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ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
1
ELEMENTS
OF
NATURAL & BUILT ENVIRONMENTS
BETTER TOWN OF THE FUTURE:
WOLKE
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142
Foundation in Natural and Built Environments
August 2014
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
2
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
Introduction 3
A Town 4
Investigation & Data Collection: Ancient City 8
Investigation & Data Collection: Present City 11
Investigation & Data Collection: Future City 17
Introducing the New ‘X’ Town: Wolke 19
Conclusion 30
Referencelist 30
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
3
Introduction
Every town will need to sustain itself. Just like any other living creature, a town is unique
by itself. A better town of the future requires the knowledge of planning, constructing,
elements of a town and also elements for a good town. The task given to every student
is to pretend ourselves as the chairman of a town, and thus propose a better town for
the future, because of the world we are now living is no longer liveable.
Students were given options to choose the theme as following:
a. An underground town
b. An underwater town
c. An floating on water town
d. A city in the air
e. On land next to a river or sea
We were also required to research on ancient towns, present towns as well as future
towns in order to know better about town planning and also understand the content
about a town as well as the natural environment. Through these researches, students
will have to propose the new ‘X’ town.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
4
1. A TOWN
1.1 Definition
According to Oxford Dictionary, a town is a built-up area with a name, defined
boundaries, and local government, that is larger than a village and generally smaller
than a city. Towns are not made up of the boundaries or buildings but the people in
them. The size definition for what constitutes a "town" varies considerably in different
parts of the world.
1.2 Difference between a Townand a City
People often got confused between the difference between a town and a city.
Before the research on town planning, a research on the difference between town and
city was done. Cities are larger than towns and more densely populated. City
sometimes may merge with their surrounding areas while towns do not. Most of the
important administrative offices are situated in the cities. The centre power is normally
situated in cities. A mayor is the head of a city corporation where a chairman is the head
for the municipals of the town. In the US, ‘city’ is a legal term that means an urban area
with autonomous power. In other countries, the word does not have a legal basis but
refers to a large settlement. A town was a living space with a place of worship, like a
Church, Mosque or Synagogue, a town square, a central market and a town hall while
many large cities were encircled by walls.
1.3 Brief History of British and Irish Towns
A town is not just an oversized village. It has its own economy. It has handmade
goods and trading markets. So, a good site might be anywhere near the river.
The development of town is normally complicated. The growth from medieval
core can be traced through belts of Georgian, Victorian and modern buildings. The
greatness and beauty of churches, public buildings and places of entertainment give
other clues to the periods of greatest prosperity.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
5
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns
based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town:
● Infantile towns - with no clear zoning
● Juvenile towns - which have developed an area of shops
● Adolescent towns - where factories have started to appear
● Early mature towns - with a separate area of high-class housing
● Mature towns - with defined industrial, commercial and various types of
residential area
1.4 Evolution of Town Planning
Alongside organic communities, planned cities and towns have also existed from
ancient times. They often follow a simple grid laid over the landscape with houses
placed side by side along the streets. During the 15th century, rulers aimed to achieve
great effects with bold geometry and large public areas while this tendency grew further
during the Baroque era, which is the 17th century. The architectural and landscape
ensembles were designed and built. Parks and recreational area were designed for
citizen’s leisure during the 19th century where The Colonial Office produced plans to be
imposed on the land, regardless of how well or how bad they suited a site. By the early
20th century, town planning was developing as a profession in its own right. Several
schools of thought about civic design became influential.
1.5 Elements of a Town
Town Planning is a process regarding the use of land and design of the
environment, including air, water passing into and out of the town, with infrastructure
such as transportation and distribution networks. Town planners ensure the orderly
development of satellite communities which commute throughout the town areas. It
concerns itself with research and analysis, strategic thinking, architecture, design, public
consultation, policy recommendations, implementation and management.
Town generally have a complex system for
● Sustainability
● Transportation
● Environmental factors
● Scope or zoning
● Utilities
● Water and sanitation infrastructure
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
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Town usually is made up of
● Efficient road system
● Town hall and town centre
● Located in suburb
● Own attraction spot and religious place
● Less populated than cities
● Own business and food process technology
Before the 19th century, Town planning doesn’t consider as a particular
profession. There are, of course, differences from country to country. Town planning
was often focused on those processes by the town planners which created the plans.
However, sustainable development is a recent, controversial concept. Wheeler, in his
2004 book, defines sustainable urban development as "development that improves the
long-term social and ecological health of cities and towns." He sketches a 'sustainable'
city's features: compact, efficient land use; less automobile use, yet better access;
efficient resource use; less pollution and waste; the restoration of natural systems; good
housing and living environments; a healthy social ecology; a sustainable economy;
community participation and involvement; and preservation of local culture and wisdom.
1.6 Elements of a Good Town
Good towns are the ones which applies a design strategy focused on walkable
public areas for people to hang out. A good town is also defines as a town which
contain original culture mixed with sustainable environments and the thirst to keep the
communities small but affluent.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
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A lot of town design and new component of town form were started from the
theory of liveability. The elements of liveability include:
● Preservation of nature
● Renewable energy used
● Sufficient food and water supply
● Strong medical support for citizen
● Effective public transportation
● Strong education and business base
● Various type of research centre for technology and nature
● Organized water sewage and disposal system
● Powerful security system
● Equal distribution of wealth and income
● Proper planning for town development
● Green environment
● Disaster resistant building
1.7 The Future Town
As situations changes, we alter the way we live, our design, engineer buildings
and transportation networks. For instance, after the Tsunami occurred in 2004, the
affected countries installed Tsunami early warning systems in and around the Indian
Ocean. The most important element of the future town is not the appearance but its
survivability. It should have its own food, water and energy supply to support the whole
nation even if it’s cut off from the world.
Nobody knows what will happen in the future, but the reality is people are
suffering from all sorts of pollution now and also overcrowded. Towns and cities from
the ancient times were planned by people, but it should be constructing by ideas in the
future, which is the sustainable concept.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
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The basic component of a sustainable town includes good town planning and
also corporate with the nature. Go green should be the first and foremost motto for the
town planner before a town was planned. The future city should include elements as
following:
● Minimal traffic problem
● Disaster proof technology
● Renewable energy as main energy supply
● Policies to cut waste and water consumption
● Encourage higher education for citizens
● Favours green technology
● Encourage innovative economy
● Municipals of town which acts as the lead example
2. INVESTIGATION & DATA COLLECTION: ANCIENT TOWN
Shibam,Yemen
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
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2.1 Introductionto Shibam
Shibam is a town located in Yemen with about 7000 citizen and it’s famous for its
mud brick-made tower houses. It is known as the Manhattan of the desert, this timeless
town raises high on the southern tip of Arabian Peninsula with ancient structures which
cohere with the landscape. The town originally backs up to a cliff in a fertile oasis in the
heart of the Ramlat al-Sab`atayn desert in central Yemen, a flood-prone area which
washed away much of the old Shibam in 1530s. So Shibam's inhabitants reconstructed
the city on a raised plateau, the only area within the oasis at an elevation high enough
to stave off another potentially catastrophic flood. The population began to grow and
demand for space, where they have no real viable option to expand, so the architects
built up.
Each major building is about the height from 5 to 11 stories, with each floor
having one or two apartments, placing each in a unique position. Like the fortified wall
that surrounds this fortress city, this building technique was implemented in order to
protect the people from Bedouin attacks. The incredibly tall houses and buildings,
combined with their awkward positioning on the side of the cliff, earned Shibam, as a
town, earned the title of the oldest skyscraper in the world.
To protect the buildings from rain and erosion, the exterior walls are thickly
coated and must be constantly maintained. The domestic architecture of Shibam
including its visual impact rising out of the floodplain of the wadi, functional design,
materials and construction techniques is an outstanding but extremely vulnerable
expression of Arab and Muslim traditional culture. After the second great flood a system
of dams was built to deflect future flood waters. The lowest was the Muza' dam, which
has been continually repaired ever since, so that no major damage has been done by
flood waters in the 16th century. The walled city is believed to have essentially retained
its form since that time.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
10
2.2 Significantelements of Shibam
Shibam is one of the oldest and best examples of town planning based on the
principle of vertical construction.
● Its plan is trapezoidal, almost rectangular.
● It is enclosed by earthen walls within a block of dwellings which was laid
out on an orthogonal grid.
● Surrounded by a fortified wall to protect the citizens from rival attack
● Strict rules remained in force until recently in an attempt to control building
within the area of the walls.
● Well organised usage for each floor, such as the windowless lower floors
is used for grain storage.
● High building was built to protect them from natural disaster.
● The top one or two levels of all the buildings are protected from rain by
white lime plaster.
● Continuous surface over all the roofs, parapets and outer walls, extending
downwards in some cases about 5 m from the top which makes the town
looks neat.
● Ability to combine the town with surrounding, they’re basically attached to
the side of the cliff.
● Uniform zoning of town, using the rectangular grid plan.
2.3 Conclusion
Shibam had proved itself for being the most well organised town with the used of
vertical construction. Shibam is often called the oldest skyscraper town with the present
of its tallest mud buildings in the world, thus being the early high-rise apartment
buildings. In order to protect the buildings from rain and erosion, the walls were routinely
maintained by applying fresh layers of mud.
It combined itself perfectly with the side of the cliff in order to avoid the flood
which can destroy almost everything in the town. Shibam has a unique architectural
heritage where the master builders and craftsmen have learnt how to build to suit
geography, location, the climate and available materials. For instance, Shibam is built
solely of mud bricks made by hand and baked dry in the sun. Shibam’s architecture
reclaims the steep mountainous terrain which makes the city blend naturally into the
terrain it is situated on.
2.4 Elements which can be use for the Future Town
Shibam can be considered as the masterpiece of building architecture and
urbanism. The integration of Shibam with the surrounding environment as if it’s part of
nature fully portrays the cordial and the dazzling relationship between nature and
human culture.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
11
● The layout of the buildings which are close together means they provide
shade for one another and also shade the ravine like streets in between.
● The use of natural elements for building construction with the right
combination of clay, silt and sand, forming the natural waterproof layer for
the mud building.
● The use of renewable energy which is the solar energy during the
construction process and after the building is redundant, it will naturally
return to the Earth without leaving any pollution to it.
● Mud brick can be a better element to construct a building and also a more
gentle way for the nature, it can be used to develop the modern world
even better than human can think.
● The organized town zoning and a uniform layout using the rectangular grid.
3. INVESTIGATION & DATA COLLECTION: PRESENT TOWN
Vauban, Freiburg, Germany
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
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3.1 Introductionto Vauban
Vauban is arguably the most famous eco-neighbourhood of Europe planned for
5,000 inhabitants to the south of the town centre in Freiburg, Germany. It was built as a
sustainable model district on the site of a former French military base. Low-energy
building is obligatory in this district; zero-energy and energy-plus building and the
application of solar technology are standard for most. Old trees were preserved as
much as possible by the government. The town consist of green spaces between
housing rows for good climatic conditions and they provide a play area for children.
Infrastructure was created parallel to private development, such as schools, youth
facilities, meeting places, market square and also recreational places. Vegetation-
covered flat roofs store rainwater, which is collected and re-used.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
13
As radical when it comes to transport as it is when it comes to energy
consumption, the neighbourhood’s philosophy is based on a “car free” principle. The
neighbourhood area is traffic-calmed, with the majority of households not owning a car.
Private motor vehicles are parked in either of the two garages of the Quarter. Since
2006, the residential area has been linked to the city tram system, enabling 70% of
people gave up their cars, using local public transport or riding their bikes instead.
Among the residents living without a car, 81% had previously owned one. All placed
within walking or cycling distance of one another, everything is designed with cyclists
and pedestrians in mind. Residential streets are “stellplatz free” or “free from parking
spaces” – though pick up and deliveries are permitted.
Dr. Jörg Lange’s vision was for a ‘wastewater free’ house, in which organic and
human waste would become a source of energy and recovered nutrients rather than
merely a costly pollution problem. Vacuum toilets, which reduce the water usage by
nine tenths, were installed to transport human waste to an anaerobic biogas digester,
which produces liquid fertilizer (high in recovered phosphorus) as well as biogas to be
used for cooking. Grey water from showers, dishwashers and sinks is reused after
being cleansed in aerated sand filters and treated with UV rays. Rainwater flows
through gutters into bio-swales with gravel substrata, where it is filtered before leaching
into the groundwater
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
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3.2 Significantelements of Vauban
At present, Vauban is home to nearly 5,100 residents. In addition to offering
varied housing options for a diversity of family needs, Vauban provides a complete
range of shopping for everyday life as well as a large array of professional services.
Altogether, there are some 600 jobs in the district, all of which can be easily accessed
on foot or by bicycle. With connections by light rail and bus, as well as by walking trails
and bike paths, to the rest of the city and the main train station.
● All houses are built to a low energy consumption standard, with 100 units
designed to the Passivhaus ultra-low energy building standard.
● Other buildings are heated by a combined heat and power station burning
wood chips, while many of the buildings have solar collectors or
photovoltaic cells.
● Transportation is usually by foot or bicycle.
● The use of fused grid to filter out cars which is accomplished by reducing
the number of streets that runs through the neighbourhood where most of
the streets are crescents and cul-de-sacs like the diagram shown below.
Circulation in Vauban
● Most of Vauban's residential streets are described as stellplatz frei -
literally "free from parking spaces".
● Promotes an integrated planning culture
● Makes use of new forms of citizen participation which is the Baugruppen-
based process assured that citizens were interactive partners with the
town and also as the primary housing developers.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
15
3.3 Conclusion
From the beginning, Vauban involved city administration, local politicians,
technical experts and representatives of citizen groups in the design and development
of the district through a flexible and transparent process of continuous learning and
‘responsive planning’. It is clear that Vauban is quite successful for the sustainable town
planning. It is the first housing community worldwide in which all the homes produce a
positive energy balance. The solar energy surplus is then sold back into the city's grid
for a profit on every home.
Vauban is known as the largest car free development in Europe. The city and
individual Baugruppe have pushed the envelope on what it means to design, build and
live in a renewable energy powered sustainable city. While still falling short of its most
ambitious dreams, the district has pioneered a new paradigm for the collaborative
development of sustainable communities.
3.4 Elements which can be use for the Future Town
● Innovative transport policies complement physical design to make it
possible for residents to live ‘car-free’ in Vauban.
Efficient public transport used in Vauban
● Minimum standards for energy use, building quality and ecological
landscape design that.
● Energy conserving and renewable energy technologies at all scales of
environment.
● Highly efficient cogeneration plant (CHP) operating on wood-chips is
operating since 2002 and connected to the district's heating grid.
● Solar collectors and photovoltaics are commonly used on the district's
roofs.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
16
Solar roofing used in Vauban
● Streets and other public spaces is playground for kids and places for
social interaction.
Public playground for social interaction
● A school, kindergartens, a farmer's market, businesses, a shopping centre,
a food coop, recreation areas, and approximately 600 jobs will all be within
walking and cycling distance.
● Infiltration of rainwater into the ground: The system covers 80% of the
residential area.
● New ecological sewage system within one pilot project through vacuum
pipes. Faeces are transported into a biogas plant, thus generating biogas,
which is used for cooking. Remaining waste water is cleaned in biofilm
plants and returned to the water cycle.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
17
4. INVESTIGATION & DATA COLLECTION: FUTURE TOWN
Cloud Nine
4.1 Introductionto Cloud Nine
Cloud nine is the name Buckminster Fuller gave to his proposed airborne
habitats created from giant geodesic spheres, which might be made to levitate by
slightly heating the air inside above the ambient temperature.
Geodesic spheres, structures of triangular components arranged to make a
sphere, become stronger as they become bigger, due to how they distribute stress over
their surfaces. He suggested that if the air inside such a sphere were heated even by
one degree higher than the ambient temperature of its surroundings, the sphere could
become airborne. If the internal air were heated by either solar energy or even just the
average human activity inside, it would only take a 1 degree shift in Fahrenheit over the
external temperature to make the sphere float. Since the internal air would get denser
when it cooled, Bucky imagined using polyethylene curtains to slow the rate that air
entered the sphere. He calculated that such a balloon could lift a considerable mass,
and hence that 'mini-cities' or airborne towns of thousands of people could be built in
this way.
Each sphere could accommodate a whole city and would connect to others. A
cluster of spheres could create giant urban networks, nomadic and travelling over the
earth, or tethered to mountains and other natural formations. By modulating the
exposure to sunlight, and thus, direct thermal heat, a sphere could be raised and
lowered at will. Fuller asserted that the possibility of these floating cities was contingent
on their recycling and maintaining weight, by which he meant that the weight of the
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
18
structure, and everything in it including buildings, would be negligible compared to the
air it enclosed. The 'cloud nines' could be tethered, or free-floating, or manoeuvrable so
that they could 'migrate' in response to climatic and environmental conditions, such as
providing emergency shelters.
4.2 Significantelements of Cloud Nine
Buckminster Fuller theorized that if we could build a spherical structure large
enough, it could potentially float into the sky with some simple temperature adjustments.
Not only would it hold its own weight, but these spheres could house people, their
belongings and an entire infrastructure of buildings inside.
● Using temerity1 concept where the relationship between tension and
integrity allows the geodesic dome, a building that looked like a sphere cut
in half and composed of triangular supports, to support comparatively
great weights.
● Displaced air were heated by only degree higher than the outside air, the
structure would rise up into the sky, like a giant hot air balloon.
● Each sphere could accommodate a whole city and would, in turn, be
connected to others. A cluster of spheres could create giant urban
networks, nomadic and travelling over the earth, or tethered to mountains
and other natural formations.
● By modulating the exposure to sunlight, and thus, direct thermal heat, a
sphere could be raised and lowered at will.
4.3 Conclusion
Cloud nine is the name Buckminster Fuller gave to his proposed airborne
habitats created from giant geodesic spheres, which might be made to levitate by
slightly heating the air inside above the ambient temperature.
Geodesic spheres, structures of triangular components arranged to make a
sphere, become stronger as they become bigger, due to how they distribute stress over
their surfaces. As a sphere gets bigger, the volume it encloses grows much faster than
the mass of the enclosing structure itself.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
19
Fuller suggested that the mass of a mile-wide geodesic sphere would be
negligible compared to the mass of the air trapped within it. He suggested that if the air
inside such a sphere were heated even by one degree higher than the ambient
temperature of its surroundings, the sphere could become airborne. He calculated that
such a balloon could lift a considerable mass, and hence that 'mini-cities' or airborne
towns of thousands of people could be built in this way. The 'cloud nines' could be
tethered, or free-floating, or manoeuvrable so that they could 'migrate' in response to
climatic and environmental conditions, such as providing emergency shelters.
4.4 Elements which can be use for the Future Town
The progression of technical events alter all odd engineering concepts regarding
the relative increase in the overall weights of structures and the sky-floating tensegrity
structures was designed.
● Tensegrity concept where two forces combined together and support great
weights
● The technology where the town could float if the inner air is heated evenly
by one degree higher than the ambient temperature.
5. INTRODUCING THE NEW ‘X’ TOWN - Wolke
5.1 Introductionto the New Town
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
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Everybody prefers a better environment to live in. The world had been critically
polluted and people were exposed to UV ray because there’s a huge hole in the ozone
layer. The drastic climate change makes the world no longer liveable and people are
striving for a better living environment. As the chairman of the town, I am responsible to
propose a new town design for my people in order to save them.
The design purpose of Wolke is to survive in tough situations for a long time. The
geodesic dome with a cloud-like base is decided, and thus the name Wolke is given to
the town as Wolke is the German word for cloud. Geodesic domes are structures which
look like half spheres made up of many triangular supports,
Geodesic domes enclose the biggest volume of space using the least amount of
construction material. The lightweight yet strong materials are used to construct the
structure to ensure that the dome is firm enough to support its own weight. The triangles
that make up the structure make the domes durable where triangles are fixed angles
which don’t distort easily and they can also work along with the strength of the strong
arch shape.
The dome is known to have the strength to withstand natural disasters better
than any other shaped structures. The town is built in the air, so a geodesic dome
structure is needed for its strength and durability to sustain the town. The dome is also
designed for the thinner air in the sky so that an independent environment is created in
the dome due to the consideration of people will get dizzy when the air gets thinner, and
the air will also get drier in the sky. The dome will also block the UV rays because there
will be cloudless when the town gets higher and higher.
The new proposed town, Wolke, will have a total area of 40 km² with population
of approximately 150,000 Malaysians. The town would drift at the altitude range of 1500
to 2200 feet above the sea level with a traveling speed of 120km/h and a maximum
speed of 180km/h.
5.2 Reasons of choosingfloating in the air
When the buildings are redundant and the world is no longer liveable, people
would need somewhere which is totally different from the land we are living now.
Therefore, a new town should be proposed in an inhabited place where people can live
in a new environment without worrying the consequences of their living environment
being polluted again. Hence, I hereby proposed a new town to be built in the air.
5.3 Importantcharacteristicsand features in the New Town
According to the research I had done for the ancient, present and future town,
some significant aspect had been extracted and considered into the new town. These
essential elements would be portrayed in the new town, Wolke.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
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5.3.1 The Exterior
 Geodesic dome
The geodesic dome is made up of two main elements which is the solar panel
and louver.
o Louver
The louver used on the dome construction is horizontal slats that are angled to
admit light and air, at the same time, allows rain to be directed into the dome at
certain angle which would be adjusted by the auto-detecting operators and
transmit the rain water into the rainwater harvest centre. It is also used as the
ventilating system to maintain the temperature in the dome. The rainwater
collected will be filtered and distributed for resident’s usage.
o Solar Panel
The solar panel used for the town is a set of large photovoltaic system to
generate and supply electricity for the town. It is installed across the dome and
used as the main energy supply in Wolke. An operator is installed in the solar
panel system where damaged can be detected and it contains a smart repairer
which can repair the malfunctioned panels in time. Solar energy is a type of
renewable energy which is eco-friendly and no pollution will be caused.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
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Process of generating energy
 Base
The concept of hot air balloon is used for the base of the town. Biomass served as
the source of heat where the heated air inside the base makes it buoyant since it
has a lower density than the relatively cold air outside which allow the dome to fly.
The biomass energy is created by burning the domestic waste of the town where all
domestic waste is directly transmitted to the base.
5.3.2 Zoning of the town
Government area
Recreational area
Residential area
Information area
Industrial area
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
23
A town will not be complete if there’s no proper zoning for it. A good town should
have a proper zoning and organized sectors which are strategically planned. The town
is mainly divided into 5 zones: Government area, Recreational area, Residential area,
Information area, and also Industrial area.
 Government area
The government area is located at the North-West of the town. The government area
consists of the Town Hall, Divisional Office, Municipal Office, Town Square where
the town monument will be located at, as well as a series of commercial block.
 Recreational area
The recreational area is situated beside the government area. It consists of a Culture
Village where all culture of different races will be brought together here as one. It
also has a shopping centre surrounded by a huge recreational park. There is also a
funfair behind the recreational park where small children can play in when the adults
are shopping. There’s a sports centre beside the shopping centre.
Concept of shopping
complex located at the
middle of the park.
1. Town Hall
2. Divisional Office
3. Municipal Office
4. Town Square
5. Commercial block
6. Culture Village
7. Shopping Complex
8. Recreational Park
9. Funfair
10. Sports Center
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
24
 Residential area
The residential area is surrounded by a series of climbers which acts as the buffer
zone. It includes a religious area where the mosque, church, Chinese temple and
also the Hindu temple are located at the same place. It also includes a fully
equipped medical centre. Residential block is located at the middle of this area to
ease the life of the residents. The market in this area consist of a variety of groceries
choices for the residents daily life. The educational area includes the primary school
and also secondary school while the university is situated beside the residential area.
There is also a pedestrian walkway which is connected to the government and
recreational area. It is a walkway decorated with green features along the road.
Concept of recreational
park surrounding the
shopping complex.
11. Religious Area
12. Medical Centre
13. Residential Block
14. Market
15. Educational Area
16. Pedestrian Walkway
21. University
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
25
The fully equipped
medical centre which
include the specialist
service centre.
Residential block is
built to accommodate
more residents
The concept of
pedestrian walkway
with green features
and shades.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
26
 Information area
The information area is the combination of exhibition hall, museum and also the
research centre. Exhibition hall is the place where researchers establish their new
invention. Museum of Astronomy is located behind the hall where citizens can have
further information about the planet. The greenhouse behind the research centre is
actually the place where researchers research about those rare species of flora in
order to avoid extinction. Tame animals can also be found there and visitors are
allowed too. Greenhouse is connected to the research centre where visitors are not
allowed to go in. The main feature of the research centre is to investigate about
ways to conserve the environment and also invent more green technology for a
better future.
The buffer zone which
separates the
residential area with
others.
17. Exhibition Hall
18. Museum of Astronomy
19. Greenhouse
20. Research Centre
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
27
 Industrial area
The rainwater harvest centre serves as the main water supply in the town. It
collects rainwater transmitted by the louver and processes it to become drinkable
water. Farm and paddy field acts as the main supply for food in the town while
the farm contributes domestic animals such as cows, lamb, etc. and the paddy
field supplies the main food source. Palm oil is also planted in a large scale as it
has a lot of uses.
Research centre for the
invention of new
technology.
Greenhouse for
research purpose
22. Rainwater Harvest Centre
23. Farm
24. Paddy Field
25. Palm Oil Field
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
28
5.3.3 Transportation System
The rainwater harvest
centre as the main
supply of water.
Panotram route
Vidrio route
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
29
The Wolke town has 2 major transportation systems which is the Panotram and also
Vidrio.
 Panotram
Panotram is the public transport for the main route, the T shape at the middle of the
town, which will go back and forth with the speed of 16km/h. The total time for one
whole round is approximately 15 minutes. There are a total of 4 stations for this
Panotram which is located at the government area, recreational area, residential
area and information area. The concept of this transport is to communicate with the
nature; hence the cabin is designed to be transparent.
 Vidrio
Vidrio is the Spanish word for glass. Hence, Vidrio is basically a glass ball taxi which
transport people from one place to another. It can access to anywhere in the town by
just swiping the access card and type the destination into the smart GPS system. It
can accommodate for maximum 6 people and it is anywhere in the town.
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future
Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University
30
CONCLUSION
Throughout the research for ancient, present and future town, I had learnt that
sustainability is the most important factor for town planning. It is important for a town
to sustain itself for a very long time even in harsh conditions. For a good town
planning, wise energy usage and supply, appreciation of the nature, efficiency of
transportation system is the most solid examples for the sustainable efforts which
should be implemented.
During the planning process, I learnt that a town planner should always learn
from the past and current situations so that we can provide a better environment for
the future ones. As long as it is carefully planned and organized, I believe that Wolke
can be a real town floating in the air for the future ones.
REFERENCE LIST
1. http://www.idealcity.org.au/town_planning-1.html
2. http://www.buildinghistory.org/towns.shtml
3. http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/politics/difference-between-
city-and-town/
4. http://media.wix.com/ugd/3919c1_612afe155b954f5ea228c6d2c481b117.pdf
5. http://www.vagabond-unlimited.co.uk/#!future-towns/c19bv
6. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/192
7. http://www.weather.com/travel/shibam-hadhramaut-manhattan-desert-yemen-
20131028
8. http://www.theglobaldispatches.com/articles/mud-brick-architecture-of-yemen
9. http://www.shibamonline.net/eng/wadi12.php
10.http://www.fwtm.freiburg.de/servlet/PB/menu/1174690_l2/index.html
11.http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/explore-
more/initiatives-around-the-world/vauban-a-pioneering-sustainable-
community-in-germany
12.http://www.academia.edu/7662360/THE_SUSTAINABLE_URBAN_DISTRICT
_OF_VAUBAN_IN_FREIBURG_GERMANY
13.http://www.solaripedia.com/13/95/vauban_community_(germany).html
14.http://www.dac.dk/en/dac-cities/sustainable-cities/all-cases/transport/vauban--
-an-environmentally-friendly-and-almost-car-free-city/
15.http://www.citylab.com/design/2011/11/ctiy-sky/527/
16.http://www.geniusstuff.com/blog/flying-cities-buckminster-fuller/
17.http://butterflyofdream.wordpress.com/cloud-nine/

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ENBE TOWN PROPOSAL

  • 1. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 1 ELEMENTS OF NATURAL & BUILT ENVIRONMENTS BETTER TOWN OF THE FUTURE: WOLKE Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 Foundation in Natural and Built Environments August 2014
  • 2. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 2 CONTENTS TITLE PAGE Introduction 3 A Town 4 Investigation & Data Collection: Ancient City 8 Investigation & Data Collection: Present City 11 Investigation & Data Collection: Future City 17 Introducing the New ‘X’ Town: Wolke 19 Conclusion 30 Referencelist 30
  • 3. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 3 Introduction Every town will need to sustain itself. Just like any other living creature, a town is unique by itself. A better town of the future requires the knowledge of planning, constructing, elements of a town and also elements for a good town. The task given to every student is to pretend ourselves as the chairman of a town, and thus propose a better town for the future, because of the world we are now living is no longer liveable. Students were given options to choose the theme as following: a. An underground town b. An underwater town c. An floating on water town d. A city in the air e. On land next to a river or sea We were also required to research on ancient towns, present towns as well as future towns in order to know better about town planning and also understand the content about a town as well as the natural environment. Through these researches, students will have to propose the new ‘X’ town.
  • 4. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 4 1. A TOWN 1.1 Definition According to Oxford Dictionary, a town is a built-up area with a name, defined boundaries, and local government, that is larger than a village and generally smaller than a city. Towns are not made up of the boundaries or buildings but the people in them. The size definition for what constitutes a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world. 1.2 Difference between a Townand a City People often got confused between the difference between a town and a city. Before the research on town planning, a research on the difference between town and city was done. Cities are larger than towns and more densely populated. City sometimes may merge with their surrounding areas while towns do not. Most of the important administrative offices are situated in the cities. The centre power is normally situated in cities. A mayor is the head of a city corporation where a chairman is the head for the municipals of the town. In the US, ‘city’ is a legal term that means an urban area with autonomous power. In other countries, the word does not have a legal basis but refers to a large settlement. A town was a living space with a place of worship, like a Church, Mosque or Synagogue, a town square, a central market and a town hall while many large cities were encircled by walls. 1.3 Brief History of British and Irish Towns A town is not just an oversized village. It has its own economy. It has handmade goods and trading markets. So, a good site might be anywhere near the river. The development of town is normally complicated. The growth from medieval core can be traced through belts of Georgian, Victorian and modern buildings. The greatness and beauty of churches, public buildings and places of entertainment give other clues to the periods of greatest prosperity.
  • 5. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 5 Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: ● Infantile towns - with no clear zoning ● Juvenile towns - which have developed an area of shops ● Adolescent towns - where factories have started to appear ● Early mature towns - with a separate area of high-class housing ● Mature towns - with defined industrial, commercial and various types of residential area 1.4 Evolution of Town Planning Alongside organic communities, planned cities and towns have also existed from ancient times. They often follow a simple grid laid over the landscape with houses placed side by side along the streets. During the 15th century, rulers aimed to achieve great effects with bold geometry and large public areas while this tendency grew further during the Baroque era, which is the 17th century. The architectural and landscape ensembles were designed and built. Parks and recreational area were designed for citizen’s leisure during the 19th century where The Colonial Office produced plans to be imposed on the land, regardless of how well or how bad they suited a site. By the early 20th century, town planning was developing as a profession in its own right. Several schools of thought about civic design became influential. 1.5 Elements of a Town Town Planning is a process regarding the use of land and design of the environment, including air, water passing into and out of the town, with infrastructure such as transportation and distribution networks. Town planners ensure the orderly development of satellite communities which commute throughout the town areas. It concerns itself with research and analysis, strategic thinking, architecture, design, public consultation, policy recommendations, implementation and management. Town generally have a complex system for ● Sustainability ● Transportation ● Environmental factors ● Scope or zoning ● Utilities ● Water and sanitation infrastructure
  • 6. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 6 Town usually is made up of ● Efficient road system ● Town hall and town centre ● Located in suburb ● Own attraction spot and religious place ● Less populated than cities ● Own business and food process technology Before the 19th century, Town planning doesn’t consider as a particular profession. There are, of course, differences from country to country. Town planning was often focused on those processes by the town planners which created the plans. However, sustainable development is a recent, controversial concept. Wheeler, in his 2004 book, defines sustainable urban development as "development that improves the long-term social and ecological health of cities and towns." He sketches a 'sustainable' city's features: compact, efficient land use; less automobile use, yet better access; efficient resource use; less pollution and waste; the restoration of natural systems; good housing and living environments; a healthy social ecology; a sustainable economy; community participation and involvement; and preservation of local culture and wisdom. 1.6 Elements of a Good Town Good towns are the ones which applies a design strategy focused on walkable public areas for people to hang out. A good town is also defines as a town which contain original culture mixed with sustainable environments and the thirst to keep the communities small but affluent.
  • 7. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 7 A lot of town design and new component of town form were started from the theory of liveability. The elements of liveability include: ● Preservation of nature ● Renewable energy used ● Sufficient food and water supply ● Strong medical support for citizen ● Effective public transportation ● Strong education and business base ● Various type of research centre for technology and nature ● Organized water sewage and disposal system ● Powerful security system ● Equal distribution of wealth and income ● Proper planning for town development ● Green environment ● Disaster resistant building 1.7 The Future Town As situations changes, we alter the way we live, our design, engineer buildings and transportation networks. For instance, after the Tsunami occurred in 2004, the affected countries installed Tsunami early warning systems in and around the Indian Ocean. The most important element of the future town is not the appearance but its survivability. It should have its own food, water and energy supply to support the whole nation even if it’s cut off from the world. Nobody knows what will happen in the future, but the reality is people are suffering from all sorts of pollution now and also overcrowded. Towns and cities from the ancient times were planned by people, but it should be constructing by ideas in the future, which is the sustainable concept.
  • 8. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 8 The basic component of a sustainable town includes good town planning and also corporate with the nature. Go green should be the first and foremost motto for the town planner before a town was planned. The future city should include elements as following: ● Minimal traffic problem ● Disaster proof technology ● Renewable energy as main energy supply ● Policies to cut waste and water consumption ● Encourage higher education for citizens ● Favours green technology ● Encourage innovative economy ● Municipals of town which acts as the lead example 2. INVESTIGATION & DATA COLLECTION: ANCIENT TOWN Shibam,Yemen
  • 9. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 9 2.1 Introductionto Shibam Shibam is a town located in Yemen with about 7000 citizen and it’s famous for its mud brick-made tower houses. It is known as the Manhattan of the desert, this timeless town raises high on the southern tip of Arabian Peninsula with ancient structures which cohere with the landscape. The town originally backs up to a cliff in a fertile oasis in the heart of the Ramlat al-Sab`atayn desert in central Yemen, a flood-prone area which washed away much of the old Shibam in 1530s. So Shibam's inhabitants reconstructed the city on a raised plateau, the only area within the oasis at an elevation high enough to stave off another potentially catastrophic flood. The population began to grow and demand for space, where they have no real viable option to expand, so the architects built up. Each major building is about the height from 5 to 11 stories, with each floor having one or two apartments, placing each in a unique position. Like the fortified wall that surrounds this fortress city, this building technique was implemented in order to protect the people from Bedouin attacks. The incredibly tall houses and buildings, combined with their awkward positioning on the side of the cliff, earned Shibam, as a town, earned the title of the oldest skyscraper in the world. To protect the buildings from rain and erosion, the exterior walls are thickly coated and must be constantly maintained. The domestic architecture of Shibam including its visual impact rising out of the floodplain of the wadi, functional design, materials and construction techniques is an outstanding but extremely vulnerable expression of Arab and Muslim traditional culture. After the second great flood a system of dams was built to deflect future flood waters. The lowest was the Muza' dam, which has been continually repaired ever since, so that no major damage has been done by flood waters in the 16th century. The walled city is believed to have essentially retained its form since that time.
  • 10. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 10 2.2 Significantelements of Shibam Shibam is one of the oldest and best examples of town planning based on the principle of vertical construction. ● Its plan is trapezoidal, almost rectangular. ● It is enclosed by earthen walls within a block of dwellings which was laid out on an orthogonal grid. ● Surrounded by a fortified wall to protect the citizens from rival attack ● Strict rules remained in force until recently in an attempt to control building within the area of the walls. ● Well organised usage for each floor, such as the windowless lower floors is used for grain storage. ● High building was built to protect them from natural disaster. ● The top one or two levels of all the buildings are protected from rain by white lime plaster. ● Continuous surface over all the roofs, parapets and outer walls, extending downwards in some cases about 5 m from the top which makes the town looks neat. ● Ability to combine the town with surrounding, they’re basically attached to the side of the cliff. ● Uniform zoning of town, using the rectangular grid plan. 2.3 Conclusion Shibam had proved itself for being the most well organised town with the used of vertical construction. Shibam is often called the oldest skyscraper town with the present of its tallest mud buildings in the world, thus being the early high-rise apartment buildings. In order to protect the buildings from rain and erosion, the walls were routinely maintained by applying fresh layers of mud. It combined itself perfectly with the side of the cliff in order to avoid the flood which can destroy almost everything in the town. Shibam has a unique architectural heritage where the master builders and craftsmen have learnt how to build to suit geography, location, the climate and available materials. For instance, Shibam is built solely of mud bricks made by hand and baked dry in the sun. Shibam’s architecture reclaims the steep mountainous terrain which makes the city blend naturally into the terrain it is situated on. 2.4 Elements which can be use for the Future Town Shibam can be considered as the masterpiece of building architecture and urbanism. The integration of Shibam with the surrounding environment as if it’s part of nature fully portrays the cordial and the dazzling relationship between nature and human culture.
  • 11. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 11 ● The layout of the buildings which are close together means they provide shade for one another and also shade the ravine like streets in between. ● The use of natural elements for building construction with the right combination of clay, silt and sand, forming the natural waterproof layer for the mud building. ● The use of renewable energy which is the solar energy during the construction process and after the building is redundant, it will naturally return to the Earth without leaving any pollution to it. ● Mud brick can be a better element to construct a building and also a more gentle way for the nature, it can be used to develop the modern world even better than human can think. ● The organized town zoning and a uniform layout using the rectangular grid. 3. INVESTIGATION & DATA COLLECTION: PRESENT TOWN Vauban, Freiburg, Germany
  • 12. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 12 3.1 Introductionto Vauban Vauban is arguably the most famous eco-neighbourhood of Europe planned for 5,000 inhabitants to the south of the town centre in Freiburg, Germany. It was built as a sustainable model district on the site of a former French military base. Low-energy building is obligatory in this district; zero-energy and energy-plus building and the application of solar technology are standard for most. Old trees were preserved as much as possible by the government. The town consist of green spaces between housing rows for good climatic conditions and they provide a play area for children. Infrastructure was created parallel to private development, such as schools, youth facilities, meeting places, market square and also recreational places. Vegetation- covered flat roofs store rainwater, which is collected and re-used.
  • 13. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 13 As radical when it comes to transport as it is when it comes to energy consumption, the neighbourhood’s philosophy is based on a “car free” principle. The neighbourhood area is traffic-calmed, with the majority of households not owning a car. Private motor vehicles are parked in either of the two garages of the Quarter. Since 2006, the residential area has been linked to the city tram system, enabling 70% of people gave up their cars, using local public transport or riding their bikes instead. Among the residents living without a car, 81% had previously owned one. All placed within walking or cycling distance of one another, everything is designed with cyclists and pedestrians in mind. Residential streets are “stellplatz free” or “free from parking spaces” – though pick up and deliveries are permitted. Dr. Jörg Lange’s vision was for a ‘wastewater free’ house, in which organic and human waste would become a source of energy and recovered nutrients rather than merely a costly pollution problem. Vacuum toilets, which reduce the water usage by nine tenths, were installed to transport human waste to an anaerobic biogas digester, which produces liquid fertilizer (high in recovered phosphorus) as well as biogas to be used for cooking. Grey water from showers, dishwashers and sinks is reused after being cleansed in aerated sand filters and treated with UV rays. Rainwater flows through gutters into bio-swales with gravel substrata, where it is filtered before leaching into the groundwater
  • 14. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 14 3.2 Significantelements of Vauban At present, Vauban is home to nearly 5,100 residents. In addition to offering varied housing options for a diversity of family needs, Vauban provides a complete range of shopping for everyday life as well as a large array of professional services. Altogether, there are some 600 jobs in the district, all of which can be easily accessed on foot or by bicycle. With connections by light rail and bus, as well as by walking trails and bike paths, to the rest of the city and the main train station. ● All houses are built to a low energy consumption standard, with 100 units designed to the Passivhaus ultra-low energy building standard. ● Other buildings are heated by a combined heat and power station burning wood chips, while many of the buildings have solar collectors or photovoltaic cells. ● Transportation is usually by foot or bicycle. ● The use of fused grid to filter out cars which is accomplished by reducing the number of streets that runs through the neighbourhood where most of the streets are crescents and cul-de-sacs like the diagram shown below. Circulation in Vauban ● Most of Vauban's residential streets are described as stellplatz frei - literally "free from parking spaces". ● Promotes an integrated planning culture ● Makes use of new forms of citizen participation which is the Baugruppen- based process assured that citizens were interactive partners with the town and also as the primary housing developers.
  • 15. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 15 3.3 Conclusion From the beginning, Vauban involved city administration, local politicians, technical experts and representatives of citizen groups in the design and development of the district through a flexible and transparent process of continuous learning and ‘responsive planning’. It is clear that Vauban is quite successful for the sustainable town planning. It is the first housing community worldwide in which all the homes produce a positive energy balance. The solar energy surplus is then sold back into the city's grid for a profit on every home. Vauban is known as the largest car free development in Europe. The city and individual Baugruppe have pushed the envelope on what it means to design, build and live in a renewable energy powered sustainable city. While still falling short of its most ambitious dreams, the district has pioneered a new paradigm for the collaborative development of sustainable communities. 3.4 Elements which can be use for the Future Town ● Innovative transport policies complement physical design to make it possible for residents to live ‘car-free’ in Vauban. Efficient public transport used in Vauban ● Minimum standards for energy use, building quality and ecological landscape design that. ● Energy conserving and renewable energy technologies at all scales of environment. ● Highly efficient cogeneration plant (CHP) operating on wood-chips is operating since 2002 and connected to the district's heating grid. ● Solar collectors and photovoltaics are commonly used on the district's roofs.
  • 16. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 16 Solar roofing used in Vauban ● Streets and other public spaces is playground for kids and places for social interaction. Public playground for social interaction ● A school, kindergartens, a farmer's market, businesses, a shopping centre, a food coop, recreation areas, and approximately 600 jobs will all be within walking and cycling distance. ● Infiltration of rainwater into the ground: The system covers 80% of the residential area. ● New ecological sewage system within one pilot project through vacuum pipes. Faeces are transported into a biogas plant, thus generating biogas, which is used for cooking. Remaining waste water is cleaned in biofilm plants and returned to the water cycle.
  • 17. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 17 4. INVESTIGATION & DATA COLLECTION: FUTURE TOWN Cloud Nine 4.1 Introductionto Cloud Nine Cloud nine is the name Buckminster Fuller gave to his proposed airborne habitats created from giant geodesic spheres, which might be made to levitate by slightly heating the air inside above the ambient temperature. Geodesic spheres, structures of triangular components arranged to make a sphere, become stronger as they become bigger, due to how they distribute stress over their surfaces. He suggested that if the air inside such a sphere were heated even by one degree higher than the ambient temperature of its surroundings, the sphere could become airborne. If the internal air were heated by either solar energy or even just the average human activity inside, it would only take a 1 degree shift in Fahrenheit over the external temperature to make the sphere float. Since the internal air would get denser when it cooled, Bucky imagined using polyethylene curtains to slow the rate that air entered the sphere. He calculated that such a balloon could lift a considerable mass, and hence that 'mini-cities' or airborne towns of thousands of people could be built in this way. Each sphere could accommodate a whole city and would connect to others. A cluster of spheres could create giant urban networks, nomadic and travelling over the earth, or tethered to mountains and other natural formations. By modulating the exposure to sunlight, and thus, direct thermal heat, a sphere could be raised and lowered at will. Fuller asserted that the possibility of these floating cities was contingent on their recycling and maintaining weight, by which he meant that the weight of the
  • 18. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 18 structure, and everything in it including buildings, would be negligible compared to the air it enclosed. The 'cloud nines' could be tethered, or free-floating, or manoeuvrable so that they could 'migrate' in response to climatic and environmental conditions, such as providing emergency shelters. 4.2 Significantelements of Cloud Nine Buckminster Fuller theorized that if we could build a spherical structure large enough, it could potentially float into the sky with some simple temperature adjustments. Not only would it hold its own weight, but these spheres could house people, their belongings and an entire infrastructure of buildings inside. ● Using temerity1 concept where the relationship between tension and integrity allows the geodesic dome, a building that looked like a sphere cut in half and composed of triangular supports, to support comparatively great weights. ● Displaced air were heated by only degree higher than the outside air, the structure would rise up into the sky, like a giant hot air balloon. ● Each sphere could accommodate a whole city and would, in turn, be connected to others. A cluster of spheres could create giant urban networks, nomadic and travelling over the earth, or tethered to mountains and other natural formations. ● By modulating the exposure to sunlight, and thus, direct thermal heat, a sphere could be raised and lowered at will. 4.3 Conclusion Cloud nine is the name Buckminster Fuller gave to his proposed airborne habitats created from giant geodesic spheres, which might be made to levitate by slightly heating the air inside above the ambient temperature. Geodesic spheres, structures of triangular components arranged to make a sphere, become stronger as they become bigger, due to how they distribute stress over their surfaces. As a sphere gets bigger, the volume it encloses grows much faster than the mass of the enclosing structure itself.
  • 19. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 19 Fuller suggested that the mass of a mile-wide geodesic sphere would be negligible compared to the mass of the air trapped within it. He suggested that if the air inside such a sphere were heated even by one degree higher than the ambient temperature of its surroundings, the sphere could become airborne. He calculated that such a balloon could lift a considerable mass, and hence that 'mini-cities' or airborne towns of thousands of people could be built in this way. The 'cloud nines' could be tethered, or free-floating, or manoeuvrable so that they could 'migrate' in response to climatic and environmental conditions, such as providing emergency shelters. 4.4 Elements which can be use for the Future Town The progression of technical events alter all odd engineering concepts regarding the relative increase in the overall weights of structures and the sky-floating tensegrity structures was designed. ● Tensegrity concept where two forces combined together and support great weights ● The technology where the town could float if the inner air is heated evenly by one degree higher than the ambient temperature. 5. INTRODUCING THE NEW ‘X’ TOWN - Wolke 5.1 Introductionto the New Town
  • 20. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 20 Everybody prefers a better environment to live in. The world had been critically polluted and people were exposed to UV ray because there’s a huge hole in the ozone layer. The drastic climate change makes the world no longer liveable and people are striving for a better living environment. As the chairman of the town, I am responsible to propose a new town design for my people in order to save them. The design purpose of Wolke is to survive in tough situations for a long time. The geodesic dome with a cloud-like base is decided, and thus the name Wolke is given to the town as Wolke is the German word for cloud. Geodesic domes are structures which look like half spheres made up of many triangular supports, Geodesic domes enclose the biggest volume of space using the least amount of construction material. The lightweight yet strong materials are used to construct the structure to ensure that the dome is firm enough to support its own weight. The triangles that make up the structure make the domes durable where triangles are fixed angles which don’t distort easily and they can also work along with the strength of the strong arch shape. The dome is known to have the strength to withstand natural disasters better than any other shaped structures. The town is built in the air, so a geodesic dome structure is needed for its strength and durability to sustain the town. The dome is also designed for the thinner air in the sky so that an independent environment is created in the dome due to the consideration of people will get dizzy when the air gets thinner, and the air will also get drier in the sky. The dome will also block the UV rays because there will be cloudless when the town gets higher and higher. The new proposed town, Wolke, will have a total area of 40 km² with population of approximately 150,000 Malaysians. The town would drift at the altitude range of 1500 to 2200 feet above the sea level with a traveling speed of 120km/h and a maximum speed of 180km/h. 5.2 Reasons of choosingfloating in the air When the buildings are redundant and the world is no longer liveable, people would need somewhere which is totally different from the land we are living now. Therefore, a new town should be proposed in an inhabited place where people can live in a new environment without worrying the consequences of their living environment being polluted again. Hence, I hereby proposed a new town to be built in the air. 5.3 Importantcharacteristicsand features in the New Town According to the research I had done for the ancient, present and future town, some significant aspect had been extracted and considered into the new town. These essential elements would be portrayed in the new town, Wolke.
  • 21. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 21 5.3.1 The Exterior  Geodesic dome The geodesic dome is made up of two main elements which is the solar panel and louver. o Louver The louver used on the dome construction is horizontal slats that are angled to admit light and air, at the same time, allows rain to be directed into the dome at certain angle which would be adjusted by the auto-detecting operators and transmit the rain water into the rainwater harvest centre. It is also used as the ventilating system to maintain the temperature in the dome. The rainwater collected will be filtered and distributed for resident’s usage. o Solar Panel The solar panel used for the town is a set of large photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity for the town. It is installed across the dome and used as the main energy supply in Wolke. An operator is installed in the solar panel system where damaged can be detected and it contains a smart repairer which can repair the malfunctioned panels in time. Solar energy is a type of renewable energy which is eco-friendly and no pollution will be caused.
  • 22. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 22 Process of generating energy  Base The concept of hot air balloon is used for the base of the town. Biomass served as the source of heat where the heated air inside the base makes it buoyant since it has a lower density than the relatively cold air outside which allow the dome to fly. The biomass energy is created by burning the domestic waste of the town where all domestic waste is directly transmitted to the base. 5.3.2 Zoning of the town Government area Recreational area Residential area Information area Industrial area
  • 23. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 23 A town will not be complete if there’s no proper zoning for it. A good town should have a proper zoning and organized sectors which are strategically planned. The town is mainly divided into 5 zones: Government area, Recreational area, Residential area, Information area, and also Industrial area.  Government area The government area is located at the North-West of the town. The government area consists of the Town Hall, Divisional Office, Municipal Office, Town Square where the town monument will be located at, as well as a series of commercial block.  Recreational area The recreational area is situated beside the government area. It consists of a Culture Village where all culture of different races will be brought together here as one. It also has a shopping centre surrounded by a huge recreational park. There is also a funfair behind the recreational park where small children can play in when the adults are shopping. There’s a sports centre beside the shopping centre. Concept of shopping complex located at the middle of the park. 1. Town Hall 2. Divisional Office 3. Municipal Office 4. Town Square 5. Commercial block 6. Culture Village 7. Shopping Complex 8. Recreational Park 9. Funfair 10. Sports Center
  • 24. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 24  Residential area The residential area is surrounded by a series of climbers which acts as the buffer zone. It includes a religious area where the mosque, church, Chinese temple and also the Hindu temple are located at the same place. It also includes a fully equipped medical centre. Residential block is located at the middle of this area to ease the life of the residents. The market in this area consist of a variety of groceries choices for the residents daily life. The educational area includes the primary school and also secondary school while the university is situated beside the residential area. There is also a pedestrian walkway which is connected to the government and recreational area. It is a walkway decorated with green features along the road. Concept of recreational park surrounding the shopping complex. 11. Religious Area 12. Medical Centre 13. Residential Block 14. Market 15. Educational Area 16. Pedestrian Walkway 21. University
  • 25. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 25 The fully equipped medical centre which include the specialist service centre. Residential block is built to accommodate more residents The concept of pedestrian walkway with green features and shades.
  • 26. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 26  Information area The information area is the combination of exhibition hall, museum and also the research centre. Exhibition hall is the place where researchers establish their new invention. Museum of Astronomy is located behind the hall where citizens can have further information about the planet. The greenhouse behind the research centre is actually the place where researchers research about those rare species of flora in order to avoid extinction. Tame animals can also be found there and visitors are allowed too. Greenhouse is connected to the research centre where visitors are not allowed to go in. The main feature of the research centre is to investigate about ways to conserve the environment and also invent more green technology for a better future. The buffer zone which separates the residential area with others. 17. Exhibition Hall 18. Museum of Astronomy 19. Greenhouse 20. Research Centre
  • 27. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 27  Industrial area The rainwater harvest centre serves as the main water supply in the town. It collects rainwater transmitted by the louver and processes it to become drinkable water. Farm and paddy field acts as the main supply for food in the town while the farm contributes domestic animals such as cows, lamb, etc. and the paddy field supplies the main food source. Palm oil is also planted in a large scale as it has a lot of uses. Research centre for the invention of new technology. Greenhouse for research purpose 22. Rainwater Harvest Centre 23. Farm 24. Paddy Field 25. Palm Oil Field
  • 28. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 28 5.3.3 Transportation System The rainwater harvest centre as the main supply of water. Panotram route Vidrio route
  • 29. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 29 The Wolke town has 2 major transportation systems which is the Panotram and also Vidrio.  Panotram Panotram is the public transport for the main route, the T shape at the middle of the town, which will go back and forth with the speed of 16km/h. The total time for one whole round is approximately 15 minutes. There are a total of 4 stations for this Panotram which is located at the government area, recreational area, residential area and information area. The concept of this transport is to communicate with the nature; hence the cabin is designed to be transparent.  Vidrio Vidrio is the Spanish word for glass. Hence, Vidrio is basically a glass ball taxi which transport people from one place to another. It can access to anywhere in the town by just swiping the access card and type the destination into the smart GPS system. It can accommodate for maximum 6 people and it is anywhere in the town.
  • 30. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | Better Town of The Future Chia Ly Vier | 0320142 | Group 10 | FNBE Aug 2014 | Taylor’s University 30 CONCLUSION Throughout the research for ancient, present and future town, I had learnt that sustainability is the most important factor for town planning. It is important for a town to sustain itself for a very long time even in harsh conditions. For a good town planning, wise energy usage and supply, appreciation of the nature, efficiency of transportation system is the most solid examples for the sustainable efforts which should be implemented. During the planning process, I learnt that a town planner should always learn from the past and current situations so that we can provide a better environment for the future ones. As long as it is carefully planned and organized, I believe that Wolke can be a real town floating in the air for the future ones. REFERENCE LIST 1. http://www.idealcity.org.au/town_planning-1.html 2. http://www.buildinghistory.org/towns.shtml 3. http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/politics/difference-between- city-and-town/ 4. http://media.wix.com/ugd/3919c1_612afe155b954f5ea228c6d2c481b117.pdf 5. http://www.vagabond-unlimited.co.uk/#!future-towns/c19bv 6. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/192 7. http://www.weather.com/travel/shibam-hadhramaut-manhattan-desert-yemen- 20131028 8. http://www.theglobaldispatches.com/articles/mud-brick-architecture-of-yemen 9. http://www.shibamonline.net/eng/wadi12.php 10.http://www.fwtm.freiburg.de/servlet/PB/menu/1174690_l2/index.html 11.http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/explore- more/initiatives-around-the-world/vauban-a-pioneering-sustainable- community-in-germany 12.http://www.academia.edu/7662360/THE_SUSTAINABLE_URBAN_DISTRICT _OF_VAUBAN_IN_FREIBURG_GERMANY 13.http://www.solaripedia.com/13/95/vauban_community_(germany).html 14.http://www.dac.dk/en/dac-cities/sustainable-cities/all-cases/transport/vauban-- -an-environmentally-friendly-and-almost-car-free-city/ 15.http://www.citylab.com/design/2011/11/ctiy-sky/527/ 16.http://www.geniusstuff.com/blog/flying-cities-buckminster-fuller/ 17.http://butterflyofdream.wordpress.com/cloud-nine/