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By Roshan Karunarathna
 RAD USES HYBRID TEAMS
Team should consist of about 8-10 people, including both
developers and full-time users of the system plus anyone else
who has a stake in the requirements.
Developers chosen for RAD teams should be multi-talented
"renaissance" people who are analysts, designers and
programmers all rolled into one.
 RAD USES SPECIALIZED TOOLS THAT SUPPORT ...
visual" development
creation of fake prototypes (pure simulations)
creation of working prototypes
multiple languages and etc…
 RAD USES "TIMEBOXING“
 RAD USES ITERATIVE,
EVOLUTIONARY
PROTOTYPING
1.JAD (Joint Application
Development) MEETING
 Developers talk and listen
 Customers talk and listen
2.ITERATE UNTIL DONE
 Developers build / evolve
prototype based on current
requirements.
 Designers review the
prototype.
 Customers try out the
prototype, evolve their
requirements.
 FOCUS GROUP meeting
Customers and developers
meet to review product
together,
refine requirements, generate
change requests.
 Developers listen.
 Customers talk.
 Requirements and change
requests are "time boxed".
 Changes that cannot be
accommodated within
existing
time boxes are eliminated.
 If necessary to stay "in the
box," secondary
requirements
are dropped.
• Iterative and Incremental development
is at the heart of a cyclic software
development process developed in response
to the weaknesses of the waterfall model.
 This type of lifecycle is a risk mitigation driven
process. Technical risks are assessed and prioritized
early in the lifecycle and are revised during the
development of each iteration. Risks are attached to
each iteration so that successful completion of the
iteration mitigates the risks attached to it. The releases
are scheduled to ensure that the highest risks are
tackled first
1. Quickly getting a useful system into the hands of users.
2. Early risk discovery and mitigation.
3. Accommodates change and provokes earlier identification of
change.
4. Manageable complexity.
5. Confidence from early, repeated success.
6. Early partial product.
7. Better progress tracking and predictability.
8. Software better matches user needs.
9. Early and regular process improvement.
10. Communication and engagement demanded.
11. Prototyping and feedback encouraged.
12. Higher quality, fewer defects.
Advantages of Iterative & Incremental
Development
Disadvantages of Iteration &
Incremental Development
 Management problems
 Progress can be hard to judge and problems hard to find because there is no documentation to
demonstrate what has been done.
 documentation may be lacked. That will make management hard
 Contractual problems
 The normal contract may include a specification; without a specification, different forms of contract
have to be used.
 Validation problems
 Without a specification, what is the system being tested against?
 Maintenance problems
 Continual change tends to corrupt software structure making it more expensive to change and evolve to
meet new requirements.
 Because during the development process needs to be adapted and refined, it may be that
the original purpose fades. It can happen that it continues to change and it never
finished. This is called Scope Creep.
 Project managers who are accustomed to linear development can be confused by the
strong dynamics.(-may be problems because of the lack of understand about
 The rapid development has the potential to draw a bill on the organization and resources
of the great dynamics.
 Inexperience with the way of working can lead to misunderstandings and
disappointments..
Commonly used Iterative and Incremental
Development tools
Database programming language
Interface generator
Links to office applications
Report generators
visual" development
creation of fake prototypes (pure
simulations)
creation of working prototypes
multiple languages
team scheduling
teamwork and collaboration
use of reusable components
use of standard APIs
version control
File Edit Views Layout Options Help
General
Index
Menu component
Date component
Range checking
script
Tree display
component
Draw canvas
component
User prompt
component +
script
12th January 2 000
3.876
Thank You!

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Iterative and Incremental Development (RAD)

  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.  RAD USES HYBRID TEAMS Team should consist of about 8-10 people, including both developers and full-time users of the system plus anyone else who has a stake in the requirements. Developers chosen for RAD teams should be multi-talented "renaissance" people who are analysts, designers and programmers all rolled into one.  RAD USES SPECIALIZED TOOLS THAT SUPPORT ... visual" development creation of fake prototypes (pure simulations) creation of working prototypes multiple languages and etc…
  • 7.  RAD USES "TIMEBOXING“  RAD USES ITERATIVE, EVOLUTIONARY PROTOTYPING 1.JAD (Joint Application Development) MEETING  Developers talk and listen  Customers talk and listen 2.ITERATE UNTIL DONE  Developers build / evolve prototype based on current requirements.  Designers review the prototype.  Customers try out the prototype, evolve their requirements.  FOCUS GROUP meeting Customers and developers meet to review product together, refine requirements, generate change requests.  Developers listen.  Customers talk.  Requirements and change requests are "time boxed".  Changes that cannot be accommodated within existing time boxes are eliminated.  If necessary to stay "in the box," secondary requirements are dropped.
  • 8.
  • 9. • Iterative and Incremental development is at the heart of a cyclic software development process developed in response to the weaknesses of the waterfall model.
  • 10.  This type of lifecycle is a risk mitigation driven process. Technical risks are assessed and prioritized early in the lifecycle and are revised during the development of each iteration. Risks are attached to each iteration so that successful completion of the iteration mitigates the risks attached to it. The releases are scheduled to ensure that the highest risks are tackled first
  • 11.
  • 12. 1. Quickly getting a useful system into the hands of users. 2. Early risk discovery and mitigation. 3. Accommodates change and provokes earlier identification of change. 4. Manageable complexity. 5. Confidence from early, repeated success. 6. Early partial product. 7. Better progress tracking and predictability. 8. Software better matches user needs. 9. Early and regular process improvement. 10. Communication and engagement demanded. 11. Prototyping and feedback encouraged. 12. Higher quality, fewer defects. Advantages of Iterative & Incremental Development
  • 13. Disadvantages of Iteration & Incremental Development
  • 14.  Management problems  Progress can be hard to judge and problems hard to find because there is no documentation to demonstrate what has been done.  documentation may be lacked. That will make management hard  Contractual problems  The normal contract may include a specification; without a specification, different forms of contract have to be used.  Validation problems  Without a specification, what is the system being tested against?  Maintenance problems  Continual change tends to corrupt software structure making it more expensive to change and evolve to meet new requirements.  Because during the development process needs to be adapted and refined, it may be that the original purpose fades. It can happen that it continues to change and it never finished. This is called Scope Creep.  Project managers who are accustomed to linear development can be confused by the strong dynamics.(-may be problems because of the lack of understand about  The rapid development has the potential to draw a bill on the organization and resources of the great dynamics.  Inexperience with the way of working can lead to misunderstandings and disappointments..
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  • 16. Commonly used Iterative and Incremental Development tools Database programming language Interface generator Links to office applications Report generators visual" development creation of fake prototypes (pure simulations) creation of working prototypes multiple languages team scheduling teamwork and collaboration use of reusable components use of standard APIs version control
  • 17. File Edit Views Layout Options Help General Index Menu component Date component Range checking script Tree display component Draw canvas component User prompt component + script 12th January 2 000 3.876
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