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METHODS OF TEACHING
(SCIENCE)
CAMILLE C. DERECHO
“SCIENCE DOES NOT SIMPLY SIT DOWN & PRAY
FOR THINGS TO HAPPEN, BUT SEEKS TO FIND OUT
WHY THINGS HAPPEN. IT EXPERIMENTS AND TRIES
AGAIN AND AGAIN AND SOMETIMES FAILS AND
SOMETIMES SUCCEEDS & SO BIT BY BIT IT ADDS TO
HUMAN KNOWLEDGE. THIS MODERN WORLD OF
OURS IS VERY DIFFERENT FROM ANCIENT WORLD
OR THE MIDDLE AGES. THIS GREAT DIFFERENCE IS
LARGELY DUE TO SCIENCE.”
PRINCIPLES FOR SELECTING METHODS:-There are some guiding principles for determining teaching
methods. They are as follows:

Principle of sense of achievement through interest
and purpose.
Principle of active cooperation.
Principle of capability of students of particular class.
Principle of realization of meaning of education i.e.,
“I bring up”, “I nourish”, “Drawing art”.
Psychological principle i.e., need, interest, of
students.
All the methods of teaching
science can be classified into two
types:-
Teacher-Centred and
 Student-Centred
TEACHER-CENTRED METHODS:
This type of teaching methods focus on telling,
memorizing, recalling information. The students
participation is very limited where in they only ask
questions or answers questions. Most of the time the
students are passive listeners and receive the
knowledge. The teacher is centre of process that goes
on in the classroom.
PUPIL-CENTRED METHODS:
This process emphasizes on need, requirement,
interest and capability of students. The students are
active participants where in their skills and abilities
are developed. The climate in the classroom is
conducive where in flexibility in there. Teacher and
students jointly explore the different aspects of
problem. The role of the teacher in to create a
problematic situation, have materials and resources
available to the students, and help them identify
issues, state hypotheses, clarify and test hypotheses
and draw conclusions.
This method is a combination of lecture method and
discussion method. This is very helpful in building an
active verbal interaction between the teachers and
students. The teacher delivers the lecture and provides
some time (10 minutes) after the lecture for discussion
among the students and teacher in the classroom.
1. LECTURE-DISCUSSION METHOD:
PRINCIPLES OF LECTURE-DISCUSSION
METHOD:
ROLE OF TEACHER
 Encourage students to participate in discussion.
 Ensure, student’s attention span is maintained.
 Pre plan and prepare properly for discussion and support ideas
with factual evidence and examples.
 Encourage student talking than teacher talking.
 If possible give time before hand so that, the discussion becomes
productive.
 Do not dominate rather get the discussion started set goals,
summarize, mediate and clarify.
MERIT OF LECTURE-DISCUSSION METHOD:
It creates democratic environment in the
class.
Develops and improves communication
of students.
It brings about attitudinal change among
students.
It helps in assessing the factual knowledge
the students.
LIMITATIONS OF LECTURE-DISCUSSION METHOD:
It is helpful for mature students.
If it is not properly used, then the principle of
by participating” is not achieved.
If teacher does not handle students effectively then
students may be in disciplined rather than
participation.
If not managed properly, it will not help all types of
students in the class.
Teacher must control his emotions else this may result
in wrong output.
This method in commonly thought of as a
hands on and minds on approach to teach
science where in students have the
opportunity to gain some experience with
phenomena associated with their course of
study.
2. LABORATORY METHOD:
PRINCIPLES OF LABORATORY METHOD:
It follows the principle of learning by doing.
It follows psychological principle, where students age
and interest is taken into consideration.
The work should be Pre-organized and Pre-selected.
Teacher must see that, students are allowed to work
independently without much interference.
The teacher must ensure that apparatus and
should be checked pair hand.
Teacher must see that students are able to follow
instruction and record their observation properly.
ROLE OF TEACHER:
 Teacher must be a facilitator of the process of doing
experiments by students.
 Teacher must check the apparatus previously, so that it
goes on smoothly.
 The practical work must be Pre-organized and Pre-
selected.
 The skills of handling apparatus, drawing, diagrams,
observations taking necessary precautions, must be
developed among students.
 The teacher must be make sure that the student is doing
experiment properly by following proper procedure.
MERITS OF LABORATORY METHOD:
 This method follows child-centered approach.
 It makes students active and alert.
 It gives scope for learning by doing and students do a lot of thinking
themselves.
 Different skills are developed.
 It paves way for exploration experimentation and verification of scientific
facts and principles.
 It inculcates good virtues like, honesty, truthfulness, dignity of labour
 It helps in developing sprit of inquiring.
 It helps in developing higher order thinking capacities like reasoning,
analysing, synthesizing etc.
LIMITATIONS OF LABORATORY METHOD:
The limitations of this method are as follows:-
 It is expensive and uneconomical.
 It is time consuming as it takes much time in some
experiments to come to conclusion.
 It expects a lot from students and teacher.
 It does not guarantee that, students would be
efficient in solving problems outside laboratory.
 All students cannot be expected to be skilled
 Most of the students are either not ready or lack to
ability to undertake original work.
In this method, the student
observes and acquires
knowledge.
3. OBSERVATION METHOD:
PRINCIPLES OF OBSERVATION:
Principle of freedom.
Principle of experience.
Principle of play-way.
Principle of individual effort.
Principle of activity.
Principle of logical thinking.
Principle of purpose fullness.
ROLE OF TEACHER:
A lot is expected / demanded of the teacher in this method:
 He must be man of knowledge and give adequate references for
further observation.
 He should possess curiosity, scientific attitude, interest, sprit of
investigation so as to inculcate such qualities among students
in term observe and discover many things.
 He must provide an atmosphere for freedom in the classroom in
order to encourage students to make observations.
 He must be a guide, a working partner and friend of the
 He should devise and plan different activities according to the
ability and interests of the students.
MERIT OF OBSERVATION METHOD:
 The work of the teacher becomes interesting.
 The students see, think, give logical, and thoughtful
answers.
 The students learn the similarities and dissimilarities of
objects clearly and easily.
 The knowledge acquired is permanent.
 Students develop interest in subject.
 Students become self-dependent, self-reliant and self-
confident.
 The problem of home-work in solved.
 The relation between teacher and taught becomes
intimate and healthy.
LIMITATIONS OF OBSERVATION METHOD:
 It is too much to expect children observe and retain
knowledge. The students are in nature sometimes and
knowledge and thinking power in limited.
 It is not suitable for all the topic of science.
 This method is information. The practical part of it remains
underdeveloped.
 It is not economical from time point of view.
 This method is also not economical as it requires a lot of
preparation and maintenance form school point of view.
Where is students can observe many things.
The base of this method lies in the philosophy of pragmatism. This method
emphasizes on building a comprehensive unit around an activity which may be
carried out in school or outside. The essence of this method lies in the fact that a
group of students do a purposeful task.
 “A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting”.
 “A project is a bit of real life that has been imported into school. – Ballard.
 Thus, project is a purposeful activity and planned activity which is achieved in
social, natural situations created in schools.
4. PROJECT METHOD
PRINCIPLES OF PROJECT METHOD:
The Principle of freedom.
The Principle of purpose.
The Principle of activity.
The Principle of interest.
The Principle of utility.
The Principle of correlation.
The Principle of sociability.
The Principle of experience.
The Principle of reality.
The Principle of learning by doing.
TYPES OF PROJECT:
All the project can be divided majorly into two
Individual Project.
Group Project.
According to W.H. Kilpatrick projects are of four:
Producer projects
Consumer projects
Problem projects
Drill projects.
PRODUCER PROJECT:
 Here the emphasis is on actual construction of a material object
or article.
CONSUMER PROJECT:
 Here the emphasis is gain on obtaining either direct or vicarious
experience, such as reading and learning stories, listening to a
musical delectation etc.
PROBLEM PROJECTS:
 The main purpose is to solve a problem using intellectual
such as determining the density of a certain liquid.
DRILL PROJECTS:
 This type of project emphasizes on attaining a certain degree of
skill in a reaction as learning a vocabulary.
ROLE OF TEACHER:
Teacher must be a friend, guide and working
partner.
Teacher must have thorough knowledge of
individual student and allot work accordingly.
Provide democratic atmosphere.
He should learn with students and should not
to know everything.
He must be inexperienced, initiative and process
tact for creating positive ambience.
MERITS OF PROJECT METHOD:
 It promotes Cooperative activity.
 It arouses and maintains interest of students.
 It keeps the students on freedom of thought and action while doing
the work.
 It develops scientific attitude.
 It widens the mental horizon of student.
 It develops dignity of labour.
 The students learn by self activity.
 It supports all the laws of learning i.e., law of readiness, law of
law of effect.
 The correlation of subjects is best followed in this method. The
subjects are not treated as water tight compartments.
 This is a psychological method.
DEMERITS OF PROJECT METHOD:
 The knowledge is not acquired in a sequential manner.
 There may be a chance of overlapping of subject matter.
 If not planned and executed properly them, it may not be completed in
time.
 It is a time consuming process.
 It may be a costly affair where in some items/things may not be
at times.
 There may be overdevelopment of individualism and under
of co-operation and group responsibility.
 If the topic in wrongly selected them the objective may not be
 It gives to students a superficial knowledge of great many things.
Therefore it is not suitable for all types of students.
 This method is not suitable for a mature teacher.
 The whole syllabus, for higher classes cannot be accomplished with this
method.
In a problem solving method, children learn by
working on problems. This enables the students
to learn new knowledge by facing the problems
to be solved. The students are expected to
observe, understand, analyze, interpret find
solutions, perform applications that lead to a
holistic understanding of the concept.
5. PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD
PRINCIPLES OF PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD:
Principle of learning by doing.
Principle of purpose.
Principle of freedom of thought.
Principle of learning by experiencing.
Principle of utility.
Principle of scientific attitude.
Principle of interest.
Principle of reality.
Principle of concreteness.
Principle of objectivity.
ROLE OF TEACHER:
Teacher must work as a facilitator.
Teacher must keep in mind that it is a child-directed
learning not teacher-directed.
Teacher must provide situation for all students to
come formed and contribute towards the success
the activity.
He must be alert and active to arouse interest
among students.
Teacher must provide democratic atmosphere.
He must be initialize, tactful and we experienced.
MERITS OF PROBLEM SOLVING METHODS:
Students develop democratic feeling.
This method follows the principle of learning
by doing.
They learn to use old facts in new references.
They become capable to generalize.
Students learn to find solution to their
problem.
DEMERITS OF PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD:
It is not economical from time and
money point of view.
There is always a doubt of drawing
wrong conclusions.
There is short of talented teachers to
practice this method.
This is not suitable for all level students.
“At the end, we can conclude that it is
you teachers who have to keep in
mind, which method is suitable to
which type of students under what
circumstance. Every method has its
merits and demerits. The choosing of
methods depends upon your
intelligence, resource fullness.”

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Methods of Teaching Science

  • 2. “SCIENCE DOES NOT SIMPLY SIT DOWN & PRAY FOR THINGS TO HAPPEN, BUT SEEKS TO FIND OUT WHY THINGS HAPPEN. IT EXPERIMENTS AND TRIES AGAIN AND AGAIN AND SOMETIMES FAILS AND SOMETIMES SUCCEEDS & SO BIT BY BIT IT ADDS TO HUMAN KNOWLEDGE. THIS MODERN WORLD OF OURS IS VERY DIFFERENT FROM ANCIENT WORLD OR THE MIDDLE AGES. THIS GREAT DIFFERENCE IS LARGELY DUE TO SCIENCE.”
  • 3. PRINCIPLES FOR SELECTING METHODS:-There are some guiding principles for determining teaching methods. They are as follows:  Principle of sense of achievement through interest and purpose. Principle of active cooperation. Principle of capability of students of particular class. Principle of realization of meaning of education i.e., “I bring up”, “I nourish”, “Drawing art”. Psychological principle i.e., need, interest, of students.
  • 4. All the methods of teaching science can be classified into two types:- Teacher-Centred and  Student-Centred
  • 5. TEACHER-CENTRED METHODS: This type of teaching methods focus on telling, memorizing, recalling information. The students participation is very limited where in they only ask questions or answers questions. Most of the time the students are passive listeners and receive the knowledge. The teacher is centre of process that goes on in the classroom.
  • 6. PUPIL-CENTRED METHODS: This process emphasizes on need, requirement, interest and capability of students. The students are active participants where in their skills and abilities are developed. The climate in the classroom is conducive where in flexibility in there. Teacher and students jointly explore the different aspects of problem. The role of the teacher in to create a problematic situation, have materials and resources available to the students, and help them identify issues, state hypotheses, clarify and test hypotheses and draw conclusions.
  • 7. This method is a combination of lecture method and discussion method. This is very helpful in building an active verbal interaction between the teachers and students. The teacher delivers the lecture and provides some time (10 minutes) after the lecture for discussion among the students and teacher in the classroom. 1. LECTURE-DISCUSSION METHOD:
  • 8. PRINCIPLES OF LECTURE-DISCUSSION METHOD: ROLE OF TEACHER  Encourage students to participate in discussion.  Ensure, student’s attention span is maintained.  Pre plan and prepare properly for discussion and support ideas with factual evidence and examples.  Encourage student talking than teacher talking.  If possible give time before hand so that, the discussion becomes productive.  Do not dominate rather get the discussion started set goals, summarize, mediate and clarify.
  • 9. MERIT OF LECTURE-DISCUSSION METHOD: It creates democratic environment in the class. Develops and improves communication of students. It brings about attitudinal change among students. It helps in assessing the factual knowledge the students.
  • 10. LIMITATIONS OF LECTURE-DISCUSSION METHOD: It is helpful for mature students. If it is not properly used, then the principle of by participating” is not achieved. If teacher does not handle students effectively then students may be in disciplined rather than participation. If not managed properly, it will not help all types of students in the class. Teacher must control his emotions else this may result in wrong output.
  • 11. This method in commonly thought of as a hands on and minds on approach to teach science where in students have the opportunity to gain some experience with phenomena associated with their course of study. 2. LABORATORY METHOD:
  • 12. PRINCIPLES OF LABORATORY METHOD: It follows the principle of learning by doing. It follows psychological principle, where students age and interest is taken into consideration. The work should be Pre-organized and Pre-selected. Teacher must see that, students are allowed to work independently without much interference. The teacher must ensure that apparatus and should be checked pair hand. Teacher must see that students are able to follow instruction and record their observation properly.
  • 13. ROLE OF TEACHER:  Teacher must be a facilitator of the process of doing experiments by students.  Teacher must check the apparatus previously, so that it goes on smoothly.  The practical work must be Pre-organized and Pre- selected.  The skills of handling apparatus, drawing, diagrams, observations taking necessary precautions, must be developed among students.  The teacher must be make sure that the student is doing experiment properly by following proper procedure.
  • 14. MERITS OF LABORATORY METHOD:  This method follows child-centered approach.  It makes students active and alert.  It gives scope for learning by doing and students do a lot of thinking themselves.  Different skills are developed.  It paves way for exploration experimentation and verification of scientific facts and principles.  It inculcates good virtues like, honesty, truthfulness, dignity of labour  It helps in developing sprit of inquiring.  It helps in developing higher order thinking capacities like reasoning, analysing, synthesizing etc.
  • 15. LIMITATIONS OF LABORATORY METHOD: The limitations of this method are as follows:-  It is expensive and uneconomical.  It is time consuming as it takes much time in some experiments to come to conclusion.  It expects a lot from students and teacher.  It does not guarantee that, students would be efficient in solving problems outside laboratory.  All students cannot be expected to be skilled  Most of the students are either not ready or lack to ability to undertake original work.
  • 16. In this method, the student observes and acquires knowledge. 3. OBSERVATION METHOD:
  • 17. PRINCIPLES OF OBSERVATION: Principle of freedom. Principle of experience. Principle of play-way. Principle of individual effort. Principle of activity. Principle of logical thinking. Principle of purpose fullness.
  • 18. ROLE OF TEACHER: A lot is expected / demanded of the teacher in this method:  He must be man of knowledge and give adequate references for further observation.  He should possess curiosity, scientific attitude, interest, sprit of investigation so as to inculcate such qualities among students in term observe and discover many things.  He must provide an atmosphere for freedom in the classroom in order to encourage students to make observations.  He must be a guide, a working partner and friend of the  He should devise and plan different activities according to the ability and interests of the students.
  • 19. MERIT OF OBSERVATION METHOD:  The work of the teacher becomes interesting.  The students see, think, give logical, and thoughtful answers.  The students learn the similarities and dissimilarities of objects clearly and easily.  The knowledge acquired is permanent.  Students develop interest in subject.  Students become self-dependent, self-reliant and self- confident.  The problem of home-work in solved.  The relation between teacher and taught becomes intimate and healthy.
  • 20. LIMITATIONS OF OBSERVATION METHOD:  It is too much to expect children observe and retain knowledge. The students are in nature sometimes and knowledge and thinking power in limited.  It is not suitable for all the topic of science.  This method is information. The practical part of it remains underdeveloped.  It is not economical from time point of view.  This method is also not economical as it requires a lot of preparation and maintenance form school point of view. Where is students can observe many things.
  • 21. The base of this method lies in the philosophy of pragmatism. This method emphasizes on building a comprehensive unit around an activity which may be carried out in school or outside. The essence of this method lies in the fact that a group of students do a purposeful task.  “A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting”.  “A project is a bit of real life that has been imported into school. – Ballard.  Thus, project is a purposeful activity and planned activity which is achieved in social, natural situations created in schools. 4. PROJECT METHOD
  • 22. PRINCIPLES OF PROJECT METHOD: The Principle of freedom. The Principle of purpose. The Principle of activity. The Principle of interest. The Principle of utility. The Principle of correlation. The Principle of sociability. The Principle of experience. The Principle of reality. The Principle of learning by doing.
  • 23. TYPES OF PROJECT: All the project can be divided majorly into two Individual Project. Group Project. According to W.H. Kilpatrick projects are of four: Producer projects Consumer projects Problem projects Drill projects.
  • 24. PRODUCER PROJECT:  Here the emphasis is on actual construction of a material object or article. CONSUMER PROJECT:  Here the emphasis is gain on obtaining either direct or vicarious experience, such as reading and learning stories, listening to a musical delectation etc. PROBLEM PROJECTS:  The main purpose is to solve a problem using intellectual such as determining the density of a certain liquid. DRILL PROJECTS:  This type of project emphasizes on attaining a certain degree of skill in a reaction as learning a vocabulary.
  • 25. ROLE OF TEACHER: Teacher must be a friend, guide and working partner. Teacher must have thorough knowledge of individual student and allot work accordingly. Provide democratic atmosphere. He should learn with students and should not to know everything. He must be inexperienced, initiative and process tact for creating positive ambience.
  • 26. MERITS OF PROJECT METHOD:  It promotes Cooperative activity.  It arouses and maintains interest of students.  It keeps the students on freedom of thought and action while doing the work.  It develops scientific attitude.  It widens the mental horizon of student.  It develops dignity of labour.  The students learn by self activity.  It supports all the laws of learning i.e., law of readiness, law of law of effect.  The correlation of subjects is best followed in this method. The subjects are not treated as water tight compartments.  This is a psychological method.
  • 27. DEMERITS OF PROJECT METHOD:  The knowledge is not acquired in a sequential manner.  There may be a chance of overlapping of subject matter.  If not planned and executed properly them, it may not be completed in time.  It is a time consuming process.  It may be a costly affair where in some items/things may not be at times.  There may be overdevelopment of individualism and under of co-operation and group responsibility.  If the topic in wrongly selected them the objective may not be  It gives to students a superficial knowledge of great many things. Therefore it is not suitable for all types of students.  This method is not suitable for a mature teacher.  The whole syllabus, for higher classes cannot be accomplished with this method.
  • 28. In a problem solving method, children learn by working on problems. This enables the students to learn new knowledge by facing the problems to be solved. The students are expected to observe, understand, analyze, interpret find solutions, perform applications that lead to a holistic understanding of the concept. 5. PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD
  • 29. PRINCIPLES OF PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD: Principle of learning by doing. Principle of purpose. Principle of freedom of thought. Principle of learning by experiencing. Principle of utility. Principle of scientific attitude. Principle of interest. Principle of reality. Principle of concreteness. Principle of objectivity.
  • 30. ROLE OF TEACHER: Teacher must work as a facilitator. Teacher must keep in mind that it is a child-directed learning not teacher-directed. Teacher must provide situation for all students to come formed and contribute towards the success the activity. He must be alert and active to arouse interest among students. Teacher must provide democratic atmosphere. He must be initialize, tactful and we experienced.
  • 31. MERITS OF PROBLEM SOLVING METHODS: Students develop democratic feeling. This method follows the principle of learning by doing. They learn to use old facts in new references. They become capable to generalize. Students learn to find solution to their problem.
  • 32. DEMERITS OF PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD: It is not economical from time and money point of view. There is always a doubt of drawing wrong conclusions. There is short of talented teachers to practice this method. This is not suitable for all level students.
  • 33. “At the end, we can conclude that it is you teachers who have to keep in mind, which method is suitable to which type of students under what circumstance. Every method has its merits and demerits. The choosing of methods depends upon your intelligence, resource fullness.”