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INTRODUCTION
 Water Transportation is concerned with conveyance of people
and goods in vehicles that float upon water.
 Waterways have great historic importance in the development of
civilizations and in the growth of nations.
 Rivers and seas provided primitive man with his first facility for
mass transportation of goods.
 Waterways can be classified broadly as Oceanic waterways and
inland waterways.
 Oceanic waterways are concerned with the conveyance of people and
goods primarily across the ocean between continents or island.
 Inland waterways consist of water transportation on rivers, lakes and
canals within the main land.
 River transportation became popular in India since 1855.
 The total perennial waterways in India are 65,600 km out of which
41,600 km are of rivers and 24,000 km canals.
ADVANTAGES OF WATER
TRANSPORTATION
• Around the world 82% of International trade in tons and 94% of
world trade in tons-kilometers are moved by shipping and thereby
through ports.
• Specific function, objectives and the advantages derived from water
transportations facilities are summarized below:
 Easiest and cheapest mode of communication by utilization of natural
surfaces of canals, rivers and oceans, as the element of friction
during traction and maintenance are less than road transport.
 Require cheap manual, wind and steam motive power.
 Higher load carrying capacity for bulky and heavy commodities.
 Development of industry.
 Development of commerce and expansion of trades.
 Development of agriculture.
 Development of natural resources and their effective use.
 Discovery of new island is possible.
 Development of economic progress and international contact.
 Provide enhanced mobility and promotes social and political
unity.
 Assistance in the problem of national defense.
DISADVANTAGES OF WATER
TRANSPORTATION
 It requires more time due to slow speed and circuitous routes. Final
docking stages require greater skill.
 Mountainous rivers and waterfalls hinder water transportation.
Require better position fixing and obstruction detecting systems to
avoid surface collision.
 Frequent storms results in great loss of life and material.
 Rapid growth in demand which is more than the capacity of
existing facilities.
 Vessels oil spillage, noise smoke and fumes cause pollution and
endanger marine lives.
 Uncertainty problem, like energy shortage problem due to political
and natural causes.
 Energy conservation concern because of energy problem of
transportation development.
 HARBOUR:-
It is partly enclosed area which provides safe and suitable accommodation for
supplies, refueling, repair, loading and unloading cargo.
 PORT:-
A port is a harbour where marine terminal facilities are provided.
A port is a place which regularly provides accommodation for the transfer of
cargo and passengers to and from the ships.
Port = Harbour + Storage Facility + Communication Facility + Other
Terminal Facility.
From above,
It can be stated that a port includes a harbour i.e. every port is a harbour.
Entrance Channel
Break Water
Turning Basin
Shelter Basin
Pier
Wharf
Quay
Dry Dock
Wet Dock
Jetty
 ENTRANCE CHANNEL:-
Water area from which ships enter in the harbour and it should
have sufficient width, 100 for small harbour, 100 to 160m for medium and
160 to 260m for large harbour.
 BREAK WATER:-
A protective barrier made up of Concrete or Course Rubble
Masonry constructed from shore towards the sea to enclose harbour .
 TURNING BASIN:-
It is water area which is required for maneuvering the ship after
entering to the harbour and it is large enough to permit free turning.
 SHELTER BASIN:-
It is area protected by shore and breakwater.
 PIER:-
It is a solid platform at which berthing of ships on both the sides
are possible.
 WHARF:-
It is a docking platform constructed parallel to shoreline providing
berthing facility on one side only.
 QUAY:-
It is also dock parallel to the shore which is solid structure
providing berthing on one side and retaining the earth on the other.
 DRY DOCK:-
It is a chamber provided for maintenance, repairs and
construction of ships. It includes walls, floor and gate.
 WET DOCK:-
Due to variation in tidal level, an enclosed basin is provided
where in number of ships can be berthed. It has an entrance which is
controlled by a lock gate.
 JETTY:-
It is a solid platform constructed perpendicular to the shoreline for
berthing of ships.
 QUAY:-
It is also dock parallel to the shore which is solid structure
providing berthing on one side and retaining the earth on the other.
 DRY DOCK:-
It is a chamber provided for maintenance, repairs and
construction of ships. It includes walls, floor and gate.
 It should be connected with roadway and railway.
 Surrounding land should be fertile and densely populated.
 Ship channels must have sufficient depth for draft or vessel.
 Breakwaters must be provided to protect against destructive wave
action.
 The bottom should furnished secure anchorage to hold ships against
the wind force.
 Numbers of quay, piers and wharfs should be sufficient for loading
and unloading cargo.
 It should have facilities like fuel, repair and etc. for ships.
 Harbour area should be sufficiently large.
 It should have enough cold storage.
Requirements Of Good Harbour
 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE PROTECTION NEEDED
Natural Harbour:-
Harbour protected by storms and waves by natural land
contours, rocky out crops, or island that is called Natural
Contour. (Eg. Kandla port, Cochin port & Mumbai
Harbour)
Classification Of Harbours
 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE PROTECTION NEEDED
Semi - Natural Harbour:-
A semi – natural harbour is protected on the sides by the
contours of land and requires manmade protection only to the
entrance. (Eg. Mandvi, Veraval & Visakhapatnam port)
Classification Of Harbours
 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE PROTECTION NEEDED
Artificial Harbour:-
An artificial harbour is one which is manmade and
protected from storms and waves by engineering works.
(Eg. Chennai Harbour)
Classification Of Harbours
 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON UTILITY
Commercial Harbour:-
It is an harbour in which docks are provided with
necessary facilities for loading and unloading of cargo.
(Eg. Chennai Harbour)
Refuge Harbour:-
These are used as a heaven for ships in a storm or it may
be part of a commercial harbour.
(Eg. Chennai Harbour & Visakhapatnam Harbour)
Classification Of Harbours
 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON UTILITY
Military Harbour:-
It is a naval base for the purpose of accommodating naval
ships or vessels and it serves as a supply depot.
(Eg. Mumbai Harbour & Cochin Harbour)
Fishing Harbour:-
These harbours have facilities for departure and arrival of
fishing ships. They have also necessary arrangement to catch
fish.
Classification Of Harbours
 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON LOCATION
Ocean Harbour
River Harbour
Canal Harbour
Lake Harbour
Classification Of Harbours
Ocean Port:-
This is a port intended for large ocean going ships.
River Port:-
River port is located on the banks of the river inside the
land.
Entry Port:-
This is location where foreign citizens and goods are
cleared through custom house.
Free Port:-
This is an isolated and enclosed area within which goods
may be landed, stored, mixed, repacked, manufactured and
reshipped without payment of duties.
Classification Of Ports
Harbour Planning:-
It is necessary to carry out a topography survey of the neighborhood
including the foreshore and the depths of water in the vicinity.
The borings and soundings should be taken to ascertain the character
of the ground.
The borings on land should also be made so as to know the probable
subsurface conditions on land. It will be helpful in locating the
harbour works correctly.
The nature of harbour, whether sheltered or not, should be studied.
The existence of sea insects which undermine the foundations should
be noted.
The problem of silting or erosion of coastline should be carefully
studied.
The natural meteorological phenomena should be studied at site
especially with respect to frequency of storms, rainfall, range of tides,
maximum and minimum temperature, direction and intensity of
winds, humidity, direction and velocity of currents, etc.
Harbour Planning:-
Great care ahs to be exercised at the time of making selection of
site for a harbour. The guiding factors which play a great role in choice
of site for a harbour are as follows:
Availability of cheap land and construction material;
Transport and communication facilities;
Natural protection from winds and waves;
Industrial development of the locality;
Sea – bed, subsoil and foundation conditions;
Traffic potentiality of harbour;
Availability of electrical energy and fresh water;
Favorable marine conditions;
Defense and strategic aspects; etc.
Site Selection For Harbour:-
Size of harbour depends upon the number and size of ships likely
to use the harbour at one time. Some of the biggest modern ships are
275m to 300m long and about 30m wide. There should be sufficient area
for maneuvering them without collision. Thus, the size is determined by:
Accommodation required.
 Convenience for maneuvering and navigation.
Adaptability to natural features.
Size Of Harbour:-
WIDTH OF ENTRANCE TO THE HARBOUR:-
The entrance width should be in proportion to the size of the harbour
and ships using it. To reduce the wave height with in the harbour, the
entrance width should not be more than that necessary to provide safe
navigation and also to prevent dangerous currents, when the tide is coming
in and going out.
For Small Harbours = 90m
For Medium Harbours = 120 to 150m
For Large Harbours = 150 to 250m
Size Of Harbour:-
WIDTH OF ENTRANCE CHANNEL:-
Size Of Harbour:-
WIDTH OF ENTRANCE CHANNEL:-
The entrance channel width is divided into:
(I) Manouvering lane width = 2B
(II) Ship clearance lane width = B
(III) Bank clearance-depends on the side slopes.
From Fig.,
The width of entrance channel for single lane traffic,
L = 4B + 2 (bank clearance)
Size Of Harbour:-
TURNING BASIN:-
The radius of turning basin should be equal to two times the
length of the largest ship calling at the harbour.
R = 2l
Where, R = Radius of turning basin,
l = length of the largest ship
Size Of Harbour:-
WAVE HEIGHT WITHIN THE HARBOUR:-
Where, h = Height of reduced waves any point P in harbour, m
H = Height of wave at entrance, m
B = Breadth of entrance, m
L = Breadth of harbour at P, m
D = Distance of P from entrance, m
Size Of Harbour:-
DEPTH OF HARBOUR:-
The channel depth is generally determined by the
following formula:
Where, D’ = The draft of the largest ship to be
accommodated
H = The height of storm waves, crest to trough
D’’ = Allowance for squat.
Size Of Harbour:-
Since harbour is designed and constructed for providing
berthing and cargo handling facilities for the ships, it is necessary to
be familiar with the various ship features related to harbour planning.
 LOAD LINE:-
It indicate a line showing the water level to which they
may legally be loaded.
DISPLACEMENT LOAD:-
The weight of ship and its contents when fully loaded
with cargo to the load line is known as displacement load.
DISPLACEMENT LIGHT:-
The weight of ship without cargo, fuel and stores is
known as displacement light.
Ship Characteristics:-
 GROSS REGISTERED TOUNAGE (G. R. T):-
This is the total measured internal capacity of a ship
expressed in units of 2.83 m3 or 100cu.ft.
NET REGISTERED TOUNAGE (N. R. T):-
This is the carrying capacity of a ship expressed in units
of 2.83m3.
DEAD WEIGHT TOUNAGE (D. W. T):-
This is the carrying capacity of a ship by weight. It is a
weight of cargo, fuel, stores, passengers, crew etc.
D. W. T = Displacement Load – Displacement Light
Ship Characteristics:-
 DISPLACEMENT TOUNAGE:-
This is the actual weight of the ship. It is the weight of
water displaced when afloat and may be either loaded or light.
DRAFT:-
It is the depth of the keel of the ship below water level.
CARGO TOUNAGE:-
It is a commercial expression which forms the basis of
freight charge. It can be measured by volume or weight.
BALLAST:-
It is the weight added in the ballast compartments of a
ship to increase its draft after it has discharged its cargo an dto
improve its stability.
Ship Characteristics:-
MARINE STRUCTURES
 Breakwater
 Wharves
 Quay Walls
 Jetties
 Piers
 Dolphins
 Fenders
 Trestle
 Moles
 Mooring Accessories
BREAKWATER
Breakwater is a protective barrier constructed to form an
artificial harbour with a water area so protected from the
effect of sea waves as to provide safe accommodation for
shipping.
Alignment Should be…..
 As straight as possible
Intersection angle not >60°
In open sea, alignment should be curved to reduce the
effects of waves.
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Arrangement of Breakwater:-
BREAKWATER (conti…)
Having Two Entrance Gate
 Arrangement of Breakwater:-
BREAKWATER (conti…)
Having One Entrance Gate
 Arrangement of Breakwater:-
BREAKWATER (conti…)
Arms of the Breakwater Converge and Overlap
 Design Process of Breakwater:-
Following Information….
 Character of coastal Current
 Direction and force of Winds
 Availability & Cost of Material
 Natural of Foundation
 Probable maximum Height, Force & Intensity of
Waves
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Design Process of Breakwater:-
Forces acting…
 Hydrostatic force,
 Wind force,
Wave action,
Solvent action
Sea insects
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Design Process of Breakwater:-
 Pre-feasibility Stage:-
 What is required?
Feasibility Stage:-
Suitable data Collection
 Initial Design
 Cost/Benefit Analysis
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Design Process of Breakwater:-
 Detailed Design Stage:-
 Further data collection,
 Refined design parameters,
 Final design,
 Model test,
 Preparation of drawing and specification.
Construction Stage:-
 Monitoring & Maintenance
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Factors Determining Selection of Breakwater:-
 Availability of Construction Material
 Depth of Water
 Condition of Sea Foundation
 Availability of Equipment
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Types of Breakwaters:-
 Vertical Wall Type
 Rubble Mound Type
 Composite Type
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Vertical Wall Type Breakwater:-
 Concrete block gravity wall
 Stone and concrete masonry
 Concrete caissons
 Rock filled sheet pile cells
 Rock filled timber cribs
 Concrete or steel sheet pile walls
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Vertical Wall Type Breakwater:-
 Suitable For….
 Sea bed is non – erodable,
 No chances of differential settlement of foundation,
 Depth of water > 2T Maximum wave height.
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Vertical Wall Type Breakwater:-
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Rubble Mound Type Breakwater:-
 Natural Rock
 Concrete Block
 Combination of Both
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Rubble Mound Type Breakwater:-
 Consist of three layers…
 The core-consists of quarry waste
 The intermediate layer-used for protecting slopes and the top
of the core-consists of rubble stones
 Top layer- upper portion of breakwater consists of blocks
weighing 11-10 tones
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Rubble Mound Type Breakwater:-
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Composite Type Breakwater:-
The solid super structure protected by a parapet on the sea
face,
Provides a platform for handling cargo,
It has a rubble base over which a vertical wall type
breakwater is constructed,
Combination of mound and vertical wall type breakwater,
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Composite Type Breakwater:-
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Methods of Protection of Breakwater:-
 By arrangement of heavy concrete blocks,
 By paving using granite blocks,
 Using tetrapodes and tribars.
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Comparison of Mound type & Vertical Wall type
Breakwater:-
BREAKWATER (conti…)
Mound Type Vertical Wall Type
Wave breaks at the breakwater. Reflect the wave energy.
Large entrance. Narrower entrance.
Regular maintenance necessary. Maintenance is practically eliminated.
Can be constructed on any type of
foundation.
Require a firm foundation.
Recommended where plenty of rocks
available.
Recommended when there is shortage of
rock.
Require unskilled labour. Require skilled labour.
 Merits of Mound type Breakwater:-
 No special equipment needed,
 Require unskilled labour,
 Large size rubbles can be used without dressing,
 Constructed on any type of foundation,
Construction is porous, hence no possibility of uplift.
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Demerits of Mound type Breakwater:-
 Require huge quantity of material,
 Initial cost high,
Regular maintenance,
 Harbour side can not be used for mooring ships,
 Occupancy large area of basin.
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Merits of Wall type Breakwater:-
 Narrower entrance, hence greater protection to the
sheltered area,
 Harbour side of the breakwater can be used for mooring
ships,
 recommended where shortage of rock,
 Maintenance is practically eliminated,
 It increase size of harbour basin,
Reduces the amount of material.
BREAKWATER (conti…)
 Demerits of Wall type Breakwater:-
 Skilled labourers are required,
 Special equipments are required for construction,
 Repairing is difficult,
 Require a firm foundation.
BREAKWATER (conti…)
WHARVES
These are platforms at which vessels take on and
discharge passengers and cargo on one side and earth
retained on other.
 It’s a platform built parallel to shoreline,
 Should give sufficient depth of water for the ship to float,
 Wharves built parallel with the shore are called quays,
 Built to retain or protect the embankment or filling.
TYPES OF WHARVES
1. Open construction wharves:-
Wharves of open construction have their decks supported
by piles or cylinders.
 It can be either high level decks or relieving type
platforms,
 Can be made of timber, R.C.C, or both,
 Pre cast or pre stressed slab or beam are economical.
2. Solid type wharves:-
These are composed of earth or rock fill partly confined by
some sort of bulkhead.
Depth less than 15m, bottom suitable for support of gravity
type of structure, steel pile cells are best suited,
Cells act as a gravity wall of sufficient weight,
Resist over turning or sliding at base.
TYPES OF WHARVES
QUAY WALLS
Wharves built parallel with the shore are called quays.
Function:-
 To retain and protect the embankment or filling on the
landward side,
 To provide berthing on the sea side,
 To support the platform above.
JETTIES
A narrow structure projecting from the shore into
water with berths on one or both sides and sometimes at
the end also.
In the form of piled projections,
Constructed outside the harbour or inside the harbour
When built in combination with a breakwater then it is
known as breakwater pier.
USES OF JETTIES
Jetty is a solid platform constructed perpendicular to
the shoreline or breakwater,
It provides berth to ships,
It is used for handling inflammable materials like
petrol, diesel, kerosene, crude oil etc.
It can be used for dredging in the approach channel
TYPES OF JETTIES
1. Solid structure:-
It is usually of mound breakwater type,
Used more for the prevention of silting in the entrance
channel.
2. Piled structure:-
A. Open pile jetties
Cheaper than the solid type but having same durability
Can’t be used where jetty is required to be very wide
Timer, R.C.C., steel
Steel jetties are supported on screw piles
Timer and R.C.C. are suitable for large jetties
B. Piled and cylinder jetties
Piles are completely encased in concrete cylinders
Piles carry loads of whole structure and cylinders don’t
Capable of sustaining heavy impacts from ships
PIERS
• Piers are the structure built at angle with the shore.
• On both sides of a pier berths are provided.
Type:-
(A) Open or solid construction
Open pier are constructed over open water on exposed
timber or concrete piles
Open pier are used where minimum restriction of currents
is specified
These piers are relatively more economical as narrow piers
in deep water
DOLPHINS
They are the marine structures located at the entrance of
the locked or alongside a pier or a wharf.
 Uses:-
 To absorb the impact force of the ships
 To provide mooring facilities i.e. for typing up ships
 They are also used to shorten the length of piers and
wharves
 Types:-
(A) Breasting Type
Provided in front of the sea face of the pier of wharf.
Designed to take the impact of ship while docking and are
equipped with fenders
(B) Mooring Type
Located behind the seaward force of the berth
They are provided with bollards or mooring posts and with
capstans where heavy lines are to be handled
Smaller than breasting dolphins
DOLPHINS (conti….)
FENDERS
A fender is a form of a cushion is provided on a jetty
face for ships to come in contact.
 The fender can be made of different materials in various
forms
 It absorbs the impact of ship and protect them from damage
 Qualities of good fenders:-
They should have a high capacity for absorbing energies
during berthing of a ship
They should be simple in design and construction and
easily replaceable
It must be able to resist tangential forces effectively
They should not be easily damaged during berthing
They should not damage ship’s hull
 Types of Fenders:-
(A) Wooden Fender
Simplest form of wooden fender are in the form of
horizontal wooden member.
They absorb energy because of deflection when struck by
a ship
(B) Rubber Fenders
The simplest form of rubber fenders are rubber tires hung over
the side of the dock.
Rubber fenders are supported by wire rope attached to eye bolt
set in the concrete dock wall
FENDERS (conti…)
MOORING ACCESSORIES
Arrangement such as bow, stern, spring and breast lines are
necessaries to hold the ship stationary with the dock & to load
or unload the cargo as well as passenger.
Mooring Accessories
Bollards
This is fastened to single or double bollards which are
located along the face of the dock 15 to 27 m apart with the help
of ship lines such as bow, stern lines, spring and breast lines.
Chocks
Open or closed chocks are used for directing lines on to the
correst post avoiding the lines from rubbing against sharp edges.
MOORING ACCESSORIES (conti…)
Corner mooring post
These are located at the out shore corners of a pier or at the ends
of the wharf.
• These posts are designed to take greater loads than that on bollards
which is about 50 tones line pull.
• Used mainly to bring the ship into the dock or to wrap it around the
corner of pier or dolphin.
MOORING ACCESSORIES (conti…)
Cleats
Cleats are used to tie small vessels such as; small ships, tugs
and workboats.
• These are usually spaced about 10 to 13m apart along the face of
the dock.
MOORING ACCESSORIES (conti…)
Capstans
It has a revolving cylindrical surface
• These are used to wind the ship’s line and thus to pull the ship
along the docking platform after which the lines are secured to
the bollards.
• They may be pneumatically or electrically operated.
MOORING ACCESSORIES (conti…)
Dock and harbour
Dock and harbour

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Dock and harbour

  • 1.
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Water Transportation is concerned with conveyance of people and goods in vehicles that float upon water.  Waterways have great historic importance in the development of civilizations and in the growth of nations.  Rivers and seas provided primitive man with his first facility for mass transportation of goods.  Waterways can be classified broadly as Oceanic waterways and inland waterways.
  • 3.  Oceanic waterways are concerned with the conveyance of people and goods primarily across the ocean between continents or island.  Inland waterways consist of water transportation on rivers, lakes and canals within the main land.  River transportation became popular in India since 1855.  The total perennial waterways in India are 65,600 km out of which 41,600 km are of rivers and 24,000 km canals.
  • 4. ADVANTAGES OF WATER TRANSPORTATION • Around the world 82% of International trade in tons and 94% of world trade in tons-kilometers are moved by shipping and thereby through ports. • Specific function, objectives and the advantages derived from water transportations facilities are summarized below:  Easiest and cheapest mode of communication by utilization of natural surfaces of canals, rivers and oceans, as the element of friction during traction and maintenance are less than road transport.  Require cheap manual, wind and steam motive power.  Higher load carrying capacity for bulky and heavy commodities.  Development of industry.  Development of commerce and expansion of trades.
  • 5.  Development of agriculture.  Development of natural resources and their effective use.  Discovery of new island is possible.  Development of economic progress and international contact.  Provide enhanced mobility and promotes social and political unity.  Assistance in the problem of national defense.
  • 6. DISADVANTAGES OF WATER TRANSPORTATION  It requires more time due to slow speed and circuitous routes. Final docking stages require greater skill.  Mountainous rivers and waterfalls hinder water transportation. Require better position fixing and obstruction detecting systems to avoid surface collision.  Frequent storms results in great loss of life and material.  Rapid growth in demand which is more than the capacity of existing facilities.  Vessels oil spillage, noise smoke and fumes cause pollution and endanger marine lives.  Uncertainty problem, like energy shortage problem due to political and natural causes.  Energy conservation concern because of energy problem of transportation development.
  • 7.  HARBOUR:- It is partly enclosed area which provides safe and suitable accommodation for supplies, refueling, repair, loading and unloading cargo.  PORT:- A port is a harbour where marine terminal facilities are provided. A port is a place which regularly provides accommodation for the transfer of cargo and passengers to and from the ships. Port = Harbour + Storage Facility + Communication Facility + Other Terminal Facility. From above, It can be stated that a port includes a harbour i.e. every port is a harbour.
  • 8.
  • 9. Entrance Channel Break Water Turning Basin Shelter Basin Pier Wharf Quay Dry Dock Wet Dock Jetty
  • 10.  ENTRANCE CHANNEL:- Water area from which ships enter in the harbour and it should have sufficient width, 100 for small harbour, 100 to 160m for medium and 160 to 260m for large harbour.  BREAK WATER:- A protective barrier made up of Concrete or Course Rubble Masonry constructed from shore towards the sea to enclose harbour .  TURNING BASIN:- It is water area which is required for maneuvering the ship after entering to the harbour and it is large enough to permit free turning.  SHELTER BASIN:- It is area protected by shore and breakwater.
  • 11.  PIER:- It is a solid platform at which berthing of ships on both the sides are possible.  WHARF:- It is a docking platform constructed parallel to shoreline providing berthing facility on one side only.  QUAY:- It is also dock parallel to the shore which is solid structure providing berthing on one side and retaining the earth on the other.  DRY DOCK:- It is a chamber provided for maintenance, repairs and construction of ships. It includes walls, floor and gate.
  • 12.  WET DOCK:- Due to variation in tidal level, an enclosed basin is provided where in number of ships can be berthed. It has an entrance which is controlled by a lock gate.  JETTY:- It is a solid platform constructed perpendicular to the shoreline for berthing of ships.  QUAY:- It is also dock parallel to the shore which is solid structure providing berthing on one side and retaining the earth on the other.  DRY DOCK:- It is a chamber provided for maintenance, repairs and construction of ships. It includes walls, floor and gate.
  • 13.  It should be connected with roadway and railway.  Surrounding land should be fertile and densely populated.  Ship channels must have sufficient depth for draft or vessel.  Breakwaters must be provided to protect against destructive wave action.  The bottom should furnished secure anchorage to hold ships against the wind force.  Numbers of quay, piers and wharfs should be sufficient for loading and unloading cargo.  It should have facilities like fuel, repair and etc. for ships.  Harbour area should be sufficiently large.  It should have enough cold storage. Requirements Of Good Harbour
  • 14.  CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE PROTECTION NEEDED Natural Harbour:- Harbour protected by storms and waves by natural land contours, rocky out crops, or island that is called Natural Contour. (Eg. Kandla port, Cochin port & Mumbai Harbour) Classification Of Harbours
  • 15.  CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE PROTECTION NEEDED Semi - Natural Harbour:- A semi – natural harbour is protected on the sides by the contours of land and requires manmade protection only to the entrance. (Eg. Mandvi, Veraval & Visakhapatnam port) Classification Of Harbours
  • 16.  CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE PROTECTION NEEDED Artificial Harbour:- An artificial harbour is one which is manmade and protected from storms and waves by engineering works. (Eg. Chennai Harbour) Classification Of Harbours
  • 17.  CLASSIFICATION BASED ON UTILITY Commercial Harbour:- It is an harbour in which docks are provided with necessary facilities for loading and unloading of cargo. (Eg. Chennai Harbour) Refuge Harbour:- These are used as a heaven for ships in a storm or it may be part of a commercial harbour. (Eg. Chennai Harbour & Visakhapatnam Harbour) Classification Of Harbours
  • 18.  CLASSIFICATION BASED ON UTILITY Military Harbour:- It is a naval base for the purpose of accommodating naval ships or vessels and it serves as a supply depot. (Eg. Mumbai Harbour & Cochin Harbour) Fishing Harbour:- These harbours have facilities for departure and arrival of fishing ships. They have also necessary arrangement to catch fish. Classification Of Harbours
  • 19.  CLASSIFICATION BASED ON LOCATION Ocean Harbour River Harbour Canal Harbour Lake Harbour Classification Of Harbours
  • 20. Ocean Port:- This is a port intended for large ocean going ships. River Port:- River port is located on the banks of the river inside the land. Entry Port:- This is location where foreign citizens and goods are cleared through custom house. Free Port:- This is an isolated and enclosed area within which goods may be landed, stored, mixed, repacked, manufactured and reshipped without payment of duties. Classification Of Ports
  • 22. It is necessary to carry out a topography survey of the neighborhood including the foreshore and the depths of water in the vicinity. The borings and soundings should be taken to ascertain the character of the ground. The borings on land should also be made so as to know the probable subsurface conditions on land. It will be helpful in locating the harbour works correctly. The nature of harbour, whether sheltered or not, should be studied. The existence of sea insects which undermine the foundations should be noted. The problem of silting or erosion of coastline should be carefully studied. The natural meteorological phenomena should be studied at site especially with respect to frequency of storms, rainfall, range of tides, maximum and minimum temperature, direction and intensity of winds, humidity, direction and velocity of currents, etc. Harbour Planning:-
  • 23. Great care ahs to be exercised at the time of making selection of site for a harbour. The guiding factors which play a great role in choice of site for a harbour are as follows: Availability of cheap land and construction material; Transport and communication facilities; Natural protection from winds and waves; Industrial development of the locality; Sea – bed, subsoil and foundation conditions; Traffic potentiality of harbour; Availability of electrical energy and fresh water; Favorable marine conditions; Defense and strategic aspects; etc. Site Selection For Harbour:-
  • 24. Size of harbour depends upon the number and size of ships likely to use the harbour at one time. Some of the biggest modern ships are 275m to 300m long and about 30m wide. There should be sufficient area for maneuvering them without collision. Thus, the size is determined by: Accommodation required.  Convenience for maneuvering and navigation. Adaptability to natural features. Size Of Harbour:-
  • 25. WIDTH OF ENTRANCE TO THE HARBOUR:- The entrance width should be in proportion to the size of the harbour and ships using it. To reduce the wave height with in the harbour, the entrance width should not be more than that necessary to provide safe navigation and also to prevent dangerous currents, when the tide is coming in and going out. For Small Harbours = 90m For Medium Harbours = 120 to 150m For Large Harbours = 150 to 250m Size Of Harbour:-
  • 26. WIDTH OF ENTRANCE CHANNEL:- Size Of Harbour:-
  • 27. WIDTH OF ENTRANCE CHANNEL:- The entrance channel width is divided into: (I) Manouvering lane width = 2B (II) Ship clearance lane width = B (III) Bank clearance-depends on the side slopes. From Fig., The width of entrance channel for single lane traffic, L = 4B + 2 (bank clearance) Size Of Harbour:-
  • 28. TURNING BASIN:- The radius of turning basin should be equal to two times the length of the largest ship calling at the harbour. R = 2l Where, R = Radius of turning basin, l = length of the largest ship Size Of Harbour:-
  • 29. WAVE HEIGHT WITHIN THE HARBOUR:- Where, h = Height of reduced waves any point P in harbour, m H = Height of wave at entrance, m B = Breadth of entrance, m L = Breadth of harbour at P, m D = Distance of P from entrance, m Size Of Harbour:-
  • 30. DEPTH OF HARBOUR:- The channel depth is generally determined by the following formula: Where, D’ = The draft of the largest ship to be accommodated H = The height of storm waves, crest to trough D’’ = Allowance for squat. Size Of Harbour:-
  • 31. Since harbour is designed and constructed for providing berthing and cargo handling facilities for the ships, it is necessary to be familiar with the various ship features related to harbour planning.  LOAD LINE:- It indicate a line showing the water level to which they may legally be loaded. DISPLACEMENT LOAD:- The weight of ship and its contents when fully loaded with cargo to the load line is known as displacement load. DISPLACEMENT LIGHT:- The weight of ship without cargo, fuel and stores is known as displacement light. Ship Characteristics:-
  • 32.  GROSS REGISTERED TOUNAGE (G. R. T):- This is the total measured internal capacity of a ship expressed in units of 2.83 m3 or 100cu.ft. NET REGISTERED TOUNAGE (N. R. T):- This is the carrying capacity of a ship expressed in units of 2.83m3. DEAD WEIGHT TOUNAGE (D. W. T):- This is the carrying capacity of a ship by weight. It is a weight of cargo, fuel, stores, passengers, crew etc. D. W. T = Displacement Load – Displacement Light Ship Characteristics:-
  • 33.  DISPLACEMENT TOUNAGE:- This is the actual weight of the ship. It is the weight of water displaced when afloat and may be either loaded or light. DRAFT:- It is the depth of the keel of the ship below water level. CARGO TOUNAGE:- It is a commercial expression which forms the basis of freight charge. It can be measured by volume or weight. BALLAST:- It is the weight added in the ballast compartments of a ship to increase its draft after it has discharged its cargo an dto improve its stability. Ship Characteristics:-
  • 34. MARINE STRUCTURES  Breakwater  Wharves  Quay Walls  Jetties  Piers  Dolphins  Fenders  Trestle  Moles  Mooring Accessories
  • 35. BREAKWATER Breakwater is a protective barrier constructed to form an artificial harbour with a water area so protected from the effect of sea waves as to provide safe accommodation for shipping. Alignment Should be…..  As straight as possible Intersection angle not >60° In open sea, alignment should be curved to reduce the effects of waves.
  • 37.  Arrangement of Breakwater:- BREAKWATER (conti…) Having Two Entrance Gate
  • 38.  Arrangement of Breakwater:- BREAKWATER (conti…) Having One Entrance Gate
  • 39.  Arrangement of Breakwater:- BREAKWATER (conti…) Arms of the Breakwater Converge and Overlap
  • 40.  Design Process of Breakwater:- Following Information….  Character of coastal Current  Direction and force of Winds  Availability & Cost of Material  Natural of Foundation  Probable maximum Height, Force & Intensity of Waves BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 41.  Design Process of Breakwater:- Forces acting…  Hydrostatic force,  Wind force, Wave action, Solvent action Sea insects BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 42.  Design Process of Breakwater:-  Pre-feasibility Stage:-  What is required? Feasibility Stage:- Suitable data Collection  Initial Design  Cost/Benefit Analysis BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 43.  Design Process of Breakwater:-  Detailed Design Stage:-  Further data collection,  Refined design parameters,  Final design,  Model test,  Preparation of drawing and specification. Construction Stage:-  Monitoring & Maintenance BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 44.  Factors Determining Selection of Breakwater:-  Availability of Construction Material  Depth of Water  Condition of Sea Foundation  Availability of Equipment BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 45.  Types of Breakwaters:-  Vertical Wall Type  Rubble Mound Type  Composite Type BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 46.  Vertical Wall Type Breakwater:-  Concrete block gravity wall  Stone and concrete masonry  Concrete caissons  Rock filled sheet pile cells  Rock filled timber cribs  Concrete or steel sheet pile walls BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 47.  Vertical Wall Type Breakwater:-  Suitable For….  Sea bed is non – erodable,  No chances of differential settlement of foundation,  Depth of water > 2T Maximum wave height. BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 48.  Vertical Wall Type Breakwater:- BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 49.  Rubble Mound Type Breakwater:-  Natural Rock  Concrete Block  Combination of Both BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 50.  Rubble Mound Type Breakwater:-  Consist of three layers…  The core-consists of quarry waste  The intermediate layer-used for protecting slopes and the top of the core-consists of rubble stones  Top layer- upper portion of breakwater consists of blocks weighing 11-10 tones BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 51.  Rubble Mound Type Breakwater:- BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 52.  Composite Type Breakwater:- The solid super structure protected by a parapet on the sea face, Provides a platform for handling cargo, It has a rubble base over which a vertical wall type breakwater is constructed, Combination of mound and vertical wall type breakwater, BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 53.  Composite Type Breakwater:- BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 54.  Methods of Protection of Breakwater:-  By arrangement of heavy concrete blocks,  By paving using granite blocks,  Using tetrapodes and tribars. BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 55.  Comparison of Mound type & Vertical Wall type Breakwater:- BREAKWATER (conti…) Mound Type Vertical Wall Type Wave breaks at the breakwater. Reflect the wave energy. Large entrance. Narrower entrance. Regular maintenance necessary. Maintenance is practically eliminated. Can be constructed on any type of foundation. Require a firm foundation. Recommended where plenty of rocks available. Recommended when there is shortage of rock. Require unskilled labour. Require skilled labour.
  • 56.  Merits of Mound type Breakwater:-  No special equipment needed,  Require unskilled labour,  Large size rubbles can be used without dressing,  Constructed on any type of foundation, Construction is porous, hence no possibility of uplift. BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 57.  Demerits of Mound type Breakwater:-  Require huge quantity of material,  Initial cost high, Regular maintenance,  Harbour side can not be used for mooring ships,  Occupancy large area of basin. BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 58.  Merits of Wall type Breakwater:-  Narrower entrance, hence greater protection to the sheltered area,  Harbour side of the breakwater can be used for mooring ships,  recommended where shortage of rock,  Maintenance is practically eliminated,  It increase size of harbour basin, Reduces the amount of material. BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 59.  Demerits of Wall type Breakwater:-  Skilled labourers are required,  Special equipments are required for construction,  Repairing is difficult,  Require a firm foundation. BREAKWATER (conti…)
  • 60. WHARVES These are platforms at which vessels take on and discharge passengers and cargo on one side and earth retained on other.  It’s a platform built parallel to shoreline,  Should give sufficient depth of water for the ship to float,  Wharves built parallel with the shore are called quays,  Built to retain or protect the embankment or filling.
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  • 62. TYPES OF WHARVES 1. Open construction wharves:- Wharves of open construction have their decks supported by piles or cylinders.  It can be either high level decks or relieving type platforms,  Can be made of timber, R.C.C, or both,  Pre cast or pre stressed slab or beam are economical.
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  • 64. 2. Solid type wharves:- These are composed of earth or rock fill partly confined by some sort of bulkhead. Depth less than 15m, bottom suitable for support of gravity type of structure, steel pile cells are best suited, Cells act as a gravity wall of sufficient weight, Resist over turning or sliding at base. TYPES OF WHARVES
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  • 66.
  • 67. QUAY WALLS Wharves built parallel with the shore are called quays. Function:-  To retain and protect the embankment or filling on the landward side,  To provide berthing on the sea side,  To support the platform above.
  • 68. JETTIES A narrow structure projecting from the shore into water with berths on one or both sides and sometimes at the end also. In the form of piled projections, Constructed outside the harbour or inside the harbour When built in combination with a breakwater then it is known as breakwater pier.
  • 69. USES OF JETTIES Jetty is a solid platform constructed perpendicular to the shoreline or breakwater, It provides berth to ships, It is used for handling inflammable materials like petrol, diesel, kerosene, crude oil etc. It can be used for dredging in the approach channel
  • 70. TYPES OF JETTIES 1. Solid structure:- It is usually of mound breakwater type, Used more for the prevention of silting in the entrance channel. 2. Piled structure:- A. Open pile jetties Cheaper than the solid type but having same durability Can’t be used where jetty is required to be very wide Timer, R.C.C., steel Steel jetties are supported on screw piles Timer and R.C.C. are suitable for large jetties
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  • 72. B. Piled and cylinder jetties Piles are completely encased in concrete cylinders Piles carry loads of whole structure and cylinders don’t Capable of sustaining heavy impacts from ships
  • 73. PIERS • Piers are the structure built at angle with the shore. • On both sides of a pier berths are provided. Type:- (A) Open or solid construction Open pier are constructed over open water on exposed timber or concrete piles Open pier are used where minimum restriction of currents is specified These piers are relatively more economical as narrow piers in deep water
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  • 75. DOLPHINS They are the marine structures located at the entrance of the locked or alongside a pier or a wharf.  Uses:-  To absorb the impact force of the ships  To provide mooring facilities i.e. for typing up ships  They are also used to shorten the length of piers and wharves
  • 76.  Types:- (A) Breasting Type Provided in front of the sea face of the pier of wharf. Designed to take the impact of ship while docking and are equipped with fenders (B) Mooring Type Located behind the seaward force of the berth They are provided with bollards or mooring posts and with capstans where heavy lines are to be handled Smaller than breasting dolphins DOLPHINS (conti….)
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  • 78.
  • 79. FENDERS A fender is a form of a cushion is provided on a jetty face for ships to come in contact.  The fender can be made of different materials in various forms  It absorbs the impact of ship and protect them from damage  Qualities of good fenders:- They should have a high capacity for absorbing energies during berthing of a ship They should be simple in design and construction and easily replaceable It must be able to resist tangential forces effectively They should not be easily damaged during berthing They should not damage ship’s hull
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  • 81.  Types of Fenders:- (A) Wooden Fender Simplest form of wooden fender are in the form of horizontal wooden member. They absorb energy because of deflection when struck by a ship (B) Rubber Fenders The simplest form of rubber fenders are rubber tires hung over the side of the dock. Rubber fenders are supported by wire rope attached to eye bolt set in the concrete dock wall FENDERS (conti…)
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  • 83.
  • 84. MOORING ACCESSORIES Arrangement such as bow, stern, spring and breast lines are necessaries to hold the ship stationary with the dock & to load or unload the cargo as well as passenger. Mooring Accessories Bollards This is fastened to single or double bollards which are located along the face of the dock 15 to 27 m apart with the help of ship lines such as bow, stern lines, spring and breast lines.
  • 85. Chocks Open or closed chocks are used for directing lines on to the correst post avoiding the lines from rubbing against sharp edges. MOORING ACCESSORIES (conti…)
  • 86. Corner mooring post These are located at the out shore corners of a pier or at the ends of the wharf. • These posts are designed to take greater loads than that on bollards which is about 50 tones line pull. • Used mainly to bring the ship into the dock or to wrap it around the corner of pier or dolphin. MOORING ACCESSORIES (conti…)
  • 87. Cleats Cleats are used to tie small vessels such as; small ships, tugs and workboats. • These are usually spaced about 10 to 13m apart along the face of the dock. MOORING ACCESSORIES (conti…)
  • 88. Capstans It has a revolving cylindrical surface • These are used to wind the ship’s line and thus to pull the ship along the docking platform after which the lines are secured to the bollards. • They may be pneumatically or electrically operated. MOORING ACCESSORIES (conti…)