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This document describes the design calculations for a low voltage dropout regulator to provide an output voltage of 3.3V from an input of 5V. It involves calculating the range of bias voltages and sizes of the transistors in the regulator circuit. Transistor widths are determined to keep transistors in saturation and ensure sufficient drive. The calculations result in transistor width and length values that are then simulated before and after layout to verify the regulator design meets specifications.

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Mosfet baising

This document discusses different biasing techniques for MOSFETs, including biasing with a feedback resistor and voltage divider bias. It provides the equations to calculate the drain current, drain-source voltage, and gate voltage for each biasing method. It also discusses an example problem calculating the current, voltage, and power dissipation for a common-source MOSFET circuit. Thermal stability of transistors is briefly covered as well.

Compensation Techniques

This document discusses different compensation techniques used to stabilize the operating point of transistors against temperature variations. It describes diode compensation, thermistor compensation, and sensistor compensation. Diode compensation can compensate for changes in base-emitter voltage or collector current with temperature. It works by using a diode that produces an opposing temperature-dependent voltage to the transistor's base-emitter junction. Thermistor compensation uses a negative temperature coefficient thermistor to reduce the collector current as temperature increases. Sensistor compensation uses a positive temperature coefficient resistor to decrease the base current as temperature rises.

Dc load line fixed biasing

The document discusses DC load line stabilization techniques for transistors. It provides three key points:
1) DC load lines are used to determine collector current at different collector-emitter voltages. Stabilization is needed as temperature and other factors affect the operating point.
2) Stabilization techniques like fixed bias, feedback bias, and voltage divider bias use resistive circuits to allow base current to vary and keep collector current constant with component variations.
3) Compensation techniques use temperature sensitive devices like diodes and thermistors to provide compensating voltages and currents to maintain a stable operating point. Stability factors S, S', and S" are defined and calculations shown for the fixed bias configuration.

Lab report 2

1) The document describes an experiment measuring the transient behavior of RC circuits. Students used alligator clips to construct circuits with resistors and capacitors and measured the voltage over time as capacitors charged and discharged.
2) Graphs of voltage versus time were produced and showed either linear or exponential patterns, characterizing charging and discharging behavior. Capacitance was calculated from the graphs' time constants and slopes.
3) Percent errors between measured and expected capacitance values were low, between 5-10%, validating the theory that charging and discharging capacitors follows the equation q = CVe-t/RC.

EEP303: Cycle ii exp 2

The document describes an experiment to study the steady state power limit of a transmission line. It defines the equations for real and reactive power transfer between the sending and receiving ends of a lossless transmission line based on voltage and reactance. A power-angle diagram is drawn by plotting real power transferred versus the phase angle between voltages, showing that maximum power transfer occurs at a phase angle of 90 degrees. The results of the experiment show the steady state power limit is reached at 22W when the phase angle is 81.526 degrees, and that real power transfer varies linearly with changes in the sending end voltage.

EEP303: Cycle ii exp 4

1. The document describes an experiment to determine the effects of VAR compensation on voltage regulation, power factor, and transmission efficiency for varying loads on a long transmission line.
2. A synchronous condenser is used to supply reactive power (VARs) to maintain zero voltage regulation as the load changes. The synchronous condenser takes lagging KVA when operating below a certain field current and supplies leading KVA above this level.
3. Observations were recorded for an RL load and RLC load with and without VAR compensation from the synchronous condenser. The results showed that the receiving voltage dropped more without compensation and that the synchronous condenser supplied a linear increase in VARs with increasing load.

Ac Theory

This document discusses key terms and calculations related to AC waveforms and voltage over time. It defines peak voltage, peak-to-peak voltage, period, RMS voltage, and uses the example of a 230V RMS, 50Hz power supply to show:
1) How to calculate peak voltage (230V/0.707 = 325V) and peak-to-peak voltage (650V).
2) How voltage varies over one full cycle (20ms period) based on converting time to degrees.
3) How to calculate the instantaneous voltage (–262V) 13ms into the cycle.

Setp by step design of transformer

This document provides a 24 step process for designing a 250 VA, 250 Watt isolation transformer with specifications including 230 V input and output voltages, 95% efficiency, and 1.6 T flux density. Key details include:
1) Total power is calculated to be 513.16 Watts accounting for losses.
2) Core geometry is calculated to be 18.04 cm^5 and the closest lamination is EI-150.
3) Primary and secondary winding properties like number of turns and copper losses are calculated based on the specifications.
4) Total copper loss is calculated to be 8.747 Watts and voltage regulation is 3.5%, meeting the specified 5% maximum.

Mosfet baising

This document discusses different biasing techniques for MOSFETs, including biasing with a feedback resistor and voltage divider bias. It provides the equations to calculate the drain current, drain-source voltage, and gate voltage for each biasing method. It also discusses an example problem calculating the current, voltage, and power dissipation for a common-source MOSFET circuit. Thermal stability of transistors is briefly covered as well.

Compensation Techniques

This document discusses different compensation techniques used to stabilize the operating point of transistors against temperature variations. It describes diode compensation, thermistor compensation, and sensistor compensation. Diode compensation can compensate for changes in base-emitter voltage or collector current with temperature. It works by using a diode that produces an opposing temperature-dependent voltage to the transistor's base-emitter junction. Thermistor compensation uses a negative temperature coefficient thermistor to reduce the collector current as temperature increases. Sensistor compensation uses a positive temperature coefficient resistor to decrease the base current as temperature rises.

Dc load line fixed biasing

The document discusses DC load line stabilization techniques for transistors. It provides three key points:
1) DC load lines are used to determine collector current at different collector-emitter voltages. Stabilization is needed as temperature and other factors affect the operating point.
2) Stabilization techniques like fixed bias, feedback bias, and voltage divider bias use resistive circuits to allow base current to vary and keep collector current constant with component variations.
3) Compensation techniques use temperature sensitive devices like diodes and thermistors to provide compensating voltages and currents to maintain a stable operating point. Stability factors S, S', and S" are defined and calculations shown for the fixed bias configuration.

Lab report 2

1) The document describes an experiment measuring the transient behavior of RC circuits. Students used alligator clips to construct circuits with resistors and capacitors and measured the voltage over time as capacitors charged and discharged.
2) Graphs of voltage versus time were produced and showed either linear or exponential patterns, characterizing charging and discharging behavior. Capacitance was calculated from the graphs' time constants and slopes.
3) Percent errors between measured and expected capacitance values were low, between 5-10%, validating the theory that charging and discharging capacitors follows the equation q = CVe-t/RC.

EEP303: Cycle ii exp 2

The document describes an experiment to study the steady state power limit of a transmission line. It defines the equations for real and reactive power transfer between the sending and receiving ends of a lossless transmission line based on voltage and reactance. A power-angle diagram is drawn by plotting real power transferred versus the phase angle between voltages, showing that maximum power transfer occurs at a phase angle of 90 degrees. The results of the experiment show the steady state power limit is reached at 22W when the phase angle is 81.526 degrees, and that real power transfer varies linearly with changes in the sending end voltage.

EEP303: Cycle ii exp 4

1. The document describes an experiment to determine the effects of VAR compensation on voltage regulation, power factor, and transmission efficiency for varying loads on a long transmission line.
2. A synchronous condenser is used to supply reactive power (VARs) to maintain zero voltage regulation as the load changes. The synchronous condenser takes lagging KVA when operating below a certain field current and supplies leading KVA above this level.
3. Observations were recorded for an RL load and RLC load with and without VAR compensation from the synchronous condenser. The results showed that the receiving voltage dropped more without compensation and that the synchronous condenser supplied a linear increase in VARs with increasing load.

Ac Theory

This document discusses key terms and calculations related to AC waveforms and voltage over time. It defines peak voltage, peak-to-peak voltage, period, RMS voltage, and uses the example of a 230V RMS, 50Hz power supply to show:
1) How to calculate peak voltage (230V/0.707 = 325V) and peak-to-peak voltage (650V).
2) How voltage varies over one full cycle (20ms period) based on converting time to degrees.
3) How to calculate the instantaneous voltage (–262V) 13ms into the cycle.

Setp by step design of transformer

This document provides a 24 step process for designing a 250 VA, 250 Watt isolation transformer with specifications including 230 V input and output voltages, 95% efficiency, and 1.6 T flux density. Key details include:
1) Total power is calculated to be 513.16 Watts accounting for losses.
2) Core geometry is calculated to be 18.04 cm^5 and the closest lamination is EI-150.
3) Primary and secondary winding properties like number of turns and copper losses are calculated based on the specifications.
4) Total copper loss is calculated to be 8.747 Watts and voltage regulation is 3.5%, meeting the specified 5% maximum.

Chapter 6

This document discusses transformer efficiency, regulation, and temperature rise. It states that efficiency is maximized when copper losses equal iron losses. Voltage regulation is defined as copper losses divided by output power. Temperature rise in a transformer is determined by the power dissipated per unit surface area of the transformer core, with higher power densities leading to greater temperature increases. The required surface area for heat dissipation is calculated based on total transformer losses.

Measurement of 3 phase power by two watt-meter method

In this slide I have explained how two watt meters can be used to measure 3 phase power. Some of the added advantage of this method is that we can calculate 3 phase reactive power and power factor of load as well.

Ac/AC conveter

it describes: 1- What is AC/AC Converter and its applilcation?
2- AC Converter in resistive and inductive load with equations
3- using phase control and Time Proportional Control

EEP301: Transducer and instrumentation

This document is a lab report submitted by 7 students for an experiment using the Digiac 1750 Transducer and Instrumentation Trainer. It summarizes the results of 11 experiments measuring the characteristics and output of different transducers, including a servo potentiometer, Wheatstone bridge, RTD, thermistor, photovoltaic cell, phototransistor, photoconductive cell, and strain gauge as the number of coins placed on it increased. Graphs are provided plotting the respective output measurements for each transducer.

Wattmeter

Three phase power distribution has advantages over single phase power distribution. It requires less copper, allows for smaller and self-starting motors, and has more uniform power transfer. There are three main methods to measure power in a three phase system: single wattmeter, three wattmeter, and two wattmeter. The two wattmeter method is commonly used, connecting the current coils of two wattmeters in series across two lines to measure the total power irrespective of the load type or connection.

EEP303 Cycle ii exp-1

The document summarizes an experiment on synchronizing an alternator with an infinite bus and studying power exchange with the grid. It consists of three parts: 1) Synchronizing the alternator and studying the effect of prime mover speed on real power sharing, 2) Studying the effect of alternator excitation on reactive power sharing, 3) Recording observations on active and reactive power flows at different motor and excitation currents. The conclusions are that increasing prime mover speed increases real power transfer to the grid, while increasing alternator excitation above a zero-power level results in reactive power transfer to the grid (over-excitation) and decreasing excitation below that level draws reactive power from the grid (under-excitation).

Chapter 7

The document summarizes the 24 step process to design a 250VA isolation transformer with specifications including an input voltage of 115V, output voltage of 115V, output power of 250W, frequency of 50Hz, and efficiency of 95%. The steps include calculating the core geometry, selecting a core, determining the number of primary and secondary turns, selecting wire gauges, and calculating losses to ensure the designed transformer meets specifications within temperature rise limits while utilizing the window area effectively.

L10 dc circuits

Node voltage analysis uses Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) to write equations relating the voltages at each node in a circuit. One node is selected as the reference node with a voltage of 0 V. An equation is written for each remaining node by setting the algebraic sum of the currents entering and leaving the node to 0. The system of equations can then be solved to determine all node voltages in the circuit.

EEP301: Process control trainer

This document summarizes observations from an experiment on a process control trainer. It examines concepts like distance/velocity lag, transfer lag, two-step control, and proportional control. The main observations are:
1) Detector response time decreases when it is closer to the heating element or when throttle rate is increased, reducing lag.
2) Transfer lag exhibits similar characteristics to distance lag, with faster response for closer detector placement or higher throttle.
3) Two-step control reduces oscillations but can increase steady state error, which rises with greater overlap between control signals.
4) In proportional control, steady state offset increases and stability decreases with narrower proportional band due to a larger error signal.

CVT design

The document describes the components and operation of a constant voltage transformer (CVT). A CVT uses a ferroresonant circuit including an inductor, capacitor, and saturable transformer to regulate the output voltage against variations in input voltage, frequency, and load. It provides a constant output voltage through the saturating and limiting action of the saturable transformer. The output is a square wave suitable for rectifier applications. Design equations provided calculate component values, winding turns and sizes, losses, and other parameters for a CVT given specific voltage, power, and frequency specifications.

Inductor design

The document describes the design of a 250V, 2.565A single-phase AC inductor. It involves calculating the required inductance, selecting a suitable core, determining the number of turns, calculating losses, and ensuring design constraints are met. The key steps are:
1) Calculating inductance and selecting a core that meets the area product requirement
2) Determining the number of turns needed to achieve the required inductance
3) Ensuring operating flux density and losses meet specifications by calculating copper, core, and gap losses.

EEP303: Exp4

The document summarizes an experiment on a percentage differential relay. The experiment had three aims: to study the operating characteristics of the relay at 15% and 30% bias settings, to use the relay for single-phase transformer protection, and to study the harmonic restraint feature. Observations showed that increasing the bias setting required more current to trigger the relay. Testing the relay on a single-phase transformer demonstrated it would only operate for internal faults, verifying its protection zone. Introducing a DC branch also demonstrated the relay's harmonic restraint by increasing its tripping current.

Network Solving

The document describes the steps to solve a circuit with three resistors (R1, R2, R3) connected to an 80V power supply. It involves combining parallel resistors, calculating total resistance, current, voltage drops across resistors, and branch currents. It then shows calculating power dissipated in each resistor. The key steps are: combining R2 and R3 since they are in parallel, calculating total circuit resistance and current, determining voltage drops using Ohm's Law, and then power calculations for each resistor element.

Ece523 folded cascode design

• Designed a single stage folded cascode op-amp which had atleast 50 dB gain and 135 MHz Unity Gain Bandwidth for the three temperature corners (typical, slow and fast), in Cadence.
• The op-amp had a phase margin of atleast 64º and an output swing of atleast 1.46 V for the temperature corners (27,-40,100).
• Designed a common mode feedback for the amplifier and achieved a common mode accuracy of 0.01 V.

EEP303: Exp5

1. The document describes an experiment using a Newton Raphson load flow program to analyze load ability margin determination, line overloads from generation rescheduling and series compensation, and the Ferranti effect.
2. Key findings include determining the critical load multiplier for different load types, identifying sensitive generators and transmission lines to alleviate overloads, and observing higher voltages at load buses during light loading conditions consistent with the Ferranti effect.
3. The experiment demonstrated using load flow models to study a practical power system and determine sensitivity lists to identify the best corrective changes to address overloads or voltage issues.

3 phase power

This document discusses different methods for measuring power in a 3-phase circuit using wattmeters. It describes the 3-wattmeter method, 2-wattmeter method, and 1-wattmeter method. It also discusses how the power factor affects measurements using the 2-wattmeter method and potential sources of error when connecting wattmeters.

Semiconductor Thermal Management

The document summarizes a study on thermal management strategies for semiconductor chips that generate 2W and 10W of heat. Researchers tested different heat sinks and air velocities. Their predictive thermal model matched experimental data within 5%. For a 2W chip, a 16-pin aligned heat sink kept temperature below 60°C at air velocities of 1-4 m/s. However, scaling to 10W with the tested strategies would not maintain the temperature below 60°C, requiring alternative strategies.

Meter Shunt (Ammeter)

The document shows the step-by-step working to calculate the value of a shunt resistor used with a moving coil meter that has an internal resistance of 12 ohms and a full scale deflection of 22mA, when measuring a current of 40A. It calculates the shunt resistor value to be 0.0132 ohms.

Project 2 Cascode

This document summarizes the design, simulation, and experimental results of a cascode amplifier circuit with 1mA and 10uA current levels. The circuit was designed and simulated in LTSpice, then built experimentally. For both current levels, the experimental results showed lower maximum voltage gain, lower upper half-power frequencies, and poorer frequency response compared to simulations. Analysis found the experimental results were 7-31% lower in maximum gain and 93-95% lower in upper half-power frequency compared to simulations. Possible reasons for discrepancies between simulation and experiment are discussed.

Low dropout regulator(ldo)

This document describes the design of a low dropout voltage regulator (LDO) circuit. It includes the goals of providing a 3.3V output voltage from a 5V input. The key components of an LDO - pass transistor, error amplifier, and voltage reference - are discussed. Calculations are shown for efficiency, transistor sizes, setting the bias voltage, and sizing additional transistors. A block diagram and final schematic are presented. Post-layout simulations demonstrate the line regulation as the input voltage is changed.

Msa august2010

This document provides an overview of library research resources and services available to students through the Off-Campus Library Services (OCLS) at Central Michigan University. It outlines how students can get research assistance from reference librarians, access online resources and materials through services like Documents on Demand, and find journal articles, books and other materials for their research. Tips and help for searching databases, determining availability of full-text articles, and citing references in APA style are also included.

Input output

This document discusses different types of input and output devices. It provides examples of common input devices like keyboards, barcode readers, scanners, video cameras, and webcams. It defines an input device as any hardware used to enter data into a computer's memory and lists examples of input types. It also defines an output device as hardware that conveys information to the user and provides examples of output types like text, video, graphics, and audio. Finally, it notes that output is information processed by the computer.

Chapter 6

This document discusses transformer efficiency, regulation, and temperature rise. It states that efficiency is maximized when copper losses equal iron losses. Voltage regulation is defined as copper losses divided by output power. Temperature rise in a transformer is determined by the power dissipated per unit surface area of the transformer core, with higher power densities leading to greater temperature increases. The required surface area for heat dissipation is calculated based on total transformer losses.

Measurement of 3 phase power by two watt-meter method

In this slide I have explained how two watt meters can be used to measure 3 phase power. Some of the added advantage of this method is that we can calculate 3 phase reactive power and power factor of load as well.

Ac/AC conveter

it describes: 1- What is AC/AC Converter and its applilcation?
2- AC Converter in resistive and inductive load with equations
3- using phase control and Time Proportional Control

EEP301: Transducer and instrumentation

This document is a lab report submitted by 7 students for an experiment using the Digiac 1750 Transducer and Instrumentation Trainer. It summarizes the results of 11 experiments measuring the characteristics and output of different transducers, including a servo potentiometer, Wheatstone bridge, RTD, thermistor, photovoltaic cell, phototransistor, photoconductive cell, and strain gauge as the number of coins placed on it increased. Graphs are provided plotting the respective output measurements for each transducer.

Wattmeter

Three phase power distribution has advantages over single phase power distribution. It requires less copper, allows for smaller and self-starting motors, and has more uniform power transfer. There are three main methods to measure power in a three phase system: single wattmeter, three wattmeter, and two wattmeter. The two wattmeter method is commonly used, connecting the current coils of two wattmeters in series across two lines to measure the total power irrespective of the load type or connection.

EEP303 Cycle ii exp-1

The document summarizes an experiment on synchronizing an alternator with an infinite bus and studying power exchange with the grid. It consists of three parts: 1) Synchronizing the alternator and studying the effect of prime mover speed on real power sharing, 2) Studying the effect of alternator excitation on reactive power sharing, 3) Recording observations on active and reactive power flows at different motor and excitation currents. The conclusions are that increasing prime mover speed increases real power transfer to the grid, while increasing alternator excitation above a zero-power level results in reactive power transfer to the grid (over-excitation) and decreasing excitation below that level draws reactive power from the grid (under-excitation).

Chapter 7

The document summarizes the 24 step process to design a 250VA isolation transformer with specifications including an input voltage of 115V, output voltage of 115V, output power of 250W, frequency of 50Hz, and efficiency of 95%. The steps include calculating the core geometry, selecting a core, determining the number of primary and secondary turns, selecting wire gauges, and calculating losses to ensure the designed transformer meets specifications within temperature rise limits while utilizing the window area effectively.

L10 dc circuits

Node voltage analysis uses Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) to write equations relating the voltages at each node in a circuit. One node is selected as the reference node with a voltage of 0 V. An equation is written for each remaining node by setting the algebraic sum of the currents entering and leaving the node to 0. The system of equations can then be solved to determine all node voltages in the circuit.

EEP301: Process control trainer

This document summarizes observations from an experiment on a process control trainer. It examines concepts like distance/velocity lag, transfer lag, two-step control, and proportional control. The main observations are:
1) Detector response time decreases when it is closer to the heating element or when throttle rate is increased, reducing lag.
2) Transfer lag exhibits similar characteristics to distance lag, with faster response for closer detector placement or higher throttle.
3) Two-step control reduces oscillations but can increase steady state error, which rises with greater overlap between control signals.
4) In proportional control, steady state offset increases and stability decreases with narrower proportional band due to a larger error signal.

CVT design

The document describes the components and operation of a constant voltage transformer (CVT). A CVT uses a ferroresonant circuit including an inductor, capacitor, and saturable transformer to regulate the output voltage against variations in input voltage, frequency, and load. It provides a constant output voltage through the saturating and limiting action of the saturable transformer. The output is a square wave suitable for rectifier applications. Design equations provided calculate component values, winding turns and sizes, losses, and other parameters for a CVT given specific voltage, power, and frequency specifications.

Inductor design

The document describes the design of a 250V, 2.565A single-phase AC inductor. It involves calculating the required inductance, selecting a suitable core, determining the number of turns, calculating losses, and ensuring design constraints are met. The key steps are:
1) Calculating inductance and selecting a core that meets the area product requirement
2) Determining the number of turns needed to achieve the required inductance
3) Ensuring operating flux density and losses meet specifications by calculating copper, core, and gap losses.

EEP303: Exp4

The document summarizes an experiment on a percentage differential relay. The experiment had three aims: to study the operating characteristics of the relay at 15% and 30% bias settings, to use the relay for single-phase transformer protection, and to study the harmonic restraint feature. Observations showed that increasing the bias setting required more current to trigger the relay. Testing the relay on a single-phase transformer demonstrated it would only operate for internal faults, verifying its protection zone. Introducing a DC branch also demonstrated the relay's harmonic restraint by increasing its tripping current.

Network Solving

The document describes the steps to solve a circuit with three resistors (R1, R2, R3) connected to an 80V power supply. It involves combining parallel resistors, calculating total resistance, current, voltage drops across resistors, and branch currents. It then shows calculating power dissipated in each resistor. The key steps are: combining R2 and R3 since they are in parallel, calculating total circuit resistance and current, determining voltage drops using Ohm's Law, and then power calculations for each resistor element.

Ece523 folded cascode design

• Designed a single stage folded cascode op-amp which had atleast 50 dB gain and 135 MHz Unity Gain Bandwidth for the three temperature corners (typical, slow and fast), in Cadence.
• The op-amp had a phase margin of atleast 64º and an output swing of atleast 1.46 V for the temperature corners (27,-40,100).
• Designed a common mode feedback for the amplifier and achieved a common mode accuracy of 0.01 V.

EEP303: Exp5

1. The document describes an experiment using a Newton Raphson load flow program to analyze load ability margin determination, line overloads from generation rescheduling and series compensation, and the Ferranti effect.
2. Key findings include determining the critical load multiplier for different load types, identifying sensitive generators and transmission lines to alleviate overloads, and observing higher voltages at load buses during light loading conditions consistent with the Ferranti effect.
3. The experiment demonstrated using load flow models to study a practical power system and determine sensitivity lists to identify the best corrective changes to address overloads or voltage issues.

3 phase power

This document discusses different methods for measuring power in a 3-phase circuit using wattmeters. It describes the 3-wattmeter method, 2-wattmeter method, and 1-wattmeter method. It also discusses how the power factor affects measurements using the 2-wattmeter method and potential sources of error when connecting wattmeters.

Semiconductor Thermal Management

The document summarizes a study on thermal management strategies for semiconductor chips that generate 2W and 10W of heat. Researchers tested different heat sinks and air velocities. Their predictive thermal model matched experimental data within 5%. For a 2W chip, a 16-pin aligned heat sink kept temperature below 60°C at air velocities of 1-4 m/s. However, scaling to 10W with the tested strategies would not maintain the temperature below 60°C, requiring alternative strategies.

Meter Shunt (Ammeter)

The document shows the step-by-step working to calculate the value of a shunt resistor used with a moving coil meter that has an internal resistance of 12 ohms and a full scale deflection of 22mA, when measuring a current of 40A. It calculates the shunt resistor value to be 0.0132 ohms.

Project 2 Cascode

This document summarizes the design, simulation, and experimental results of a cascode amplifier circuit with 1mA and 10uA current levels. The circuit was designed and simulated in LTSpice, then built experimentally. For both current levels, the experimental results showed lower maximum voltage gain, lower upper half-power frequencies, and poorer frequency response compared to simulations. Analysis found the experimental results were 7-31% lower in maximum gain and 93-95% lower in upper half-power frequency compared to simulations. Possible reasons for discrepancies between simulation and experiment are discussed.

Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Measurement of 3 phase power by two watt-meter method

Measurement of 3 phase power by two watt-meter method

Ac/AC conveter

Ac/AC conveter

EEP301: Transducer and instrumentation

EEP301: Transducer and instrumentation

Wattmeter

Wattmeter

EEP303 Cycle ii exp-1

EEP303 Cycle ii exp-1

Chapter 7

Chapter 7

L10 dc circuits

L10 dc circuits

EEP301: Process control trainer

EEP301: Process control trainer

CVT design

CVT design

Inductor design

Inductor design

EEP303: Exp4

EEP303: Exp4

Network Solving

Network Solving

Ece523 folded cascode design

Ece523 folded cascode design

EEP303: Exp5

EEP303: Exp5

3 phase power

3 phase power

Semiconductor Thermal Management

Semiconductor Thermal Management

Meter Shunt (Ammeter)

Meter Shunt (Ammeter)

Project 2 Cascode

Project 2 Cascode

Low dropout regulator(ldo)

This document describes the design of a low dropout voltage regulator (LDO) circuit. It includes the goals of providing a 3.3V output voltage from a 5V input. The key components of an LDO - pass transistor, error amplifier, and voltage reference - are discussed. Calculations are shown for efficiency, transistor sizes, setting the bias voltage, and sizing additional transistors. A block diagram and final schematic are presented. Post-layout simulations demonstrate the line regulation as the input voltage is changed.

Msa august2010

This document provides an overview of library research resources and services available to students through the Off-Campus Library Services (OCLS) at Central Michigan University. It outlines how students can get research assistance from reference librarians, access online resources and materials through services like Documents on Demand, and find journal articles, books and other materials for their research. Tips and help for searching databases, determining availability of full-text articles, and citing references in APA style are also included.

Input output

This document discusses different types of input and output devices. It provides examples of common input devices like keyboards, barcode readers, scanners, video cameras, and webcams. It defines an input device as any hardware used to enter data into a computer's memory and lists examples of input types. It also defines an output device as hardware that conveys information to the user and provides examples of output types like text, video, graphics, and audio. Finally, it notes that output is information processed by the computer.

Effective communication

Effective communication involves the exchange of ideas between a sender and receiver to achieve a mutual goal. It has key elements - a sender who encodes a message, a receiver who decodes it, the message itself, and a medium used to transmit the message. For communication to be effective, there must be feedback from the receiver to the sender. Barriers like poorly expressed messages or inattentive listening can interfere with effective communication, but these barriers can be remedied through actions like clarifying ideas, creating trust, and improving listening skills. Overall, effective communication is necessary to coordinate work and build relationships.

Indian conquistadors

Cortes led the Spanish conquistadors in the 16th century conquest of Mesoamerica. The conquest was successful due to disease brought by the Spanish, their more advanced weapons, and large armies which included up to 40,000 indigenous warriors. The native people greatly aided the conquistadors by guiding them, translating, scouting, and serving as messengers. Without the support of the native Indians, the Spanish conquest would not have been possible.

The jesuit relations

The document summarizes the Jesuit Relations, which were reports written by 17th century French missionaries in North America about their efforts to convert Native Americans. The relations provide detailed descriptions of the culture and daily lives of the Iroquoians, Algonquians, and Hurons. They observed topics like native spirituality and health practices. Disease spread rapidly among the natives, which they didn't understand. Conflict escalated as European weapons were introduced. Many Jesuits and Hurons were killed by the aggressive Iroquois in 1649. Missionaries like Father Marquette also explored the Mississippi River region and encountered many tribes.

Mktg. zcharina

The document discusses developing global marketing strategies and outlines a 4-phase planning process.
Phase 1 involves preliminary analysis and screening of company and country factors to identify potential market opportunities.
Phase 2 adapts the marketing mix to target markets by matching product, price, promotion and distribution requirements.
Phase 3 develops a formal marketing plan with objectives, strategies, budgets and action programs.
Phase 4 implements the plan and establishes controls for measuring performance and making corrections.

Blast Mitigation

This document summarizes information about ZetixTM blast-protective fabric developed by Advanced Fabric Technologies. Key points include: ZetixTM uses patented auxetic technology to strengthen and thicken when hit by explosive forces, providing protection from glass, debris and shrapnel; it has applications in vehicle armor, body armor, tents and more; and strategic partnerships can provide licensing and preferred supply of this material.

Effective communication

Effective communication involves the exchange of ideas between a sender and receiver to progress toward a shared goal. It has key elements - a sender who encodes a message, a receiver who decodes it, the message itself, and a medium used to transmit the message. For communication to be effective, there must be feedback from the receiver to the sender. Barriers like poorly expressed messages or inattentive listening can interfere with the process, but these barriers can be remedied through actions like clarifying ideas, building trust, and actively listening. Overall, effective communication is necessary to coordinate work and further interpersonal relationships.

Financial aspects of a franchise

There are two categories of financial requirements for a franchise business: costs of entry and costs of operation. Costs of entry for a new franchise include expenses like location selection, interior design and decoration according to the franchisor's guidelines, furnishing and fixtures either supplied or approved by the franchisor, obtaining necessary licenses and permissions, and franchise fees which vary depending on factors like the brand, market potential, and support provided. Examples given are costs for franchises like a salon and restaurant.

Pro/ E Training Noida

The Institute of Mechanical Design offers certification courses in CAD software like CATIA V5 to help bridge the gap between academic training and industrial experience. The courses provide international certification that benefits career growth by gaining opportunities requiring certified skills. A foundation CAD course covers basic modules in part design, assembly design, drafting, and surface design over 50 hours to help mechanical students learn design thinking. The course fees are Rs. 8000 and group discounts are available for colleges that register 10 or more students.

Advanced Fabric Technologies

This document summarizes information about ZetixTM blast-protective fabric developed by Advanced Fabric Technologies. Key points include: ZetixTM uses patented auxetic technology to strengthen and thicken when hit by explosive forces, providing protection from glass, debris and shrapnel; it has applications in vehicle armor, body armor, tents and more; and strategic partnerships can provide licensing and preferred supply of this material.

Beatniks

The Beat Generation refers to a group of American writers who became popular in the 1950s, such as Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, and William S. Burroughs. They rejected materialism and embraced Eastern religion, experimentation with drugs and sexuality. Their writings inspired a cultural phenomenon known as the "Beat" lifestyle and paved the way for the 1960s counterculture movement. The Beat Generation had influences such as the liberation of censorship and spread of environmental awareness.

LDO project

This document describes the design calculations for a low voltage dropout regulator to provide an output voltage of 3.3V from an input of 5V. It involves calculating the range of bias voltages and sizes of the transistors in the regulator circuit. Transistor widths are determined to keep transistors in saturation and ensure sufficient drive. The calculations result in transistor width and length values that are then simulated before and after layout to verify the regulator design meets specifications.

Design of a low voltage low-dropout regulator

This document outlines the sections and contents for a project report on designing a low-voltage low-dropout regulator. It includes sections for an abstract, introduction, literature survey, existing and proposed systems, advantages, requirements, diagrams, implementation, testing, conclusions, and references. Contact information and course offerings are also provided for i3e Technologies.

Devyani 1st Ext. Presentation

The document presents a dissertation on the design of a low-voltage low-dropout regulator using a current splitting technique in 90nm CMOS technology. It outlines the objectives of power management and discusses conventional power converters including linear regulators and switching regulators. It then examines issues in low-dropout regulator design such as the pass transistor, error amplifier, and stability. Existing techniques to improve power supply rejection are analyzed along with their pros and cons. The problem statement and objectives of the proposed work are given as designing a regulator with a 1V input, 0.85-0.5V output, 60uA quiescent current, and 0.0041mm^2 area using a current splitting error amplifier technique. The tool, block

chapter 1 linear dc power supply

This document discusses the components and operation of a linear DC power supply. It begins by explaining the need for DC power in electronic circuits and how power supplies convert alternating current (AC) from the wall outlet to the direct current (DC) required. The main components of a power supply are then introduced as the transformer, rectifier, filter and regulator. The transformer steps down the high voltage AC, the rectifier converts it to pulsating DC, the filter smoothes the output, and the regulator maintains a constant voltage. Different types of rectifiers like half-wave, full-wave and bridge rectifiers are also defined. Finally, the document discusses filters which further smooth the DC output voltage.

Voltage Regulation

This document discusses voltage regulation on electric power distribution systems. It begins by describing the problem of voltage drops caused by line losses and increasing load density. It then explains how voltage regulators work to continuously monitor and adjust output voltage by changing transformer taps. The document covers the construction, basic theory of operation, and implementation of single-phase voltage regulators. It also compares voltage regulators to load tap changers and provides an example case study of commissioning a regulator.

BUCK CONVERTER

This document discusses buck converters, which are dc-to-dc converters that step down voltage from a constant dc source. It describes two modes of operation for buck converters: continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). CCM occurs when inductor current flows continuously, while DCM occurs when inductor current falls to zero for a period during each switching cycle. The document provides equations to calculate operating characteristics like output voltage and efficiency based on component values and switching duty cycle.

Low dropout regulator(ldo)

Low dropout regulator(ldo)

Msa august2010

Msa august2010

Input output

Input output

Effective communication

Effective communication

Indian conquistadors

Indian conquistadors

Tarjei krogh showreel 2010 the dark side

Tarjei krogh showreel 2010 the dark side

The jesuit relations

The jesuit relations

Mktg. zcharina

Mktg. zcharina

Blast Mitigation

Blast Mitigation

Effective communication

Effective communication

Financial aspects of a franchise

Financial aspects of a franchise

Pro/ E Training Noida

Pro/ E Training Noida

Advanced Fabric Technologies

Advanced Fabric Technologies

Beatniks

Beatniks

LDO project

LDO project

Design of a low voltage low-dropout regulator

Design of a low voltage low-dropout regulator

Devyani 1st Ext. Presentation

Devyani 1st Ext. Presentation

chapter 1 linear dc power supply

chapter 1 linear dc power supply

Voltage Regulation

Voltage Regulation

BUCK CONVERTER

BUCK CONVERTER

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER using MOSFET

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER using MOSFET, Modes of operation,
The MOS differential pair with a common-mode input voltage ,Common mode rejection,gain, advantages and disadvantages.

multistage amplifier Rajendra keer

Multistage amplifiers connect multiple amplifiers together to increase overall gain. The overall gain is calculated by multiplying the individual gains. When amplifiers with equal cutoff frequencies are cascaded, the multistage circuit's cutoff frequency and bandwidth are determined by formulas involving the individual amplifier parameters. Common multistage configurations include cascade, cascode, and Darlington connections. Cascade connections simply couple outputs to inputs, providing high overall gain. Cascode connections improve input impedance while maintaining single-stage gain. Darlington connections have very high current gain equal to the product of individual transistor gains.

multistage amplifier Abhishek meena

Multistage amplifiers connect multiple amplifiers together to increase overall gain. The overall gain is calculated by multiplying the individual gains. When amplifiers with equal cutoff frequencies are cascaded, the multistage circuit's cutoff frequency and bandwidth are determined by formulas involving the individual amplifier parameters. Common multistage configurations include cascade, cascode, and Darlington connections. Cascade connections simply couple outputs to inputs for high overall gain. Cascode connections improve input impedance while maintaining single stage gain. Darlington connections provide very high current gain through compounding of individual transistor current gains.

Design of two stage OPAMP

This document discusses the design of MEMS resonator systems with integrated readout circuitry. It first describes methods for extracting the threshold voltage of MOSFETs. It then covers the design of a differential amplifier, including determining its transconductance, voltage transfer characteristics, input common mode range, slew rate and frequency response. Next, it examines modeling an electromechanical nanocantilever sensor for mass detection. It provides equations for calculating small mass changes and the snap-in voltage of the cantilever-driver system. Finally, it presents the design process and SPICE simulation of a two-stage operational amplifier.

LED電源回路アプリケーションガイド 金沢プレゼン資料

This document provides design guidelines for a boost DC/DC converter circuit using the NJM2377 controller IC. It describes:
1) The basic operation and equations for determining output voltage, switching times, inductor selection, peak inductor current, and output capacitor selection.
2) The application circuit configuration using the NJM2377, including settings for soft start time, oscillation frequency, and feedback loop.
3) Expected performance characteristics like output voltage, ripple voltage, efficiency and response to load changes. Simulation waveforms verify the circuit design meets specifications.

multistage amplifiers analysis and design

The document discusses multistage amplifiers. Multistage amplifiers connect two or more amplifiers together to increase the overall gain. The overall gain is calculated by multiplying the individual gains of each stage. There are several types of multistage connections including cascade, cascode, Darlington, and direct coupling. Cascade connection is most common and works by coupling the output of one stage to the input of the next. This allows the stages to multiply their gains to achieve a high overall gain.

07

This document describes the design of an operational amplifier (op-amp) with specific gain and slew rate specifications. The design process involves choosing an architecture, then designing the transistor sizes and compensation network. An existing two-stage op-amp architecture is adapted. Transistor widths and lengths are calculated to meet the gain of 20,000 V/V and slew rate of 20 MV/sec. The schematic is drawn and simulated. The output is as expected but cannot drive the load, so an output buffer is added to minimize delay for larger loads.

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Lect2 up290 (100328)

This document summarizes a lecture on low power and low noise operational amplifiers. It discusses:
1) How most micropower op amps use transistors operating in the subthreshold region for low power consumption.
2) The design of two-stage op amps that operate in weak inversion to achieve high gain with low power dissipation.
3) Techniques for increasing output current in weak inversion op amps, such as dynamically biased differential amplifier inputs.

DESIGNED A 350NM TWO STAGE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

The document describes the design of a differential input, single-ended output two-stage operational amplifier. A current mirror topology is used to meet the design specifications, including a differential voltage gain of at least 80 dB, output voltage swing range of at least 1.45 V, slew rate of at least 10 V/μs, and power dissipation of less than 0.35 mW. The design approach, schematic, analysis of DC operating points, AC performance, and output voltage swing are presented. Simulation results show the amplifier meets all specifications except for a slightly reduced slew rate of 9.79 V/μs.

CASCADE AMPLIFIER

A cascade amplifier is a multistage amplifier circuit where each stage's output is connected to the next stage's input. This allows the total gain to be calculated as the product of the individual stage gains, greatly increasing the overall gain. Cascade amplifiers are widely used as their multistage design improves the signal strength. Key features include coupling signals between stages while blocking DC voltages, and using the output of each stage to feed the input of the next. The total gain is equal to the product of gains of each individual stage.

EEL782_Project

1) A fully integrated ultra low power temperature sensor has been designed in 130nm CMOS technology that generates a temperature dependent frequency without needing an external reference.
2) The sensor consists of a current generation unit that produces a temperature dependent current in the nW range. This current is then converted to a temperature dependent frequency by a ring oscillator.
3) The sensor achieves an average power consumption of 1uW and generates a frequency that varies from 250kHz to 1MHz over a temperature range of -25C to 100C without needing any external references.

3 phase diode rectifiers/power electronics

The document discusses a three phase diode rectifier presentation. It describes several three phase rectifier circuits including a half wave rectifier using three diodes, a six pulse midpoint rectifier, and a full wave bridge rectifier using six diodes. Equations are provided for the output voltage and current calculations for each circuit. Key specifications of automotive-grade rectifier diodes are also listed.

Power power electronics (solution manual) by M.H.Rashid.pdf

The document is from a solutions manual for a power electronics textbook. It provides step-by-step solutions to example problems from Chapter 2 on power semiconductor diodes and circuits and Chapter 3 on diode rectifiers. The problems cover topics like calculating diode voltage and current characteristics, analyzing diode circuits, designing rectifier circuits, and calculating output voltages and currents for various rectifier configurations.

project.pptx

A 100-kW PV array is connected to a 25-kV grid via a DC-DC boost converter and a three-phase three-level Voltage Source Converter (VSC). Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is implemented in the boost converter by means of a Simulink® model using the 'Incremental Conductance + Integral Regulator' technique.
Another example (see PVArrayGridAverageModel model) uses average models for the DC_DC and VSC converters. In this average model the MPPT controller is based on the 'Perturb and Observe' technique.

Igbt gate driver power supply flyback converter

IGBT gate driver power supply has been designed based on flyback topology. Design steps are given and has been verified using LTspice simulations.

Sn5414 7414

This document summarizes specifications for SN5414, SN54LS14, SN7414, and SN74LS14 hex Schmitt-trigger inverters. It includes:
- Electrical characteristics such as input/output voltage thresholds, propagation delays, output current limits.
- Recommended operating conditions such as supply voltage and temperature ranges.
- Package options and dimensions, pinout diagrams, logic diagrams, and schematics.
- Ordering information, production and quality control data, and measurement procedure notes.

Pe lab converted

1. The document describes experiments to study the characteristics of various power electronics devices like SCR, TRIAC, MOSFET, IGBT using different circuit connections and varying parameters.
2. Procedures to study half wave and full wave rectification using RC triggering circuit are provided along with the relevant circuit diagram and waveforms. Readings are noted in a tabular column and graphs are plotted.
3. Signatures of staff conducting the experiments are included indicating the experiments were performed in the power electronics lab.

Lect2 up300 (100328)

This document discusses techniques for designing operational amplifiers that can operate at low voltages. It begins by outlining the challenges of low voltage operation, such as reduced dynamic range and increased nonlinearity. It then covers various circuit techniques for implementing low voltage input stages, gain stages, and bias circuits. These include using parallel input stages to increase input common mode range, bulk-driven MOSFETs to achieve depletion-mode behavior, and forward biasing the bulk to reduce transistor thresholds. The document provides circuit examples and analysis of how these techniques allow op amps to function down to supply voltages of 1V or less.

Max 232

This document provides specifications for the MAX232 dual driver/receiver IC, which includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply standard TIA/EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5V supply. It operates up to 120kbps and has ESD protection exceeding 15kV. The MAX232 contains two drivers, two receivers, and a charge pump to convert voltages for serial communication interfaces.

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER using MOSFET

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER using MOSFET

multistage amplifier Rajendra keer

multistage amplifier Rajendra keer

multistage amplifier Abhishek meena

multistage amplifier Abhishek meena

Design of two stage OPAMP

Design of two stage OPAMP

LED電源回路アプリケーションガイド 金沢プレゼン資料

LED電源回路アプリケーションガイド 金沢プレゼン資料

multistage amplifiers analysis and design

multistage amplifiers analysis and design

07

07

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Chapterhj jkhjhjhjh kjhjhjhljh jhkjhjhgftf rdrd

Lect2 up290 (100328)

Lect2 up290 (100328)

DESIGNED A 350NM TWO STAGE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

DESIGNED A 350NM TWO STAGE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

CASCADE AMPLIFIER

CASCADE AMPLIFIER

EEL782_Project

EEL782_Project

3 phase diode rectifiers/power electronics

3 phase diode rectifiers/power electronics

Power power electronics (solution manual) by M.H.Rashid.pdf

Power power electronics (solution manual) by M.H.Rashid.pdf

project.pptx

project.pptx

Igbt gate driver power supply flyback converter

Igbt gate driver power supply flyback converter

Sn5414 7414

Sn5414 7414

Pe lab converted

Pe lab converted

Lect2 up300 (100328)

Lect2 up300 (100328)

Max 232

Max 232

- 1. Low Voltage Dropout Regulator
- 2. Goal: Design a voltage regulator to provide an output voltage of 3.3V
- 3. For the calculations we assume the following constants: - Pass transistor current = 1ma - Vout = 3.3V - Dropout voltage = - VDD=5V -
- 4. Calculations: - Calculation of a range of Vbias1 1. To find Ibias1: From the desired a photodiode range, the minimum value of Ibias1: VGS3 =Vphmin Ibias1 = ½ K1(W/L)3 (VGS3 -VTHN )2 = ½ * 50 * 10-6 A/V2 * 3µm/0.6µm * (0.8V – 0.617)2 = 4.186µA =4µA The maximum value of Ibias1: Ibias1 = ½ K1(W/L)3 (VGS3 -VTHN )2 = ½ * 50 * 10-6 A/V2 * 3µm/0.6µm * (3.0V – 0.617)2 = 0.7mA
- 5. Calculations: - Calculation of a range of Vbias1 2. To find Vbias1: Next we find the value of Vbias1 given by Vbias1 = VDD – VGS0 = VDD - √[(2Ibias1)/(K2 (W/L)0 ] – VTHp Vbias1 = VDD – VGS0 = VDD - √[ (2Ibias1)/(K2 (W/L)0 ] – VTHp p The maximum value of Vbias1: Vbias1(max) = 5V - √[(2*4µA)/(19.1µA/V2* 20µm/0.6µm)] – 0.915V =1.026 = 4V The minimum value of Vbias1: Vbias1(min) = VDD – VGS0 = 5V- √[(2*0.7*10-3 )/25* 10-6 /V2 * 20µm/0.6µm) – 0.915V = 2.8V
- 6. Calculations: - Calculation of sizes of the transistors M5, M4 1. To determine W5 From requirement to keep M5 in saturation region: VTH ≤VGS5 = Vbias1(min) + VTHp – Vph (max) = 2.8V +0.9V – 3.0V = 0.7V W5 = (2InL5 )/(K1 (VGS5 -VTHN )2 ) = (2 * 1.2µA * 0.6µm)/(50µA/V2 * (0.7V – 0.617V)2 ) = 4µm
- 7. Calculations: - Calculation of sizes of the transistors M5, M4 2. To determine W4 VDS4 ≥VGS4 – VTHN VDS4 = Vph (min) = 0.8V Assumed VGS4 = 0.75V W4 = (2InL4 )/(K1 (VGS4 -VTHN )2 ) = (2 * 1.2µA * 0.6µm)/(50µA/V2 * (0.75V – 0.617V)2 ) = 1.60µm
- 8. Calculations: - Calculation of the gain for the current mirror transistors M1, M2, M7 1. To find VGS for M1, M2, M7 VGS1 = VDS1 = VGS2 = VGS1 = √[(2Iout)/(K2 (W/L)2,7 ] + VTHp = √(2 * 1.2µA)/(25µA/V2 * (20/2.4)) + 0.915V = 0.107V + 0.915V = 1V
- 9. Calculations: - Calculation of the gain for the current mirror transistors M1, M2, M7 2. To find VDS for current mirror: Next we find VDS2 and VDS7 (which are the same in value) VDS2,7 = VDD – VDS6 = VDD - √[(2Iout)/(K1 (W/L)6 ] - VTHN = 5V - √(2 * 1.2µA)/(50µA/V2 * (1.5/8.55)) - 0.617V = 3.85V
- 10. Calculations: - Calculation of the gain for the current mirror transistors M1, M2, M7 3. To determine W1: Finally, we calculate the size of transistor M1. It's required that Iin = Iout. Consequently, the current conveyor ought to have I1 = I2,7. Assuming L1= L2,7: W1/L1* (1 + ƛpDS2,7) = W2,7/L2,7(1 + ƛpDS2,7) W1 = 2(1 + ƛpDS2,7)/(1 + ƛpDS1) W1 = (20µm*(1+0.2*3.85V)/(1+0.2*1V) = 29.5µm
- 11. Summary of Transistor Sizes: - Summary of calculated transistor sizes vs the transistor simulation sizes TransistTor Calculated Size Actual Size Used Width(µm) Length(µm) Width(µm) Length(µm) M1 100 0.6 19.55 0.6 M2 100 0.6 21.3 2.4 M3 20 0.6 19.55 0.6 M4 20 0.6 3 0.6 M5 300 0.6 3 1.5
- 12. Final Schematic
- 13. - Test Schematic - Test Schematic Test Schematic
- 14. - Pre-Layout Simulation - Pre-Layout Simulation PRE-LAYOUT DC INPUT TEST
- 15. - Pre-Layout Simulation- Pre-Layout Simulation PRE-LAYOUT PHASE AND GAIN
- 16. LDO LAYOUT
- 17. - Post-Layout Simulation POST LAYOUT DC FIXED INPUT
- 18. - Post-Layout Simulation POST LAYOUT GAIN AND PHASE