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LEAN METHODS & LAST
PLANNING
PUSH OR PULL?
1ST PLANNERS VS LAST PLANNERS
1st Planners
• Project Managers are 1st planners. They impose
constraints, timetables & schedules on a project.
• Projects are then managed in terms of what
should happen through management of the
Critical Path.
Last Planners
• Contractors, trade foremen & subcontractors are
last planners. They follow a schedule and work
to adhere to the constraints of the overall
project.
• They adjust their plans to the conditions on the
ground as the need arises.
LEAN CONSTRUCTION
• One key to making the construction process Lean is creation of a pull system.
• Managers begin by looking at what the completed project should be, then
work backwards, identifying each preceding step.
• Later processes determine what earlier ones will be, and when they should
take place.
• Relies on use of six-week “Look-aheads” and weekly work plans.
• Front-end planning belongs in the project definition & design phases. That
planning produces master schedules, which “are expressed at the level of
milestones, typically by phase,” according to the Institute. “Phase schedules
feed into look-ahead windows, usually 3 to 12 weeks in duration.”
• These processes make scheduled tasks ready for assignment; the tasks are
placed in Workable Backlog. Weekly work plans are formed by selection of
tasks from the Workable Backlog.
• One of the biggest benefits is a much higher level of communication &
awareness. It becomes a highly collaborative process. There’s a new feeling of
communication & participation for the people that are actually doing the work
as subcontractors and trades are empowered on the job sites to make
decisions.
PUSH
• Critical Path Method (CPM) often requires work
to be done that cannot be completed as
programmed because one or more of the
‘Flows’ are broken.
• If CPM worked by itself, there would be a high
coincidence between what should be done and
what is done.
• The Critical Path Method is a wish list; a ‘Push’
system.
…OR PULL?
Approximation
Anticipation
Excess
Push
Precision
Actuals
Minimums
Pull
FLOW
• Value = What you get (or want) / What
you pay
• Creating Value in construction requires the
transformation of materials. This is done
through ‘Flow.’
• There are 7 construction streams that
make up ‘Flow.’
MANAGING FLOW
• Problems arise and breakdowns often
occur at the interfaces between
contracts and trades. What was
promised vs. what can be delivered.
• Project Managers manage ‘Flow’
through 5 Key Conversations.
#1 - COLLABORATIVE PROGRAMMING
Collaborative Programming
• Creating & agreeing to a production sequence.
• Helps project team identify issues and design &
plan handovers.
Program Compression
• It is possible to use collaborative programming
to reduce a project’s duration by as much as
20%.
• Program compression can be achieved through
workshops and planning sessions.
• This is where leaders engineer value.
VALUE ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES
• PDCA, Process Walk, Value Stream MappingCollect Data & Analyze Work Flow
• Process Flow Chart, Value Streams, Problem Solving, 4M’sDesign Process Sequence
• 5S, Cell Layout & Design, Visual ControlsMinimize the Distance Between Equipment
• Setup Reduction, Pull System, Kanban, Poka Yoke, Six SigmaProduce & Move One Piece at a Time
• Takt Time CalculationProduce at the Rate of Customer Consumption
• Time Observation Studies, Line Balance ChartsBalance Operations & Standardize Work
• Cross Training, Skills Analysis MatrixTrain Personnel to Operate Multiple Processes
• Automation, Right-Sized MachinesSeparate People from Machines
#2 - MAKEREADY
• Making tasks in the planning period
‘ready’ by making them constraint free.
• Helps ensure that work can be done at
desired times.
• A simple MakeReady checklist ensures the
integrity of the 7 Flows that make up the
construction stream.
Information
• Documents
• Plans
• Specs
• Codes
• Standards
Prerequisites
• Work Needed Prior
Resources
• Who
#3 – PRODUCTION PLANNING
• Collaboratively agreeing upon
production tasks for the near future.
• Allows planning & planners to check for
interdependencies before committing
to the schedule.
Rule #1
If you
promise to
do it, get it
done.
Rule #2
If it cannot
be done,
don’t
promise to
do it.
PROJECT EVALUATION &
PLANNING
The transition from planning to
production offers 4 opportunities for
leaders to engineer value.
• 3 - Perform• 4 - Assess
• 2 - Negotiate• 1 - Prepare
Request
Performer
Promise
Declare
Complete
Declare
Acceptance
#4 – PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
• Collaboratively monitoring production to
keep activities on track.
• Helps planners adjust in light of new
information.
• Creates a shared sense of responsibility for
project delivery.
#5 - MEASUREMENT, LEARNING & CONTINUAL
IMPROVEMENT
• Learning together about & improving
project planning & production processes.
• The learning element encourages
learning from success & reduces
repeated failures.
Planning
Predictability
Reliability
HOW DO YOU EAT AN ELEPHANT?
The Simple Answer: One Bite at a Time
VALUE ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES
A DEEPER DIVE
COLLECT DATA & ANALYZE WORK FLOW: PDCA
COLLECT DATA & ANALYZE WORK FLOW: PROCESS
WALK
• A Process Walk is a series of
structured, on-site interviews with
representative process participants
with the goal of gaining a
comprehensive understanding of
the process.
• Interviews focus on detail such as
process time, wait time, defect
rates, root causes & other
information that can lead to
targeted improvements.
• Also known as a ‘Gemba Walk.’
VALUE STREAM MAPPING
• Value Stream Mapping is a lean-
management method for
analyzing the current state &
designing a future state for the
series of events that take a
product or service from its
beginning through to the
customer.
• Also known as ‘Material &
Information Flow Mapping.’
DESIGN PROCESS SEQUENCE: PROCESS FLOW CHART
• A visual representation of
the steps in a process.
• Also known as ‘Process
Mapping’ or ‘Flow
Diagrams.’
DESIGN PROCESS SEQUENCE: VALUE STREAMS
• Sequence of activities
required to design,
produce, & provide a
specific good or service, &
along which information,
materials, & worth flows.
DESIGN PROCESS SEQUENCE: PROBLEM SOLVING
Target Reveal Analyze Navigate Strategize Finalize Overhaul Review Mobilize
DESIGN PROCESS SEQUENCE: 4 M’S
• A particular form of procedure for accomplishing or approaching
something, especially a systematic or established one.Method
• The number of people working or available for work or service.Manpower
• An apparatus using or applying mechanical power & having several parts,
each with a definite function & together performing a particular task.Machine
• The matter from which a thing is or can be made.
• Facts, information, or ideas for use in creating work.Materials
MINIMIZE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN EQUIPMENT: 5 S
Seiri – Segregate unwanted material from workplace
Seiton – Streamline
Seiso – Scrub; keep workplace clean & safe
Seiketsu – Standardize best practices
Shitsuke – Keep in working order; training & discipline
MINIMIZE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN EQUIPMENT: CELL
LAYOUT & DESIGN
• Also known as ‘Cellular Manufacturing.’
• A model for workplace design. It is an
integral part of just-in-time & lean
processes, with additional applications
in administrative processes.
• The cell, or work cell, has roots in group
technology, which seeks to align process
flows by families of component parts or,
sometimes, families of target customers
MINIMIZE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN EQUIPMENT:
VISUAL CONTROLS
• Visual controls are a system of signs,
information displays, layouts, material storage
& handling tools, color-coding, and mistake
proofing devices.
• These controls fulfill the old fashioned adage:
a place for everything & everything in its
place.
• The visual control system makes product flow,
operations standards, schedules & problems
instantly identifiable to even the casual
observer.
• Allows quick recognition of information being
communicated, in order to increase efficiency
& clarity.
• A visual display group relates information & data
to employees in the area. For example, charts
showing the monthly revenues of the company
or a graphic depicting a certain type of quality
issue that group members should be aware of.
• A visual control group is intended to actually
control or guide the action of the group
members. Examples of controls are readily
apparent in society: stop signs, handicap parking
signs, no smoking signs, color coded shirts,
uniforms, etc.
PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE AT A TIME: SETUP
REDUCTION
• Also known as ‘SMED’ –
Single Minute Exchange
of Die.
• A VE technique to
eliminate waste by
analyzing a process over
time.
PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE AT A TIME: PULL
SYSTEM
• A Pull System is a lean strategy used to reduce waste in
a process. Components used in this system are only
pulled in once they are needed. This means all
resources are used for production that will immediately
move a process forward.
• Essentially, a pull system works backwards, starting
with the need then using various signals to prompt
action in each previous step in the process. The final
product is pulled through the process by demand.
• The biggest incentives to use a Pull System are
increased efficiency (Time), reduced waste (Cost), and
increased opportunities to increase quality (Scope);
hitting all points of the triple constraint without
imposing the extra constraints that make up Push
Systems.
PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE AT A TIME: KANBAN
• Kanban helps you harness the power
of visual information by using sticky
notes on a whiteboard to create a
“picture” of your work.
• Seeing how your work flows within
your team’s process lets you not
only communicate status but also
give & receive context for the work.
Kanban takes information that
typically would be communicated via
words & turns it into brain candy.
• Creating a visual model of your work & workflow facilitates observation.
Visualize Work
• Limiting how much unfinished work is in process can reduce the time it takes
an item to travel through the Kanban system.
Limit Work in Process
• Using work-in-process (WIP) limits & developing team-driven policies can
optimize your system to improve the smooth flow of work, collect metrics to
analyze flow, & even produce leading indicators of future problems through
analysis.
Focus on Flow
• A cornerstone for a culture of continuous improvement. Teams measure their
effectiveness by tracking flow, quality, throughput, lead times & more.
Experiments & analysis can change the system to improve the team’s
effectiveness.
Continuous Improvement
PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE AT A TIME: POKA YOKE
• Japanese term which means mistake proofing.
• A poka-yoke device is one that prevents incorrect
parts from being made or assembled, or easily
identifies a flaw or error.
• Or “mistake-proofing,” – a means of providing a
visual or other signal to indicate a characteristic
state. Often referred to as “error-proofing,” poka-
yoke is actually the first step in truly error-proofing
a system. Error-proofing is a manufacturing
technique of preventing errors by designing the
manufacturing process, equipment, and tools so
that an operation literally cannot be performed
incorrectly.
PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE AT A TIME: SIX SIGMA
• Six Sigma is a set of quality management
techniques & tools for process improvement. Six
Sigma seeks to improve the quality output of
process by identifying & removing the causes of
defects (errors) & minimizing variability in
manufacturing & business processes.
• Continuous efforts to achieve stable & predictable
process results are of vital importance to business
success.
• Manufacturing & business processes have
characteristics that can be measured, analyzed,
controlled and improved.
• Achieving sustained quality improvement requires
commitment from the entire organization,
particularly from top-level management.
DMAIC – Improving Existing
Business Processes
Define
Measure
Analyze
Improve
Control
DMADV – Creating New
Processes
Define
Measure
Analyze
Design
Verify
PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE
AT A TIME: SIX SIGMA
QUALITY MANAGEMENT
TOOLS
These QUALITY MANAGEMENT &
STATISTICAL & FITTING tools are used
within the individual phases of a DMAIC
or DMADV project.
5 Whys
Axiomatic
Design
Business
Process
Mapping
Cause & Effect
Diagrams
Control Chart
/ Plan
Cost Benefit
Analysis
CTQ Tree Stratification
Histogram /
Pareto
Analysis
Pick Chart /
Process
Capability
Quality
Function
Deployment
Quantitative
Marketing
Research
Root Cause
Analysis
SIPOC COPIS
Taguchi
Methods /
Loss Function
Value Stream
Mapping
Analysis of
Variance
General Linear
Model
ANOVA Gauge
R&R
Regression
Analysis
Correlation
Scatter
Diagram
Chi Square
Test
PRODUCE AT THE RATE OF CUSTOMER
CONSUMPTION: TAKT TIME CALCULATION
• Takt Time is the rate at which products or
services should be produced to meet customer
demand. The value, in conjunction with current
loading (production) rates, is used to analyze
process loads, bottlenecks, & excess capacity.
• The study will indicate which operations are
ahead of the demand rate & others that are
not, both indicating opportunities for
improvement.
• This is strictly a formula & calculation. Use it to
compare your measured "loading" to quantify
whether an operation meets, exceeds, & by
how much.
BALANCE OPERATIONS & STANDARDIZE WORK: TIME
OBSERVATION STUDIES
• Time Observation captures all the steps
that were recorded in a process & the
cycle time for each task separately.
• Important for accurately measuring a
work load.
• Useful for verifying a sequence of events
& making adjustments.
• Used in conjunction with a floor plan & a
map of movements required per
observation, a Time Observation Study
can be used to maximize efficiency &
reduce waste.
BALANCE OPERATIONS & STANDARDIZE WORK: LINE
BALANCE CHARTS
• Line Balancing is leveling the workload
across all processes in a cell or value
stream to remove bottlenecks & excess
capacity.
• A constraint slows the process down &
results in waiting for downstream
operations.
• Excess capacity results in waiting and no
absorption of fixed costs.
• Line Balancing seeks to match the
production rate after all wastes have been
removed to the Takt time at each process
of a value stream.
TRAIN PERSONNEL TO OPERATE MULTIPLE
PROCESSES: CROSS TRAINING
• Cross-training in operations involves training
resources to engage in quality control measures.
Resources are trained in tangent functions to
increase oversight in ways that are impossible
through management interactions with
resources alone.
Advantages
• Empowers
resources
• Challenges
bureaucratic drift
• Raises awareness
of what others do
• Enhanced
scheduling
flexibility
Secondary
Advantages
• Increased
versatility
• Appreciated
Intellectual Capital
• Improved
individual
efficiency
• Increased
standardization
TRAIN PERSONNEL TO OPERATE MULTIPLE
PROCESSES: SKILLS ANALYSIS MATRIX
• Use a Skills Matrix to confirm the skills,
knowledge, & interest of your team
members.
• A Skills Matrix is a table that displays
people’s proficiency in specified skills &
knowledge, as well as their interest in
working on assignments using these skills &
knowledge.
• Document people’s skills & knowledge &
verify their interests, in case you need to
assign people to unanticipated tasks that
crop up or if you have to replace a team
member unexpectedly.
SEPARATE PEOPLE FROM MACHINES: AUTOMATION
• Automation is the use of various control systems
with minimal human intervention.
• Selective automation lowers costs by reducing
time by reducing variation.
• Best maximized as a successor to other Value
Engineering (VE) techniques.
Assess Process
Evaluate Flow
Identify VE
Opportunities
Implement VE
Techniques
Identify
Automation
Opportunities
Design &
Implement
SEPARATE PEOPLE FROM MACHINES: RIGHT SIZED
MACHINES
• Any process requires assets to run it. You could
use a big machine (large solution / contractor /
vendor) that costs a lot of money, but has
tremendous functionality & flexibility. However,
these machines, because of their cost, end up
being used in several processes to defray the
cost. This tends to disrupt flow.
• The alternative is to buy or build a smaller
machine that may have fewer functions. This
machine is dedicated to a single process. It can
then be located in a logical position to support
one piece of a flow without interfering with
other processes.
KAIZEN
Change for better; the practice of
continuous improvement.

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Lean Methods & Last Planning

  • 1. LEAN METHODS & LAST PLANNING PUSH OR PULL?
  • 2. 1ST PLANNERS VS LAST PLANNERS 1st Planners • Project Managers are 1st planners. They impose constraints, timetables & schedules on a project. • Projects are then managed in terms of what should happen through management of the Critical Path. Last Planners • Contractors, trade foremen & subcontractors are last planners. They follow a schedule and work to adhere to the constraints of the overall project. • They adjust their plans to the conditions on the ground as the need arises.
  • 3. LEAN CONSTRUCTION • One key to making the construction process Lean is creation of a pull system. • Managers begin by looking at what the completed project should be, then work backwards, identifying each preceding step. • Later processes determine what earlier ones will be, and when they should take place. • Relies on use of six-week “Look-aheads” and weekly work plans. • Front-end planning belongs in the project definition & design phases. That planning produces master schedules, which “are expressed at the level of milestones, typically by phase,” according to the Institute. “Phase schedules feed into look-ahead windows, usually 3 to 12 weeks in duration.” • These processes make scheduled tasks ready for assignment; the tasks are placed in Workable Backlog. Weekly work plans are formed by selection of tasks from the Workable Backlog. • One of the biggest benefits is a much higher level of communication & awareness. It becomes a highly collaborative process. There’s a new feeling of communication & participation for the people that are actually doing the work as subcontractors and trades are empowered on the job sites to make decisions.
  • 4. PUSH • Critical Path Method (CPM) often requires work to be done that cannot be completed as programmed because one or more of the ‘Flows’ are broken. • If CPM worked by itself, there would be a high coincidence between what should be done and what is done. • The Critical Path Method is a wish list; a ‘Push’ system.
  • 6. FLOW • Value = What you get (or want) / What you pay • Creating Value in construction requires the transformation of materials. This is done through ‘Flow.’ • There are 7 construction streams that make up ‘Flow.’
  • 7. MANAGING FLOW • Problems arise and breakdowns often occur at the interfaces between contracts and trades. What was promised vs. what can be delivered. • Project Managers manage ‘Flow’ through 5 Key Conversations.
  • 8. #1 - COLLABORATIVE PROGRAMMING Collaborative Programming • Creating & agreeing to a production sequence. • Helps project team identify issues and design & plan handovers. Program Compression • It is possible to use collaborative programming to reduce a project’s duration by as much as 20%. • Program compression can be achieved through workshops and planning sessions. • This is where leaders engineer value.
  • 9. VALUE ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES • PDCA, Process Walk, Value Stream MappingCollect Data & Analyze Work Flow • Process Flow Chart, Value Streams, Problem Solving, 4M’sDesign Process Sequence • 5S, Cell Layout & Design, Visual ControlsMinimize the Distance Between Equipment • Setup Reduction, Pull System, Kanban, Poka Yoke, Six SigmaProduce & Move One Piece at a Time • Takt Time CalculationProduce at the Rate of Customer Consumption • Time Observation Studies, Line Balance ChartsBalance Operations & Standardize Work • Cross Training, Skills Analysis MatrixTrain Personnel to Operate Multiple Processes • Automation, Right-Sized MachinesSeparate People from Machines
  • 10. #2 - MAKEREADY • Making tasks in the planning period ‘ready’ by making them constraint free. • Helps ensure that work can be done at desired times. • A simple MakeReady checklist ensures the integrity of the 7 Flows that make up the construction stream. Information • Documents • Plans • Specs • Codes • Standards Prerequisites • Work Needed Prior Resources • Who
  • 11. #3 – PRODUCTION PLANNING • Collaboratively agreeing upon production tasks for the near future. • Allows planning & planners to check for interdependencies before committing to the schedule. Rule #1 If you promise to do it, get it done. Rule #2 If it cannot be done, don’t promise to do it.
  • 12. PROJECT EVALUATION & PLANNING The transition from planning to production offers 4 opportunities for leaders to engineer value. • 3 - Perform• 4 - Assess • 2 - Negotiate• 1 - Prepare Request Performer Promise Declare Complete Declare Acceptance
  • 13. #4 – PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT • Collaboratively monitoring production to keep activities on track. • Helps planners adjust in light of new information. • Creates a shared sense of responsibility for project delivery.
  • 14. #5 - MEASUREMENT, LEARNING & CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT • Learning together about & improving project planning & production processes. • The learning element encourages learning from success & reduces repeated failures. Planning Predictability Reliability
  • 15. HOW DO YOU EAT AN ELEPHANT? The Simple Answer: One Bite at a Time
  • 17. COLLECT DATA & ANALYZE WORK FLOW: PDCA
  • 18. COLLECT DATA & ANALYZE WORK FLOW: PROCESS WALK • A Process Walk is a series of structured, on-site interviews with representative process participants with the goal of gaining a comprehensive understanding of the process. • Interviews focus on detail such as process time, wait time, defect rates, root causes & other information that can lead to targeted improvements. • Also known as a ‘Gemba Walk.’
  • 19. VALUE STREAM MAPPING • Value Stream Mapping is a lean- management method for analyzing the current state & designing a future state for the series of events that take a product or service from its beginning through to the customer. • Also known as ‘Material & Information Flow Mapping.’
  • 20. DESIGN PROCESS SEQUENCE: PROCESS FLOW CHART • A visual representation of the steps in a process. • Also known as ‘Process Mapping’ or ‘Flow Diagrams.’
  • 21. DESIGN PROCESS SEQUENCE: VALUE STREAMS • Sequence of activities required to design, produce, & provide a specific good or service, & along which information, materials, & worth flows.
  • 22. DESIGN PROCESS SEQUENCE: PROBLEM SOLVING Target Reveal Analyze Navigate Strategize Finalize Overhaul Review Mobilize
  • 23. DESIGN PROCESS SEQUENCE: 4 M’S • A particular form of procedure for accomplishing or approaching something, especially a systematic or established one.Method • The number of people working or available for work or service.Manpower • An apparatus using or applying mechanical power & having several parts, each with a definite function & together performing a particular task.Machine • The matter from which a thing is or can be made. • Facts, information, or ideas for use in creating work.Materials
  • 24. MINIMIZE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN EQUIPMENT: 5 S Seiri – Segregate unwanted material from workplace Seiton – Streamline Seiso – Scrub; keep workplace clean & safe Seiketsu – Standardize best practices Shitsuke – Keep in working order; training & discipline
  • 25. MINIMIZE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN EQUIPMENT: CELL LAYOUT & DESIGN • Also known as ‘Cellular Manufacturing.’ • A model for workplace design. It is an integral part of just-in-time & lean processes, with additional applications in administrative processes. • The cell, or work cell, has roots in group technology, which seeks to align process flows by families of component parts or, sometimes, families of target customers
  • 26. MINIMIZE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN EQUIPMENT: VISUAL CONTROLS • Visual controls are a system of signs, information displays, layouts, material storage & handling tools, color-coding, and mistake proofing devices. • These controls fulfill the old fashioned adage: a place for everything & everything in its place. • The visual control system makes product flow, operations standards, schedules & problems instantly identifiable to even the casual observer. • Allows quick recognition of information being communicated, in order to increase efficiency & clarity. • A visual display group relates information & data to employees in the area. For example, charts showing the monthly revenues of the company or a graphic depicting a certain type of quality issue that group members should be aware of. • A visual control group is intended to actually control or guide the action of the group members. Examples of controls are readily apparent in society: stop signs, handicap parking signs, no smoking signs, color coded shirts, uniforms, etc.
  • 27. PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE AT A TIME: SETUP REDUCTION • Also known as ‘SMED’ – Single Minute Exchange of Die. • A VE technique to eliminate waste by analyzing a process over time.
  • 28. PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE AT A TIME: PULL SYSTEM • A Pull System is a lean strategy used to reduce waste in a process. Components used in this system are only pulled in once they are needed. This means all resources are used for production that will immediately move a process forward. • Essentially, a pull system works backwards, starting with the need then using various signals to prompt action in each previous step in the process. The final product is pulled through the process by demand. • The biggest incentives to use a Pull System are increased efficiency (Time), reduced waste (Cost), and increased opportunities to increase quality (Scope); hitting all points of the triple constraint without imposing the extra constraints that make up Push Systems.
  • 29. PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE AT A TIME: KANBAN • Kanban helps you harness the power of visual information by using sticky notes on a whiteboard to create a “picture” of your work. • Seeing how your work flows within your team’s process lets you not only communicate status but also give & receive context for the work. Kanban takes information that typically would be communicated via words & turns it into brain candy. • Creating a visual model of your work & workflow facilitates observation. Visualize Work • Limiting how much unfinished work is in process can reduce the time it takes an item to travel through the Kanban system. Limit Work in Process • Using work-in-process (WIP) limits & developing team-driven policies can optimize your system to improve the smooth flow of work, collect metrics to analyze flow, & even produce leading indicators of future problems through analysis. Focus on Flow • A cornerstone for a culture of continuous improvement. Teams measure their effectiveness by tracking flow, quality, throughput, lead times & more. Experiments & analysis can change the system to improve the team’s effectiveness. Continuous Improvement
  • 30. PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE AT A TIME: POKA YOKE • Japanese term which means mistake proofing. • A poka-yoke device is one that prevents incorrect parts from being made or assembled, or easily identifies a flaw or error. • Or “mistake-proofing,” – a means of providing a visual or other signal to indicate a characteristic state. Often referred to as “error-proofing,” poka- yoke is actually the first step in truly error-proofing a system. Error-proofing is a manufacturing technique of preventing errors by designing the manufacturing process, equipment, and tools so that an operation literally cannot be performed incorrectly.
  • 31. PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE AT A TIME: SIX SIGMA • Six Sigma is a set of quality management techniques & tools for process improvement. Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality output of process by identifying & removing the causes of defects (errors) & minimizing variability in manufacturing & business processes. • Continuous efforts to achieve stable & predictable process results are of vital importance to business success. • Manufacturing & business processes have characteristics that can be measured, analyzed, controlled and improved. • Achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization, particularly from top-level management. DMAIC – Improving Existing Business Processes Define Measure Analyze Improve Control DMADV – Creating New Processes Define Measure Analyze Design Verify
  • 32. PRODUCE & MOVE ONE PIECE AT A TIME: SIX SIGMA QUALITY MANAGEMENT TOOLS These QUALITY MANAGEMENT & STATISTICAL & FITTING tools are used within the individual phases of a DMAIC or DMADV project. 5 Whys Axiomatic Design Business Process Mapping Cause & Effect Diagrams Control Chart / Plan Cost Benefit Analysis CTQ Tree Stratification Histogram / Pareto Analysis Pick Chart / Process Capability Quality Function Deployment Quantitative Marketing Research Root Cause Analysis SIPOC COPIS Taguchi Methods / Loss Function Value Stream Mapping Analysis of Variance General Linear Model ANOVA Gauge R&R Regression Analysis Correlation Scatter Diagram Chi Square Test
  • 33. PRODUCE AT THE RATE OF CUSTOMER CONSUMPTION: TAKT TIME CALCULATION • Takt Time is the rate at which products or services should be produced to meet customer demand. The value, in conjunction with current loading (production) rates, is used to analyze process loads, bottlenecks, & excess capacity. • The study will indicate which operations are ahead of the demand rate & others that are not, both indicating opportunities for improvement. • This is strictly a formula & calculation. Use it to compare your measured "loading" to quantify whether an operation meets, exceeds, & by how much.
  • 34. BALANCE OPERATIONS & STANDARDIZE WORK: TIME OBSERVATION STUDIES • Time Observation captures all the steps that were recorded in a process & the cycle time for each task separately. • Important for accurately measuring a work load. • Useful for verifying a sequence of events & making adjustments. • Used in conjunction with a floor plan & a map of movements required per observation, a Time Observation Study can be used to maximize efficiency & reduce waste.
  • 35. BALANCE OPERATIONS & STANDARDIZE WORK: LINE BALANCE CHARTS • Line Balancing is leveling the workload across all processes in a cell or value stream to remove bottlenecks & excess capacity. • A constraint slows the process down & results in waiting for downstream operations. • Excess capacity results in waiting and no absorption of fixed costs. • Line Balancing seeks to match the production rate after all wastes have been removed to the Takt time at each process of a value stream.
  • 36. TRAIN PERSONNEL TO OPERATE MULTIPLE PROCESSES: CROSS TRAINING • Cross-training in operations involves training resources to engage in quality control measures. Resources are trained in tangent functions to increase oversight in ways that are impossible through management interactions with resources alone. Advantages • Empowers resources • Challenges bureaucratic drift • Raises awareness of what others do • Enhanced scheduling flexibility Secondary Advantages • Increased versatility • Appreciated Intellectual Capital • Improved individual efficiency • Increased standardization
  • 37. TRAIN PERSONNEL TO OPERATE MULTIPLE PROCESSES: SKILLS ANALYSIS MATRIX • Use a Skills Matrix to confirm the skills, knowledge, & interest of your team members. • A Skills Matrix is a table that displays people’s proficiency in specified skills & knowledge, as well as their interest in working on assignments using these skills & knowledge. • Document people’s skills & knowledge & verify their interests, in case you need to assign people to unanticipated tasks that crop up or if you have to replace a team member unexpectedly.
  • 38. SEPARATE PEOPLE FROM MACHINES: AUTOMATION • Automation is the use of various control systems with minimal human intervention. • Selective automation lowers costs by reducing time by reducing variation. • Best maximized as a successor to other Value Engineering (VE) techniques. Assess Process Evaluate Flow Identify VE Opportunities Implement VE Techniques Identify Automation Opportunities Design & Implement
  • 39. SEPARATE PEOPLE FROM MACHINES: RIGHT SIZED MACHINES • Any process requires assets to run it. You could use a big machine (large solution / contractor / vendor) that costs a lot of money, but has tremendous functionality & flexibility. However, these machines, because of their cost, end up being used in several processes to defray the cost. This tends to disrupt flow. • The alternative is to buy or build a smaller machine that may have fewer functions. This machine is dedicated to a single process. It can then be located in a logical position to support one piece of a flow without interfering with other processes.
  • 40. KAIZEN Change for better; the practice of continuous improvement.