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EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION
DETAILS
Various types and construction details of foundation, soil
stabilization, retaining walls, underground and overhead tanks,
staircases and isolation of structures
UTKARSH SHAKYA (11601)
SAHIL KAUNDAL (11602)
B.Arch. ,7th
Sem.
National Institute of Technology Hamirpur
1
CONTENTS
1. Why earthquake resistant construction details?? (Introduction)
2. Various types and construction details of foundation.
3. Soil stabilization
4. Retaining walls
5. Underground and overhead tanks
6. Staircases and isolation of structures
2 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
Why Earthquake resistant
construction??
 India is a large country. Nearly two thirds of
its area is earthquake prone. A large part of
rural and urban buildings are low-rise
buildings of one two three storeys. Many of
them may not be adequately designed from
engineers trained in earthquake engineering.
Most loss of life and property due to
earthquakes occur due to collapse of
buildings. The number of dwelling units and
other related small-scale constructions might
double in the next two decades in India and
other developing countries of the world. This
amplifies the need for a simple engineering
approach to make such buildings
earthquake resistant at a reasonably low
cost.
3 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
4 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
Various types and construction
details of foundation
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6 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
7 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
Types of Foundations:
Stone Masonry Foundation
8 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
Brick Masonry Foundation
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Concrete Block Masonry Foundation
- In case of loose soil, provide some nominal
reinforcement in foundation bed concrete.
- If stone soling is used under foundation
reduce the thickness of foundation strip to 3”.
- The vertical steel bars indicated in the
foundations are to be provided at corners and
junction of walls as explained in the later
sections.
10 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
Foundations
One of the most frequent causes of deterioration of the walls of a house is their direct
contact with the ground humid thus making them vulnerable in the event of an
earthquake.
Example: ground sloping towards the wall,
unstable and poor quality foundations and
wall bases, prone to settling due to the effect
of humidity and the inferior quality of the
ground.
11 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
Alternative 1: Cleaning & Drainage
If after an earthquake the wall has cracks in certain
sections
and the bricks are in a satisfactory state we must
eliminate the
earth which covers the wall base, and level out the
ground a
minimum of 100mm below the wall base.
Alternative 2: Demolition & Reconstruction
If after an earthquake the base of the wall has become
loose,
if there are cracks in the entire wall and sinking which
makes
the wall unstable and dangerous, we must then:
Dismantle it
after propping it up and build a new wall from the
foundations.
12 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
WOOD FRAMED WALLS
Foundations
Timber construction shall preferably start above the plinth level, the portion below
being in masonry or concrete. The superstructure may be connected with the foundation
in one of the two ways:
A) The superstructure may simply rest on the plinth masonry, or in the case of
small buildings of one storey having plan area less than 50 sq.m., it may rest
on firm plane ground so that the building is free to slide laterally during ground
motion
B) The superstructure may be rigidly fixed into the plinth masonry or concrete
foundation as shown in fig.13.1 or in case of small buildings it may be fixed to
vertical poles embedded into the ground.
Details of connection of column
with foundation
13 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
Wall Footings
Pier Post and Column Footings
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SHALLOW FOUNDATION - Spread Footings: Single footing, Stepped footin
Spread footings are those which spread the
super-imposed load of wall or column over a
larger area. Spread footings support either a
colunm or wall. Spread footings may be of the
following kinds:
(i) Single footing [ Fig. 2.2(a)] for a column
(ii) Stepped footing [ Fig. 2.2(b)] for a column
(iii) Sloped footing [ Fig. 2.2(c)] for a column
(iv) Wall footing without step [ Fig. 2.3(a)]
(v) Stepped footing for wall [ Fig. 2.3(b)]
(vi) Grillage foundation [ Fig. 2.4]
15 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
Fig. 2.2 SPREAD FOOTINGS FOR COLUMNS.
Fig. 2.2 (a) shows a single footing for a column, in which
the loaded area (b x b) of the column has been spread to the size
B x B through a single spread. The base is generally made of concrete.
Fig. 2.2 (b) shows the stepped footing for a heavily loaded column,
which requires greater spread. The base of the column is made of
concrete. Fig. 2.2 (c) shows the case in which the concrete base does
not have uniform thickness, but is made sloped, with greater thickness
at its junction with the column and smaler thickness at the ends.
FIG. 2.3 SPREAD FOOTING FOR WALL : STRIP
FOOTING.
Fig. 2.3 (a) shows the spread footing for a wall, consisting
of concrete base without any steps. Usually, masonry walls have
stepped footings as shown in Fig. 2.3 (b), with a concrete base
16 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
FIG. 2.4 GRILLAGE FOUNDATION.
Fig. 2.4 shows a steel grillge foundation for a steel stanchion carrying
heavy load. It is a special type of isolated footing generally provided
for heavily loaded steel stanchions and used in these locations where
bearing capacity of soil is poor. The depth of such a foundation is
limited to 1 to 1.5 m. The load of the stanchion is distributed or
spread to a very large area by means of two or mor tiers or rolled
steel joints, each layer being laid at right angle to the layer bellow it.
Both the tiers of the joists are then embeden in cement concrete to
keep the joists in position and to prevent their corrosion.
The detailed method of construction has benn explained in 3.6
Grillage foundation is also constructed of timber beams and planks
(Fig. 3.12 and 3.13)
Ground and Soil Stabilisation
General problems of ground instability
include:
• Landslip
• Surface flooding and soil erosion
• Natural caves and fissures
• Mining and quarrying
• Landfill
• Natural geological variation – faults,
changes in geology – differential settlement
Improving the ground
• There are a number of different methods that
can be used to increase the strength and
stability of the ground.
Ground stabilisation
• Dynamic compaction
• Vibro compaction - Vibro displacement
• Vibro flotation - high pressure water jets (improves
penetration of hard substrates)
• Pressure grouting
• Surcharging
• Geotechnic membranes
• Soil modification and stabilisation
Dynamic compaction
• This involves dropping heavy weights onto the
ground.
• The weight causes the ground to compact.
Dynamic compaction
• Ground is consolidated by repeatedly dropping dead
weights and specially designed tampers
• Weights include: Flat bottomed and cone tampers
• Traditional weights are flat bottomed with cable
• Modern systems use cones with guide rails
• Dynamic compaction is suitable for granular soils,
made-up and fill sites
• Using dynamic compaction bearing capacities of 50
to 150kN/m2
can be achieved
Dynamic
compaction Typical weight (mass) 7-11 tonnes
Tamer drops and exerts known
impact energy on strata
Pass 2 Pass 2Zone compacted
2nd Pass
Zone compacted
1st Pass
Pass 1 Pass 1
Zone compacted
3rd Pass
Sound strata
Pass 1 and
pass 2
Pass 3
50 – 150 kN/m2
Typical bearing
capacity
Required treatment
depth
Typical cone type tampers
(adapted from www.roger-
bullivant.co.uk)
Long cone Flower pot
cone
Multiple point
cone
Used for densifying
deep layers of
strata
Consolidates
strata closer to the
surface
Typical weight (mass) 7-11
tonnes
2.5
m
Traditional
weight
10 – 20 tonnes
Energy does not
penetrate the
ground as much as
the cone weights
Dynamic compaction rig
Vibro compaction or displacement
• Vibrating rods are forced into the ground
causing the surrounding ground to compact
and consolidate.
Vibro compaction or vibro
displacement
• Vibrating mandrels (poker, shaft or rod) penetrates,
displaces and compacts the ground.
• Void Created is filled with stone and recompacted
• Produces stone columns in the ground, compacts
surrounding strata enhancing the ground bearing
capacity and limiting settlement
• Typical applications include support of foundations,
slabs, hard standings, pavements, tanks or
embankments.
Vibro compaction - continued
• Used in soft soils, man made and other strata, can be
reinforced to achieve improved specification
• On slopes it can limit the risk of slip failure.
• Ground bearing capacities, for low to medium rise
buildings and industrial developments, is in the
region of 100kN/m2
to 200kN/m2
.
• Improved ground conditions may allow heavier loads
to be supported.
• Used in granular and cohesive soils
Benefits of vibro-compaction
• Buildings can be supported on conventional
foundations (normally reinforced and shallow
foundations).
• Work can commence immediately following the vibro
displacement. Foundations can be installed straight
away.
• The soil is displaced. No soil is produced.
• Contaminants remain in the ground – reduces disposal
and remediation fees.
• Economical, when compared with piling or deep
excavation works.
• Can be used to regenerate brownfield sites
• Can use reclaimed aggregates and soils.
Vibrofloatation
• Vibro floatation uses a similar process to vibro
compaction
• Water jets at the tip of the poker
• Water jets help the vibrator penetrate hard
layers of ground
• Major disadvantage is that the system is
messy and imprecise, thus rarely used
Vibro displacement - Typical
sequence
2. As the mandrel drives into
the ground the soil is
displaced (surrounding
granular soil is compacted.
1. A grid is marked out and the
vibrating mandrel (poker) is
inserted to the required depth
Vibro displacement - Typical sequence
3. Having reached the engineered
depth the mandrel is withdraw and
hardcore is placed up to the first level.
The hardcore is built up in layers of 0.3
to 0.6m. The mandrel is inserted into the
hardcore, it penetrates and compacts
each layer before the next load of
hardcore is placed
Rigs weighs 14 – 55
tonnes
4. By compacting in layers
and reintroducing the cone
mandrel a dense stone
column is constructed.
Mandrel
positioned ready
to compact and
displace
Ground
displaced
Ground compacted void remains
Void filled with stone
Hardcore is repeatedly displaced and
compacted
Grouting
• Grouting may be used to fill the voids in the
ground increasing the strength of the ground.
Pressure grouting
• In permeable soils, pressure grouting may be used to
fill the voids.
• Holes drilled using mechanically driven augers.
• As the auger is withdrawn cement slurry is forced
down a central tube into the bore under pressure.
• Pressures of up to 70,000 N/mm2
can be exerted by
the grout on the surrounding soil.
• Slurry contains cementious additives, e.g. pulverised
fuel ash (pfa), microsilica, chemical grout, cement or
a mixture.
Soil modification and stabilization
• Machines are available that can break-up the
ground, mix the ground with new cementious
material and improve the ground quality.
Soil modification and recycling
• Additives used in soil stabilisation increase the
strength better, improve compacted and maximise
bearing capacity and minimise settlement.
• The technique can be used to provide stabilised or
modified materials for earthworks, or may be used
to provide permanent load transfer platforms or
hard standings.
• Can be used to treat and neutralise certain
contaminants or encapsulate the contaminants,
removing the need for expensive removal and
disposal.
Soil modification, stabilisation and
recycling machine
Milling and mixing chamber
Working direction
Unstable soil Stable or modified
soil ready for
compaction
Schematic of
soil modification and mixing chamber
The milling and mixing
rotor breaks down soil
and mixes the soil and
additives
Hopper and cellular wheel
sluice spread lime or cement
or other additive
Variable milling and mixing
chamber.
Soil mixture with reduced
water content – ready for
compaction
Working direction
Soil modification and stabilization rig
www. roger-bullivant.co.uk
Soil modification and stabilization
plant
www. roger-bullivant.co.uk
www. roger-bullivant.co.uk
Soil modification and stabilization
plant
www. roger-bullivant.co.uk
Surcharging
• This involves placing heavy loads on the ground for
long periods of time.
• Over time the ground will compact.
• Surcharging is time consuming and ties up the land
• Can be used if long lead-in time available
• Can be used on roads
• May be used on investment land (land bank). The
increase in strength will increase the value of the
land.
Surcharging
• Excavated material, quarried stone or other
heavy loads.
• Settlement and compaction period 6 months
to a few years.
• For economics the surcharging acts as a
temporary storage facility
Geotechnical membranes
• Geotechnical membranes provide a sheet of
reinforcing material that can be added to the
ground. This increases the stability and
tensile strength of the ground.
Geotecnic membrane
Geotechnical membranes
• Natural
• Plastic manmade
• Built up in layers compacted between ground
hardcore
• Sheets, fibres and strips
59
5. Field Compaction Equipment
and Procedures
60
5.1 Equipment
Smooth-wheel roller (drum) • 100% coverage under the wheel
• Contact pressure up to 380 kPa
• Can be used on all soil types
except for rocky soils.
• Compactive effort: static weight
• The most common use of large
smooth wheel rollers is for proof-
rolling subgrades and compacting
asphalt pavement.
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
61
5.1 Equipment (Cont.)
Pneumatic (or rubber-tired) roller • 80% coverage under the wheel
• Contact pressure up to 700 kPa
• Can be used for both granular and
fine-grained soils.
• Compactive effort: static weight
and kneading.
• Can be used for highway fills or
earth dam construction.
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
62
5.1 Equipment (Cont.)
Sheepsfoot rollers • Has many round or rectangular
shaped protrusions or “feet”
attached to a steel drum
• 8% ~ 12 % coverage
• Contact pressure is from 1400 to
7000 kPa
• It is best suited for clayed soils.
• Compactive effort: static weight
and kneading.
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
63
5.1 Equipment (Cont.)
Tamping foot roller • About 40% coverage
• Contact pressure is from 1400 to
8400 kPa
• It is best for compacting fine-
grained soils (silt and clay).
• Compactive effort: static weight
and kneading.
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
64
5.1 Equipment (Cont.)
Mesh (or grid pattern) roller • 50% coverage
• Contact pressure is from 1400 to
6200 kPa
• It is ideally suited for compacting
rocky soils, gravels, and sands.
With high towing speed, the
material is vibrated, crushed, and
impacted.
• Compactive effort: static weight
and vibration.
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
65
5.1 Equipment (Cont.)
Vibrating drum on smooth-wheel
roller
• Vertical vibrator attached to
smooth wheel rollers.
• The best explanation of why roller
vibration causes densification of
granular soils is that particle
rearrangement occurs due to cyclic
deformation of the soil produced
by the oscillations of the roller.
• Compactive effort: static weight
and vibration.
• Suitable for granular soils
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
66
5.1 Equipment-Summary
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
67
5.2 Variables-Vibratory
Compaction
•There are many variables which control the vibratory
compaction or densification of soils.
•Characteristics of the compactor:
•(1) Mass, size
•(2) Operating frequency and frequency range
•Characteristics of the soil:
•(1) Initial density
•(2) Grain size and shape
•(3) Water content
•Construction procedures:
•(1) Number of passes of the roller
•(2) Lift thickness
•(3) Frequency of operation vibrator
•(4) Towing speed Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
68
5.3 Dynamic Compaction
Dynamic compaction was first used in
Germany in the mid-1930’s.
The depth of influence D, in meters, of soil
undergoing compaction is conservatively
given by
D ≈ ½ (Wh)1/2
W = mass of falling weight in metric tons.
h = drop height in meters
From Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
69
5.4 Vibroflotation
From Das, 1998
Vibroflotation is a technique for
in situ densification of thick
layers of loose granular soil
deposits. It was developed in
Germany in the 1930s.
70
5.4 Vibroflotation-Procedures
Stage1: The jet at the bottom of the Vibroflot is turned on and lowered into the ground
Stage2: The water jet creates a quick condition in the soil. It allows the vibrating unit to
sink into the ground
Stage 3: Granular material is poured from the top of the hole. The water from the lower
jet is transferred to he jet at the top of the vibrating unit. This water carries the granular
material down the hole
Stage 4: The vibrating unit is gradually raised in about 0.3-m lifts and held vibrating for
about 30 seconds at each lift. This process compacts the soil to the desired unit weight.
From Das, 1998
71
6. Field Compaction
Control and Specifications
72
6.1 Control Parameters
• Dry density and water content correlate well with the
engineering properties, and thus they are convenient
construction control parameters.
• Since the objective of compaction is to stabilize soils and
improve their engineering behavior, it is important to keep in
mind the desired engineering properties of the fill, not just its
dry density and water content. This point is often lost in the
earthwork construction control.
From Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
73
6.2 Design-Construct Procedures
• Laboratory tests are conducted on samples of the proposed
borrow materials to define the properties required for design.
• After the earth structure is designed, the compaction
specifications are written. Field compaction control tests are
specified, and the results of these become the standard for
controlling the project.
From Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
74
6.3 Specifications
(1) End-product specifications
•This specification is used for most highways and building
foundation, as long as the contractor is able to obtain the
specified relative compaction , how he obtains it doesn’t matter,
nor does the equipment he uses.
•Care the results only !
•(2) Method specifications
•The type and weight of roller, the number of passes of that
roller, as well as the lift thickness are specified. A maximum
allowable size of material may also be specified.
•It is typically used for large compaction project.
From Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
75
6.6.1 Destructive
Methods
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
Methods
(a) Sand cone
(b) Balloon
(c) Oil (or water) method
Calculations
•Know Ms and Vt
•Get ρd field and w (water content)
•Compare ρd field with ρd max-lab and
calculate relative compaction R.C.
(a)
(b)
(c)
76
6.6.1 Destructive Methods (Cont.)
•Sometimes, the laboratory maximum density may not be
known exactly. It is not uncommon, especially in highway
construction, for a series of laboratory compaction tests to be
conducted on “representative” samples of the borrow materials
for the highway. If the soils at the site are highly varied, there
will be no laboratory results to be compared with. It is time
consuming and expensive to conduct a new compaction curve.
The alternative is to implement a field check point, or 1 point
Proctor test.
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
77
6.6.1 Destructive Methods (Cont.)
• The measuring error is mainly from the determination of
the volume of the excavated material.
• For example,
• For the sand cone method, the vibration from nearby working
equipment will increase the density of the sand in the hole, which will
gives a larger hole volume and a lower field density.
• If the compacted fill is gravel or contains large gravel particles. Any
kind of unevenness in the walls of the hole causes a significant error in
the balloon method.
• If the soil is coarse sand or gravel, none of the liquid methods works
well, unless the hole is very large and a polyethylene sheet is used to
contain the water or oil.
tsfieldd V/M=ρ −
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
78
6.6.2 Nondestructive
Methods
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
Nuclear density meter
(a) Direct transmission
(b) Backscatter
(c) Air gap
(a)
(b)
(c)
Principles
Density
The Gamma radiation is scattered by the soil
particles and the amount of scatter is
proportional to the total density of the material.
The Gamma radiation is typically provided by
the radium or a radioactive isotope of cesium.
Water content
The water content can be determined based on
the neutron scatter by hydrogen atoms. Typical
neutron sources are americium-beryllium
isotopes.
79
6.6.2 Nondestructive Methods
(Cont.)
•Calibration
•Calibration against compacted materials of known density is
necessary, and for instruments operating on the surface the
presence of an uncontrolled air gap can significantly affect the
measurements.
80
7. Estimating Performance of
Compacted Soils
81
7.1 Definition of Pavement
Systems
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
STORAGE TANKS
82AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
83 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
In general there are three kinds of water tanks-
1.Tanks resting on ground,
2.Underground tanks and
3.Elevated tanks.
84 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
From design point of view the tanks may be classified as per
their shape-
RECTANGULAR TANKS
CIRCULAR TANKS
INTZE TYPE TANKS
SPHERICAL TANKS
CONICAL BOTTOM TANKS
SUSPENDED BOTTOM TANKS.
85 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
The tanks resting on
ground like clear water
reservoirs, settling tanks,
aeration tanks etc. are
supported on the ground
directly.
• The walls of these tanks are
subjected to pressure and the
base is subjected to weight of
water and pressure of soil.
•The tanks may be covered on
top.
86 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
The tanks like purification tanks,
Imhoff tanks, septic tanks, and
gas holders are built
UNDERGROUND.
1. The walls of these tanks are
subjected to water pressure from
inside and the earth pressure
from outside.
2. The base is subjected to
weight of water and soil
pressure. These tanks may be
covered at the top.
87 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
ELEVATED
TANKS are supported on
staging which may consist of
masonry walls, R.C.C. tower
or R.C.C. columns braced
together. The walls are
subjected to water pressure.
The base has to carry the
load of water and tank load.
The staging has to carry load
of water and tank.
The staging is also designed
for wind forces.
88 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
1. Ground Supported Rectangular
Concrete Tank
89 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
2. Elevated Tank Supported on 4 Column RC
Staging
90 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
3. Elevated Intze Tank Supported on 6
Column RC Staging
91 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
DESIGN OF RCC OVERHEAD WATER TANKS -
TERMINOLOGY -
1. Capacity - Capacity of the tank shall be the volume of water it can
store between the designed full supply level and lowest supply level ( that
is, the level of the lip of the outlet pipe ). Due allowance shall be made
for plastering the tank from inside if any when calculating the capacity of
tank.
2. Height of Staging - Height of staging is the difference between the
lowest supply level of tank and the average ground level at the tank site.
3. Water Depth - Water depth in tank shall be difference of level between
lowest supply level and full supply level of the tank.
92 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
LAYOUT OF OVERHEAD TANKS
Generally the shape and size of elevated concrete tanks for
economical design depends upon the functional requirements
such as:
a) Maximum depth for water;
b) Height of staging;
c) Allowable bearing capacity of foundation strata and type of
foundation suitable;
d) Capacity of tank; and
e) Other site conditions.
93 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
Classification and Layout of Elevated Tanks -
 1. For tank up to 50 m3 capacity may be square or circular in
shape
 and supported on staging three or four columns.
 2. Tanks of capacity above 50 m3 and up to 200 m3 may be
square or circular in plan and supported on minimum four
columns.
 3. For capacity above 200 m3 and up to 800 m3 the tank may be
square, rectangular, circular or intze type tank. The number of
columns to be adopted shall be decided based on the column
spacing which normally lies between 3.6 and 4.5 m. For
circular, intze or conical tanks, a shaft supporting structures
may be provided.
94
Staging Components
COLUMNS
95 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
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98 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
Bracings
For staging of height above foundation greater than 6 m, the
column shall be rigidly connected by horizontal bracings suitably
spaced vertically at distances not exceeding 6 m.
99 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
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101 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
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DETAILING -
104 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
105 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
Bibliography -
• Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. (2010) Barry’s Introduction to Construction of
Buildings. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing
• Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. (2010) Barry’s Advanced Construction of Buildings.
Oxford, Blackwell Publishing
• IS: 11682-1985 (CRITERIA FOR DESIGN OF RCC STAGING FOR
OVERHEAD WATER TANKS).
• IITK-GSDMA GUIDELINES for SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID STORAGE
TANKS.
• Google Images.
107
Thanks to one and all…..
Presented to,
Ar. Anju soni mam
on,
9th
October 2014
AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details

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Earthquake Resistant Design Techniques

  • 1. EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DETAILS Various types and construction details of foundation, soil stabilization, retaining walls, underground and overhead tanks, staircases and isolation of structures UTKARSH SHAKYA (11601) SAHIL KAUNDAL (11602) B.Arch. ,7th Sem. National Institute of Technology Hamirpur 1
  • 2. CONTENTS 1. Why earthquake resistant construction details?? (Introduction) 2. Various types and construction details of foundation. 3. Soil stabilization 4. Retaining walls 5. Underground and overhead tanks 6. Staircases and isolation of structures 2 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 3. Why Earthquake resistant construction??  India is a large country. Nearly two thirds of its area is earthquake prone. A large part of rural and urban buildings are low-rise buildings of one two three storeys. Many of them may not be adequately designed from engineers trained in earthquake engineering. Most loss of life and property due to earthquakes occur due to collapse of buildings. The number of dwelling units and other related small-scale constructions might double in the next two decades in India and other developing countries of the world. This amplifies the need for a simple engineering approach to make such buildings earthquake resistant at a reasonably low cost. 3 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 4. 4 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details Various types and construction details of foundation
  • 5. 5 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 6. 6 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 7. 7 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details Types of Foundations: Stone Masonry Foundation
  • 8. 8 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details Brick Masonry Foundation
  • 9. 9 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details Concrete Block Masonry Foundation - In case of loose soil, provide some nominal reinforcement in foundation bed concrete. - If stone soling is used under foundation reduce the thickness of foundation strip to 3”. - The vertical steel bars indicated in the foundations are to be provided at corners and junction of walls as explained in the later sections.
  • 10. 10 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details Foundations One of the most frequent causes of deterioration of the walls of a house is their direct contact with the ground humid thus making them vulnerable in the event of an earthquake. Example: ground sloping towards the wall, unstable and poor quality foundations and wall bases, prone to settling due to the effect of humidity and the inferior quality of the ground.
  • 11. 11 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details Alternative 1: Cleaning & Drainage If after an earthquake the wall has cracks in certain sections and the bricks are in a satisfactory state we must eliminate the earth which covers the wall base, and level out the ground a minimum of 100mm below the wall base. Alternative 2: Demolition & Reconstruction If after an earthquake the base of the wall has become loose, if there are cracks in the entire wall and sinking which makes the wall unstable and dangerous, we must then: Dismantle it after propping it up and build a new wall from the foundations.
  • 12. 12 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details WOOD FRAMED WALLS Foundations Timber construction shall preferably start above the plinth level, the portion below being in masonry or concrete. The superstructure may be connected with the foundation in one of the two ways: A) The superstructure may simply rest on the plinth masonry, or in the case of small buildings of one storey having plan area less than 50 sq.m., it may rest on firm plane ground so that the building is free to slide laterally during ground motion B) The superstructure may be rigidly fixed into the plinth masonry or concrete foundation as shown in fig.13.1 or in case of small buildings it may be fixed to vertical poles embedded into the ground. Details of connection of column with foundation
  • 13. 13 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details Wall Footings Pier Post and Column Footings
  • 14. 14 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details SHALLOW FOUNDATION - Spread Footings: Single footing, Stepped footin Spread footings are those which spread the super-imposed load of wall or column over a larger area. Spread footings support either a colunm or wall. Spread footings may be of the following kinds: (i) Single footing [ Fig. 2.2(a)] for a column (ii) Stepped footing [ Fig. 2.2(b)] for a column (iii) Sloped footing [ Fig. 2.2(c)] for a column (iv) Wall footing without step [ Fig. 2.3(a)] (v) Stepped footing for wall [ Fig. 2.3(b)] (vi) Grillage foundation [ Fig. 2.4]
  • 15. 15 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details Fig. 2.2 SPREAD FOOTINGS FOR COLUMNS. Fig. 2.2 (a) shows a single footing for a column, in which the loaded area (b x b) of the column has been spread to the size B x B through a single spread. The base is generally made of concrete. Fig. 2.2 (b) shows the stepped footing for a heavily loaded column, which requires greater spread. The base of the column is made of concrete. Fig. 2.2 (c) shows the case in which the concrete base does not have uniform thickness, but is made sloped, with greater thickness at its junction with the column and smaler thickness at the ends. FIG. 2.3 SPREAD FOOTING FOR WALL : STRIP FOOTING. Fig. 2.3 (a) shows the spread footing for a wall, consisting of concrete base without any steps. Usually, masonry walls have stepped footings as shown in Fig. 2.3 (b), with a concrete base
  • 16. 16 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details FIG. 2.4 GRILLAGE FOUNDATION. Fig. 2.4 shows a steel grillge foundation for a steel stanchion carrying heavy load. It is a special type of isolated footing generally provided for heavily loaded steel stanchions and used in these locations where bearing capacity of soil is poor. The depth of such a foundation is limited to 1 to 1.5 m. The load of the stanchion is distributed or spread to a very large area by means of two or mor tiers or rolled steel joints, each layer being laid at right angle to the layer bellow it. Both the tiers of the joists are then embeden in cement concrete to keep the joists in position and to prevent their corrosion. The detailed method of construction has benn explained in 3.6 Grillage foundation is also constructed of timber beams and planks (Fig. 3.12 and 3.13)
  • 17. Ground and Soil Stabilisation
  • 18. General problems of ground instability include: • Landslip • Surface flooding and soil erosion • Natural caves and fissures • Mining and quarrying • Landfill • Natural geological variation – faults, changes in geology – differential settlement
  • 19. Improving the ground • There are a number of different methods that can be used to increase the strength and stability of the ground.
  • 20. Ground stabilisation • Dynamic compaction • Vibro compaction - Vibro displacement • Vibro flotation - high pressure water jets (improves penetration of hard substrates) • Pressure grouting • Surcharging • Geotechnic membranes • Soil modification and stabilisation
  • 21. Dynamic compaction • This involves dropping heavy weights onto the ground. • The weight causes the ground to compact.
  • 22. Dynamic compaction • Ground is consolidated by repeatedly dropping dead weights and specially designed tampers • Weights include: Flat bottomed and cone tampers • Traditional weights are flat bottomed with cable • Modern systems use cones with guide rails • Dynamic compaction is suitable for granular soils, made-up and fill sites • Using dynamic compaction bearing capacities of 50 to 150kN/m2 can be achieved
  • 23. Dynamic compaction Typical weight (mass) 7-11 tonnes Tamer drops and exerts known impact energy on strata Pass 2 Pass 2Zone compacted 2nd Pass Zone compacted 1st Pass Pass 1 Pass 1 Zone compacted 3rd Pass Sound strata Pass 1 and pass 2 Pass 3 50 – 150 kN/m2 Typical bearing capacity Required treatment depth
  • 24. Typical cone type tampers (adapted from www.roger- bullivant.co.uk) Long cone Flower pot cone Multiple point cone Used for densifying deep layers of strata Consolidates strata closer to the surface Typical weight (mass) 7-11 tonnes 2.5 m Traditional weight 10 – 20 tonnes Energy does not penetrate the ground as much as the cone weights
  • 26. Vibro compaction or displacement • Vibrating rods are forced into the ground causing the surrounding ground to compact and consolidate.
  • 27. Vibro compaction or vibro displacement • Vibrating mandrels (poker, shaft or rod) penetrates, displaces and compacts the ground. • Void Created is filled with stone and recompacted • Produces stone columns in the ground, compacts surrounding strata enhancing the ground bearing capacity and limiting settlement • Typical applications include support of foundations, slabs, hard standings, pavements, tanks or embankments.
  • 28. Vibro compaction - continued • Used in soft soils, man made and other strata, can be reinforced to achieve improved specification • On slopes it can limit the risk of slip failure. • Ground bearing capacities, for low to medium rise buildings and industrial developments, is in the region of 100kN/m2 to 200kN/m2 . • Improved ground conditions may allow heavier loads to be supported. • Used in granular and cohesive soils
  • 29. Benefits of vibro-compaction • Buildings can be supported on conventional foundations (normally reinforced and shallow foundations). • Work can commence immediately following the vibro displacement. Foundations can be installed straight away. • The soil is displaced. No soil is produced. • Contaminants remain in the ground – reduces disposal and remediation fees. • Economical, when compared with piling or deep excavation works. • Can be used to regenerate brownfield sites • Can use reclaimed aggregates and soils.
  • 30. Vibrofloatation • Vibro floatation uses a similar process to vibro compaction • Water jets at the tip of the poker • Water jets help the vibrator penetrate hard layers of ground • Major disadvantage is that the system is messy and imprecise, thus rarely used
  • 31. Vibro displacement - Typical sequence 2. As the mandrel drives into the ground the soil is displaced (surrounding granular soil is compacted. 1. A grid is marked out and the vibrating mandrel (poker) is inserted to the required depth
  • 32. Vibro displacement - Typical sequence 3. Having reached the engineered depth the mandrel is withdraw and hardcore is placed up to the first level. The hardcore is built up in layers of 0.3 to 0.6m. The mandrel is inserted into the hardcore, it penetrates and compacts each layer before the next load of hardcore is placed Rigs weighs 14 – 55 tonnes 4. By compacting in layers and reintroducing the cone mandrel a dense stone column is constructed.
  • 37. Hardcore is repeatedly displaced and compacted
  • 38.
  • 39. Grouting • Grouting may be used to fill the voids in the ground increasing the strength of the ground.
  • 40. Pressure grouting • In permeable soils, pressure grouting may be used to fill the voids. • Holes drilled using mechanically driven augers. • As the auger is withdrawn cement slurry is forced down a central tube into the bore under pressure. • Pressures of up to 70,000 N/mm2 can be exerted by the grout on the surrounding soil. • Slurry contains cementious additives, e.g. pulverised fuel ash (pfa), microsilica, chemical grout, cement or a mixture.
  • 41. Soil modification and stabilization • Machines are available that can break-up the ground, mix the ground with new cementious material and improve the ground quality.
  • 42. Soil modification and recycling • Additives used in soil stabilisation increase the strength better, improve compacted and maximise bearing capacity and minimise settlement. • The technique can be used to provide stabilised or modified materials for earthworks, or may be used to provide permanent load transfer platforms or hard standings. • Can be used to treat and neutralise certain contaminants or encapsulate the contaminants, removing the need for expensive removal and disposal.
  • 43. Soil modification, stabilisation and recycling machine Milling and mixing chamber Working direction Unstable soil Stable or modified soil ready for compaction
  • 44. Schematic of soil modification and mixing chamber The milling and mixing rotor breaks down soil and mixes the soil and additives Hopper and cellular wheel sluice spread lime or cement or other additive Variable milling and mixing chamber. Soil mixture with reduced water content – ready for compaction Working direction
  • 45. Soil modification and stabilization rig www. roger-bullivant.co.uk
  • 46. Soil modification and stabilization plant www. roger-bullivant.co.uk
  • 48. Soil modification and stabilization plant www. roger-bullivant.co.uk
  • 49. Surcharging • This involves placing heavy loads on the ground for long periods of time. • Over time the ground will compact. • Surcharging is time consuming and ties up the land • Can be used if long lead-in time available • Can be used on roads • May be used on investment land (land bank). The increase in strength will increase the value of the land.
  • 50. Surcharging • Excavated material, quarried stone or other heavy loads. • Settlement and compaction period 6 months to a few years. • For economics the surcharging acts as a temporary storage facility
  • 51. Geotechnical membranes • Geotechnical membranes provide a sheet of reinforcing material that can be added to the ground. This increases the stability and tensile strength of the ground.
  • 53. Geotechnical membranes • Natural • Plastic manmade • Built up in layers compacted between ground hardcore • Sheets, fibres and strips
  • 54. 59 5. Field Compaction Equipment and Procedures
  • 55. 60 5.1 Equipment Smooth-wheel roller (drum) • 100% coverage under the wheel • Contact pressure up to 380 kPa • Can be used on all soil types except for rocky soils. • Compactive effort: static weight • The most common use of large smooth wheel rollers is for proof- rolling subgrades and compacting asphalt pavement. Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 56. 61 5.1 Equipment (Cont.) Pneumatic (or rubber-tired) roller • 80% coverage under the wheel • Contact pressure up to 700 kPa • Can be used for both granular and fine-grained soils. • Compactive effort: static weight and kneading. • Can be used for highway fills or earth dam construction. Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 57. 62 5.1 Equipment (Cont.) Sheepsfoot rollers • Has many round or rectangular shaped protrusions or “feet” attached to a steel drum • 8% ~ 12 % coverage • Contact pressure is from 1400 to 7000 kPa • It is best suited for clayed soils. • Compactive effort: static weight and kneading. Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 58. 63 5.1 Equipment (Cont.) Tamping foot roller • About 40% coverage • Contact pressure is from 1400 to 8400 kPa • It is best for compacting fine- grained soils (silt and clay). • Compactive effort: static weight and kneading. Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 59. 64 5.1 Equipment (Cont.) Mesh (or grid pattern) roller • 50% coverage • Contact pressure is from 1400 to 6200 kPa • It is ideally suited for compacting rocky soils, gravels, and sands. With high towing speed, the material is vibrated, crushed, and impacted. • Compactive effort: static weight and vibration. Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 60. 65 5.1 Equipment (Cont.) Vibrating drum on smooth-wheel roller • Vertical vibrator attached to smooth wheel rollers. • The best explanation of why roller vibration causes densification of granular soils is that particle rearrangement occurs due to cyclic deformation of the soil produced by the oscillations of the roller. • Compactive effort: static weight and vibration. • Suitable for granular soils Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 62. 67 5.2 Variables-Vibratory Compaction •There are many variables which control the vibratory compaction or densification of soils. •Characteristics of the compactor: •(1) Mass, size •(2) Operating frequency and frequency range •Characteristics of the soil: •(1) Initial density •(2) Grain size and shape •(3) Water content •Construction procedures: •(1) Number of passes of the roller •(2) Lift thickness •(3) Frequency of operation vibrator •(4) Towing speed Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 63. 68 5.3 Dynamic Compaction Dynamic compaction was first used in Germany in the mid-1930’s. The depth of influence D, in meters, of soil undergoing compaction is conservatively given by D ≈ ½ (Wh)1/2 W = mass of falling weight in metric tons. h = drop height in meters From Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 64. 69 5.4 Vibroflotation From Das, 1998 Vibroflotation is a technique for in situ densification of thick layers of loose granular soil deposits. It was developed in Germany in the 1930s.
  • 65. 70 5.4 Vibroflotation-Procedures Stage1: The jet at the bottom of the Vibroflot is turned on and lowered into the ground Stage2: The water jet creates a quick condition in the soil. It allows the vibrating unit to sink into the ground Stage 3: Granular material is poured from the top of the hole. The water from the lower jet is transferred to he jet at the top of the vibrating unit. This water carries the granular material down the hole Stage 4: The vibrating unit is gradually raised in about 0.3-m lifts and held vibrating for about 30 seconds at each lift. This process compacts the soil to the desired unit weight. From Das, 1998
  • 66. 71 6. Field Compaction Control and Specifications
  • 67. 72 6.1 Control Parameters • Dry density and water content correlate well with the engineering properties, and thus they are convenient construction control parameters. • Since the objective of compaction is to stabilize soils and improve their engineering behavior, it is important to keep in mind the desired engineering properties of the fill, not just its dry density and water content. This point is often lost in the earthwork construction control. From Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 68. 73 6.2 Design-Construct Procedures • Laboratory tests are conducted on samples of the proposed borrow materials to define the properties required for design. • After the earth structure is designed, the compaction specifications are written. Field compaction control tests are specified, and the results of these become the standard for controlling the project. From Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 69. 74 6.3 Specifications (1) End-product specifications •This specification is used for most highways and building foundation, as long as the contractor is able to obtain the specified relative compaction , how he obtains it doesn’t matter, nor does the equipment he uses. •Care the results only ! •(2) Method specifications •The type and weight of roller, the number of passes of that roller, as well as the lift thickness are specified. A maximum allowable size of material may also be specified. •It is typically used for large compaction project. From Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 70. 75 6.6.1 Destructive Methods Holtz and Kovacs, 1981 Methods (a) Sand cone (b) Balloon (c) Oil (or water) method Calculations •Know Ms and Vt •Get ρd field and w (water content) •Compare ρd field with ρd max-lab and calculate relative compaction R.C. (a) (b) (c)
  • 71. 76 6.6.1 Destructive Methods (Cont.) •Sometimes, the laboratory maximum density may not be known exactly. It is not uncommon, especially in highway construction, for a series of laboratory compaction tests to be conducted on “representative” samples of the borrow materials for the highway. If the soils at the site are highly varied, there will be no laboratory results to be compared with. It is time consuming and expensive to conduct a new compaction curve. The alternative is to implement a field check point, or 1 point Proctor test. Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 72. 77 6.6.1 Destructive Methods (Cont.) • The measuring error is mainly from the determination of the volume of the excavated material. • For example, • For the sand cone method, the vibration from nearby working equipment will increase the density of the sand in the hole, which will gives a larger hole volume and a lower field density. • If the compacted fill is gravel or contains large gravel particles. Any kind of unevenness in the walls of the hole causes a significant error in the balloon method. • If the soil is coarse sand or gravel, none of the liquid methods works well, unless the hole is very large and a polyethylene sheet is used to contain the water or oil. tsfieldd V/M=ρ − Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 73. 78 6.6.2 Nondestructive Methods Holtz and Kovacs, 1981 Nuclear density meter (a) Direct transmission (b) Backscatter (c) Air gap (a) (b) (c) Principles Density The Gamma radiation is scattered by the soil particles and the amount of scatter is proportional to the total density of the material. The Gamma radiation is typically provided by the radium or a radioactive isotope of cesium. Water content The water content can be determined based on the neutron scatter by hydrogen atoms. Typical neutron sources are americium-beryllium isotopes.
  • 74. 79 6.6.2 Nondestructive Methods (Cont.) •Calibration •Calibration against compacted materials of known density is necessary, and for instruments operating on the surface the presence of an uncontrolled air gap can significantly affect the measurements.
  • 75. 80 7. Estimating Performance of Compacted Soils
  • 76. 81 7.1 Definition of Pavement Systems Holtz and Kovacs, 1981
  • 77. STORAGE TANKS 82AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 78. 83 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details In general there are three kinds of water tanks- 1.Tanks resting on ground, 2.Underground tanks and 3.Elevated tanks.
  • 79. 84 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details From design point of view the tanks may be classified as per their shape- RECTANGULAR TANKS CIRCULAR TANKS INTZE TYPE TANKS SPHERICAL TANKS CONICAL BOTTOM TANKS SUSPENDED BOTTOM TANKS.
  • 80. 85 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details The tanks resting on ground like clear water reservoirs, settling tanks, aeration tanks etc. are supported on the ground directly. • The walls of these tanks are subjected to pressure and the base is subjected to weight of water and pressure of soil. •The tanks may be covered on top.
  • 81. 86 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details The tanks like purification tanks, Imhoff tanks, septic tanks, and gas holders are built UNDERGROUND. 1. The walls of these tanks are subjected to water pressure from inside and the earth pressure from outside. 2. The base is subjected to weight of water and soil pressure. These tanks may be covered at the top.
  • 82. 87 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details ELEVATED TANKS are supported on staging which may consist of masonry walls, R.C.C. tower or R.C.C. columns braced together. The walls are subjected to water pressure. The base has to carry the load of water and tank load. The staging has to carry load of water and tank. The staging is also designed for wind forces.
  • 83. 88 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details 1. Ground Supported Rectangular Concrete Tank
  • 84. 89 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details 2. Elevated Tank Supported on 4 Column RC Staging
  • 85. 90 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details 3. Elevated Intze Tank Supported on 6 Column RC Staging
  • 86. 91 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details DESIGN OF RCC OVERHEAD WATER TANKS - TERMINOLOGY - 1. Capacity - Capacity of the tank shall be the volume of water it can store between the designed full supply level and lowest supply level ( that is, the level of the lip of the outlet pipe ). Due allowance shall be made for plastering the tank from inside if any when calculating the capacity of tank. 2. Height of Staging - Height of staging is the difference between the lowest supply level of tank and the average ground level at the tank site. 3. Water Depth - Water depth in tank shall be difference of level between lowest supply level and full supply level of the tank.
  • 87. 92 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details LAYOUT OF OVERHEAD TANKS Generally the shape and size of elevated concrete tanks for economical design depends upon the functional requirements such as: a) Maximum depth for water; b) Height of staging; c) Allowable bearing capacity of foundation strata and type of foundation suitable; d) Capacity of tank; and e) Other site conditions.
  • 88. 93 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details Classification and Layout of Elevated Tanks -  1. For tank up to 50 m3 capacity may be square or circular in shape  and supported on staging three or four columns.  2. Tanks of capacity above 50 m3 and up to 200 m3 may be square or circular in plan and supported on minimum four columns.  3. For capacity above 200 m3 and up to 800 m3 the tank may be square, rectangular, circular or intze type tank. The number of columns to be adopted shall be decided based on the column spacing which normally lies between 3.6 and 4.5 m. For circular, intze or conical tanks, a shaft supporting structures may be provided.
  • 90. 95 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 91. 96 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 92. 97 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 93. 98 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details Bracings For staging of height above foundation greater than 6 m, the column shall be rigidly connected by horizontal bracings suitably spaced vertically at distances not exceeding 6 m.
  • 94. 99 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 95. 100 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 96. 101 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 97. 102 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 98. 103 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details DETAILING -
  • 99. 104 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 100. 105 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details
  • 101. Bibliography - • Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. (2010) Barry’s Introduction to Construction of Buildings. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing • Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. (2010) Barry’s Advanced Construction of Buildings. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing • IS: 11682-1985 (CRITERIA FOR DESIGN OF RCC STAGING FOR OVERHEAD WATER TANKS). • IITK-GSDMA GUIDELINES for SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID STORAGE TANKS. • Google Images.
  • 102. 107 Thanks to one and all….. Presented to, Ar. Anju soni mam on, 9th October 2014 AR-414 Earthquake Resistant Building Design Earthquake Resistant Construction Details