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Introduction to Service
Management
ITILS Services for Software
Companies
Daniel Brody© 2014
Service Components
Process Orientated Working
Incident Management
Problem Management
Service Level Management
Change Management
What is ITIL?
IT Infrastructure
Library
IT Infrastructure Library
• A set of books describing code
of best practice for IT Service
provision
• UK Government
• First edition – Late 80’s
• Revised in 2000
• Non-proprietary
• Platform independent
ITIL
Two Books
Service Delivery
Service Support
ITIL’s Service Management
Service Support
Focuses on the day to day operation and
support of IT Services
Service Delivery
Focuses on long term planning and
improvement of IT Service provision
ITIL Publications
Planning to Implement Service Management
The Business Perspective
Application Management
ICT Infrastructure Management
Security Management
Service Support
Service Delivery
Planning to Implement Service Management
Service Management
Service
Support
Service
Delivery
T
h
e
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s
The
Business
Perspective
Applications Management
ICT
Infrastructure
Management
T
h
e
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
Security
Management
IT Service Management
….
Foundation
Support
Configuration Management
Mission
To identify, control and audit the information
required to manage IT services by defining and
maintaining a database of controlled items, their
status, lifecycles and relationships and any
information needed to manage the quality of IT
services cost effectively
Asset Management
vs
Configuration Management
Objectives
• Identify & record management information
• Account for all IT assets & configurations
• Control the information in the database
• Ensure that information reflect reality
• Provide a basis for management
• Provide status of components
Key Terms
Configuration
• Hardware
• Software
• Documentation
• Communication
• Environmental Equipment
• Staff
Anything that needs to be controlled
Configuration Item (CI)
PC
KeyboardMonitor System Unit
CD ROM Stiffy
Drive
MemoryHard
Drive
CPU
•A component within a configuration
•A configuration in its own right
How low do you go???
• CI Levels
– Lowest level of independent change
– Who are you and what are you doing?
– Information value vs collection effort
Attributes
Memory
PC
KeyboardMonitor System Unit
CD ROM Stiffy
Drive
MemoryHard
Drive
CPU
Key Terms
• Relationship
– Primary
– Secondary
• Baseline
– Snapshot of a CI at a time or stage
• Variant
– A baseline with minor differences
• Model, Version and Copy numbers
– Type
– Unique
– Version / Copy
Life Cycles
• Stages in the life of a CI
• Allow CIs to be moved and tracked
Ordered
Delivered
Set up
Installed
Withdrawn
Maintenance
Key Activities
Stages in Configuration Management
• Identification
• Control
• Status Accounting
• Verification / Audit
Identification
• Logical
– What items need to be recorded?
– What do we need to know about them?
• Physical
– Marking items that are under Configuration
Management control
Logical & Physical
Basic Principles
• CIs must be uniquely identified
• Prominent & clearly visible
• Meaningful naming
• Copy numbers must be catered for
• Cater for growth
Control
• Information in the CMDB
– Access
– Changes
– Adding new items
• To achieve control
– Agree and freeze CI specification
– Only allow changes through change management
Status Accounting
• Uses lifecycles and attributes
• Records and reports on
– Current data
– Historical data
Verification & Audit
• Does the CMDB reflect reality?
• Accuracy is improved by
– Active rather than passive CMDB
– Automatic updating
– Integration with other processes
– Automatic checks
The CMDB
Accounts Sales Marketing Manufacturing
Inventory Purchasing Distribution HR
Information Management
Accounts Sales Marketing Manufacturing
Inventory Purchasing HRDistribution
Management
Information
Accounts Sales
HR
Distribution
Marketing
Manufacturing
InventoryPurchasing
Management
Information
Corporate
Database
NETWORK SLMCHANGEPROBLEM
CAPACITY FINANCIAL SERVICE DESK PERFORMANCE
CMDB
PROBLEM
CAPACITY
CHANGE
FINANCIAL
SERVICE DESK
PERFORMANCESLM
Management
Information
CMDB
Underlying Databases
VIRTUAL
CMDB
Benefits, costs & problems
Benefits
• Accurate information & documentation on CI’s
• Control of valuable CI’s
• Legal Obligations
• Financial & expenditure planning
• Registration of Software Changes
• Contingency planning
• Improving Release Management
• Improved security
• Trending data
Costs
• Staff costs
– Initial audit
– Management
• HW & SW identification & Level of control
• Number of users who have access
• Need for tailoring
• Diversity & quality of information
• Level of integration
Possible Problems
• Incorrect CI level
• Emergency changes
• Over-ambitious schedules
• Circumvention of procedures
• Manual systems
• Over expectation
• Isolated implementation
• Difficult without Change Management
• Difficult to cost justify
• No operational use of the system
Change Management
Mission
To manage all changes that could impact on IT’s
ability to deliver services through a formal,
centralised process of approval, scheduling and
control to ensure that the IT Infrastructure stays
aligned to business requirements with minimum risk
Objectives
• Manage the process of:
– Requesting changes
– Assessing changes
– Authorising changes
– Implementing changes
• Prevent unauthorised changes
• Minimise disruption
• Ensure proper research and relevant input
• Coordinate build, test and implementation
Scope
 Hardware
 System Software
 Communications Equipment and Software
 ‘Live’ Application Software
 All documentation, plans and procedures relevant to the
running, support and maintenance of live systems
 Environmental Equipment
Key Terms
Key Terms and Roles
• Request for Change (RFC)
– Contains all necessary information to make the change
• Change Advisory Board (CAB)
– Assesses resource requirements and impact
– Advises the Change Manager
• CAB Emergency Committee (CAB/EC)
– Urgent changes
– 1-3 senior staff
• Forward Schedule of Change (FSC)
– Details of approved changes & dates
• Projected Service Availability (PSA)
– Best time for change to be implemented
• Change Model
– Pre-defined path
• Standard Change
– Pre-authorised change
Change Management Procedure
Initiate Change
Filter Requests
Initial Priority
Decide Category
Urgent?
Normal Change
Procedure
Reject
To urgent procedure
Yes
Change Model?
To Change Model
procedure
Yes
Minor Significant Major
Assess impact and resources. Confirm priority and ScheduleAuthorised?
No
Yes
Refers RFC upwards. IT Director
decides then passes to CAB for
actioning
Circulates RFCs
to CAB members
Authorises and schedules
change. Report action to
CAB
Independent Testing
Build change, Testing &
back out Plans
Co-ordinates
implementation
Working?
Monitor/Review Change
Back out / Refer back to
CAB
Normal Change
Implementation
Procedure
From Normal Change
Yes
No
Successful?
Yes
Close
No
To Start
Failure
Update Documentation
Urgent CAB or
CAB/EC meeting
Assess impact resource
requirements and urgency
Urgently prepares the
change
Urgent? To normal procedure
Urgent Change
Procedure
Time for test? Urgent Testing
Yes
No
Yes
Failure
No
Co-ordinate
implementation
Satisfactory?
Co-ordinates
implementation
Implements back-out
plans. Change is
referred back to
CAB/EC
Ensure records are
brought up to date
Review Change
Urgent Change
Procedure
Satisfactory?
No Yes
CloseTo Start
Benefits, Costs & Problems
Benefits to Business
• Greater IT & business alignment
• Higher availability
• Increased productivity
• More communication – greater trust
• IT can handle more changes
• Balance between need for change & potential impact
Financial Benefits
• More accurate forecasting
• Better quality decisions
• Reduction in amount of rework
IT Benefits
• Easier to meet SLA’s
• Fewer change failures
• Back out plans – easier restore
• Valuable input for problem & availability
• Increased productivity of IT Staff
Costs
• Software costs
• Integration & modification
• Staff
• Accommodation
Possible Problems
• Bureaucratic procedures
• Resistance to “control culture”
• Bypassing of procedures
• Integration to Configuration Management
• Inaccurate information
• Handling urgent changes
• Detecting unauthorised changes
• Too broad scope for a change
• Unclear ownership
Release Management
Mission
To take an holistic view of a change to an IT Service
and ensure that all aspects of a release, both
technical and non-technical, are considered
together
Why Release Management?
• Large or critical
hardware roll-outs
• Major software roll-
outs
• Bundling or batching
related sets of
changes
In-house
applications
“Other” software
Utility Software
System Software
Hardware
Specifications
Assembly
Instructions
User Manuals
Key Concepts
Key Concepts
• Release
– Collection of authorised changes
– Major / minor / emergency
• Definitive Hardware Store (DHS)
– Storage of Hardware spares
• CMDB
– Definitions of planned releases
– Records of CI’s impacted by release
– Information about the target of environment
Key Concepts
• Definitive Software Library (DSL)
– Physical secure storage
– Source code & Original media
• Build Management
– Controlled environment
– Compiled on dedicated “build hardware”
• Release Policy
– Roles, responsibility & content
– Form part of initial planning
• Release Unit
– Components released together
Release Units
• Systems, suites, programs and modules
• Factors affecting the level of release
– Number and extent of changes
– Number of changes that can be managed
– Available resources and time
– Ease of implementation
– Complexity of the release
Release Units
System 1
Suite 2.1
Program 2.2.1
Module 2.2.2.1 Module 2.2.2.2 Module 2.2.2.3
Program 2.2.2 Program 2.2.3
Suite 2.2 Suite 2.3
System 2 System 3
IT Infrastructure
Development Releases -  and 
• Managed by development
• Must not affect live services
• Should not require production resources
• Customer agreement obtained
• Usage covered in SLAs
• Must not replace live systems
• Must be licensed
Normal Release - Full
• All components built, tested, distributed &
implemented together
• Better integrated testing
• Easier to detect & rectify problems
• Complex & will require more resources
Normal Release - 
• Partial release
• Contains only new or changed items
• Not as stable as full releases
• Authorisation of a delta release depends on:
– Size of a full release compared to the delta
– Urgency of required facilities
– Number of changes already made
– Potential business impact
– Available resources
Normal Release – Package
• Combination of release units
• Reduces number and frequency of releases
• Better integration and testing
• Less old or incompatible software
• Could result in delays to fixes or enhancements
• Greater potential for disruption
C1
C2
C3
C4
C3
Package
Release
Delta
Release
M1
M1
M2
M3
M4
Full
Release
Urgent Releases
• Disruptive and error prone
• Often used to bypass Change Management
• Controls are essential
– Use software from the DSL
– Software must be replaced through the DSL
– Must follow Change Management
– CMDB must be updated
– Version control
– Testing and documentation
– Give notice
Back-Out Plan
• Documents actions that will restore service
• Still part of change
• Two approaches
– A full reversal of release
– Contingency plans to restore as much as possible
• Should be verified and tested
Key Activities
Configuration Management Database (CMDB)
&
Software Library
ReleasePolicy
ReleasePlanning
Design&develop,or
order&purchase
software
Build&configurethe
Release
Fit-for-purpose
testing
ReleaseAcceptance
Roll-outplanning
Communication
Preparation&training
Distribution&
installation
Development Environment Controlled Test Environment
Live
Environment
Release Management
Release Policy
• Basis of subsequent activities
• Management roles & responsibilities
Release Planning
• Agreeing release content
• Planning phases of releases
• Produce schedule
• Assess hardware at target site
• Plan resource requirements
• Obtain quotes if upgrades are required
• Produce back out plans
• Develop quality plan
• Plan acceptance of support groups
Designing, Building & Configuring
• Components assembled in controlled process
• All components of release should be under
Configuration control
Testing & Release Acceptance
• Before going to live
• Types of testing
– Functional testing
– Operational testing
– Performance testing
– Integration testing
– Testing & back out plans
• Final acceptance & sign off – part of Change
• Rejection treated as failed change
Rollout Planning
• Wholesale / “big bang”
• Phased roll outs
– Geographical
– Functional
– Technological
– Combination
Communication, Preparation &
Training
• Support staff & customers
• Training
• Parallel working
• Involvement in acceptance process
• Rollout planning meetings
Distribution & Installation
• Distribution
– Equipment reaches destination in time & in tact
– Secure Storage Areas
– Checked against relevant documentation
– Final check before implementation
• Installation
– Functional checks of equipment
– Automate deployment
– Installation routines
– Include check of target
– User checklists?
Software ordered
Software developed
and supplied
Acceptance checks
OK?
Rectification
Action
No
Software placed in DSL
Final approval
Package built in
test environment
Operational
acceptance testing
OK?
No Build in live
environment
Distribute to live
environment
Implemented on
live environment
C
M
D
B
Normal Flow of software
Benefits, Costs & Problems
Business Benefits
• Minimum disruption
• Better quality of service
• Fewer & less frequent releases
• Effective scheduling of users for testing
• Overall reduction in business risk
• Business knows what to expect & can plan
Financial Benefits
• Assets more controlled
• Less time & resources spent on rework
• More responsive to revenue producing
opportunities
• Prevention of duplication of activities
IT Benefits
• Consistent quality of releases
• Centralised control
• Improved quality and control of changes
• Effective planning of staff activities
• Number of regressions are reduced
• Easier detection of unauthorised and incorrect
versions
• Less blame shifting
Costs
• Storage costs
• Build , test and archive environments
• Secure equipment stores
• Software distribution tools
• Network bandwidth
• Telecommunications
• Staff and training
Problems
• Circumvention of procedures
• Emergency fixes
• Distribution of builds directly from development
• Uncoordinated implementation of Software and
Hardware
• Resources not available for testing
• Test results are invalid
• Process is seen to be unclear or bureaucratic
Relationships
• Configuration Management
• Change Management
• Problem Management
• Service Desk
• Project Management
• Developers and suppliers
Service Desk
The Service Desk
Structure not a process
• Drive & improve service to the business
• Single point of contact
– Advice
– Guidance
– Rapid restoration to service
Role of the Service Desk
• Supports the incident & problem management
function
• Provide a central point of contact
– Preventing the same incident being reported to
different people over & over
– Preventing the loss of incidents
– Preventing technical people being disrupted
– Preventing unnecessary work if already known error
Objectives
• Single point of contact for reporting of incidents
• Accurately record information about incidents
• Co-ordinate activities to restore service to normal
• Support the incident & problem management functions
• Provide management information
• Provide support & advice to business
Key Elements & Processes
Service Desk Functions
• Log Incident
• Pre-scan phase
– Not Known Error
– Proper procedure have been followed
– Required supporting evidence is complete & present
• Incident Management
• Service Desk remains responsible
• Responsible for escalation
• Regularly feeds back to user
Service Desk & Change Management
• Log Changes & cross reference to problems
• Issue change schedules
• Monitor & track changes & assist with escalation
• Inform users of change once complete & update
change schedules
Common Features of Service Desks
• A single point of contact for all users
• A central log of all incidents
• Each incident uniquely numbered and date/time stamped
• Diagnostic scripts and other aids
• Configuration Management Support Tools
• Known Error Lists
• An impact coding system
Common Features of Service Desks
• Automatic escalation procedures based on impact, priority
and elapsed time
• Telephone and electronic mail communication with all
support staff
• Interface to Service Level Agreements
• Regular progress reporting
• Classification of incidents at call closure
• Regular management summaries of calls received and
resolved
Service Desk Structures
Local Service Desk
• Local desk meeting local needs
• Support staff also local
• Becomes impractical with multiple locations
• Several local desks – operational standards
• Common processes across all locations
Local Service Desk
Local
User
Local
User Local
User
Third Party
Support
Network &
Operations
Support
Application
Support
Desktop
Support
Service Desk First line Support
Centralised Service Desk
Customer Site
1
Customer
Site 2
Customer
Site 3
Third Party
Support
Network &
Operations
Support
Application
Support
Desktop
Support
Service Desk
Second Line Support
Modem
Virtual
Service
Desk
Paris Service Desk Sydney Service
Desk
Modem
Third Party Supplier
Service Desk
Cape Town
Service Desk
Local Users
LAN
Service
Management
Database(s)
London Service
Desk
Toronto Service
Desk
fax
LAN
Durban Service
Desk
User Site ‘n’User Site I
Telephone
Local Users Remote Users
Virtual Desks
• Physical location immaterial
• Used for global organisation
• Benefits include
– Reduced operational costs
– Consolidated management overview
– Improved usage of available skills
– Knowledge sharing
• Onsite assistance still required
Outsourcing
• Have outsourcers use your Service Desk tool
• Keep ownership of management information
• Ensure suitably skilled staff
• Request details of staff
• Monitor value for money
• Check supplier dependencies
• Ensure deliverables are clearly understood
Service Desk
Skill Sets
Staff Profiles
• Understanding of business
• Understanding of IT Infrastructure
• Exceptional interpersonal skills
Technically Unskilled Staff
• Centralised Service Desks
• Emphasis on interpersonal skills
• Large call volumes, little support
• Administrates and coordinates calls
• Relies on diagnostic scripts and other tools
• Technical staff are not distracted or demotivated
• No in-depth support
• Potential job satisfaction is high
Technically Skilled Staff
• Lower call volumes, greater support
• Longer call times
• May become to involved in technical aspects
• Job satisfaction issues
• Customer satisfaction issues
• Peak time staffing issues
• Familiarity breeds contempt
Expert Staff
• Resolve all calls
• Staff are more important than procedures
• Will play the role of technical departments
Incident Management
Definition of an Incident
Any event which is not part of the standard operation of a
service and which causes, or may cause, an interruption
to, or reduction in, the quality of that service
Includes
• New services
• Automatically registered events
Mission
To minimise the impact of service disruptions
to the business by restoring that service
through effective management of incidents
Scope
• Inputs
– Incident details from service desk
– Configuration details
– Matched incidents, problems & known errors
– Resolution details
– RFC
• Outputs
– RFC for resolution
– Resolved & closed incidents
– Communication to Customers
– Management information
Objectives
• Restoration of service as quickly as possible
• Ensure timely resolution of all incidents
• Identify trends that may assist in incident
resolution
• Assist problem management in identifying trends
Key Concepts
Incident Handling
• Service Desk owns Incidents
• Progress reporting
• Incident Lifecycles
– New
– Accepted / Assigned
– Scheduled
– WIP
– On Hold / Waiting
– Resolved
– Closed
Levels of Support
• 1st line Support
– Service Desk
• 2nd Line Support
– Incident Management
• 3rd Line Support
– Specialist Group
Key Concepts (cont.)
• Ownership & Communication
– Monitor status against open Incidents
– Incidents passed between support groups
– Affected users are kept informed
– Check for similar Incidents
– Incidents that are likely to exceed SLA times
• Escalation
– Functional Escalation
– Hierarchical Escalation
Classification
• Category
Operating System
Application
Financials
Line
Network Connection
Modem
Monitor
Mouse
Hardware
Printer
Terminal
Connector
Software
Network
Impact Code
IMPACT
CODE
DESCRIPTION
TARGET
RESOLUTION TIME
High
Major service unavailable
Many Users affected
1 Hour
Medium
Customer terminal or printer
down
Cannot function
4 Hours
Low
Customer terminal or printer
experiencing intermittent
failure
8 Hours
Key Concepts (cont.)
• Incidents, Problems and Known Errors
– Incidents are events or occurences that degrade or
disrupt a Service
– A problem is the underlying cause of one or more
incidents that have not yet been diagnosed
– Known Errors are
• Problems that have been diagnosed and have not yet been
rectified
• Problems that have been diagnosed and for which a resolution
or circumvention exists
Incident Management Activities
Reasons for classification
• Identifying the service the Incident is
related to
• Associate the Incident with the SLA
• Selecting the most suitable support team
• Indication of the impact and/or severity
• Match Incidents to Known Errors
• Determine a reporting structure
Incident detecting
& recording
Initial classification
& support
Service
Request
Service Request
Procedure
•Service Desk
•System Monitoring tools
•Capturing base & initial data•Diagnostic Scripts
•Known Error Database
•Skill Levels
•Knowledge base and/or expert software
Incident detecting
& recording
Initial classification
& support
Service
Request
Investigation &
diagnosis
Resolution &
recovery
Incident Closure
Service Request
Procedure
Ownership,monitoring,trackingand
communication
• Support group accepts assignment
• Advise if work around can be provided
• Attempt resolution
• Record all details
• Monitor status against open Incidents
• Incidents passed between support
groups
• Affected users are kept informed
• Check for similar Incidents
• Incidents likely to exceed SLA times
• Escalation
Ownership,monitoring,trackingand
communication
Incident detecting
& recording
Initial classification
& support
Service
Request
Investigation &
diagnosis
Resolution &
recovery
Service Request
Procedure
Ownership,monitoring,trackingand
communication
Incident Closure
Incident
CMDB
Incident, Problem
& KE databases
Diagnostic data
system dumps and
journals
Support staff
allocation
Basic fact
gathering
Enquiries on
historical data
Support staff
allocation
Allocate
further support
Incident Closure
Diagnosis/
Circumventions?
Escalation
threshold
exceeded
Liaise with Problem
Management to create
Problem or Known Error
record where appropriate
Who, When
•
Results?
•
Correlations
•
Dumps, ID’s etc
•
Diagnosis and
resolution/
circumvention
action
•
What, why when?
•
When
Incident progress
summary
Free Format
text record
Diagnostic data
search
Y
Y
N
N
Problem Management
Mission
To minimise the disruption of IT services by
organising IT resources to resolve problems,
preventing them from recurring and recording
information that will improve the way in which
IT deals with problems, resulting in higher levels
of availability and productivity.
Scope
• Reactive
– Solving problems in response to incidents
• Proactive
– Solving problems before incidents occur
The main goal of Problem Management is the detection of
the underlying causes of an incident and their subsequent
resolution and prevention
Objectives
• Identify, manage and resolve problems
• Prevents recurrence of problems
• Reduce the number and severity of problems
• Minimise impact to business
• Ensure right level of staff
• Record & manage information
• Ensure vendor compliance when resolving problems
Key Concepts
Incident
Problem
Known Error
Change
Incident
Control
Problem
Control
Error
Control
Change
Control
Service Desk /
Incident Management
Problem
Management
Change
Management
Problem V Error Control
Problem Control
Transforms Problems into
Known Errors
Error control
Resolving Known Errors via
the Change Management
process
Problem Control
Problem Control
Problem Identification
Problem Classification
Problem Investigation and diagnose
Problem Identification
• Initial support could not match the Incident to a
known problem
• Analysis of Incidents
• Analysis of IT infrastructure
• Significant or Major Incidents
Problem Classification
• Impact
– Direct effect on the business
• Urgency
– The measure of business criticality based on impact and business
need
• Priority
– The order in which a series of items should be addressed
– P=I x S x U
Defining Priority
Priority – sequence in which an Incident or Problem
needs to be resolved
Impact – measure of the business criticality of
an incident
Severity – what is the effect on the infrastructure /
resources?
Urgency – extent to which the resolution of a Problem
or error can bear delay
Priority = Impact Severity Urgencyx xP = I S Ux x
Investigation & Diagnosis
• Diagnosis of root cause
• Update of problem record
• May reclassify at closure
• Methods of problem Analysis
Error Control
Error Control Activities
Error identification & recording
Error assesment
Error resolution recording
Error closure
Error resolution monitoring
Error Identification
• Identification of root cause
• Identification of work around
• Two sources of known errors
– Problem control
– Development
Error Assessment
• Assessment of resolution
– Priority, impact & urgency
• Logging of change
Error Resolution Recording
• Resolution recording
– Known error database
• Data on all CIs are available for incident matching
Error Closure
• Closed together with any Incidents
• Resolved or Closed Pending on review
Error Resolution monitoring
– Not responsible for RFCs
– Monitor progress
– Escalate through CAB if necessary
Proactive Problem Management
Proactive Problem Management
• Identifying and resolving problems before
incidents occur
• Activities include:
– Trend Analysis
– Targeting support action
– Providing information to business

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ITIL Best Practice for Software Companies

  • 1. Introduction to Service Management ITILS Services for Software Companies Daniel Brody© 2014
  • 3. Process Orientated Working Incident Management Problem Management Service Level Management Change Management
  • 4. What is ITIL? IT Infrastructure Library
  • 5. IT Infrastructure Library • A set of books describing code of best practice for IT Service provision • UK Government • First edition – Late 80’s • Revised in 2000 • Non-proprietary • Platform independent ITIL
  • 6. Two Books Service Delivery Service Support ITIL’s Service Management
  • 7. Service Support Focuses on the day to day operation and support of IT Services
  • 8. Service Delivery Focuses on long term planning and improvement of IT Service provision
  • 9. ITIL Publications Planning to Implement Service Management The Business Perspective Application Management ICT Infrastructure Management Security Management Service Support Service Delivery Planning to Implement Service Management Service Management Service Support Service Delivery T h e B u s i n e s s The Business Perspective Applications Management ICT Infrastructure Management T h e T e c h n o l o g y Security Management
  • 12. Mission To identify, control and audit the information required to manage IT services by defining and maintaining a database of controlled items, their status, lifecycles and relationships and any information needed to manage the quality of IT services cost effectively
  • 14. Objectives • Identify & record management information • Account for all IT assets & configurations • Control the information in the database • Ensure that information reflect reality • Provide a basis for management • Provide status of components
  • 16. Configuration • Hardware • Software • Documentation • Communication • Environmental Equipment • Staff Anything that needs to be controlled
  • 17. Configuration Item (CI) PC KeyboardMonitor System Unit CD ROM Stiffy Drive MemoryHard Drive CPU •A component within a configuration •A configuration in its own right
  • 18. How low do you go??? • CI Levels – Lowest level of independent change – Who are you and what are you doing? – Information value vs collection effort
  • 19. Attributes Memory PC KeyboardMonitor System Unit CD ROM Stiffy Drive MemoryHard Drive CPU
  • 20. Key Terms • Relationship – Primary – Secondary • Baseline – Snapshot of a CI at a time or stage • Variant – A baseline with minor differences • Model, Version and Copy numbers – Type – Unique – Version / Copy
  • 21. Life Cycles • Stages in the life of a CI • Allow CIs to be moved and tracked Ordered Delivered Set up Installed Withdrawn Maintenance
  • 23. Stages in Configuration Management • Identification • Control • Status Accounting • Verification / Audit
  • 24. Identification • Logical – What items need to be recorded? – What do we need to know about them? • Physical – Marking items that are under Configuration Management control Logical & Physical
  • 25. Basic Principles • CIs must be uniquely identified • Prominent & clearly visible • Meaningful naming • Copy numbers must be catered for • Cater for growth
  • 26. Control • Information in the CMDB – Access – Changes – Adding new items • To achieve control – Agree and freeze CI specification – Only allow changes through change management
  • 27. Status Accounting • Uses lifecycles and attributes • Records and reports on – Current data – Historical data
  • 28. Verification & Audit • Does the CMDB reflect reality? • Accuracy is improved by – Active rather than passive CMDB – Automatic updating – Integration with other processes – Automatic checks
  • 30. Accounts Sales Marketing Manufacturing Inventory Purchasing Distribution HR Information Management
  • 31. Accounts Sales Marketing Manufacturing Inventory Purchasing HRDistribution Management Information
  • 33. NETWORK SLMCHANGEPROBLEM CAPACITY FINANCIAL SERVICE DESK PERFORMANCE CMDB
  • 36. Benefits, costs & problems
  • 37. Benefits • Accurate information & documentation on CI’s • Control of valuable CI’s • Legal Obligations • Financial & expenditure planning • Registration of Software Changes • Contingency planning • Improving Release Management • Improved security • Trending data
  • 38. Costs • Staff costs – Initial audit – Management • HW & SW identification & Level of control • Number of users who have access • Need for tailoring • Diversity & quality of information • Level of integration
  • 39. Possible Problems • Incorrect CI level • Emergency changes • Over-ambitious schedules • Circumvention of procedures • Manual systems • Over expectation • Isolated implementation • Difficult without Change Management • Difficult to cost justify • No operational use of the system
  • 41. Mission To manage all changes that could impact on IT’s ability to deliver services through a formal, centralised process of approval, scheduling and control to ensure that the IT Infrastructure stays aligned to business requirements with minimum risk
  • 42. Objectives • Manage the process of: – Requesting changes – Assessing changes – Authorising changes – Implementing changes • Prevent unauthorised changes • Minimise disruption • Ensure proper research and relevant input • Coordinate build, test and implementation
  • 43. Scope  Hardware  System Software  Communications Equipment and Software  ‘Live’ Application Software  All documentation, plans and procedures relevant to the running, support and maintenance of live systems  Environmental Equipment
  • 45. Key Terms and Roles • Request for Change (RFC) – Contains all necessary information to make the change • Change Advisory Board (CAB) – Assesses resource requirements and impact – Advises the Change Manager • CAB Emergency Committee (CAB/EC) – Urgent changes – 1-3 senior staff
  • 46. • Forward Schedule of Change (FSC) – Details of approved changes & dates • Projected Service Availability (PSA) – Best time for change to be implemented • Change Model – Pre-defined path • Standard Change – Pre-authorised change
  • 48. Initiate Change Filter Requests Initial Priority Decide Category Urgent? Normal Change Procedure Reject To urgent procedure Yes Change Model? To Change Model procedure Yes Minor Significant Major Assess impact and resources. Confirm priority and ScheduleAuthorised? No Yes Refers RFC upwards. IT Director decides then passes to CAB for actioning Circulates RFCs to CAB members Authorises and schedules change. Report action to CAB
  • 49. Independent Testing Build change, Testing & back out Plans Co-ordinates implementation Working? Monitor/Review Change Back out / Refer back to CAB Normal Change Implementation Procedure From Normal Change Yes No Successful? Yes Close No To Start Failure Update Documentation
  • 50. Urgent CAB or CAB/EC meeting Assess impact resource requirements and urgency Urgently prepares the change Urgent? To normal procedure Urgent Change Procedure Time for test? Urgent Testing Yes No Yes Failure No Co-ordinate implementation
  • 51. Satisfactory? Co-ordinates implementation Implements back-out plans. Change is referred back to CAB/EC Ensure records are brought up to date Review Change Urgent Change Procedure Satisfactory? No Yes CloseTo Start
  • 52. Benefits, Costs & Problems
  • 53. Benefits to Business • Greater IT & business alignment • Higher availability • Increased productivity • More communication – greater trust • IT can handle more changes • Balance between need for change & potential impact
  • 54. Financial Benefits • More accurate forecasting • Better quality decisions • Reduction in amount of rework
  • 55. IT Benefits • Easier to meet SLA’s • Fewer change failures • Back out plans – easier restore • Valuable input for problem & availability • Increased productivity of IT Staff
  • 56. Costs • Software costs • Integration & modification • Staff • Accommodation
  • 57. Possible Problems • Bureaucratic procedures • Resistance to “control culture” • Bypassing of procedures • Integration to Configuration Management • Inaccurate information • Handling urgent changes • Detecting unauthorised changes • Too broad scope for a change • Unclear ownership
  • 59. Mission To take an holistic view of a change to an IT Service and ensure that all aspects of a release, both technical and non-technical, are considered together
  • 60. Why Release Management? • Large or critical hardware roll-outs • Major software roll- outs • Bundling or batching related sets of changes In-house applications “Other” software Utility Software System Software Hardware Specifications Assembly Instructions User Manuals
  • 62. Key Concepts • Release – Collection of authorised changes – Major / minor / emergency • Definitive Hardware Store (DHS) – Storage of Hardware spares • CMDB – Definitions of planned releases – Records of CI’s impacted by release – Information about the target of environment
  • 63. Key Concepts • Definitive Software Library (DSL) – Physical secure storage – Source code & Original media • Build Management – Controlled environment – Compiled on dedicated “build hardware” • Release Policy – Roles, responsibility & content – Form part of initial planning • Release Unit – Components released together
  • 64. Release Units • Systems, suites, programs and modules • Factors affecting the level of release – Number and extent of changes – Number of changes that can be managed – Available resources and time – Ease of implementation – Complexity of the release
  • 65. Release Units System 1 Suite 2.1 Program 2.2.1 Module 2.2.2.1 Module 2.2.2.2 Module 2.2.2.3 Program 2.2.2 Program 2.2.3 Suite 2.2 Suite 2.3 System 2 System 3 IT Infrastructure
  • 66. Development Releases -  and  • Managed by development • Must not affect live services • Should not require production resources • Customer agreement obtained • Usage covered in SLAs • Must not replace live systems • Must be licensed
  • 67. Normal Release - Full • All components built, tested, distributed & implemented together • Better integrated testing • Easier to detect & rectify problems • Complex & will require more resources
  • 68. Normal Release -  • Partial release • Contains only new or changed items • Not as stable as full releases • Authorisation of a delta release depends on: – Size of a full release compared to the delta – Urgency of required facilities – Number of changes already made – Potential business impact – Available resources
  • 69. Normal Release – Package • Combination of release units • Reduces number and frequency of releases • Better integration and testing • Less old or incompatible software • Could result in delays to fixes or enhancements • Greater potential for disruption
  • 71. Urgent Releases • Disruptive and error prone • Often used to bypass Change Management • Controls are essential – Use software from the DSL – Software must be replaced through the DSL – Must follow Change Management – CMDB must be updated – Version control – Testing and documentation – Give notice
  • 72. Back-Out Plan • Documents actions that will restore service • Still part of change • Two approaches – A full reversal of release – Contingency plans to restore as much as possible • Should be verified and tested
  • 74. Configuration Management Database (CMDB) & Software Library ReleasePolicy ReleasePlanning Design&develop,or order&purchase software Build&configurethe Release Fit-for-purpose testing ReleaseAcceptance Roll-outplanning Communication Preparation&training Distribution& installation Development Environment Controlled Test Environment Live Environment Release Management
  • 75. Release Policy • Basis of subsequent activities • Management roles & responsibilities
  • 76. Release Planning • Agreeing release content • Planning phases of releases • Produce schedule • Assess hardware at target site • Plan resource requirements • Obtain quotes if upgrades are required • Produce back out plans • Develop quality plan • Plan acceptance of support groups
  • 77. Designing, Building & Configuring • Components assembled in controlled process • All components of release should be under Configuration control
  • 78. Testing & Release Acceptance • Before going to live • Types of testing – Functional testing – Operational testing – Performance testing – Integration testing – Testing & back out plans • Final acceptance & sign off – part of Change • Rejection treated as failed change
  • 79. Rollout Planning • Wholesale / “big bang” • Phased roll outs – Geographical – Functional – Technological – Combination
  • 80. Communication, Preparation & Training • Support staff & customers • Training • Parallel working • Involvement in acceptance process • Rollout planning meetings
  • 81. Distribution & Installation • Distribution – Equipment reaches destination in time & in tact – Secure Storage Areas – Checked against relevant documentation – Final check before implementation • Installation – Functional checks of equipment – Automate deployment – Installation routines – Include check of target – User checklists?
  • 82. Software ordered Software developed and supplied Acceptance checks OK? Rectification Action No Software placed in DSL Final approval Package built in test environment Operational acceptance testing OK? No Build in live environment Distribute to live environment Implemented on live environment C M D B Normal Flow of software
  • 83. Benefits, Costs & Problems
  • 84. Business Benefits • Minimum disruption • Better quality of service • Fewer & less frequent releases • Effective scheduling of users for testing • Overall reduction in business risk • Business knows what to expect & can plan
  • 85. Financial Benefits • Assets more controlled • Less time & resources spent on rework • More responsive to revenue producing opportunities • Prevention of duplication of activities
  • 86. IT Benefits • Consistent quality of releases • Centralised control • Improved quality and control of changes • Effective planning of staff activities • Number of regressions are reduced • Easier detection of unauthorised and incorrect versions • Less blame shifting
  • 87. Costs • Storage costs • Build , test and archive environments • Secure equipment stores • Software distribution tools • Network bandwidth • Telecommunications • Staff and training
  • 88. Problems • Circumvention of procedures • Emergency fixes • Distribution of builds directly from development • Uncoordinated implementation of Software and Hardware • Resources not available for testing • Test results are invalid • Process is seen to be unclear or bureaucratic
  • 89. Relationships • Configuration Management • Change Management • Problem Management • Service Desk • Project Management • Developers and suppliers
  • 91. The Service Desk Structure not a process • Drive & improve service to the business • Single point of contact – Advice – Guidance – Rapid restoration to service
  • 92. Role of the Service Desk • Supports the incident & problem management function • Provide a central point of contact – Preventing the same incident being reported to different people over & over – Preventing the loss of incidents – Preventing technical people being disrupted – Preventing unnecessary work if already known error
  • 93. Objectives • Single point of contact for reporting of incidents • Accurately record information about incidents • Co-ordinate activities to restore service to normal • Support the incident & problem management functions • Provide management information • Provide support & advice to business
  • 94. Key Elements & Processes
  • 95. Service Desk Functions • Log Incident • Pre-scan phase – Not Known Error – Proper procedure have been followed – Required supporting evidence is complete & present • Incident Management • Service Desk remains responsible • Responsible for escalation • Regularly feeds back to user
  • 96. Service Desk & Change Management • Log Changes & cross reference to problems • Issue change schedules • Monitor & track changes & assist with escalation • Inform users of change once complete & update change schedules
  • 97. Common Features of Service Desks • A single point of contact for all users • A central log of all incidents • Each incident uniquely numbered and date/time stamped • Diagnostic scripts and other aids • Configuration Management Support Tools • Known Error Lists • An impact coding system
  • 98. Common Features of Service Desks • Automatic escalation procedures based on impact, priority and elapsed time • Telephone and electronic mail communication with all support staff • Interface to Service Level Agreements • Regular progress reporting • Classification of incidents at call closure • Regular management summaries of calls received and resolved
  • 100. Local Service Desk • Local desk meeting local needs • Support staff also local • Becomes impractical with multiple locations • Several local desks – operational standards • Common processes across all locations
  • 101. Local Service Desk Local User Local User Local User Third Party Support Network & Operations Support Application Support Desktop Support Service Desk First line Support
  • 102. Centralised Service Desk Customer Site 1 Customer Site 2 Customer Site 3 Third Party Support Network & Operations Support Application Support Desktop Support Service Desk Second Line Support
  • 103. Modem Virtual Service Desk Paris Service Desk Sydney Service Desk Modem Third Party Supplier Service Desk Cape Town Service Desk Local Users LAN Service Management Database(s) London Service Desk Toronto Service Desk fax LAN Durban Service Desk User Site ‘n’User Site I Telephone Local Users Remote Users
  • 104. Virtual Desks • Physical location immaterial • Used for global organisation • Benefits include – Reduced operational costs – Consolidated management overview – Improved usage of available skills – Knowledge sharing • Onsite assistance still required
  • 105. Outsourcing • Have outsourcers use your Service Desk tool • Keep ownership of management information • Ensure suitably skilled staff • Request details of staff • Monitor value for money • Check supplier dependencies • Ensure deliverables are clearly understood
  • 107. Staff Profiles • Understanding of business • Understanding of IT Infrastructure • Exceptional interpersonal skills
  • 108. Technically Unskilled Staff • Centralised Service Desks • Emphasis on interpersonal skills • Large call volumes, little support • Administrates and coordinates calls • Relies on diagnostic scripts and other tools • Technical staff are not distracted or demotivated • No in-depth support • Potential job satisfaction is high
  • 109. Technically Skilled Staff • Lower call volumes, greater support • Longer call times • May become to involved in technical aspects • Job satisfaction issues • Customer satisfaction issues • Peak time staffing issues • Familiarity breeds contempt
  • 110. Expert Staff • Resolve all calls • Staff are more important than procedures • Will play the role of technical departments
  • 112. Definition of an Incident Any event which is not part of the standard operation of a service and which causes, or may cause, an interruption to, or reduction in, the quality of that service Includes • New services • Automatically registered events
  • 113. Mission To minimise the impact of service disruptions to the business by restoring that service through effective management of incidents
  • 114. Scope • Inputs – Incident details from service desk – Configuration details – Matched incidents, problems & known errors – Resolution details – RFC • Outputs – RFC for resolution – Resolved & closed incidents – Communication to Customers – Management information
  • 115. Objectives • Restoration of service as quickly as possible • Ensure timely resolution of all incidents • Identify trends that may assist in incident resolution • Assist problem management in identifying trends
  • 117. Incident Handling • Service Desk owns Incidents • Progress reporting • Incident Lifecycles – New – Accepted / Assigned – Scheduled – WIP – On Hold / Waiting – Resolved – Closed
  • 118. Levels of Support • 1st line Support – Service Desk • 2nd Line Support – Incident Management • 3rd Line Support – Specialist Group
  • 119. Key Concepts (cont.) • Ownership & Communication – Monitor status against open Incidents – Incidents passed between support groups – Affected users are kept informed – Check for similar Incidents – Incidents that are likely to exceed SLA times • Escalation – Functional Escalation – Hierarchical Escalation
  • 120. Classification • Category Operating System Application Financials Line Network Connection Modem Monitor Mouse Hardware Printer Terminal Connector Software Network
  • 121. Impact Code IMPACT CODE DESCRIPTION TARGET RESOLUTION TIME High Major service unavailable Many Users affected 1 Hour Medium Customer terminal or printer down Cannot function 4 Hours Low Customer terminal or printer experiencing intermittent failure 8 Hours
  • 122. Key Concepts (cont.) • Incidents, Problems and Known Errors – Incidents are events or occurences that degrade or disrupt a Service – A problem is the underlying cause of one or more incidents that have not yet been diagnosed – Known Errors are • Problems that have been diagnosed and have not yet been rectified • Problems that have been diagnosed and for which a resolution or circumvention exists
  • 124. Reasons for classification • Identifying the service the Incident is related to • Associate the Incident with the SLA • Selecting the most suitable support team • Indication of the impact and/or severity • Match Incidents to Known Errors • Determine a reporting structure Incident detecting & recording Initial classification & support Service Request Service Request Procedure •Service Desk •System Monitoring tools •Capturing base & initial data•Diagnostic Scripts •Known Error Database •Skill Levels •Knowledge base and/or expert software
  • 125. Incident detecting & recording Initial classification & support Service Request Investigation & diagnosis Resolution & recovery Incident Closure Service Request Procedure Ownership,monitoring,trackingand communication • Support group accepts assignment • Advise if work around can be provided • Attempt resolution • Record all details
  • 126. • Monitor status against open Incidents • Incidents passed between support groups • Affected users are kept informed • Check for similar Incidents • Incidents likely to exceed SLA times • Escalation Ownership,monitoring,trackingand communication
  • 127. Incident detecting & recording Initial classification & support Service Request Investigation & diagnosis Resolution & recovery Service Request Procedure Ownership,monitoring,trackingand communication Incident Closure
  • 128. Incident CMDB Incident, Problem & KE databases Diagnostic data system dumps and journals Support staff allocation Basic fact gathering Enquiries on historical data Support staff allocation Allocate further support Incident Closure Diagnosis/ Circumventions? Escalation threshold exceeded Liaise with Problem Management to create Problem or Known Error record where appropriate Who, When • Results? • Correlations • Dumps, ID’s etc • Diagnosis and resolution/ circumvention action • What, why when? • When Incident progress summary Free Format text record Diagnostic data search Y Y N N
  • 130. Mission To minimise the disruption of IT services by organising IT resources to resolve problems, preventing them from recurring and recording information that will improve the way in which IT deals with problems, resulting in higher levels of availability and productivity.
  • 131. Scope • Reactive – Solving problems in response to incidents • Proactive – Solving problems before incidents occur The main goal of Problem Management is the detection of the underlying causes of an incident and their subsequent resolution and prevention
  • 132. Objectives • Identify, manage and resolve problems • Prevents recurrence of problems • Reduce the number and severity of problems • Minimise impact to business • Ensure right level of staff • Record & manage information • Ensure vendor compliance when resolving problems
  • 134. Problem V Error Control Problem Control Transforms Problems into Known Errors Error control Resolving Known Errors via the Change Management process
  • 136. Problem Control Problem Identification Problem Classification Problem Investigation and diagnose
  • 137. Problem Identification • Initial support could not match the Incident to a known problem • Analysis of Incidents • Analysis of IT infrastructure • Significant or Major Incidents
  • 138. Problem Classification • Impact – Direct effect on the business • Urgency – The measure of business criticality based on impact and business need • Priority – The order in which a series of items should be addressed – P=I x S x U
  • 139. Defining Priority Priority – sequence in which an Incident or Problem needs to be resolved Impact – measure of the business criticality of an incident Severity – what is the effect on the infrastructure / resources? Urgency – extent to which the resolution of a Problem or error can bear delay Priority = Impact Severity Urgencyx xP = I S Ux x
  • 140. Investigation & Diagnosis • Diagnosis of root cause • Update of problem record • May reclassify at closure • Methods of problem Analysis
  • 142. Error Control Activities Error identification & recording Error assesment Error resolution recording Error closure Error resolution monitoring
  • 143. Error Identification • Identification of root cause • Identification of work around • Two sources of known errors – Problem control – Development
  • 144. Error Assessment • Assessment of resolution – Priority, impact & urgency • Logging of change
  • 145. Error Resolution Recording • Resolution recording – Known error database • Data on all CIs are available for incident matching
  • 146. Error Closure • Closed together with any Incidents • Resolved or Closed Pending on review
  • 147. Error Resolution monitoring – Not responsible for RFCs – Monitor progress – Escalate through CAB if necessary
  • 149. Proactive Problem Management • Identifying and resolving problems before incidents occur • Activities include: – Trend Analysis – Targeting support action – Providing information to business