SlideShare a Scribd company logo
FLIGHT BASICS
Index of presentation
Introduction
The Atmosphere
Newton’s Laws of Motion
Bernoulli’s Principle
Airfoil
Parts of an Airplane
The Four Forces of Flight
Three Axes of Movement
Stability
Control
INTRODUCTION
       It is unnecessary that a mechanic be totally versed on
Aerodynamics and Theory of Flight. However he must
understand the relationships between the atmosphere, the
aircraft and the forces acting on it in flight, in order to make
intelligent decisions affecting the flight safety of both airplanes
and helicopters.

Aerodynamics

       Aerodynamics is the study of objects in motion through
the air and the forces that produce or change such motion.
The Atmosphere
       Air is a mixture of gases composed principally of nitrogen
and oxygen.      An aircraft operates in the air, therefore, the
properties of air that affect aircraft control and performance must
be understood.
Pressure – Atmospheric pressure varies with altitude. The
higher an object rises above sea level, the lower the pressure.
Density – It varies directly with the pressure and inversely with
the temperature. With the same horse power, an aircraft can fly
faster at high altitude because of less resistance of air at there.
Humidity – Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. It
varies directly with temperature.
Newton's First Law of Motion
According to Newton's first law of motion (inertia), an object at
rest will remain at rest, or an object in motion will continue in
motion at the same speed and in the same direction, until an
outside force acts on it. For an aircraft to taxi or fly, a force
must be applied to it. It would remain at rest without an
outside force. Once the aircraft is moving, another force must
act on it to bring it to a stop. It would continue in motion
without an outside force. This willingness of an object to
remain at rest or to continue in motion is referred to as inertia.
Newton's Second Law of Motion
The second law of motion (force) states that if a object moving
with uniform speed is acted upon by an external force, the
change of motion (acceleration) will be directly proportional to
the amount of force and inversely proportional to the mass of
the object being moved. The motion will take place in the
direction in which the force acts. Simply stated, this means that
an object being pushed by 10 pounds of force will travel faster
than it would if it were pushed by 5 pounds of force. A heavier
object will accelerate more slowly than a lighter object when an
equal force is applied.             F=m×a
Newton's Third Law of Motion
The third law of motion (action and reaction) states that for
every action (force) there is an equal and opposite reaction
(force). This law can be demonstrated with a balloon. If you
inflate a balloon with air and release it without securing the
neck, as the air is expelled the balloon moves in the opposite
direction of the air rushing out of it. Figure shows this law of
motion.
                            Balloon



      Reaction                Air                     Action
BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE
Bernoulli's principle states that when a fluid flowing through a tube
reaches a constriction or narrowing of the tube, the speed of the
fluid passing through the constriction is increased and its pressure
is decreased.
                Pressure Drop in Venturi Tube
Airfoil
An airfoil is the shape of a wing or blade (of a propeller, rotor
or turbine) as seen in cross-section. An aircraft's wings,
horizontal, and vertical stabilizers are built with airfoil-shaped
cross sections, as are helicopter rotor blades.
- The mean camber line is a line drawn midway between the
  upper and lower surfaces.
- The chord line is a straight line connecting the leading and
  trailing edges of the airfoil, at the ends of the mean camber

   line.

                                Chord line

                                             Mean camber line
Parts of an Airplane

 Cockpit                Empennage

 Fuselage               Stabilizers

 Wing                   Rudder

 Flap                   Elevator

 Aileron                Engine
Parts of An Airplane
The Four Forces of Flight
The forces acting on an airplane in flight are lift, weight, thrust,
and drag. These forces are in equilibrium during straight-and-
level, unaccelerated flight.

                                        LIFT




       THRUST                                          DRAG


                                        WEIGHT
Lift
Lift is the force created by the interaction between the wings
and the airflow. It always act upwards. It is considered to be
the 'most important force' as without it, an aircraft cannot
ascend from ground and maintain altitude.

  Lift is an aerodynamic force
  Lift must exceed weight for flight
  Generated by motion of aircraft through air
  Created by the effects of airflow past wing
  Aircraft lift acts through a single point called the center
   of pressure.
Newton’s Third Law and Lift
Newton’s Second Law and Lift
Lift: Wing Section




    Lift Equation: L=CL × ½ ρ × A × V2
Angle of Attack
 • The angle of attack is the angle between the chord line
   and the average relative wind.
 • Greater angle of attack creates more lift (up to a point).
Angle of Attack and Lift Force
                     High velocity
                     Low pressure




                      Low velocity
                      High pressure
Angle of Incidence
 • The angle of incidence is the angle between the chord line
   and the longitudinal axis of aircraft.
 • It is the angle of wing setting.
 • When the leading edge of the wing is higher than the
   trailing edge, the angle of incidence is said to be positive.
   It is negative when the leading edge is lower than the
   trailing edge of the wing.
                              Angle of incidence
       Chor
           d line


Aircraft longitudina
                     l axis
Horizontal Component of Lift
Lift and Induced Drag
 • Lift acts through the center of pressure, and
   perpendicular to the relative wind.
 • This creates induced drag.


                                      induced drag
       cho
           rd                     effective     total
                line
                                         lift   lift
     aver
          a   ge re
                   l   ative
                               wind
Weight
This force acts on an aircraft due to the interaction between
the aircraft's body weight and Earth's gravity. Weight is a
downward force.

  Weight is not constant
    Varies with passengers, cargo, fuel load
    Decreases as fuel is consumed or payload off-loaded
  Direction is constant toward earth’s center
  Acts through a single point called the center of gravity
   (the CG)
Thrust
This force is created by an aircraft's engine and is required for
forward motion.
  Forward-acting force opposes drag
  Direction of thrust depends on design
  Propulsion systems produce thrust
  Equal to drag in straight, constant speed flight
Drag
This force acts in reverse direction to that of 'Thrust' and
hinders forward motion. Drag is considered as a negative force
and all engineers try their best to reduce drag.
  An aerodynamic force.
  Resists forward motion.
  Increases with the square of speed.
  Two broad drag classifications.
     – Parasite drag: drag created by airplane shape.
       A result of air viscosity.
     – Induced drag: by-product of lift generation.
       Caused by the wingtip vortices.

Drag Equation: D=CD × ½ ρ × A × V2
Example of Drag Formation
Shape of the Airfoil

• The shape of the airfoil determines the
  amount of turbulences or skin friction
  that it will produce. The shape of a wing
  consequently affects the efficiency of
  the wing. A wing may have various
  airfoil section from root to tip, with
  taper, twist, sweep back and sweep
  forward.
Wing Shapes
Three Axes of Movement
                        Axis of Yaw (Vertical Axis)




Axis of Roll (Longitudinal Axis)




                                                      Axis of Pitch (Lateral Axis)
Pitch Around the Lateral Axis
Roll Around Longitudinal Axis
Yaw Around the vertical Axis
Stability
An aircraft must have sufficient stability to maintain a uniform
flight path and recover from the various upsetting forces also
to achieve the best performance.


  There are two types of stability
 Static Stability - The initial movement of an
  object after being disturbed.
   – Positive Static Stability – returns to position
     before displacement.
   – Neutral Static Stability – tendency to remain in
     displaced position.
   – Negative Static Stability – tends to continue
     away from displaced position in same direction.
Static Stability
Positive-Neutral-Negative
Dynamic stability

Dynamic Stability - The behavior of the
object over time.
  Positive Dynamic Stability – the oscillations or
  phugoids dampen themselves out.
  Neutral Dynamic Stability – the oscillations or
  phugoids carry on with out increasing in
  severity.
  Negative Dynamic Stability – the oscillations or
  phugoids increase in severity and diverge.
Dynamic Stability
Positive Dynamic Stability
Natural Dynamic Stability
Negative Dynamic Stability
Stability recover by a dihedral wing




                                   Smaller wing area
       Larger wing area                Less lift
           More lift
Stability recover by a sweep back wing
CONTROL
To achieve the best performance, the aircraft must have the
proper response to the movement of the controls. Control is the
action taken to make the aircraft follow any desired flight path.
Different Control surfaces are used to control the aircraft about
each of the three axes.
Flight Control Surfaces – Hinged or moveable airfoils
designed to change the attitude of the aircraft during flight.
       1. Primary group              3. Auxiliary group
              - ailerons                   - wing flaps
              - elevators                  - spoilers
              - rudder                     - speed brakes
       2. Secondary group                  - slats
              - trim tab, spring tab       - leading edge flaps
              - servo tab, balance tab     - slots
Flight Control Surfaces

         Spoiler


                            Spoiler


Flap



                     Flap
wing flaps        spoilers     leading edge slats




leading edge slots              speed brakes
Control around the Longitudinal Axis
ROLLING




Ailerons – The ailerons form a part of the wing and are located in
the trailing edge of the wing towards the tips. The control stick is
connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the wings’ ailerons. By
turning the stick, the pilot can change the positions of the ailerons.
Control around the Vertical Axis
YAWING
Rudder – The rudder is a
moveable control surface
attached to the trailing edge of the
vertical stabilizer. The foot pedals
are connected by means of wires
or hydraulics to the rudder of the
tail section. The rudder can also
be used in controlling a bank or
turn in flight.              Moving rudder to the       Moving rudder to the
                             right forces tail to the   left forces tail to the
                             left, nose to the right    right, nose to the left.
Control around the Lateral Axis
PITCHING

Elevators – Elevators are the
movable control surfaces hinged to
the trailing edge of the horizontal
stabilizer. The control stick is
connected by means of wires or
hydraulics to the tail section’s
elevators.
       - Stabilator
       - Ruddervator
Presented by:
E.Sri Ramya
 111A70014

More Related Content

What's hot

Aerodynamic design of aeroplane
Aerodynamic design of aeroplaneAerodynamic design of aeroplane
Aerodynamic design of aeroplane
Tanveer Hussain
 
Theory of flight final
Theory of flight finalTheory of flight final
Theory of flight final
John Christian De Leon
 
Aerodynamics slide
Aerodynamics slideAerodynamics slide
Aerodynamics slide
Linda Jaquiline
 
Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
Project Aeroplane (Short Review) Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
Moideen Thashreef
 
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. FlemingAvb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
715 Squadron
 
Aircraft basics
Aircraft basicsAircraft basics
Aircraft basics
Rohit Ranjan
 
Aircraft Performance: Part I
Aircraft Performance: Part IAircraft Performance: Part I
Aircraft Performance: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik
 
Aircraft performance 2
Aircraft performance 2Aircraft performance 2
Aircraft performance 2
Nazmul Alam
 
Basic Aerodynamics.Ppt
Basic Aerodynamics.PptBasic Aerodynamics.Ppt
Basic Aerodynamics.Ppt
azfa
 
Principles Of Flight
Principles Of FlightPrinciples Of Flight
Principles Of Flight
Vinayak Kaujalgi, PMP
 
Aircraft wing
Aircraft wingAircraft wing
Aircraft wing
Thirumal Aero
 
Types of aircraft presentation
Types of aircraft presentationTypes of aircraft presentation
Types of aircraft presentationCarlos Xavier
 
Pitot static system
Pitot static systemPitot static system
Pitot static system
Md Ataul Mamun
 
Lift of a wing
Lift of a wingLift of a wing
Lift of a wing
faiyaaz
 
Basics on airfoils and lift generation
Basics on airfoils and lift generationBasics on airfoils and lift generation
Basics on airfoils and lift generationmayawwo
 
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICSEASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
soulstalker
 
Weightandbalance
WeightandbalanceWeightandbalance
Weightandbalance
Venkat Narayanan
 
aircraft static and dynamic stability,longitudinal and lateral
 aircraft static and dynamic stability,longitudinal and lateral aircraft static and dynamic stability,longitudinal and lateral
aircraft static and dynamic stability,longitudinal and lateral
Jini Raj
 

What's hot (20)

Aerodynamic design of aeroplane
Aerodynamic design of aeroplaneAerodynamic design of aeroplane
Aerodynamic design of aeroplane
 
Theory of flight final
Theory of flight finalTheory of flight final
Theory of flight final
 
Aerodynamics slide
Aerodynamics slideAerodynamics slide
Aerodynamics slide
 
Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
Project Aeroplane (Short Review) Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
Project Aeroplane (Short Review)
 
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. FlemingAvb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
Avb 2: Aerodynamics - CCPL G. Fleming
 
Aircraft basics
Aircraft basicsAircraft basics
Aircraft basics
 
Aircraft Performance: Part I
Aircraft Performance: Part IAircraft Performance: Part I
Aircraft Performance: Part I
 
LANDING GEAR
LANDING GEARLANDING GEAR
LANDING GEAR
 
Aircraft performance 2
Aircraft performance 2Aircraft performance 2
Aircraft performance 2
 
Basic Aerodynamics.Ppt
Basic Aerodynamics.PptBasic Aerodynamics.Ppt
Basic Aerodynamics.Ppt
 
Principles Of Flight
Principles Of FlightPrinciples Of Flight
Principles Of Flight
 
Aircraft wing
Aircraft wingAircraft wing
Aircraft wing
 
Types of aircraft presentation
Types of aircraft presentationTypes of aircraft presentation
Types of aircraft presentation
 
Pitot static system
Pitot static systemPitot static system
Pitot static system
 
Lift of a wing
Lift of a wingLift of a wing
Lift of a wing
 
Basics on airfoils and lift generation
Basics on airfoils and lift generationBasics on airfoils and lift generation
Basics on airfoils and lift generation
 
Basic aircraft control system
Basic aircraft control systemBasic aircraft control system
Basic aircraft control system
 
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICSEASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.4 : FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS
 
Weightandbalance
WeightandbalanceWeightandbalance
Weightandbalance
 
aircraft static and dynamic stability,longitudinal and lateral
 aircraft static and dynamic stability,longitudinal and lateral aircraft static and dynamic stability,longitudinal and lateral
aircraft static and dynamic stability,longitudinal and lateral
 

Viewers also liked

ME438 Aerodynamics (week 11)
ME438 Aerodynamics (week 11)ME438 Aerodynamics (week 11)
ME438 Aerodynamics (week 11)
Dr. Bilal Siddiqui, C.Eng., MIMechE, FRAeS
 
NANO TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACE
NANO TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACENANO TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACE
NANO TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACE
Rajesh Mumma Love
 
Future inventions of aerospace engineering presentation
Future inventions of aerospace engineering presentationFuture inventions of aerospace engineering presentation
Future inventions of aerospace engineering presentation
Asad Jamil
 
Aerospace 4
Aerospace 4Aerospace 4
Aerospace 4
Ellen Kay Cacatian
 
13 panduan tugas
13 panduan tugas13 panduan tugas
13 panduan tugasSMTKK
 
EFIS on Airbus A320 / A330
EFIS on Airbus A320 / A330EFIS on Airbus A320 / A330
EFIS on Airbus A320 / A330
careaviaitonhk
 
Presentation on airbus
Presentation on airbusPresentation on airbus
Presentation on airbusPankajSingla
 
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   LargeBasic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Largelccmechanics
 
Airbus Ppt
Airbus PptAirbus Ppt
Airbus PptUmesh
 
Atmosphere Powerpoint
Atmosphere PowerpointAtmosphere Powerpoint
Atmosphere Powerpoint
Mrs. Henley
 
Fog computing
Fog computingFog computing
Fog computing
Hari Priyanka
 
Layers of the atmosphere
Layers of the atmosphereLayers of the atmosphere
Layers of the atmosphere
Jessica027
 
Earth’s atmosphere
Earth’s  atmosphereEarth’s  atmosphere
Earth’s atmosphereitutor
 
Airbus A380
Airbus A380Airbus A380
Airbus A380rubal_9
 
Airport Layout
Airport LayoutAirport Layout
Airport Layout
Naveed Hussain
 

Viewers also liked (19)

Airbus A380
Airbus A380Airbus A380
Airbus A380
 
ME438 Aerodynamics (week 11)
ME438 Aerodynamics (week 11)ME438 Aerodynamics (week 11)
ME438 Aerodynamics (week 11)
 
NANO TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACE
NANO TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACENANO TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACE
NANO TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACE
 
Future inventions of aerospace engineering presentation
Future inventions of aerospace engineering presentationFuture inventions of aerospace engineering presentation
Future inventions of aerospace engineering presentation
 
Aerospace 4
Aerospace 4Aerospace 4
Aerospace 4
 
Aerospace Nanotechnology
Aerospace NanotechnologyAerospace Nanotechnology
Aerospace Nanotechnology
 
13 panduan tugas
13 panduan tugas13 panduan tugas
13 panduan tugas
 
EFIS on Airbus A320 / A330
EFIS on Airbus A320 / A330EFIS on Airbus A320 / A330
EFIS on Airbus A320 / A330
 
Presentation on airbus
Presentation on airbusPresentation on airbus
Presentation on airbus
 
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   LargeBasic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Large
 
Airbus Ppt
Airbus PptAirbus Ppt
Airbus Ppt
 
The Atmosphere
The AtmosphereThe Atmosphere
The Atmosphere
 
Atmosphere Powerpoint
Atmosphere PowerpointAtmosphere Powerpoint
Atmosphere Powerpoint
 
Fog computing
Fog computingFog computing
Fog computing
 
Layers of the atmosphere
Layers of the atmosphereLayers of the atmosphere
Layers of the atmosphere
 
Layers of the atmosphere
Layers of the atmosphereLayers of the atmosphere
Layers of the atmosphere
 
Earth’s atmosphere
Earth’s  atmosphereEarth’s  atmosphere
Earth’s atmosphere
 
Airbus A380
Airbus A380Airbus A380
Airbus A380
 
Airport Layout
Airport LayoutAirport Layout
Airport Layout
 

Similar to Flight basics

Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptx
Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptxPrinciples of Flight_FINAL.pptx
Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptx
Miracle574616
 
Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptx
Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptxPrinciples of Flight_FINAL.pptx
Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptx
Miracle574616
 
CFD analysis of aerofoil
CFD analysis of aerofoilCFD analysis of aerofoil
CFD analysis of aerofoil
Neel Thakkar
 
Basic Principles of Flight.pptx
Basic Principles of Flight.pptxBasic Principles of Flight.pptx
Basic Principles of Flight.pptx
RArivazhaganAssistan
 
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
Sael J. Figueroa, CFI, AGI
 
Aerodynamics Chapter 4
Aerodynamics Chapter 4Aerodynamics Chapter 4
Aerodynamics Chapter 4junio_oliveira
 
The four forces acts on flight .pptx
The four forces acts on flight  .pptxThe four forces acts on flight  .pptx
The four forces acts on flight .pptx
Home
 
Cynthia Buthelezi Factors Affecting Takeoff Roll
Cynthia Buthelezi Factors Affecting Takeoff RollCynthia Buthelezi Factors Affecting Takeoff Roll
Cynthia Buthelezi Factors Affecting Takeoff RollCynthia Buthelezi
 
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamicsLesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamicsHeather Howley
 
aerodynamics.ppt
aerodynamics.pptaerodynamics.ppt
aerodynamics.ppt
NamLe218588
 
Aerodynamics flight force
Aerodynamics flight forceAerodynamics flight force
Aerodynamics flight force
Rohiduzzaman7
 
Aerodynamics pdf containing forces & all dynamics of airplane
Aerodynamics pdf containing forces & all dynamics of airplaneAerodynamics pdf containing forces & all dynamics of airplane
Aerodynamics pdf containing forces & all dynamics of airplane
AnjaneyaDas
 
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICSEASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
soulstalker
 
Aerodynamics of a_rotary_wing_type_aircraft
Aerodynamics of a_rotary_wing_type_aircraftAerodynamics of a_rotary_wing_type_aircraft
Aerodynamics of a_rotary_wing_type_aircraft
darshakb
 
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPTAerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
srajanc
 
Principles_of_Flight.ppt
Principles_of_Flight.pptPrinciples_of_Flight.ppt
Principles_of_Flight.ppt
ssuser0a9f64
 
Why airplanes fly aerodynamics
Why airplanes fly aerodynamicsWhy airplanes fly aerodynamics
Why airplanes fly aerodynamics
Arindam Sarkar
 

Similar to Flight basics (20)

Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptx
Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptxPrinciples of Flight_FINAL.pptx
Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptx
 
Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptx
Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptxPrinciples of Flight_FINAL.pptx
Principles of Flight_FINAL.pptx
 
CFD analysis of aerofoil
CFD analysis of aerofoilCFD analysis of aerofoil
CFD analysis of aerofoil
 
Basic Principles of Flight.pptx
Basic Principles of Flight.pptxBasic Principles of Flight.pptx
Basic Principles of Flight.pptx
 
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
Unit 1 Basic Aerodynamics ATPP 200
 
31oct
31oct31oct
31oct
 
Aerodynamics Chapter 4
Aerodynamics Chapter 4Aerodynamics Chapter 4
Aerodynamics Chapter 4
 
The four forces acts on flight .pptx
The four forces acts on flight  .pptxThe four forces acts on flight  .pptx
The four forces acts on flight .pptx
 
Cynthia Buthelezi Factors Affecting Takeoff Roll
Cynthia Buthelezi Factors Affecting Takeoff RollCynthia Buthelezi Factors Affecting Takeoff Roll
Cynthia Buthelezi Factors Affecting Takeoff Roll
 
Praveen
PraveenPraveen
Praveen
 
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamicsLesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamics
 
Pr 2
Pr 2Pr 2
Pr 2
 
aerodynamics.ppt
aerodynamics.pptaerodynamics.ppt
aerodynamics.ppt
 
Aerodynamics flight force
Aerodynamics flight forceAerodynamics flight force
Aerodynamics flight force
 
Aerodynamics pdf containing forces & all dynamics of airplane
Aerodynamics pdf containing forces & all dynamics of airplaneAerodynamics pdf containing forces & all dynamics of airplane
Aerodynamics pdf containing forces & all dynamics of airplane
 
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICSEASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
EASA PART-66 MODULE 8.2 : AERODYNAMICS
 
Aerodynamics of a_rotary_wing_type_aircraft
Aerodynamics of a_rotary_wing_type_aircraftAerodynamics of a_rotary_wing_type_aircraft
Aerodynamics of a_rotary_wing_type_aircraft
 
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPTAerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
Aerodynamics / Aircraft Aerodynamics PPT
 
Principles_of_Flight.ppt
Principles_of_Flight.pptPrinciples_of_Flight.ppt
Principles_of_Flight.ppt
 
Why airplanes fly aerodynamics
Why airplanes fly aerodynamicsWhy airplanes fly aerodynamics
Why airplanes fly aerodynamics
 

Recently uploaded

MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
Colégio Santa Teresinha
 
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Ashokrao Mane college of Pharmacy Peth-Vadgaon
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
Jean Carlos Nunes Paixão
 
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp NetworkIntroduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
TechSoup
 
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptxS1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
tarandeep35
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
ak6969907
 
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School DistrictPride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
David Douglas School District
 
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
Celine George
 
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in AmericaTop five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
Bisnar Chase Personal Injury Attorneys
 
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Dr. Vinod Kumar Kanvaria
 
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana BuscigliopptxGroup Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
ArianaBusciglio
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
adhitya5119
 
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in EducationA Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
Peter Windle
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
Celine George
 
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptxA Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
thanhdowork
 
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and InclusionExecutive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
TechSoup
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
WaniBasim
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide shareDRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
taiba qazi
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
eBook.com.bd (প্রয়োজনীয় বাংলা বই)
 

Recently uploaded (20)

MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
 
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
 
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp NetworkIntroduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
 
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptxS1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
 
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School DistrictPride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
 
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
 
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in AmericaTop five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
 
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
 
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana BuscigliopptxGroup Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
 
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in EducationA Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
 
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptxA Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
 
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and InclusionExecutive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
 
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide shareDRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
 

Flight basics

  • 2. Index of presentation Introduction The Atmosphere Newton’s Laws of Motion Bernoulli’s Principle Airfoil Parts of an Airplane The Four Forces of Flight Three Axes of Movement Stability Control
  • 3. INTRODUCTION It is unnecessary that a mechanic be totally versed on Aerodynamics and Theory of Flight. However he must understand the relationships between the atmosphere, the aircraft and the forces acting on it in flight, in order to make intelligent decisions affecting the flight safety of both airplanes and helicopters. Aerodynamics Aerodynamics is the study of objects in motion through the air and the forces that produce or change such motion.
  • 4. The Atmosphere Air is a mixture of gases composed principally of nitrogen and oxygen. An aircraft operates in the air, therefore, the properties of air that affect aircraft control and performance must be understood. Pressure – Atmospheric pressure varies with altitude. The higher an object rises above sea level, the lower the pressure. Density – It varies directly with the pressure and inversely with the temperature. With the same horse power, an aircraft can fly faster at high altitude because of less resistance of air at there. Humidity – Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. It varies directly with temperature.
  • 5. Newton's First Law of Motion According to Newton's first law of motion (inertia), an object at rest will remain at rest, or an object in motion will continue in motion at the same speed and in the same direction, until an outside force acts on it. For an aircraft to taxi or fly, a force must be applied to it. It would remain at rest without an outside force. Once the aircraft is moving, another force must act on it to bring it to a stop. It would continue in motion without an outside force. This willingness of an object to remain at rest or to continue in motion is referred to as inertia.
  • 6. Newton's Second Law of Motion The second law of motion (force) states that if a object moving with uniform speed is acted upon by an external force, the change of motion (acceleration) will be directly proportional to the amount of force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object being moved. The motion will take place in the direction in which the force acts. Simply stated, this means that an object being pushed by 10 pounds of force will travel faster than it would if it were pushed by 5 pounds of force. A heavier object will accelerate more slowly than a lighter object when an equal force is applied. F=m×a
  • 7. Newton's Third Law of Motion The third law of motion (action and reaction) states that for every action (force) there is an equal and opposite reaction (force). This law can be demonstrated with a balloon. If you inflate a balloon with air and release it without securing the neck, as the air is expelled the balloon moves in the opposite direction of the air rushing out of it. Figure shows this law of motion. Balloon Reaction Air Action
  • 8. BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE Bernoulli's principle states that when a fluid flowing through a tube reaches a constriction or narrowing of the tube, the speed of the fluid passing through the constriction is increased and its pressure is decreased. Pressure Drop in Venturi Tube
  • 9. Airfoil An airfoil is the shape of a wing or blade (of a propeller, rotor or turbine) as seen in cross-section. An aircraft's wings, horizontal, and vertical stabilizers are built with airfoil-shaped cross sections, as are helicopter rotor blades. - The mean camber line is a line drawn midway between the upper and lower surfaces. - The chord line is a straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges of the airfoil, at the ends of the mean camber line. Chord line Mean camber line
  • 10. Parts of an Airplane  Cockpit  Empennage  Fuselage  Stabilizers  Wing  Rudder  Flap  Elevator  Aileron  Engine
  • 11. Parts of An Airplane
  • 12. The Four Forces of Flight The forces acting on an airplane in flight are lift, weight, thrust, and drag. These forces are in equilibrium during straight-and- level, unaccelerated flight. LIFT THRUST DRAG WEIGHT
  • 13. Lift Lift is the force created by the interaction between the wings and the airflow. It always act upwards. It is considered to be the 'most important force' as without it, an aircraft cannot ascend from ground and maintain altitude.  Lift is an aerodynamic force  Lift must exceed weight for flight  Generated by motion of aircraft through air  Created by the effects of airflow past wing  Aircraft lift acts through a single point called the center of pressure.
  • 16. Lift: Wing Section Lift Equation: L=CL × ½ ρ × A × V2
  • 17. Angle of Attack • The angle of attack is the angle between the chord line and the average relative wind. • Greater angle of attack creates more lift (up to a point).
  • 18. Angle of Attack and Lift Force High velocity Low pressure Low velocity High pressure
  • 19. Angle of Incidence • The angle of incidence is the angle between the chord line and the longitudinal axis of aircraft. • It is the angle of wing setting. • When the leading edge of the wing is higher than the trailing edge, the angle of incidence is said to be positive. It is negative when the leading edge is lower than the trailing edge of the wing. Angle of incidence Chor d line Aircraft longitudina l axis
  • 21. Lift and Induced Drag • Lift acts through the center of pressure, and perpendicular to the relative wind. • This creates induced drag. induced drag cho rd effective total line lift lift aver a ge re l ative wind
  • 22. Weight This force acts on an aircraft due to the interaction between the aircraft's body weight and Earth's gravity. Weight is a downward force.  Weight is not constant Varies with passengers, cargo, fuel load Decreases as fuel is consumed or payload off-loaded  Direction is constant toward earth’s center  Acts through a single point called the center of gravity (the CG)
  • 23. Thrust This force is created by an aircraft's engine and is required for forward motion.  Forward-acting force opposes drag  Direction of thrust depends on design  Propulsion systems produce thrust  Equal to drag in straight, constant speed flight
  • 24. Drag This force acts in reverse direction to that of 'Thrust' and hinders forward motion. Drag is considered as a negative force and all engineers try their best to reduce drag.  An aerodynamic force.  Resists forward motion.  Increases with the square of speed.  Two broad drag classifications. – Parasite drag: drag created by airplane shape. A result of air viscosity. – Induced drag: by-product of lift generation. Caused by the wingtip vortices. Drag Equation: D=CD × ½ ρ × A × V2
  • 25. Example of Drag Formation
  • 26. Shape of the Airfoil • The shape of the airfoil determines the amount of turbulences or skin friction that it will produce. The shape of a wing consequently affects the efficiency of the wing. A wing may have various airfoil section from root to tip, with taper, twist, sweep back and sweep forward.
  • 28. Three Axes of Movement Axis of Yaw (Vertical Axis) Axis of Roll (Longitudinal Axis) Axis of Pitch (Lateral Axis)
  • 29. Pitch Around the Lateral Axis
  • 31. Yaw Around the vertical Axis
  • 32. Stability An aircraft must have sufficient stability to maintain a uniform flight path and recover from the various upsetting forces also to achieve the best performance. There are two types of stability Static Stability - The initial movement of an object after being disturbed. – Positive Static Stability – returns to position before displacement. – Neutral Static Stability – tendency to remain in displaced position. – Negative Static Stability – tends to continue away from displaced position in same direction.
  • 34. Dynamic stability Dynamic Stability - The behavior of the object over time. Positive Dynamic Stability – the oscillations or phugoids dampen themselves out. Neutral Dynamic Stability – the oscillations or phugoids carry on with out increasing in severity. Negative Dynamic Stability – the oscillations or phugoids increase in severity and diverge.
  • 38. Stability recover by a dihedral wing Smaller wing area Larger wing area Less lift More lift
  • 39. Stability recover by a sweep back wing
  • 40. CONTROL To achieve the best performance, the aircraft must have the proper response to the movement of the controls. Control is the action taken to make the aircraft follow any desired flight path. Different Control surfaces are used to control the aircraft about each of the three axes. Flight Control Surfaces – Hinged or moveable airfoils designed to change the attitude of the aircraft during flight. 1. Primary group 3. Auxiliary group - ailerons - wing flaps - elevators - spoilers - rudder - speed brakes 2. Secondary group - slats - trim tab, spring tab - leading edge flaps - servo tab, balance tab - slots
  • 41. Flight Control Surfaces Spoiler Spoiler Flap Flap
  • 42. wing flaps spoilers leading edge slats leading edge slots speed brakes
  • 43. Control around the Longitudinal Axis ROLLING Ailerons – The ailerons form a part of the wing and are located in the trailing edge of the wing towards the tips. The control stick is connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the wings’ ailerons. By turning the stick, the pilot can change the positions of the ailerons.
  • 44. Control around the Vertical Axis YAWING Rudder – The rudder is a moveable control surface attached to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer. The foot pedals are connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the rudder of the tail section. The rudder can also be used in controlling a bank or turn in flight. Moving rudder to the Moving rudder to the right forces tail to the left forces tail to the left, nose to the right right, nose to the left.
  • 45. Control around the Lateral Axis PITCHING Elevators – Elevators are the movable control surfaces hinged to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. The control stick is connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the tail section’s elevators. - Stabilator - Ruddervator

Editor's Notes

  1. Discuss weight from lift equation POV.
  2. Propeller is a rotating airfoil.
  3. The stick is connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the wings’ ailerons. By turning the stick, the pilot can change the positions of the ailerons . When the control wheel is turned to the right, the right aileron goes up and the left aileron goes down, rolling the airplane to the right. When the control wheel is turned to the left, the right aileron goes down and the left aileron goes up, rolling the airplane to the left.
  4. Rudder: The foot pedals are connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the rudder of the tail section. The rudder is the vertical part of the tail that can move from side to side. When the foot pressure on the left rudder pedal moves the rudder to the left, causing the nose of the airplane to move to the left.
  5. The stick (joy stick) is connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the tail section’s elevators. By moving the stick, the pilot can change the position of the elevators. When the control column is pushed in, the elevators move down, pitching the tail of the airplane up an the nose down, rolling the airplane down. When pulling the control column back makes the elevators move up, pitching the tail of the airplane down and the nose up, rolling the airplane upwards. Cars go only left or right, but planes must be steered up or down as well. A plane has parts on its wings and tail called control surfaces to help it. These can be demonstrated by use of folded paper gliders and balsa gliders. Let’s start with an experiment to illustrate how a plane is controlled.