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INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 
1
INDUSTRIAL REVOLITION 
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION WAS THE TIME PERIOD WHICH TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 17THAND 18THCENTURY . 
STARTED IN BRITAIN AND SPREAD THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. 
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION WAS THE TRANSITION TO NEW MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. THIS TRANSITION INCLUDED GOING FROM HAND PRODUCTION METHODS TO MACHINES, NEW CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING AND IRON PRODUCTION PROCESSES, IMPROVED EFFICIENCY OF WATER POWER, THE INCREASINGUSE OF STEAM POWER AND DEVELOPMENT OF MACHINE TOOLS 
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MAJOR INVENTIONS 
THE STEAM ENGINE : INVENTED BY JAMES WATT IN 1785, WHOSE PROLIFERATION INTO NEWLY BUILT MACHINE SHOP AND IRON FOUNDRIES ENGENDERED AN APPROPRIATE TYPE OF BUILDING. STEAM ENGINE LEADS TO INVENTION OF STEAM SHIP , STEAM LOCOMOTIVES. 
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RAILWAY-A MEANINGFUL SYMBOL OF THE NEW AGE WHICH IN TURN HAD CONSEQUENCES FOR ARCHITECTURE - STATIONS, BRIDGES, TUNNELS 
THE STEAM BOAT: AN IMPORTANT MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION WHICH IN TURN HAD CONSEQUENCES FOR MASS MIGRATION FROM ACROSS THE GLOBE. 
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DEVELOPMENT IN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM 
ROADS, RAILWAYS AND CANALS WERE BUILT. 
CANALS-CANALS BEGAN TO BE BUILT IN THE LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY TO LINK MAJOR MANUFACTURING CENTRES 
RAIL ROAD -THE CONSTRUCTION OF MAJOR RAILWAYS CONNECTINGTHE LARGER CITIES AND TOWNS 5
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INVENTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS 
.CAST IRON, AN ESSENTIALLY BRITTLE MATERIAL, IS APPROXIMATELY FOUR TIMES AS RESISTANT TO COMPRESSION AS STONE. 
WROUGHT IRON, WHICH IS FORTY TIMES AS RESISTANT TO TENSION AND BENDING AS STONE, IS ONLY FOUR TIMES HEAVIER. IT CAN BE FORM AND MOLDED INTO ANY SHAPE. 
GLASS CAN BE MANUFACTURED IN LARGER SIZES AND VOLUMES. 
SOLID STRUCTURES COULD BE REPLACED BY SKELETON STRUCTURES, MAKING IT POSSIBLE TO ERECT BUILDINGS OF ALMOST UNRESTRICTED HEIGHT. 
BUILDINGS COULD BE CONSTRUCTED INTO ANY SHAPE AND IN SHORT TIME. 
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CRYSTAL PALACE 
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EIFFEL TOWER 
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THE IRON RAILROAD STATION 
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Why Was it Started? 
Industrial Revolution as, “a widespread replacement of manual labor by machines that began in Britain in the 18th century.” 
People did not want to do their work manually for the rest of their lives. 
Somewhere around 75% of the British made their money from farming. In the winter when they couldn't farm they worked with the wool from their sheep to make cloth. This was called the cottage industry. This was one thing that caused the Industrial Revolution. 11
Why did the Industrial Revolution first start in England by the 1780s? 
The factors are : 
Geographic factors-As an island separated from, and yet close to, the European continent, England enjoyed a geographical situation that was favorable in several ways. Political factors-Government was ready to provide conditions in which trade, industry, banking and farming for profit could flourish. The best single condition it provided was laissez-faire -no government interference with private businesses. 
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Economic factors– 
Internally, the purchasing power of the people was generally greater than that of other peoples. 
Externally, the rapidly increasing trade stimulated the production of cheap manufactured goodsin England. Technological factors-Before and during the Industrial Revolution, several technological processes converged: 
tool improvement, use of coal as fuel, greatly increased use of iron, and use of steam power. 
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Population increase 
At the start of the 19th Century about 1/5 of Britain’s population lived there, but by 1851 half the population of the country had set up home in London. 
The population of England had more than doubled from 8.3 million in 1801 to 16.8 million in 1851 and, by 1901, had nearly doubled again to 30.5 million. 
Europe’s population doubled during the 18th century, from roughly 100 million to almost 200 million, and doubled again during the 19th century, to around 400 million. 14
What Was the Effect on Agriculture 
Farmers that had always done everything by hand were now using machines in their fields. 
With all of the machines not as many farm workers were needed so they had to move to cities to find work. 
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The Iron Bridge 
The Iron Rail Road Station 
The Iron Market Place 
The Iron Commercial Buildings 
The Iron Cultural and Religious Buildings 
The Iron Exhibition Buildings 
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Brooklyn Bridge, Brooklyn, New York 1869-1883 
Clifton Suspension Bridge, Bristol, England 1836-1864 
Tower Bridge London 
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BROOKLYN BRIDGE, BROOKLYN, NEW YORK ,1869-1883; JOHN AUGUSTUS ROEBLING 18
BROOKLYN BRIDGE, BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, 1869-1883; JOHN AUGUSTUS ROEBLING 
Length -5,989 feet 
Distance of roadbed above water-135 feet 
Bridge Style - Suspension Bridge. Tower Structure - Stone masonry 
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Conclusions 
Style=Gothic piers, Structural Expressionist cables and bridge deck 
Date=1869 to 1883 
Location=East River. Park Row, Manhattan to Adams Street, Brooklyn. 
Architect=John Augustus Roebling, completed by son, Washington Augustus Roebling 
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TOWER BRIDGE, LONDON, 1886-1894, SIR HORACE JONES 
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Conclusions 
It was opened by Edward 7th when he was Prince of Wales 
8 years in construction, using 5 major contractors and over 400 labourers. 
completed and opened in the year 1894. 
two piers were sunk into the river bed to support the weight of the bridge. 
A massive 11,000 tons of steel used for the walkways and towers. 
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Central Railroad Station, New Castle on tyne, England, 1846-55 
St. Pancreas Station, London 
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CENTRAL RAILROAD STATION, NEW CASTLE ON TYNE, ENGLAND, 1846-55; JOHN DOBSON 
The National Rail station has 12 platforms 
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ST. PANCRAS STATION, LONDON, 1864-68; WILLIAM H. BARLOW, 
R.M. ORDISH 
Height (architectural) = 82.30 m 
Floors above ground = 6 25
26 
ST. PANCRAS STATION, LONDON, 1864-68; WILLIAM H. BARLOW, R.M. ORDISH
Conclusions 
It was designed by William Henry Barlow and building work started in 1863 
The station which has a single span roof of 243 feet 
length of 689 ft 
100 ft above ground 
four Type AF High Friction Clamps fixing is used for roof 
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Covered Market , Berlin 1865-1868 
City Market Hall, Paris 
Galleria VittoroEmmanuel II, Milan 
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COVERED MARKET, BERLIN, 1865-1868; FRIEDRICH HITZIG 
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GALLERIA VITTOROEMMANUEL II MILAN, 1865- 67, GUISEPPE MEGONI 30
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GALLERIA VITTOROEMMANUEL II MILAN, 1865-67, GUISEPPE MEGONI
GALLERIA VITTORO, EMMANUEL II MILAN, 1865-67, GUISEPPE MEGNONI 
32
GALLERIA VITTORO, EMMANUEL II MILAN, 1865-67, GUISEPPE MEGNONI 
33
Conclusions 
it was originally designed in 1861 and built by Giuseppe Mengonibetween 1865 and 1877. 
The street is covered over by an arching glass and cast iron roof, a popular design for nineteenth-century arcades 
The central octagonal space is topped with a glass dome 
34
MchierFactory, Noisel-sur-marne 
Bradbury Building, Los Angles, California 
Commodities Exchange, Amsterdam 
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MENIER FACTORY, NOISEL-SUR-MARNE , FRANCE, 1871-1872, JULES SAULNIER 
36
THE BRADBURY BUILDING, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, 1889-93; GEORGE H WYMAN 
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THE BRADBURY BUILDING, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, 1889-93; GEORGE H WYMAN 
38
Conclusions 
The Bradbury Buildingis an architectural landmark in Los Angeles, California 
Built:1893 
Architect:George H. Wyman 
Architecturalstyle(s):Italian Renaissance Revival, Romanesque Revival 
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THE COMMODITIES EXCHANGE, AMSTERDAM, 1897 TO 1909, HENDRIK PETRUS BERLAGE. 
40
THE COMMODITIES EXCHANGE, AMSTERDAM, 1897 TO 1909, HENDRIK PETRUS BERLAGE. 
41
Conclusions 
Architect HendrikPetrusBerlage 
Location Amsterdam, The Netherlands 
Date 1897 to 1909 
Building Type commercial trading room, stock exchange 
ConstructionSystem brick bearing masonry with iron trusses for glazed roof 
42
Paris Opera, Paris, Charles Garnier 
Museum of Natural History, England 
Corn Exchange, Leads Cuthbert Brodick 
43
PARIS OPERA, PARIS, 1857-74, CHARLES GARNIER 
44
PARIS OPERA, PARIS, 1857-74, CHARLES GARNIER 
45
Conclusions 
Architect Charles Garnier 
Location Paris, France 
Date 1857 to 1874 
Building Type theater, opera house 
ConstructionSystem masonry, cut stone 
Style Neo-Baroque 
46
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, ENGLAND, 1860-1880, ALFRED WATERHOUSE 
Style = Romanesque 47
CORN EXCHANGE ,LEADS, 1860-63, CUTHBERT BRODICK 
48
Conclusions 
Architectural style Victorian 
Location Leeds, West Yorkshire, England 
Completed 1864 
Renovated 1990, 2008 
Architect Cuthbert Broderick 
Grade I Structure 
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WHAT WOULD BE TODAY’S WORLD IF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION WOULD NOT HAVE TAKEN PLACE ??? 
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Thank you 
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Industrial Revolution (Architectural)

  • 2. INDUSTRIAL REVOLITION INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION WAS THE TIME PERIOD WHICH TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 17THAND 18THCENTURY . STARTED IN BRITAIN AND SPREAD THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION WAS THE TRANSITION TO NEW MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. THIS TRANSITION INCLUDED GOING FROM HAND PRODUCTION METHODS TO MACHINES, NEW CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING AND IRON PRODUCTION PROCESSES, IMPROVED EFFICIENCY OF WATER POWER, THE INCREASINGUSE OF STEAM POWER AND DEVELOPMENT OF MACHINE TOOLS 2
  • 3. MAJOR INVENTIONS THE STEAM ENGINE : INVENTED BY JAMES WATT IN 1785, WHOSE PROLIFERATION INTO NEWLY BUILT MACHINE SHOP AND IRON FOUNDRIES ENGENDERED AN APPROPRIATE TYPE OF BUILDING. STEAM ENGINE LEADS TO INVENTION OF STEAM SHIP , STEAM LOCOMOTIVES. 3
  • 4. RAILWAY-A MEANINGFUL SYMBOL OF THE NEW AGE WHICH IN TURN HAD CONSEQUENCES FOR ARCHITECTURE - STATIONS, BRIDGES, TUNNELS THE STEAM BOAT: AN IMPORTANT MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION WHICH IN TURN HAD CONSEQUENCES FOR MASS MIGRATION FROM ACROSS THE GLOBE. 4
  • 5. DEVELOPMENT IN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ROADS, RAILWAYS AND CANALS WERE BUILT. CANALS-CANALS BEGAN TO BE BUILT IN THE LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY TO LINK MAJOR MANUFACTURING CENTRES RAIL ROAD -THE CONSTRUCTION OF MAJOR RAILWAYS CONNECTINGTHE LARGER CITIES AND TOWNS 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. INVENTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS .CAST IRON, AN ESSENTIALLY BRITTLE MATERIAL, IS APPROXIMATELY FOUR TIMES AS RESISTANT TO COMPRESSION AS STONE. WROUGHT IRON, WHICH IS FORTY TIMES AS RESISTANT TO TENSION AND BENDING AS STONE, IS ONLY FOUR TIMES HEAVIER. IT CAN BE FORM AND MOLDED INTO ANY SHAPE. GLASS CAN BE MANUFACTURED IN LARGER SIZES AND VOLUMES. SOLID STRUCTURES COULD BE REPLACED BY SKELETON STRUCTURES, MAKING IT POSSIBLE TO ERECT BUILDINGS OF ALMOST UNRESTRICTED HEIGHT. BUILDINGS COULD BE CONSTRUCTED INTO ANY SHAPE AND IN SHORT TIME. 7
  • 10. THE IRON RAILROAD STATION 10
  • 11. Why Was it Started? Industrial Revolution as, “a widespread replacement of manual labor by machines that began in Britain in the 18th century.” People did not want to do their work manually for the rest of their lives. Somewhere around 75% of the British made their money from farming. In the winter when they couldn't farm they worked with the wool from their sheep to make cloth. This was called the cottage industry. This was one thing that caused the Industrial Revolution. 11
  • 12. Why did the Industrial Revolution first start in England by the 1780s? The factors are : Geographic factors-As an island separated from, and yet close to, the European continent, England enjoyed a geographical situation that was favorable in several ways. Political factors-Government was ready to provide conditions in which trade, industry, banking and farming for profit could flourish. The best single condition it provided was laissez-faire -no government interference with private businesses. 12
  • 13. Economic factors– Internally, the purchasing power of the people was generally greater than that of other peoples. Externally, the rapidly increasing trade stimulated the production of cheap manufactured goodsin England. Technological factors-Before and during the Industrial Revolution, several technological processes converged: tool improvement, use of coal as fuel, greatly increased use of iron, and use of steam power. 13
  • 14. Population increase At the start of the 19th Century about 1/5 of Britain’s population lived there, but by 1851 half the population of the country had set up home in London. The population of England had more than doubled from 8.3 million in 1801 to 16.8 million in 1851 and, by 1901, had nearly doubled again to 30.5 million. Europe’s population doubled during the 18th century, from roughly 100 million to almost 200 million, and doubled again during the 19th century, to around 400 million. 14
  • 15. What Was the Effect on Agriculture Farmers that had always done everything by hand were now using machines in their fields. With all of the machines not as many farm workers were needed so they had to move to cities to find work. 15
  • 16. The Iron Bridge The Iron Rail Road Station The Iron Market Place The Iron Commercial Buildings The Iron Cultural and Religious Buildings The Iron Exhibition Buildings 16
  • 17. Brooklyn Bridge, Brooklyn, New York 1869-1883 Clifton Suspension Bridge, Bristol, England 1836-1864 Tower Bridge London 17
  • 18. BROOKLYN BRIDGE, BROOKLYN, NEW YORK ,1869-1883; JOHN AUGUSTUS ROEBLING 18
  • 19. BROOKLYN BRIDGE, BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, 1869-1883; JOHN AUGUSTUS ROEBLING Length -5,989 feet Distance of roadbed above water-135 feet Bridge Style - Suspension Bridge. Tower Structure - Stone masonry 19
  • 20. Conclusions Style=Gothic piers, Structural Expressionist cables and bridge deck Date=1869 to 1883 Location=East River. Park Row, Manhattan to Adams Street, Brooklyn. Architect=John Augustus Roebling, completed by son, Washington Augustus Roebling 20
  • 21. TOWER BRIDGE, LONDON, 1886-1894, SIR HORACE JONES 21
  • 22. Conclusions It was opened by Edward 7th when he was Prince of Wales 8 years in construction, using 5 major contractors and over 400 labourers. completed and opened in the year 1894. two piers were sunk into the river bed to support the weight of the bridge. A massive 11,000 tons of steel used for the walkways and towers. 22
  • 23. Central Railroad Station, New Castle on tyne, England, 1846-55 St. Pancreas Station, London 23
  • 24. CENTRAL RAILROAD STATION, NEW CASTLE ON TYNE, ENGLAND, 1846-55; JOHN DOBSON The National Rail station has 12 platforms 24
  • 25. ST. PANCRAS STATION, LONDON, 1864-68; WILLIAM H. BARLOW, R.M. ORDISH Height (architectural) = 82.30 m Floors above ground = 6 25
  • 26. 26 ST. PANCRAS STATION, LONDON, 1864-68; WILLIAM H. BARLOW, R.M. ORDISH
  • 27. Conclusions It was designed by William Henry Barlow and building work started in 1863 The station which has a single span roof of 243 feet length of 689 ft 100 ft above ground four Type AF High Friction Clamps fixing is used for roof 27
  • 28. Covered Market , Berlin 1865-1868 City Market Hall, Paris Galleria VittoroEmmanuel II, Milan 28
  • 29. COVERED MARKET, BERLIN, 1865-1868; FRIEDRICH HITZIG 29
  • 30. GALLERIA VITTOROEMMANUEL II MILAN, 1865- 67, GUISEPPE MEGONI 30
  • 31. 31 GALLERIA VITTOROEMMANUEL II MILAN, 1865-67, GUISEPPE MEGONI
  • 32. GALLERIA VITTORO, EMMANUEL II MILAN, 1865-67, GUISEPPE MEGNONI 32
  • 33. GALLERIA VITTORO, EMMANUEL II MILAN, 1865-67, GUISEPPE MEGNONI 33
  • 34. Conclusions it was originally designed in 1861 and built by Giuseppe Mengonibetween 1865 and 1877. The street is covered over by an arching glass and cast iron roof, a popular design for nineteenth-century arcades The central octagonal space is topped with a glass dome 34
  • 35. MchierFactory, Noisel-sur-marne Bradbury Building, Los Angles, California Commodities Exchange, Amsterdam 35
  • 36. MENIER FACTORY, NOISEL-SUR-MARNE , FRANCE, 1871-1872, JULES SAULNIER 36
  • 37. THE BRADBURY BUILDING, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, 1889-93; GEORGE H WYMAN 37
  • 38. THE BRADBURY BUILDING, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, 1889-93; GEORGE H WYMAN 38
  • 39. Conclusions The Bradbury Buildingis an architectural landmark in Los Angeles, California Built:1893 Architect:George H. Wyman Architecturalstyle(s):Italian Renaissance Revival, Romanesque Revival 39
  • 40. THE COMMODITIES EXCHANGE, AMSTERDAM, 1897 TO 1909, HENDRIK PETRUS BERLAGE. 40
  • 41. THE COMMODITIES EXCHANGE, AMSTERDAM, 1897 TO 1909, HENDRIK PETRUS BERLAGE. 41
  • 42. Conclusions Architect HendrikPetrusBerlage Location Amsterdam, The Netherlands Date 1897 to 1909 Building Type commercial trading room, stock exchange ConstructionSystem brick bearing masonry with iron trusses for glazed roof 42
  • 43. Paris Opera, Paris, Charles Garnier Museum of Natural History, England Corn Exchange, Leads Cuthbert Brodick 43
  • 44. PARIS OPERA, PARIS, 1857-74, CHARLES GARNIER 44
  • 45. PARIS OPERA, PARIS, 1857-74, CHARLES GARNIER 45
  • 46. Conclusions Architect Charles Garnier Location Paris, France Date 1857 to 1874 Building Type theater, opera house ConstructionSystem masonry, cut stone Style Neo-Baroque 46
  • 47. MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, ENGLAND, 1860-1880, ALFRED WATERHOUSE Style = Romanesque 47
  • 48. CORN EXCHANGE ,LEADS, 1860-63, CUTHBERT BRODICK 48
  • 49. Conclusions Architectural style Victorian Location Leeds, West Yorkshire, England Completed 1864 Renovated 1990, 2008 Architect Cuthbert Broderick Grade I Structure 49
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  • 55. 55
  • 56. 56
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  • 58. 58
  • 59. 59
  • 60. WHAT WOULD BE TODAY’S WORLD IF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION WOULD NOT HAVE TAKEN PLACE ??? 60
  • 61. 61
  • 62. 62
  • 63. 63
  • 64. 64
  • 65. 65
  • 66. 66
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  • 69. 69