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Harbour
HARBOUR INTRODUCTION
• Harbour:
• A harbour may be natural or partly dug out, or even made with floating
materials. It doesn't have gates, but may have a narrow entrance.
•  Provides safe anchoring or mooring for ships
• Dock :A dock is dug out and usually has gates so that the water level is
kept up even though the tide has gone out.
• A dock is for mooring ships for cargo or passenger exchange, or sometimes
repair.
• A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or
more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or
from land.
VISHAKAPATNAM PORT
•FEATURES OF A HARBOR:
1. Entrance Channels
2. Berthing Basin
3. Break Water
4. Turning Basin
5. Pier Head
6. Wharves
7. Jetties
PARTS OF HARBOUR
ENTRANCE CHANNEL:
• Depth and width are kept more at entrance
• Width depends upon density of traffic and no: of entrances
BERTHING AND TURNING BASINS:
• Berthing basins are used for the parking of ships
• While turning for the turning of ships
• The structure constructed to protect harbor from storm waves
• They are generally stone masonry
Harbour
•Based on formation:
1. NATURAL HARBOUR
2. SEMI NATURAL HARBOUR
3. ARTIFICIAL HARBOUR
• A harbor, is a place where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter
from stormy weather.
POOLE-EUROPE’S BIGGEST
NATURAL HARBOUR
•SEMI NATURAL HARBOUR:
Same as natural but harbour needs some artificial and
man made construction
•ARTIFICIAL HARBOUR:
Harbour having no natural protection but artificial arrangement
are made to protect the harbour from storm and wind.
Harbour
• REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD HARBOR:
• The depth of a harbor should be sufficient for every type of
visiting ships.
• The bottom of harbor should provide secured anchorage to hold
the ships against high winds.
• To prevent destructive wave action, break water are provided.
• The entrance of a harbor should be wide enough to provide the
easy passage of ships.
Harbour
•DEFECTS IN HARBOR:
• Depth of water is found insufficient for different ships.
• The size of harbor is found insufficient to accommodate the
increased traffic.
• Obstruction
• These defects can easily be avoided at the time of planning and
designing.
•SIZE OF A HARBOUR
Size depends upon:
# of ships
 length:275m-300m
 width:30m
•HARBOUR PLANNING
 It should be carried out after collecting necessary
information of the existing features at the proposed site.
 Following important facts should be studied.
A thorough survey of the neighborhood including the
foreshore & depths of water is necessary
Nature of a harbor wether sheltered or not, be studied
The existance of sea insects & various animals residing at
site.
Natural phenomena’s concerning planning of a harbour are:
Storms
Rainfall
Range of tides
Maximum & minimum temperatures
Direction & intensity of wind etc
•SITE SELECTION:
• Following factors play a great role in the
choice of site of a harbour.
• 1.Availability of cheap land & contruction material.
• 2.Natural protection from waves & winds
• 3.transport & communication facilities
• 4.industrial development of the locality
• 5.Sea bed,sub soil & foundation conditions
• 6.Avaibility of electrical energy
• 7.Defence & strategic aspects
• 8.trafic potentiality of harbour
•FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION:
1. HARBOR OF REFUGE
2. COMMERCIAL HARBOR
3. FISHRY HARBOR
4. MILLITARY HARBOR OR NAVEL BASE
•HARBOR OF REFUGE:
The harbor used for ships in storms or emergency
condition.
good anchorage and safe and easy access from the sea.
e.g: DOVER IN ENGLAND
Harbour
 COMMERCIAL HARBOR:
Facilities for loading and unloading of cargo are provided.
The may be:
1. Part of bigger complex harbor
2. Independent unit or single commodity
harbor.
3. Terminal as oil terminal, coal port.
Harbour
Harbour
Harbour
Harbour
•FISHRY HARBOR:
Provided for fishing crafts and trawlers.
•MILLITARY HARBOR:
This harbor is meant for accommodating naval crafts and serves
as a supply deport.
The layout of this type of harbor is greatly influenced by its
location.
Harbour
Harbour
Harbour
• PIER HEAD:
• The structure provided at the tip of break water
• Such as light house
• WHARVES:
• The structure constructed parallel to the shore or break water, having wide plate form
at the top
• Function is to permit berthing of vessel along side for cargo working
• JETTIES:
• Same as wharves
• Used for loading and unloading of cargo
• Made usually from shore towards sea water to prevent silting and dredging to allow free
flow of tidal currents
Harbour
•DOCK:
• A dock is dug out and usually has gates so that the water level is kept up even though
the tide has gone out.
• A dock is for mooring ships for cargo or passenger exchange, or sometimes repair.
•HARBOR:
•  A harbour may be natural or partly dug out, or even made with floating materials. It
doesn't have gates, but may have a narrow entrance.
•  Provides safe anchoring or mooring for ships
•PORTS:
• A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships
can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.
THANKYOU

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Harbour

  • 2. HARBOUR INTRODUCTION • Harbour: • A harbour may be natural or partly dug out, or even made with floating materials. It doesn't have gates, but may have a narrow entrance. •  Provides safe anchoring or mooring for ships • Dock :A dock is dug out and usually has gates so that the water level is kept up even though the tide has gone out. • A dock is for mooring ships for cargo or passenger exchange, or sometimes repair. • A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.
  • 4. •FEATURES OF A HARBOR: 1. Entrance Channels 2. Berthing Basin 3. Break Water 4. Turning Basin 5. Pier Head 6. Wharves 7. Jetties
  • 6. ENTRANCE CHANNEL: • Depth and width are kept more at entrance • Width depends upon density of traffic and no: of entrances
  • 7. BERTHING AND TURNING BASINS: • Berthing basins are used for the parking of ships • While turning for the turning of ships
  • 8. • The structure constructed to protect harbor from storm waves • They are generally stone masonry
  • 10. •Based on formation: 1. NATURAL HARBOUR 2. SEMI NATURAL HARBOUR 3. ARTIFICIAL HARBOUR
  • 11. • A harbor, is a place where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather.
  • 13. •SEMI NATURAL HARBOUR: Same as natural but harbour needs some artificial and man made construction
  • 14. •ARTIFICIAL HARBOUR: Harbour having no natural protection but artificial arrangement are made to protect the harbour from storm and wind.
  • 16. • REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD HARBOR: • The depth of a harbor should be sufficient for every type of visiting ships. • The bottom of harbor should provide secured anchorage to hold the ships against high winds. • To prevent destructive wave action, break water are provided. • The entrance of a harbor should be wide enough to provide the easy passage of ships.
  • 18. •DEFECTS IN HARBOR: • Depth of water is found insufficient for different ships. • The size of harbor is found insufficient to accommodate the increased traffic. • Obstruction • These defects can easily be avoided at the time of planning and designing.
  • 19. •SIZE OF A HARBOUR Size depends upon: # of ships  length:275m-300m  width:30m
  • 20. •HARBOUR PLANNING  It should be carried out after collecting necessary information of the existing features at the proposed site.  Following important facts should be studied.
  • 21. A thorough survey of the neighborhood including the foreshore & depths of water is necessary Nature of a harbor wether sheltered or not, be studied The existance of sea insects & various animals residing at site.
  • 22. Natural phenomena’s concerning planning of a harbour are: Storms Rainfall Range of tides Maximum & minimum temperatures Direction & intensity of wind etc
  • 23. •SITE SELECTION: • Following factors play a great role in the choice of site of a harbour. • 1.Availability of cheap land & contruction material. • 2.Natural protection from waves & winds • 3.transport & communication facilities • 4.industrial development of the locality
  • 24. • 5.Sea bed,sub soil & foundation conditions • 6.Avaibility of electrical energy • 7.Defence & strategic aspects • 8.trafic potentiality of harbour
  • 25. •FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION: 1. HARBOR OF REFUGE 2. COMMERCIAL HARBOR 3. FISHRY HARBOR 4. MILLITARY HARBOR OR NAVEL BASE
  • 26. •HARBOR OF REFUGE: The harbor used for ships in storms or emergency condition. good anchorage and safe and easy access from the sea. e.g: DOVER IN ENGLAND
  • 28.  COMMERCIAL HARBOR: Facilities for loading and unloading of cargo are provided. The may be: 1. Part of bigger complex harbor 2. Independent unit or single commodity harbor. 3. Terminal as oil terminal, coal port.
  • 33. •FISHRY HARBOR: Provided for fishing crafts and trawlers.
  • 34. •MILLITARY HARBOR: This harbor is meant for accommodating naval crafts and serves as a supply deport. The layout of this type of harbor is greatly influenced by its location.
  • 38. • PIER HEAD: • The structure provided at the tip of break water • Such as light house
  • 39. • WHARVES: • The structure constructed parallel to the shore or break water, having wide plate form at the top • Function is to permit berthing of vessel along side for cargo working
  • 40. • JETTIES: • Same as wharves • Used for loading and unloading of cargo • Made usually from shore towards sea water to prevent silting and dredging to allow free flow of tidal currents
  • 42. •DOCK: • A dock is dug out and usually has gates so that the water level is kept up even though the tide has gone out. • A dock is for mooring ships for cargo or passenger exchange, or sometimes repair.
  • 43. •HARBOR: •  A harbour may be natural or partly dug out, or even made with floating materials. It doesn't have gates, but may have a narrow entrance. •  Provides safe anchoring or mooring for ships
  • 44. •PORTS: • A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.