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Project Management Professional
PMP® Exam Prep – Week 4
Quality Management
Prof. Muzette Charles, PMP | mcharles2@pace.edu
Quality Management
Chapter 8
“… works to ensure the project requirements, including product requirements are met & validated.”
• “Project is completed with no deviations from the project requirements.”
• Customer satisfaction – project meets the defined customer needs
• Continuous improvement: Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) is the basis for quality improvement
• Prevention over inspection
• Management responsibility
Process Process Group Key Deliverables
8.1 Plan Quality Management Planning Quality Management Plan
8.2 Manage Quality Executing Change Requests
8.3 Control Quality Monitoring & Control Validated Changes
QA vs. QC
Quality Assurance
 Process-oriented
 Is project being
implemented
according to plan?
 Are project processes
as efficient and
effective as possible?
Quality Control
 Deliverable-oriented
 Does the deliverable
conform to customer-
agreed, measurable
quality characteristics?
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Quality Pioneers
Shewhart Statistical process control (SPC) and control charts
Deming Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) model
Commitment to continuous improvement as a way to effect
organizational transformation
Juran Fitness for use—meeting customer’s requirements
Cost of quality, Pareto principle, quality trilogy
Crosby Conforming to customer needs and preventing defects (zero
defects)
“Quality is free.”
Feigenbaum Total quality management (leadership, use of technology,
commitment to customer needs)
Ishikawa Seven quality tools and quality circles (worker involvement)
Taguchi Focus on designing quality into a product or service
Shingo and
Ohno
Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing and “lean”—focusing on
efficiency and value-producing activity
What quality expert championed the concept
of continuous improvement as integral to
quality management?
A. Deming
B. Juran
C. Crosby
D. Feigenbaum
Discussion Question
Answer: A
On the exam, you may be asked to define specific
quality theories or identify quality gurus by their
ideas. Chapter 8, Topic 1
Quality Initiatives in Organizations
TQM • Ancestor of many initiatives
Six Sigma
• Certified “black belt” practitioners
• Integration of quality in all business processes
ISO
• International Organization for Standardization
• ISO 9000 series
Baldrige
• Self-assessment and improvement program
• Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
CMMI
• Capability Maturity Model Integration
• Software project–oriented
How do organizational quality initiatives affect project
teams?
A. Only indirectly, through operations.
B. They may shape project quality processes and
objectives.
C. They are secondary to PMO processes.
D. They affect project managers but not team members.
Discussion Question
Answer: B
Quality initiatives can potentially affect the entire
organization, shaping project management processes and
affecting the way project success is defined. Most quality
initiatives emphasize the involvement of the entire team.
Chapter 8, Topic 1
Key Elements of Quality Management
Customer
Satisfaction
Prevention
over
Inspection
Continuous
Improvement
Management
Responsibility
Cost of
Quality
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Plan Quality Management
Process 1 Key Points
 “… identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project & its deliverables & documenting how the
project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards.”
 Conformance to requirements: Customer Satisfaction & Fitness for use
 Quality vs Grade: It does what you NEED it to do vs people VALUE the product
 Baseline key inputs: Scope/WBS, deliverables, Acceptance Criteria, Cost/approving funding, budget per period,
Schedule/milestone dates
Quality vs. Grade
 Quality: Degree to which a thing fulfills its requirements
 Grade: Way to distinguish items with same use but different quality
requirements
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Plan Quality Management
Process 1
Cost of Quality
Cost of Conformance
Prevention Costs
Designing
quality and
conformanc
e to
require-
ments from
the start
Providing
adequate
training, equip-
ment, and time
to build it right
Appraisal
Costs
Testing and
inspections
Cost of
Nonconformance
Internal
Failure
Costs
Rework and
scrap
External
Failure
Costs
Warranty,
liabilities,
loss of
customers
Source: Adapted from Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide)—Sixth Edition, Project Management
Institute, Inc., 2013, Figure 8-5, Page 283. Material from this publication has been reproduced with the permission of PMI.
Quality Management
Chapter 8Plan Quality Management
Process 1
What expense would be considered a cost of
nonconformance?
A. An action must be corrected because of
incomplete project communication.
B. All components are subjected to rigorous
inspections.
C. Engineers must be trained in a new process.
Discussion Question
Answer: A
A is the result of noncompliance with the project’s
internal communication processes. B and C are both
associated with preventing quality issues from reaching
the customer or from occurring in the first place.
Chapter 8, Topic 2
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Plan Quality Management
Process 1
Key Points
7 Basic Quality Tools:
 Fishbone aka Ishikawa (Cause & Effect Diagram): see all defect causes by categories or see all
requirements & the factors that may cause defects
 Pareto Diagram: sorts frequency of defects in descending order – 80/20 Rule
 Histogram: vertical bar chart of potential problems
 Control Cart: if a process is stable or has predictable performance with upper/lower limits, Heuristic 7
 Scatter Diagram (Correlation charts): compares 2 types of data
 Flowcharts (Process Map): visualize how tasks/phases are interrelated/depend on each other SIPOC
model (supplier, input, process, output, customer)
 Checksheet (Tally Sheet): gathers data of product being tested
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Cause-and-
effect diagram
Ishikawa or
fishbone diagram
5 Whys
Flowchart
Identify inter-
dependencies in
complex processes
Checksheet
Summarize
and categorize
events
Seven Basic Quality Tools
Plan Quality Management
Process 1
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Seven Basic Quality Tools
Plan Quality Management
Process 1
Histogram
Bar chart
Sort and compare
data
Pareto
diagram
80/20 cut
Distinguish the
“vital few” causes
Scatter
diagram
Plot data from
two variables to
detect
associations
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Seven Basic Quality Tools
Plan Quality Management
Process 1
 Plot a series of data points
against specifications to detect if
a process is out of control
– Single data point above or
below control limits
– Rule of 7: 7 consecutive points
above or 7 consecutive points
below the mean
Control Charts
What quality tool is being used?
Needs collected during successive customer
workshops are grouped by type.
A. Scatter diagram
B. Pareto diagram
C. Control chart
D. Histogram
Discussion Question
Answer: D
A histogram can be used to display the relative sizes of
these groups. For example, each group might be
represented by one bar that is subdivided into the top
categories of needs.Chapter 8, Topic 2
Quality management plan
How the team will achieve
its quality objectives
Quality metrics
What will be measured,
target values, tolerances
Project Management Plan
updates
Risk management plan
and scope baseline
Project documents
updates
Lessons learned, risk, and
stakeholder registers and
requirements traceability
matrix
Quality Management
Chapter 8Plan Quality Management
Process 1
Plan Quality Management Outputs
Is this a difference of quality or grade?
Two sun lotions have the same SPF factor, but
one’s protective effects last longer than the other’s.
Discussion Question
Answer: Grade
Both products fulfill the same requirement
to protect against the sun. One may have
additional ingredients that extend its
effectiveness. Chapter 8, Topic 2
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Manage Quality
Process 2
Key Points
 “…. The process of auditing the quality requirements & the results from quality control measurements to ensure
appropriate quality standards are used.”
 Assurance seeks confidence that a future or unfinished output will be completed in a manner to meet requirements
 Unfinished Output = Work in progress
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Manage Quality
Process 2
Affinity
diagram
Sort data before
problem solving
Process decision
program chart
(PDPC)
Identify problem
nodes
Inter-
relationship
digraph
Show cause/
effect
Quality Tools
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Manage Quality
Process 2
Quality Tools
Tree
diagram
Decompose
into
components
Prioritiza-
tion matrix
Assess items
by weighted
criteria
Activity
network
diagram
Sequence
events and
their
relationships
Matrix
diagram
Score items
against
categories
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Manage Quality
Process 2
Quality Tools
Quality Audits
 Structured process to determine conformance
with policies, processes, and procedures
 Could be independent and external
 Uses quality tools
 Results in report
Checklists
 Gather data and verify that specific steps
have been performed.
Design for X
 Follow technical guidelines to control and
improve a product’s final characteristics.
A project manager receives a report with
recommendations from an internal QA department
about changes to team procedures. What should the
project manager do?
A. Disregard the recommendations since they are
internal and will have negative effects.
B. Implement the recommendations since the team is
committed to process improvement.
C. Analyze the impact of the changes on project
baselines.
D. Initiate a change request.
Discussion Question
Answer: C
If possible, the improvements should be made, but the
project manager must first assess their impact so that a
change request can be initiated if necessary.
Chapter 8, Topic 3
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Control Quality
Process 3
Key Points
 “… identifying causes of poor process or product quality & recommending and/or taking action to eliminate them.”
 “Validating that project deliverables meet the stakeholder’s requirements necessary for final acceptance.”
 Defects: Prevention (monitor quality) is ALWAYS better than Inspection (checking deliverables for defects)
 Cost-Benefit Analysis: Decreased Rework vs. Increased Production, Efficiency & Satisfaction
Quality Management
Chapter 8
Key Elements of Quality Management
Customer
Satisfaction
Prevention
over
Inspection
Continuous
Improvement
Management
Responsibility
Cost of
Quality

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PMP Muzette Charles_Spring2019_Week4_Chapter8

  • 1. Project Management Professional PMP® Exam Prep – Week 4 Quality Management Prof. Muzette Charles, PMP | mcharles2@pace.edu
  • 2. Quality Management Chapter 8 “… works to ensure the project requirements, including product requirements are met & validated.” • “Project is completed with no deviations from the project requirements.” • Customer satisfaction – project meets the defined customer needs • Continuous improvement: Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) is the basis for quality improvement • Prevention over inspection • Management responsibility Process Process Group Key Deliverables 8.1 Plan Quality Management Planning Quality Management Plan 8.2 Manage Quality Executing Change Requests 8.3 Control Quality Monitoring & Control Validated Changes
  • 3. QA vs. QC Quality Assurance  Process-oriented  Is project being implemented according to plan?  Are project processes as efficient and effective as possible? Quality Control  Deliverable-oriented  Does the deliverable conform to customer- agreed, measurable quality characteristics? Quality Management Chapter 8
  • 4. Quality Pioneers Shewhart Statistical process control (SPC) and control charts Deming Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) model Commitment to continuous improvement as a way to effect organizational transformation Juran Fitness for use—meeting customer’s requirements Cost of quality, Pareto principle, quality trilogy Crosby Conforming to customer needs and preventing defects (zero defects) “Quality is free.” Feigenbaum Total quality management (leadership, use of technology, commitment to customer needs) Ishikawa Seven quality tools and quality circles (worker involvement) Taguchi Focus on designing quality into a product or service Shingo and Ohno Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing and “lean”—focusing on efficiency and value-producing activity
  • 5. What quality expert championed the concept of continuous improvement as integral to quality management? A. Deming B. Juran C. Crosby D. Feigenbaum Discussion Question Answer: A On the exam, you may be asked to define specific quality theories or identify quality gurus by their ideas. Chapter 8, Topic 1
  • 6. Quality Initiatives in Organizations TQM • Ancestor of many initiatives Six Sigma • Certified “black belt” practitioners • Integration of quality in all business processes ISO • International Organization for Standardization • ISO 9000 series Baldrige • Self-assessment and improvement program • Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award CMMI • Capability Maturity Model Integration • Software project–oriented
  • 7. How do organizational quality initiatives affect project teams? A. Only indirectly, through operations. B. They may shape project quality processes and objectives. C. They are secondary to PMO processes. D. They affect project managers but not team members. Discussion Question Answer: B Quality initiatives can potentially affect the entire organization, shaping project management processes and affecting the way project success is defined. Most quality initiatives emphasize the involvement of the entire team. Chapter 8, Topic 1
  • 8. Key Elements of Quality Management Customer Satisfaction Prevention over Inspection Continuous Improvement Management Responsibility Cost of Quality
  • 9. Quality Management Chapter 8 Plan Quality Management Process 1 Key Points  “… identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project & its deliverables & documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards.”  Conformance to requirements: Customer Satisfaction & Fitness for use  Quality vs Grade: It does what you NEED it to do vs people VALUE the product  Baseline key inputs: Scope/WBS, deliverables, Acceptance Criteria, Cost/approving funding, budget per period, Schedule/milestone dates
  • 10. Quality vs. Grade  Quality: Degree to which a thing fulfills its requirements  Grade: Way to distinguish items with same use but different quality requirements Quality Management Chapter 8 Plan Quality Management Process 1
  • 11. Cost of Quality Cost of Conformance Prevention Costs Designing quality and conformanc e to require- ments from the start Providing adequate training, equip- ment, and time to build it right Appraisal Costs Testing and inspections Cost of Nonconformance Internal Failure Costs Rework and scrap External Failure Costs Warranty, liabilities, loss of customers Source: Adapted from Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide)—Sixth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2013, Figure 8-5, Page 283. Material from this publication has been reproduced with the permission of PMI. Quality Management Chapter 8Plan Quality Management Process 1
  • 12. What expense would be considered a cost of nonconformance? A. An action must be corrected because of incomplete project communication. B. All components are subjected to rigorous inspections. C. Engineers must be trained in a new process. Discussion Question Answer: A A is the result of noncompliance with the project’s internal communication processes. B and C are both associated with preventing quality issues from reaching the customer or from occurring in the first place. Chapter 8, Topic 2
  • 13. Quality Management Chapter 8 Plan Quality Management Process 1 Key Points 7 Basic Quality Tools:  Fishbone aka Ishikawa (Cause & Effect Diagram): see all defect causes by categories or see all requirements & the factors that may cause defects  Pareto Diagram: sorts frequency of defects in descending order – 80/20 Rule  Histogram: vertical bar chart of potential problems  Control Cart: if a process is stable or has predictable performance with upper/lower limits, Heuristic 7  Scatter Diagram (Correlation charts): compares 2 types of data  Flowcharts (Process Map): visualize how tasks/phases are interrelated/depend on each other SIPOC model (supplier, input, process, output, customer)  Checksheet (Tally Sheet): gathers data of product being tested
  • 14. Quality Management Chapter 8 Cause-and- effect diagram Ishikawa or fishbone diagram 5 Whys Flowchart Identify inter- dependencies in complex processes Checksheet Summarize and categorize events Seven Basic Quality Tools Plan Quality Management Process 1
  • 15. Quality Management Chapter 8 Seven Basic Quality Tools Plan Quality Management Process 1 Histogram Bar chart Sort and compare data Pareto diagram 80/20 cut Distinguish the “vital few” causes Scatter diagram Plot data from two variables to detect associations
  • 16. Quality Management Chapter 8 Seven Basic Quality Tools Plan Quality Management Process 1  Plot a series of data points against specifications to detect if a process is out of control – Single data point above or below control limits – Rule of 7: 7 consecutive points above or 7 consecutive points below the mean Control Charts
  • 17. What quality tool is being used? Needs collected during successive customer workshops are grouped by type. A. Scatter diagram B. Pareto diagram C. Control chart D. Histogram Discussion Question Answer: D A histogram can be used to display the relative sizes of these groups. For example, each group might be represented by one bar that is subdivided into the top categories of needs.Chapter 8, Topic 2
  • 18. Quality management plan How the team will achieve its quality objectives Quality metrics What will be measured, target values, tolerances Project Management Plan updates Risk management plan and scope baseline Project documents updates Lessons learned, risk, and stakeholder registers and requirements traceability matrix Quality Management Chapter 8Plan Quality Management Process 1 Plan Quality Management Outputs
  • 19. Is this a difference of quality or grade? Two sun lotions have the same SPF factor, but one’s protective effects last longer than the other’s. Discussion Question Answer: Grade Both products fulfill the same requirement to protect against the sun. One may have additional ingredients that extend its effectiveness. Chapter 8, Topic 2
  • 20. Quality Management Chapter 8 Manage Quality Process 2 Key Points  “…. The process of auditing the quality requirements & the results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards are used.”  Assurance seeks confidence that a future or unfinished output will be completed in a manner to meet requirements  Unfinished Output = Work in progress
  • 21. Quality Management Chapter 8 Manage Quality Process 2 Affinity diagram Sort data before problem solving Process decision program chart (PDPC) Identify problem nodes Inter- relationship digraph Show cause/ effect Quality Tools
  • 22. Quality Management Chapter 8 Manage Quality Process 2 Quality Tools Tree diagram Decompose into components Prioritiza- tion matrix Assess items by weighted criteria Activity network diagram Sequence events and their relationships Matrix diagram Score items against categories
  • 23. Quality Management Chapter 8 Manage Quality Process 2 Quality Tools Quality Audits  Structured process to determine conformance with policies, processes, and procedures  Could be independent and external  Uses quality tools  Results in report Checklists  Gather data and verify that specific steps have been performed. Design for X  Follow technical guidelines to control and improve a product’s final characteristics.
  • 24. A project manager receives a report with recommendations from an internal QA department about changes to team procedures. What should the project manager do? A. Disregard the recommendations since they are internal and will have negative effects. B. Implement the recommendations since the team is committed to process improvement. C. Analyze the impact of the changes on project baselines. D. Initiate a change request. Discussion Question Answer: C If possible, the improvements should be made, but the project manager must first assess their impact so that a change request can be initiated if necessary. Chapter 8, Topic 3
  • 25. Quality Management Chapter 8 Control Quality Process 3 Key Points  “… identifying causes of poor process or product quality & recommending and/or taking action to eliminate them.”  “Validating that project deliverables meet the stakeholder’s requirements necessary for final acceptance.”  Defects: Prevention (monitor quality) is ALWAYS better than Inspection (checking deliverables for defects)  Cost-Benefit Analysis: Decreased Rework vs. Increased Production, Efficiency & Satisfaction
  • 27. Key Elements of Quality Management Customer Satisfaction Prevention over Inspection Continuous Improvement Management Responsibility Cost of Quality