluent treatment plant
common effluent treatment plant
Jay Kumar
 
Textile effluent treatment
Textile effluent treatmentTextile effluent treatment
Textile effluent treatment
mona verma
 
ETP- Effluent Treatment Plant
ETP- Effluent Treatment PlantETP- Effluent Treatment Plant
ETP- Effluent Treatment Plant
Md. Mazadul Hasan Shishir
 
Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
Farman Ahmad
 
Introduction of Effluent Treatment Plant
Introduction of Effluent Treatment PlantIntroduction of Effluent Treatment Plant
Introduction of Effluent Treatment Plant
Akash Tikhe
 
06038 cetp report
06038 cetp report06038 cetp report
06038 cetp report
ullash1987
 
Treatment of Textile Industrial Wastewater
Treatment of Textile Industrial Wastewater Treatment of Textile Industrial Wastewater
Treatment of Textile Industrial Wastewater
Rajamagala University of Technology Krungthep
 
Biochemical etp
Biochemical etpBiochemical etp
Biochemical etp
Md. Mazadul Hasan Shishir
 
Textile Wastewater Treatment Methods
Textile Wastewater Treatment Methods Textile Wastewater Treatment Methods
Textile Wastewater Treatment Methods
Uroosa Samman
 
Textile effulent treatment, Waste water treatment
Textile effulent treatment, Waste water treatmentTextile effulent treatment, Waste water treatment
Textile effulent treatment, Waste water treatment
Karcahi university
 
Waste Water Treatment
Waste Water TreatmentWaste Water Treatment
Waste Water Treatment
Dr. Majid Mohiuddin (Hashmi)
 
Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) Plant
Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) PlantDissolved Air Flotation (DAF) Plant
Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) Plant
Kelvin Water Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
 
Industrial water treatment
Industrial water treatmentIndustrial water treatment
Industrial water treatment
canadianclear
 
Common effluent treatment plant
Common effluent treatment plantCommon effluent treatment plant
Common effluent treatment plant
nirmalk1503
 
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Adane Nega
 
zero effluent discharge system
zero effluent discharge systemzero effluent discharge system
zero effluent discharge system
Jhanvi Desai
 
Textile industries wastes
Textile industries wastesTextile industries wastes
Textile industries wastes
Silan Tharakan
 
Biological ETP
Biological ETPBiological ETP
waste water treatment technologies
waste water treatment technologieswaste water treatment technologies
waste water treatment technologies
Parth Naik
 
Etp
EtpEtp

What's hot (20)

common effluent treatment plant
common effluent treatment plantcommon effluent treatment plant
common effluent treatment plant
 
Textile effluent treatment
Textile effluent treatmentTextile effluent treatment
Textile effluent treatment
 
ETP- Effluent Treatment Plant
ETP- Effluent Treatment PlantETP- Effluent Treatment Plant
ETP- Effluent Treatment Plant
 
Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
 
Introduction of Effluent Treatment Plant
Introduction of Effluent Treatment PlantIntroduction of Effluent Treatment Plant
Introduction of Effluent Treatment Plant
 
06038 cetp report
06038 cetp report06038 cetp report
06038 cetp report
 
Treatment of Textile Industrial Wastewater
Treatment of Textile Industrial Wastewater Treatment of Textile Industrial Wastewater
Treatment of Textile Industrial Wastewater
 
Biochemical etp
Biochemical etpBiochemical etp
Biochemical etp
 
Textile Wastewater Treatment Methods
Textile Wastewater Treatment Methods Textile Wastewater Treatment Methods
Textile Wastewater Treatment Methods
 
Textile effulent treatment, Waste water treatment
Textile effulent treatment, Waste water treatmentTextile effulent treatment, Waste water treatment
Textile effulent treatment, Waste water treatment
 
Waste Water Treatment
Waste Water TreatmentWaste Water Treatment
Waste Water Treatment
 
Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) Plant
Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) PlantDissolved Air Flotation (DAF) Plant
Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) Plant
 
Industrial water treatment
Industrial water treatmentIndustrial water treatment
Industrial water treatment
 
Common effluent treatment plant
Common effluent treatment plantCommon effluent treatment plant
Common effluent treatment plant
 
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
 
zero effluent discharge system
zero effluent discharge systemzero effluent discharge system
zero effluent discharge system
 
Textile industries wastes
Textile industries wastesTextile industries wastes
Textile industries wastes
 
Biological ETP
Biological ETPBiological ETP
Biological ETP
 
waste water treatment technologies
waste water treatment technologieswaste water treatment technologies
waste water treatment technologies
 
Etp
EtpEtp
Etp
 

Viewers also liked

Effluent treatment plant
Effluent treatment plantEffluent treatment plant
Effluent treatment plant
chemist_tg
 
Etp presentation
Etp presentationEtp presentation
Etp presentation
Abhinav Srivastava
 
Effluent Treatment Plant-Project-02
Effluent Treatment Plant-Project-02Effluent Treatment Plant-Project-02
Effluent Treatment Plant-Project-02
Nilusha Rajashilpa
 
Food processing industry
Food processing industryFood processing industry
Food processing industry
Trisa Modi
 
Soil analysis (2)
Soil analysis (2)Soil analysis (2)
Soil analysis (2)
Akma Ija
 
ETP
ETPETP
ETP
jinal17
 
Soil analysis
Soil analysisSoil analysis
Soil analysis
Akma Ija
 
Dairy waste water treatmentby arhana gautam
Dairy waste water treatmentby arhana gautamDairy waste water treatmentby arhana gautam
Dairy waste water treatmentby arhana gautam
archana gautam
 
Soil analysis presentation (amie)
Soil analysis presentation (amie)Soil analysis presentation (amie)
Soil analysis presentation (amie)
Akma Ija
 
Food Processing Industry & Make In India
Food Processing Industry & Make In IndiaFood Processing Industry & Make In India
Food Processing Industry & Make In India
Biz2Credit Info Services
 
Soil Analysis Presentation
Soil Analysis PresentationSoil Analysis Presentation
Soil Analysis Presentation
Lisa Schlag
 
Textile effluent treatment
Textile effluent treatmentTextile effluent treatment
Textile effluent treatment
Ghent University
 
Food Processing Industry India
Food Processing Industry IndiaFood Processing Industry India
Food Processing Industry India
Ankit Agarwal
 
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil FertilitySoil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture
 
Food processing industry.
Food processing industry.Food processing industry.
Food processing industry.
Rachana Tiwari
 
Effluent Treatment Plant Design, Operation And Analysis Of Waste Water
Effluent Treatment Plant Design, Operation And Analysis Of Waste Water Effluent Treatment Plant Design, Operation And Analysis Of Waste Water
Effluent Treatment Plant Design, Operation And Analysis Of Waste Water
Jaidev Singh
 
Industrial wastewater treatment
Industrial wastewater treatmentIndustrial wastewater treatment
Industrial wastewater treatment
Mohamed Ramzy
 

Viewers also liked (17)

Effluent treatment plant
Effluent treatment plantEffluent treatment plant
Effluent treatment plant
 
Etp presentation
Etp presentationEtp presentation
Etp presentation
 
Effluent Treatment Plant-Project-02
Effluent Treatment Plant-Project-02Effluent Treatment Plant-Project-02
Effluent Treatment Plant-Project-02
 
Food processing industry
Food processing industryFood processing industry
Food processing industry
 
Soil analysis (2)
Soil analysis (2)Soil analysis (2)
Soil analysis (2)
 
ETP
ETPETP
ETP
 
Soil analysis
Soil analysisSoil analysis
Soil analysis
 
Dairy waste water treatmentby arhana gautam
Dairy waste water treatmentby arhana gautamDairy waste water treatmentby arhana gautam
Dairy waste water treatmentby arhana gautam
 
Soil analysis presentation (amie)
Soil analysis presentation (amie)Soil analysis presentation (amie)
Soil analysis presentation (amie)
 
Food Processing Industry & Make In India
Food Processing Industry & Make In IndiaFood Processing Industry & Make In India
Food Processing Industry & Make In India
 
Soil Analysis Presentation
Soil Analysis PresentationSoil Analysis Presentation
Soil Analysis Presentation
 
Textile effluent treatment
Textile effluent treatmentTextile effluent treatment
Textile effluent treatment
 
Food Processing Industry India
Food Processing Industry IndiaFood Processing Industry India
Food Processing Industry India
 
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil FertilitySoil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
 
Food processing industry.
Food processing industry.Food processing industry.
Food processing industry.
 
Effluent Treatment Plant Design, Operation And Analysis Of Waste Water
Effluent Treatment Plant Design, Operation And Analysis Of Waste Water Effluent Treatment Plant Design, Operation And Analysis Of Waste Water
Effluent Treatment Plant Design, Operation And Analysis Of Waste Water
 
Industrial wastewater treatment
Industrial wastewater treatmentIndustrial wastewater treatment
Industrial wastewater treatment
 

Similar to Effluent treatment plant

Implementation of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant for Waste Water Treatme...
Implementation of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant for Waste Water Treatme...Implementation of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant for Waste Water Treatme...
Implementation of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant for Waste Water Treatme...
IJSRED
 
ETP Presentation by Siddarth Ananthagiri
ETP Presentation by Siddarth AnanthagiriETP Presentation by Siddarth Ananthagiri
ETP Presentation by Siddarth Ananthagiri
siddarthnandu
 
EPM Mod5@AzDOCUMENTS.in.pdf
EPM Mod5@AzDOCUMENTS.in.pdfEPM Mod5@AzDOCUMENTS.in.pdf
EPM Mod5@AzDOCUMENTS.in.pdf
PallaviAGowda
 
B43020609
B43020609B43020609
B43020609
IJERA Editor
 
Generation, Reduction, and Reuse of effluents and flue gases in Textile Indu...
Generation, Reduction, and Reuse  of effluents and flue gases in Textile Indu...Generation, Reduction, and Reuse  of effluents and flue gases in Textile Indu...
Generation, Reduction, and Reuse of effluents and flue gases in Textile Indu...
Mehran University of Engineering and Technology Jamshoro
 
Sustainable Development of the Textile Industry
Sustainable Development of the Textile IndustrySustainable Development of the Textile Industry
Sustainable Development of the Textile Industry
Aishwary Kumar Gupta
 
ETP.pdf
ETP.pdfETP.pdf
ETP.pdf
Karnav Rana
 
Lecture 1 ETP Textile_verII.pdf
Lecture 1 ETP Textile_verII.pdfLecture 1 ETP Textile_verII.pdf
Lecture 1 ETP Textile_verII.pdf
karthicks137
 
Water pollution in Textile Industry
Water pollution in Textile IndustryWater pollution in Textile Industry
Water pollution in Textile Industry
MohammadAshraful4
 
Waste Water Treatment Plant
Waste Water Treatment PlantWaste Water Treatment Plant
Waste Water Treatment Plant
Keshav
 
Cdn.intechopen.com pdfs wm-29369
Cdn.intechopen.com pdfs wm-29369Cdn.intechopen.com pdfs wm-29369
Cdn.intechopen.com pdfs wm-29369
Sandra Amorim
 
Waste water & industrial waste water
Waste water & industrial waste waterWaste water & industrial waste water
Waste water & industrial waste water
Priodeep Chowdhury
 
Sustainable development of dyeing.
Sustainable development of dyeing.Sustainable development of dyeing.
Sustainable development of dyeing.
alaminmasum1
 
L 1 introduction
L 1 introductionL 1 introduction
L 1 introduction
Dr. shrikant jahagirdar
 
EPM Module 5.pdf
EPM Module 5.pdfEPM Module 5.pdf
EPM Module 5.pdf
DaniyaHuzaifa
 
Reducing environmental impacts of industrial effluents
Reducing environmental impacts of industrial effluentsReducing environmental impacts of industrial effluents
Reducing environmental impacts of industrial effluents
JYOTI SAROJ
 
ACE DYNAMICS etp
ACE DYNAMICS etpACE DYNAMICS etp
ACE DYNAMICS etp
RAVISHANKAR A
 
ETP By Dipankar.pptx
ETP By Dipankar.pptxETP By Dipankar.pptx
ETP By Dipankar.pptx
GNIPST
 
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Adane Nega
 
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Adane Nega
 

Similar to Effluent treatment plant (20)

Implementation of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant for Waste Water Treatme...
Implementation of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant for Waste Water Treatme...Implementation of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant for Waste Water Treatme...
Implementation of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant for Waste Water Treatme...
 
ETP Presentation by Siddarth Ananthagiri
ETP Presentation by Siddarth AnanthagiriETP Presentation by Siddarth Ananthagiri
ETP Presentation by Siddarth Ananthagiri
 
EPM Mod5@AzDOCUMENTS.in.pdf
EPM Mod5@AzDOCUMENTS.in.pdfEPM Mod5@AzDOCUMENTS.in.pdf
EPM Mod5@AzDOCUMENTS.in.pdf
 
B43020609
B43020609B43020609
B43020609
 
Generation, Reduction, and Reuse of effluents and flue gases in Textile Indu...
Generation, Reduction, and Reuse  of effluents and flue gases in Textile Indu...Generation, Reduction, and Reuse  of effluents and flue gases in Textile Indu...
Generation, Reduction, and Reuse of effluents and flue gases in Textile Indu...
 
Sustainable Development of the Textile Industry
Sustainable Development of the Textile IndustrySustainable Development of the Textile Industry
Sustainable Development of the Textile Industry
 
ETP.pdf
ETP.pdfETP.pdf
ETP.pdf
 
Lecture 1 ETP Textile_verII.pdf
Lecture 1 ETP Textile_verII.pdfLecture 1 ETP Textile_verII.pdf
Lecture 1 ETP Textile_verII.pdf
 
Water pollution in Textile Industry
Water pollution in Textile IndustryWater pollution in Textile Industry
Water pollution in Textile Industry
 
Waste Water Treatment Plant
Waste Water Treatment PlantWaste Water Treatment Plant
Waste Water Treatment Plant
 
Cdn.intechopen.com pdfs wm-29369
Cdn.intechopen.com pdfs wm-29369Cdn.intechopen.com pdfs wm-29369
Cdn.intechopen.com pdfs wm-29369
 
Waste water & industrial waste water
Waste water & industrial waste waterWaste water & industrial waste water
Waste water & industrial waste water
 
Sustainable development of dyeing.
Sustainable development of dyeing.Sustainable development of dyeing.
Sustainable development of dyeing.
 
L 1 introduction
L 1 introductionL 1 introduction
L 1 introduction
 
EPM Module 5.pdf
EPM Module 5.pdfEPM Module 5.pdf
EPM Module 5.pdf
 
Reducing environmental impacts of industrial effluents
Reducing environmental impacts of industrial effluentsReducing environmental impacts of industrial effluents
Reducing environmental impacts of industrial effluents
 
ACE DYNAMICS etp
ACE DYNAMICS etpACE DYNAMICS etp
ACE DYNAMICS etp
 
ETP By Dipankar.pptx
ETP By Dipankar.pptxETP By Dipankar.pptx
ETP By Dipankar.pptx
 
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
 
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
Textile effluents dbt meeting 16.1.2006
 

More from Unicom Textile Mills Ltd.

Quality control in pigment industry
Quality control in pigment industryQuality control in pigment industry
Quality control in pigment industry
Unicom Textile Mills Ltd.
 
Sustainability textile industry
Sustainability textile industrySustainability textile industry
Sustainability textile industry
Unicom Textile Mills Ltd.
 
Pad steam dyeing machine
Pad steam dyeing machinePad steam dyeing machine
Pad steam dyeing machine
Unicom Textile Mills Ltd.
 
Development of Textile Industry in Future
Development of Textile Industry in FutureDevelopment of Textile Industry in Future
Development of Textile Industry in Future
Unicom Textile Mills Ltd.
 
right first time dyeing
right first time dyeingright first time dyeing
right first time dyeing
Unicom Textile Mills Ltd.
 
Technical development of wet processing
Technical development of wet processingTechnical development of wet processing
Technical development of wet processing
Unicom Textile Mills Ltd.
 
Textile Softener
Textile Softener Textile Softener
Textile Softener
Unicom Textile Mills Ltd.
 
Marketing plan for garment product
Marketing plan for garment productMarketing plan for garment product
Marketing plan for garment product
Unicom Textile Mills Ltd.
 
Denim
DenimDenim
Raw Jute
Raw Jute Raw Jute
Different faults of fabric
Different faults of fabricDifferent faults of fabric
Different faults of fabric
Unicom Textile Mills Ltd.
 
Different faults of fabric
Different faults of fabricDifferent faults of fabric
Different faults of fabric
Unicom Textile Mills Ltd.
 

More from Unicom Textile Mills Ltd. (12)

Quality control in pigment industry
Quality control in pigment industryQuality control in pigment industry
Quality control in pigment industry
 
Sustainability textile industry
Sustainability textile industrySustainability textile industry
Sustainability textile industry
 
Pad steam dyeing machine
Pad steam dyeing machinePad steam dyeing machine
Pad steam dyeing machine
 
Development of Textile Industry in Future
Development of Textile Industry in FutureDevelopment of Textile Industry in Future
Development of Textile Industry in Future
 
right first time dyeing
right first time dyeingright first time dyeing
right first time dyeing
 
Technical development of wet processing
Technical development of wet processingTechnical development of wet processing
Technical development of wet processing
 
Textile Softener
Textile Softener Textile Softener
Textile Softener
 
Marketing plan for garment product
Marketing plan for garment productMarketing plan for garment product
Marketing plan for garment product
 
Denim
DenimDenim
Denim
 
Raw Jute
Raw Jute Raw Jute
Raw Jute
 
Different faults of fabric
Different faults of fabricDifferent faults of fabric
Different faults of fabric
 
Different faults of fabric
Different faults of fabricDifferent faults of fabric
Different faults of fabric
 

Recently uploaded

4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
Gino153088
 
An Introduction to the Compiler Designss
An Introduction to the Compiler DesignssAn Introduction to the Compiler Designss
An Introduction to the Compiler Designss
ElakkiaU
 
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptxManufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Madan Karki
 
Rainfall intensity duration frequency curve statistical analysis and modeling...
Rainfall intensity duration frequency curve statistical analysis and modeling...Rainfall intensity duration frequency curve statistical analysis and modeling...
Rainfall intensity duration frequency curve statistical analysis and modeling...
bijceesjournal
 
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.pptSoftware Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
TaghreedAltamimi
 
Material for memory and display system h
Material for memory and display system hMaterial for memory and display system h
Material for memory and display system h
gowrishankartb2005
 
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
insn4465
 
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society as a Graduate Student Member
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society as a Graduate Student MemberIEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society as a Graduate Student Member
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society as a Graduate Student Member
VICTOR MAESTRE RAMIREZ
 
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
IJECEIAES
 
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptxProperties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
MDSABBIROJJAMANPAYEL
 
People as resource Grade IX.pdf minimala
People as resource Grade IX.pdf minimalaPeople as resource Grade IX.pdf minimala
People as resource Grade IX.pdf minimala
riddhimaagrawal986
 
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
bijceesjournal
 
Welding Metallurgy Ferrous Materials.pdf
Welding Metallurgy Ferrous Materials.pdfWelding Metallurgy Ferrous Materials.pdf
Welding Metallurgy Ferrous Materials.pdf
AjmalKhan50578
 
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
PKavitha10
 
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
171ticu
 
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoringEmbedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
IJECEIAES
 
Certificates - Mahmoud Mohamed Moursi Ahmed
Certificates - Mahmoud Mohamed Moursi AhmedCertificates - Mahmoud Mohamed Moursi Ahmed
Certificates - Mahmoud Mohamed Moursi Ahmed
Mahmoud Morsy
 
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
ecqow
 
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptxITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
VANDANAMOHANGOUDA
 
CompEx~Manual~1210 (2).pdf COMPEX GAS AND VAPOURS
CompEx~Manual~1210 (2).pdf COMPEX GAS AND VAPOURSCompEx~Manual~1210 (2).pdf COMPEX GAS AND VAPOURS
CompEx~Manual~1210 (2).pdf COMPEX GAS AND VAPOURS
RamonNovais6
 

Recently uploaded (20)

4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
 
An Introduction to the Compiler Designss
An Introduction to the Compiler DesignssAn Introduction to the Compiler Designss
An Introduction to the Compiler Designss
 
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptxManufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
 
Rainfall intensity duration frequency curve statistical analysis and modeling...
Rainfall intensity duration frequency curve statistical analysis and modeling...Rainfall intensity duration frequency curve statistical analysis and modeling...
Rainfall intensity duration frequency curve statistical analysis and modeling...
 
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.pptSoftware Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
 
Material for memory and display system h
Material for memory and display system hMaterial for memory and display system h
Material for memory and display system h
 
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
 
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society as a Graduate Student Member
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society as a Graduate Student MemberIEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society as a Graduate Student Member
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society as a Graduate Student Member
 
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
 
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptxProperties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
 
People as resource Grade IX.pdf minimala
People as resource Grade IX.pdf minimalaPeople as resource Grade IX.pdf minimala
People as resource Grade IX.pdf minimala
 
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
 
Welding Metallurgy Ferrous Materials.pdf
Welding Metallurgy Ferrous Materials.pdfWelding Metallurgy Ferrous Materials.pdf
Welding Metallurgy Ferrous Materials.pdf
 
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
 
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
 
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoringEmbedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
 
Certificates - Mahmoud Mohamed Moursi Ahmed
Certificates - Mahmoud Mohamed Moursi AhmedCertificates - Mahmoud Mohamed Moursi Ahmed
Certificates - Mahmoud Mohamed Moursi Ahmed
 
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
 
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptxITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
 
CompEx~Manual~1210 (2).pdf COMPEX GAS AND VAPOURS
CompEx~Manual~1210 (2).pdf COMPEX GAS AND VAPOURSCompEx~Manual~1210 (2).pdf COMPEX GAS AND VAPOURS
CompEx~Manual~1210 (2).pdf COMPEX GAS AND VAPOURS
 

Effluent treatment plant

  • 1. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Course title: Wet Processing Technology-II Course Code: TEX- 3021 Assignment on Effluent Treatment Plant Submitted to: Md. Shahidul Islam Lecturer Department of textile Engineering Submitted by: Md. Mazadul Islam Ripon ID: 2013000400016 Barch: 22nd Section: A Submission date: 25/08/15
  • 2. Introduction: The effluent treatment plant is designed to treat the effluent coming from different areas of the plant. The treatment of different effluents varies with the type of effluent. Water is recycled from effluent coming from textile & chemical industries using series of operations i.e. coagulation, flocculation, aeration, and filtration techniques mainly reverse osmosis. The effluent produce has high BOD, COD, pH, TSS, TDS and Color material. This study includes characterization of effluent and making of process flow sheet of Effluent Treatment Plant after visit to various locations in industrial areas. Points of optimization were identified in various unit operations involved considering the total cost incurred during the whole process. It was identified that automation and use of highly substantive dyes during coloration stages (dyeing & printing) in a textile mill considerably reduces the amount of effluent produced. Effect of different mesh sizes of coagulating agents was (also) studied in conjugation mixing speed. It was noted that use of poly phosphazene membranes instead of polyamides for reverse osmosis plants, as they possess better resistance at high pH and temperature. Nature of Effluent: Waste generated in textile industry is essentially based on water- based effluent generated in the various processes. Textile industry originates a complex huge volume of waste water containing various chemical used in dyeing, printing and finishing processes. Many dyes which causes intensive color in the waste water. The effluent generated in different step or processes is well beyond the standard and thus it is highly polluted and dangerous. Water Consumption in Textile processing The production of textile goods involves spinning (fiber to yarn), weaving / knitting (yarn to fabric), chemical (wet) processing, and garment manufacturing. The majority of the water consumption (72%) takes place in the chemical (wet) processing of textiles. The water is required for preparing the fabric for dyeing, printing and finishing operations, Intermediate washing / rinsing operations and machine cleaning. Other major uses of water in the textile industry  Steam generation (boiler feed water)  Water treatment plant (reject stream, periodic cleaning of reverse osmosis plant, regeneration and washing of demineralization, softener plant, back wash of media filters);  Cooling (processing machines, cooling tower);
  • 3.  Humidification (spinning process); and  Domestic purposes (irrigation of lawn and garden, sanitation, cleaning, drinking and miscellaneous uses). ETP System for Dyeing Industries Textile dyeing industries need huge quantity of water for textile dyeing, which they normally pump out repeatedly from the ground or natural water sources resulting in depletion of ground water level. In the dyeing process textile industries generate huge quantity of toxic effluent containing colors, sodium sulphate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and traces of other salts. These are generated after dyeing and after washing of garments / fabrics. After dyeing the waste water produced is called Dye Bath water and after washing the waste water generated is called wash water. Dye Bath contains higher solids in the range 4-5% whereas wash water contains only 0.5- 1% solids. Based on the above mentioned fact “SSP” has developed a technology which can process such harmful toxic effluent water and transform it into reusable water. Thus the textile industries will have the advantage of using the same water in the dying process repeatedly, also the salt used for dyeing can be reused or sold in the market. The technology offered by SSP can overcome all problems pertaining to environmental pollution in respect to textile dying industries.
  • 4. Needof ETP Water is basic necessity of life used for many purposes one of which is industrial use. Industries generally take water from rivers or lakes but they have to pay heavy taxes for that. So its necessary for them to recycle that to reduce cost and also conserve it. Main function of this ETP is to clean GCP effluent and recycle it for further use. The basic thrust of the technology is to convert entire quantity of effluent to zero level by separating water and salt using evaporation and separation technology. The concept and the treatment is based on the removal of the entire COD/BOD and the condensate coming out to meet the fresh water quality requirement in the process. Effluent Generation and Characteristics Wet processing of textiles involves, in addition to extensive amounts of water and dyes, a number of inorganic and organic chemicals, detergents, soaps and finishing chemicals to aid in the dyeing process to impart the desired properties to dyed textile products. Residual chemicals often remain in the effluent from these processes. In addition, natural impurities such as waxes, proteins and pigment, and other impurities used in processing such as spinning oils, sizing chemicals and oil stains present in cotton textiles, are removed during desizing, scouring and bleaching operations. This results in an effluent of poor quality, which is high in BOD and COD load. Table 4.1 lists typical values of various water quality parameters in untreated effluent from the processing of fabric using reactive, sulfur and vat dyes and compares these to the DOE effluent standards for discharge into an inland surface water body (e.g. river, lake, etc.). As demonstrated, the effluent from textile industries is heavily polluted.
  • 5. Effluent Treatment Plant Design Textile industries (fabric dyeing and chemical treatment industries) are classified according to the Environmental Conservation Rules 1997 as Red category industries, and therefore an ETP must be designed and constructed to treat plant effluent. The effluent from the plant must meet the national effluent discharge quality standards, including the “Quality Standards for Classified Industries”, before discharge to the environment. These quality standards must be ensured at the moment of beginning trial production. The waste discharge standards differ according to the final disposal place of the effluent. The effluent standards are presented in Tables 4.3 and 4.4 (also included in Part 1). It is the DOE’s mandate to enforce this legislation, and this guide provides the tools required to assess the ETPs proposed by textile industries in the EMP/EIA.
  • 6. Discharge Quality Standard for Classified Industries There are various types of ETPs and their design will vary depending on the quantity and quality of the effluent, amount of money available for construction, operation and maintenance, and the amount of land available. There are three mechanisms for treatment which are: Physical, Chemical and Biological. These mechanisms will often be used together in a single ETP. There are generally four levels of treatment, as described below:  Preliminary: Removal of large solids such as rags, sticks, grit and grease that may result in damage to equipment or operational problems (Physical);  Primary: Removal of floating and setteable materials, i.e. suspended solids and organic matter (Physical and Chemical);
  • 7.  Secondary: Removal of biodegradable organic matter and suspended solids (Biological and Chemical);  Tertiary: Removal of residual suspended solids / dissolved solids (Physical, Chemical and Biological) There are many ways of combining the operations and processes in an ETP:  A properly designed biological treatment plant, which typically includes screening, equalization, pH control, aeration, and settling, can efficiently satisfy BOD, pH, TSS, oil and grease requirements. However the compounds in industrial effluent may be toxic to the microorganisms so pretreatment may be necessary. Most dyes are complex chemicals and are difficult for microbes to degrade so there is usually very little color removal.  Another option is a physico-chemical treatment plant, which typically includes screening, equalization, pH control, chemical storage tanks, mixing unit, flocculation unit, settling unit and sludge dewatering. This type of treatment will remove much of the color depending on the processes used. It can be difficult to reduce BOD and COD to meet effluent standards and it is not possible to remove TDS.  Most often, physico-chemical treatment will be combined with biological treatment. The typical components of such a plant are screening, equalization, and pH control, chemical storage, mixing, flocculation, primary settling, aeration, and secondary settling. The physico-chemical treatment always comes before the biological treatment units. Using a combination of treatments will generally reduce pollutant levels to below the discharge standards. 4-8  Another form of biological treatment is the reed bed, which can be used with a settling tank, or in combination with other treatment processes It presents a natural method of treating effluent which is often lower in capital, operation and maintenance costs. Reed beds can contribute to a reduction in color, a decrease in COD, an increase dissolved oxygen and a reduction in heavy metals, but function best with some form of pretreatment. As discussed, there are many options for the design of an ETP. The type of plant and the various components of the plant will depend on the characteristics of the effluent. In evaluating an ETP design in an application for an ECC, it is necessary to determine whether the components of the ETP are sized correctly for the flow and to assess whether the effluent is likely to meet the requirements of the discharge standards.
  • 8. Overview of Stages in ETP Assessment Procedure: Shows the ETP assessment procedure. There are 3 stages for reviewing an ETP design and checklists are provided for each. As indicated, in any stage if the information provided for the proposed ETP is found to be inadequate, incorrect or outside the guideline values, the industry must be consulted to provide or correct the information.
  • 9. Effluent Treatment plant of a Garments Washing unit: Description of Effluent Treatment Plant Process Sequence in Textile Industry Cooling & mixing After primary filtration, the liquor passes to cooling and mixing tank in which uniform mixing of effluents from various process takes place. A paddle mixer is provided for mixing. Cooling of the effluent may be done with the help of cooling tower. Neutralization The effluent is pumped to a tank in which it is neutralized by acid or alkali dozing. The tank has an automatic dosing controller which at automatically control the dose of acid or alkali to maintain the required PH.
  • 10. Co-Agulation Then the effluent is pumped to the co-agulation tank. Chemical co-agulation very effective for removal of color and suspended materials, aluminum, ferrous sulphates, ferric chloride, chlorinate dcopper etc. to increase the efficiency of co-agualtion, co – agulation gain may be added for example polyacrylate. Setting & Separation of Sludge Some of the soluble organic matter and light suspended solids will form a blanket of flocculent matter with the co-agulants. The blanket is skimmed of to another tank and the remaining solution is moved to pressure filter. Pressure Filter For pressure filtration vacuum pumps may be used to force through the filter and suspended flocks are collected in the pressure fine filter. Discharging to drain After filtration the purified water sent to drain which eventually reach to the river or anywhere else. Process Diagram o ETP
  • 11. Process Description 1. Inlet Launder The purpose of launder is to flow the effluent of gas scrubber to distribution chamber Inlet channel is designed for a surge flow of 1950m3/hr @ slope of 2% so water flows at 1.5m/s(self- cleaning velocity).Self-cleaning velocity is that velocity at which if the sludge flows it will not get accumulated in the launder. 2. Distribution on chamber Purpose of distribution chamber is to divide the flow (design flow of 1140m3/hr) into two equal flows. In case if one of the thickener is closed then there would be no distribution so selection of pipes is done on this criteria. The size of gates is designed such that there is equal distribution always. 3. Flash Mixer There are two flash mixers designed for a flow of 1140m3/hr with a retention time of 60 sec. So its volume must lie around 19m3. In flash mixer alum (coagulant) acts upon sludge so that suspended solids settle down. In addition pH of sludge is also raised by lime as it is required to have a pH of 7-9. Polyelectrolyte (flocculants) also acts upon to fasten the process of coagulation. Pic-Flash mixer
  • 12. 4. Chemical action of alum & lime Al2 (SO4)3.12H 2 O 2Al3+ + 3SO42- + 12H2O SO42-+H2O HSO4-+ OH- (Cause pH change) Ca (OH) 2 Ca2+ + 2OH- (Cause pH change) The basic water causes Al(OH) 3 to precipitate bringing small particles with them and then making water clear. Fe2O3 is removed mainly by coagulation. The polyelectrolyte makes big lumps of the coagulated particles so they settle down. Chemical dosing 5. Clarifier The clarifier separates the treated slurry from clean water. The sludge settles down and cleans water at the top flows down to the cooling tower from where it is cooled and recycled. According to PG the SS content in this water must not be greater than 100 ppm. The clarifier has a racker arm which extracts the sludge out of clarifier. In case if sludge height goes higher than the racker arm then it will automatically lift up and then settle down taking sludge with it. From here sludge is pumped to sludge tank.
  • 13. Pic- Clarifier A GENERAL STRUCTURE OF CLARIFIER Suspended Carrier Tank In the first tank, organisms are grown on the inside of special plastic rings. This tank performs most of the treatment. The organisms appear as a thin brown film on the rings.
  • 14. Sludge tank In the sludge tank the sludge is continuously agitated in order to prevent settlement of sludge. Each tank has capacity of 224m3 and can hold for 8 hrs. Main purpose of the tank is to hold sludge for transfer to filter press. From sludge tank the sludge is pumped to filter press by filter press feed pump. In the second tank organisms which are suspended in the tank perform the rest of the treatment. The organisms are very small and appear as a fine brown sludge (called Activated Sludge) in the tank. Sludge tank
  • 15. Secondary Clarifier The third tank is a clarifier in which the suspended organisms are separated from the treated effluent by settling. The settled organisms are pumped back to the second tank to keep them in the system. Pic- Secondary Clarifier Filter press Sludge from the sludge tank will be pumped to the Filter Press equipments for dewatering purpose. According to performance guarantee the cake moisture should not be more than 20%. For this purpose different types of filters are used namely- gravity setters, gravity belt filters, centrifuges, vacuum or pressure belt filters and filter press. But among these filter press is most efficient and economical. Other filtration systems offer high pressure filtration, but only the filter press has both high pressure capability and efficient filter cake removal. The filter elements are constructed of lightweight polypropylene. They are extremely corrosion resistant and virtually eliminate plate breakage.
  • 16. Pic- Filter Press Filter process Polishing The treated effluent from the clarifier is further treated by flocculation with chemicals followed by Dissolved Air Flotation. This step polishes the effluent before discharge to the river. Dewatering Dewatering is accomplished by pumping a slurry or sludge into chambers surrounded by filter
  • 17. membranes. As pumping pressure is increased the filtrate is forced through the accumulated filter cake and membrane until the chamber is full of solid filter cake. The chambers are formed by two recessed plates held together under hydraulic pressure. The hydraulic ram moves the follower against the stack of filter plates closing the press. The ram continues to apply sealing pressure of sufficient force to counteract the high internal compaction pressures. The head stock and tail stock are held in place by specially engineered side rail support bars. The filtrate passes through the membrane and is directed by channels in the plates and drain ports to the head stock for discharge. The filtrate typically contains less than 15 PPM suspended solids. The filter cake is easily removed by simply reversing the hydraulic ram, thus opening the press. The lightweight plates may then be moved apart, permitting the compacted cake to fall from the chambers. Higher the internal pressure, the greater the solids compaction. The standard press is constructed to withstand 100 PSI compaction pressure producing a hard dry cake. The special high pressure press can withstand 225 PSI for sludge more difficult to dewater. Ozone Treatment for Textile Effluent Treatment Plant COD, Color Removal Ozone Wastewater The use of ozone in textile effluent treatment appears to be a very attractive alternative with considerable application potential. Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent when compared with other well knows oxidizing agents. Ozone is capable of causing the degradation of dyes. Advantages of Ozone Generator in Textile Industry Effluent Treatment Plants  Ozone reduces COD.  Ozone reduces BOD.  Ozone removes Color.  Ozone eliminates Odor.  Ozonation increases the biodegradation effectiveness.  Decomposes rapidly, leaving no harmful byproducts.  Increase efficiency of Filter.
  • 18. Benefits of Ozone Generator in Textile Industry Effluent Treatment Plants  Due to its unstable physical property, it should be generated at the point of application for use in treatment purposes.  After chemical oxidation residual ozone reverts to oxygen.  Environment friendly gas.  Can be retrofitted to existing and new treatment plant.  Low operating cost.  Easy to operate & handle. Conclusion The textile industry is one of the leading sectors in the Bangladeshi economy as it contributes nearly 14 percent to the total industrial production (business.mapsofindia.com). The untreated textile wastewater can cause rapid depletion of dissolved oxygen if it is directly discharged into the surface water sources due to its high BOD value. The effluents with high levels of BOD and COD values are highly toxic to biological life. The high alkalinity and traces of chromium which is employed in dyes adversely affect the aquatic life and also interfere with the biological treatment processes (Palamthodiet al., 2011).The quality of such effluent can be analyzed by their physicochemical and biological analysis. Monitoring of the environmental parameters of the effluent would allow having, at any time, a precise idea on performance evaluation of ETP and if necessary, appropriate measures may be undertaken to prevent adverse impact on environment. The obtained results were very much useful in identification and rectification of operational and maintenance problems and it can be also utilized to establish methods for improved. References: 1. Manual of Environment & forestry Division Under ministry of environment of Bangladesh 2. www.environmentalscience.com 3. http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/search/label/ETP 4. http://www.slideshare.net/JaidevSingh/effluent-treatment-plant-design-operation-and- analysis-of-waste-water-16567872 5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wastewater_treatment#Wastewater_treatment_plants 6. http://www.bkchemicalsprojects.com/effluent-treatment-plants-etp.html 7. http://water.worldbank.org/shw-resource-guide/infrastructure/menu-technical- options/wastewater-treatment