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o; c+sdf 
ljifo ;"rL 
!= /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnsf dxTjk"0f{ ultljlwx¿ !–& 
@= dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno / /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnsf] 
;+o'Qm ;fem]bf/Ldf ;DkGg sfo{qmdsf ultljlwx¿=== *–!# 
#= cj/f]wd'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fdf /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnsf] k|of; !$–!% 
$= k|fs[lts k|sf]k / ckfËtf !^–!& 
%= ckfËtf ePsf o"jfx¿sf] ljZjJofkL r'gf}ltx¿ ljifos Ps cGt/f{li6«o cWoog 
sfo{qmd !*–!( 
^= The Challenges and Promise of Inclusive Tourism in Nepal @)–@@ 
&= Interview with Ms Paula Sotnik @#–@& 
*= ;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf ckfËtf ePsf dlxnfx¿sf] ;jfn @*–#) 
(= kxF'ro'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf cj/f]w tyf ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿ #!–## 
!)= Physical Access for Women with Disabilities..... #$–#& 
!!= km/flsnf] ;8s ;fF3'/f] ;f]Fr #* 
dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] 
;r]lts/0f cleofg sfo{qmd 
ckfËtf d}qL ;fj{hlgs oftfoft k|a{4gsf 
lglDt lhNnf :t/Lo sfo{qmd
===? ;DkfbsLo 
ckfËtf Ps ljsl;t cjwf/0ff xf] . ckfËtf s'g} klg JolQmsf] zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, 
af}l4s tyf :gfo'df x'g] lb3{sflng c;Ifdtf cyjf b'a{ntf / jftfj/0fLo tyf 
cjwf/0ffut ;fFr]/ k|j[ltut cj/f]wx¿ aLrsf]cGtlqmofsf]pkh xf]h;n]tL 
JolQmx¿nfO{ ;dfhdf c¿ ;fË JolQm ;/x ;dfg ¿kdf cy{k"0f{ / k|efjsf/L 
;xefuL x'gaf6 jl~rt u/fpFb5 . o;y{, ckfËtfsf] ljsf;sf] b[li6sf]0f cg';f/ 
jt{dfg ;dodf ljZjJofkL ¿kdf g} ul/Psf] cEof; eg]sf] æckfËtfsf] ;fdflhs 
9fFrfÆ xf] . of] 9fFrf ckfËtfsf] cGo 9fFrfx¿ h:t} k/Dk/fut tyf wfld{s 9fFrf / 
d]l8sn tyf ;]jfd'vL 9fFrf eGbf lgtfGQ km/s 5 . ckfËtfsf] ;fdflhs 9fFrfn] 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf zf/Ll/s c;Ifdtf jf b'a{ntfnfO{ eGbf klg pgLx¿nfO{ 
c;Ifd jf b'a{n agfpg] sf/sx¿nfO{ k|d'v dfG5 . cyf{t, afXo jftfj/0f, k|j[ltut 
;fFr]tyf cjwf/0ffut cj/f]w / ;fdflhs cj/f]wx¿nfO{k|d'v d'2f dfGb5 . 
o;y{, ckfËtf ;d:of xf]Og . of] Ps cj:yf dfq xf] . xfd|f] b]zsf] ;Gbe{df 
udglzntfsf] ;d:of ePsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ h:t} XjLnlro/ k|of]ustf{x¿, 
b[li6ljxLg, kf]lnof], kIf3ft nufotnfO{ ;a}eGbf klxn] udgzLntfsf] ;d:of xf] . 
pgLx¿sf] nflu uf;, af;, skf; hlts} cfwf/e"t cfjZostf udgzLntf xf] . 
t/, pgLx¿sf] of] clwsf/ k"0f{¿kdf pkef]UoxLg 5 . o;sf] k|d'v sf/0f 
cj/f]wd'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0fsf] cefj xf] . xfd|f] b]zdf slxFklg st}klg s;}sf] 
;xof]u glnO{ :jtGq ¿kdf lxF88'n ug{;Sg] ;8s tyf oftfoftsf] cefj 
5 . sf7df8f}F h:tf] b]zs} 7"nf] /fhwfgLsf] zx/, oxfFsf ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿ 
h:t} ;lkË dxnx¿, xf]6n /]i6'F/]06x¿, ;fj{hlgs dgf]/~hgsf :ynx¿ h:t} 
kfs{x¿, ;fj{hlgs zf}rfnox¿, ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿, c:ktfn, 
z}lIfs ;+:yfx¿, ;/sf/L tyf ;fj{hlgs ejgx¿ s'g}klg st}klg cj/f]wd'Qm 
5}gg . h;sf sf/0f ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ rfx]/ klg 3/af6 aflx/ lg:sg] 
;Defjgf sd 5 . 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGw @))^ n] ;d]t 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] JolQmut udglzntfnfO{ wf/f @) df k|i6 ¿kdf 
ljleGg k|sf/sf k|fjwfgx¿ /fv]/ ;'lglZrt u/]sf] 5 . g]kfn ;/sf/ o;sf] kIf/fi6« 
ePs} sf/0fn ]klg s]lx jif {cufl8 æckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu efl}ts kxFr" 
tyf ;~rf/ ;j]f lgb{l]zsf @)^(Æ ;fjh{lgs u/L qmdj4 ¿kdf gLltut ljsf; 
u/]sf] 5 . oBlk, o;sf] Jojxfl/s sfof{Gjogdf eg] pbfl;gtf b]lvPsf] 5 . xfn 
g]kfnL ckfËtf cfGbf]ng klg cj/f]wd'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf] ;§f cGo 
xs clwsf/sf] gLltut Joj:yf lt/ g} a9L s]lGb|t /xFb} cfPsf] b]lvG5 . oBkL, 
oL ;a} gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx¿sf] pkef]u ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] udglzntfn] 
dfq ;'lglZrt u5{ eGg] tYonfO{ Wofgdf /flvPsf] kfOb}g . udglzntfn] JolQmsf] 
hLjgdf slt kl/jt{g Nofpg ;S5 eGg] s'/fsf] ;a't k|df0f kl5Nnf] ;dodf 
g]kfndf lelqPsf] rf/kfË]|:s'6/sf] k|of]un] cfhLjg 3/d} ;Lldt eP/ a:g afWo 
ePsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;fdflhs cfGbf]ngdf ePsf] ;lqmo ;xeflutfn] 
k|i6« kfb{5 . o;y{, casf] ckfËtf cfGbf]ng d"ntM cj/f]wd'Qm jftfj/0f lgdf{0fdf 
;lqmo /xg' kb{5 h;n] ubf{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] udglzntfdf j[l4 ub{5 . 
udglzntf a9] kl5 ;fj{hlgs hLjgsf x/]s kIfx¿;Fu ;xeflutf j[l4 ub{5 . 
;xeflutfn] pgLx¿sf] 1fg, l;k / cg'ejdf clej[lå eO ;zlQms/0f x'G5 . 
kl/0ffdtM ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu k|bfg ul/Psf] ;]jf;'ljwfx¿df 
pgLx¿sf] ;xh kxFr"clej[lå eO {/fi6« ljsf;df bL3s{flng ;j]f k|bfg ug {;S5g . 
o;y{, ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] udglzntf j[låsf nflu cj/f]wd'Qm jftfj/0f 
lgdf{0f cfhsf] klxnf] ;t{ xf] . 
gj ;dfgtf å}dfl;s 
Novel Equality Bio-Monthly 
jif{ !@, c+s !* 
;Nnfxsf/ 
cd[t/Tg zfSo 
ls/0f lzNksf/ 
k|wfg ;Dkfbs 
;+ho afGtjf 
;+of]hs 
s[i0f uxt/fh 
;xof]uLx? 
zflGt gsdL{ 
nIdL >]i7 
ljlgtf /]UdL 
/fdrGb| yfkf 
nIdL kf7s 
n]cfp6÷u|flkms 
l8u >]i7 -t]h s'df/ >]i7_ 
dig_shrestha@yahoo.com 
df]jfO{nM (*$!%^&(^# 
se/ l8hfO{g 
;Ltf a/fn 
lk|lG6Ë 
ef]hk'/ l;4sfnL lk|lG6Ë k|]; 
kmf]g g+=M $#&^#(*, (*%!)(**)) 
k|sfzs 
/fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3–g]kfn 
s]Gb|Lo sfof{no 
Hjfun–!), nlntk'/ 
kf]=a=g+= *(&%, O{=lk=l;= (&! 
kmf]g g+=M ±(&& ! %@^)(@* 
ˆofS; g+= ±(&& ! %@^)#%) 
Email: info@napdnepal.org.np 
napdnepal@gmail.com 
Website: www.napdnepal.org.np
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
/fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckf· ;+3—g]kfnsf dxTjk"0f{ ultljlwx¿ 
/fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckf· ;+3—g]kfnsf] 5}7f}“ jflif{s ;fwf/0f;ef ;DkGg 
x'Fbf s]xL ;'emfj ;lxt sl/a %) hgf ;fwf/0f 
;b:ox¿sf] ;j{;Ddltdf pQm k|ltj]bg kfl/t 
ul/Psf] lyof] . ;+:yfut k|ult k|ltj]bg / 
cfly{s k|ltj]bg kZrft ljwfg ;+zf]wg ;ldlt, 
lgjf{rg ;ldlt tyf cf=j= @)&).)&! sf] nflu 
n]vfkl/Ifs lgo'lQmsf] nflu ;efdf k|:tfj 
ul/Psf] lyof] . ptm k|:tfjnfO{ ;fwf/0f;efaf6 
;j{;Ddtn] cgd'f]bg ul/Psf]lyof] . cGTodf 
;fwf/0f;efsf cWoIf cd[t/Tg zfSon] ;a}nfO{ 
wGojfb lb+b} lgjf{rg ;ldltnfO{ clVtof/ k|bfg 
u/L cf}krfl/s ¿kdf sfo{;ldlt la36g u/L 
aGb;q ;dfkg ePsf ]wf]if0ff ug{'ePsf] lyof] . 
ttkZrft lgjf{rg ;dLltsf] k|lqmof cg';f/ 
gofF sfo{;ldltsf] lgjf{rg k|s[of cuf8L 
a9fOPsf] lyof] . ptm lgjf{rg k|s[of ;DkGg 
u/L ls/0f lzNksf/sf] cWoIftfdf & ;b:oLo 
gof{F sfo{;ldltsf] ;j{;Ddltn] rog ul/Psf] 
s'/f lgjf{rg ;ldltn] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] lyP . 
;f] ;fwf/0f;efaf6 lgjf{lrt gofF sfo{;ldltdf 
ls/0f lzNksf/ cWoIf, ;~ho afGtjf 
pkfWoIf, s[i0f axfb'/ ;'gf/ ;lrj, zflGt b]jL 
gsdL{ sf]iffWoIf, nIdL >]i7 ;b:o, ljlgtf 
/]UdL ;b:o, /fdrGb| yfkf ;b:o rog 
ePsf lyP . 
o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnsf] 
5}7f}F jflif{s ;fwf/0f;ef æl;cf/kL8Lsf] k"0f{ 
sfof{Gjog cfhsf]cfjZostf, gofFaGg];+ljwfgdf 
xfd|f] clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttfÆ eGg] d"n gf/fsf 
;fy ;+3s} sfof{no Hjfun, nlntk'/df a}zfv 
@*, @)&) df eJotfsf ;fy gofF 
sfo{;ldltsf] rog;lxt ;DkGg eof] . 
pQm sfo{qmddf ;+3sf ;lrj ;~ho 
afGtjfåf/f ;+:yfut k|ult k|ltj]bg 
k]z ul/Psf] lyof] eg] ;+3s} sf]iffWoIf NfIdL 
>]i7åf/f cf=j= @)^(.)&) sf] cfo Joo 
ljj/0f tyf efjL cg'dfgLt ah]6 ;d]t k9]/ 
;'gfOPsf] lyof] . ptm ;lrjåf/f k|:t't k|ult 
k|ltj]bg tyf sf]iffWoIfåf/f cfo Joo ljj/0f 
;fwf/0f ;b:ox¿ lar 5nkmndf /flvPsf] 
ckf·tfd}qL ;fj{hlgs oftfoft k|j4{gsf lglDt lhNnf:tl/o uf]li7 
nlntk'/M o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3— 
g]kfnn] æckfËtfd}qL ;fj{hlgs oftfoft 
k|j4{gsf ljBdfg ;d:of tyf r'gf}ltx¿ / 
;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] e"ldsfÆ ljifos sfo{zfnf 
uf]li7 ;+3s} sfof{nodf ldlt @)&) c;f/ @# 
df cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . nlntk'/ lhNnf 
ljsf; ;ldlt cGt/ut nlntk'/ ckfËtf 
;dGjo ;ldltsf] cfly{s ;xof]udf cfof]hgf 
ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm sfo{qmddf nlntk'/ lhNnf 
ljsf; ;ldltsf k|ltlglw ljZj]Zj/ sf]O/fnfsf] 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 1
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
k|d'v cfltYotfdf ;f] sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf 
ul/Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf nlntk'/ lhNnfdf 
rNg] ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿;Fu k|ToIf 
;/f]sf/ /fVg] ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox¿ dlxnf 
tyf afnaflnsfsf] sfof{no nlntk'/, nlntk'/ 
ckfË ;dGjo ;ldlt, clvn oftfoft dhb'/ 
;+3, g]kfn oftfoft :jljo" dhb'/ ;+3 afudlt 
nufotsf ;+:Yffx¿sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . 
sfo{qmddf ;+3sf cWoIf ls/0f lzNksf/n] 
sfo{kq k|:t't ug{e'Psf] lyof] eg ];+3s} 
sf]iffWoIf zflGtb]jL gsdL{åf/f :jfut 
dGtJo;lxt ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿ k|of]u 
ubf{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] ;fdgf ug{k'/]sf 
;d:ofx¿sf] af/]df ;d]t pNn]v ug'{ePsf] lyof] . 
;+3sf pkfWoIf ;~ho afGtjfåf/f ;~rflnt 
pQm sfo{qmddf pkl:yt ;xefuLx¿n] nlntk'/ 
lhNnfdf rNg] ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿df 
s;/L ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;xefuLtfnfO{ 
clej[l4 ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] ;Gbe{df ;a}n] PsLs[t 
¿kdf a[xt cleofg g };~rfng ug{k'g]{cfjZostf 
cf}FNofPsf lyP . 
g]kfndf klxnf] k6s ljZjJofkL kx'“ro"Qmtf ;r]tgf lbj; ;DkGg 
o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnåf/f g]kfndf 
klxnf] k6s Global Accessibility Awareness 
Day [GAAD] cyf{t g]kfnLdf ljZjJofkL 
kxFr"o'Qmtf ;rt]gf lbj; eJotfsf ;fy dgfOof ]. 
g]kfn ;/sf/ cGt/ut ;"rgf tyf k|ljlw 
ljefusf dxflgb]{zs slknb]j >]i7sf] k|d'v 
cfltYotfdf cfof]lht pQm sfo{qmddf dlxnf, 
afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnosf 
pk;lrj ;"o{k|;fb >]i7, sDKo'6/ Pzf]l;og 
g]kfnsf cWoIf O{lGhlgo/ ljgf]b 9sfn, g]kfn 
b'/;~rf/ k|flws/0fsf cfgGb/fh vgfn, /fli6«o 
ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfnsf cWoIf ;'bz{g ;'j]bL 
nufotsf ljz]if JolQmTjx¿sf] cfltYotfdf ;f] 
sfo{qmd ( d], @)!# df cgfdgu/sf] o"lgog 
xfp;df Ps cGt/lqmofTds sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf 
u/L ;DkGg ul/of] . of] lbjz Ps ;fdflhs 
cys k|of; xf] h'g Los Angeles df a;]/ Web 
Developer sf] ¿kdf sfd ug]{ Joe Devon eGg] 
JolQmn] cfˆgf] Anudf kf]i6 u/]sf] Pp6f ljrf/af6 
k|f/De ePsf] xf] h;nfO{ Jennison Asuncion 
eGg] Toronto df a;]/ kx"Fro'Qmtf ;DalGw 
g} sfd ug]{ Joj;flos JolQmn] l6j6/dfkm{t 
k|fKt u/]/ b'a} hgfn] of] cleofgnfO{ oyfzL3| 
Jofks ¿kdf k|rf/k|;f/ u/] . of] cleofgnfO{ 
Pp6f lbj;sf ¿kdf gf]e]Da/ @)!! b]lv 
cf}krfl/s ¿kdf Ps lbgsf nflu Pp6f ljz]if 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 2
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
l8lh6n k|ljlwx¿ h:t} j]j;fO6, l:s|g 6r, 
df]jfOn, ;ˆ6j]o/ tyf PK; nufotsf ljB'lto 
;fdfu|Lx¿df s;/L kxFr"lj:tf/ ug {;lsG5 
egL s]lGb|t /xG5 . 
ljZjJofkL kx"“ro"Qmtf ;r]tgf lbj; ;DkGg 
s]Gb|df ;DalGwt ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox¿sf] 
;xefuLtfdf b'O{ 306fsf] cGt/lqmofTds 
sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . ;"rgf tyf 
k|ljlw ljefusf dxflgb{z]ssf] k|d'v cfltYotfdf 
cfof]hgf ul/Psf]pQm sfoq{mddf o; k6s 
ljleGg CIT sn]hdf cWoog/t ljwfyL{x¿, 
lzIfsx¿ / j]j;fO6 8]enf]k/x¿nfO{ ;xefuL 
u/fOPsf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf pkl:yt cltly 
;xefuLx¿n] o:tf k|sf/sf sfo{qmdx¿nfO{ 
cem} a9L lg/Gt/tf lbO{ o; If]qsf ljifox¿ 
lnP/ cWoog tyf cWofkg ug]{ sn]hx¿df 
;d]t ;r]tLs/0f ug{ ;s]sf] v08df o;n] lgs} 
7"nf] km8sf] dfg{ ;Sg] ljZjf; ;d]t JoQm u/] . 
To;}u/L ;/sf/L If]qaf6 klg gLlh If]qnfO{ 
k|f]T;fxg ug{sf nflu ljleGg k|sf/sf k|f]T;fxgsf 
sfo{qmdx¿ Nofpg' cfjZos /x]sf] atfP . 
dfgjclwsf/ dxfe]nf @)!# df ;+3sf] ;lqmo ;xefuLtf 
Scienti !c Committee / sfo{qmd ;ldltdf /x]/ 
ckfËtfsf d'2fnfO{ lg/Gt/ jsfnt u/L pRr 
k|fyldstfsf ;fy p7fpgsf nflu dxTjk"0f{ 
e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf lyP . To;}u/L o; ;+3;Fusf] 
lbgsf ¿kdf dgfpg k|f/De ul/of] . of] lbjz 
ljz]ifu/L ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;"rgf 
/ k|ljlwdf kx"Fr clej[l4sf nflu s]lGb|t 5 . 
o;y{, of] Ps lbg ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] 
o; ;+3n] g]kfndf bf];|f] k6s Global! 
Accessibility!Awareness Day [GAAD] 
cyf{t gk]fnLdf ljZjJofkL kxFr"o'Qmtf ;rt]gf 
lbj; dgfOof] . ;"rgf / k|ljlwsf] If]qdf k|ToIf 
;/f]sf/ /fVg] ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L / gLlh 
If]qnfO{ ;d]t ;xefuL u/fO{ ;r]tgf clej[l4 
u/]sf] lyof] . o; jif{ klg o; ;+3n] d] !%, 
@)!$ sf lbg ;f]lx p2]Zofg'¿k kf6gsf] ondfof 
g]kfndf em08} ljut % jif{b]lv lg/Gt/ ¿kdf 
b]ze/L 5l/P/ /x]sf ;Dk"0f{ dfgjclwsf/jfbL 
;+3;+:yfx¿sf] ;xefuLtfdf l8;]Da/ !) sf 
lbg dgfOg] cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ lbj; 
o; jif{ blnt u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf dxf;+3sf] 
;+of]hsTjdf dgfOPsf] lyof] . pQm dxfe]nfdf 
o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] 
dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u¥of] . ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf] If]qaf6 l;Ë} k|ltlglwTj u/]sf]o; 
;+3n] ljleGg ;ldltdf /x]/ ckfËtfsf] d'2fnfO{ 
d"nk|jfxLs/0f ug{ cd"No of]ubfg lgjf{x u¥of] . 
o; ;+3sf ;lrj s[i0f uxt/fh pQm dxfe]nfsf] 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 3
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
;xsfo{df o; jif{sf] dfgjclwsf/ dxfe]nf 
dgfpg] qmddf æckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] 
dfgjclwsf/sf] jt{dfg cj:yf, ;d:of / 
;dfwfgsf pkfox¿Æ jN8{ 6]8«;]G6/df ldlt 
@)&) d+l;/ @) ut] cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg eof] . 
o; ;+3sf ;lrj s[00f uxt/fhåf/f ;~rfng 
ul/Psf] pQm sfof{zfnf uf]li7sf] k|d'v cfltYotf 
dfgj clwsf/ k|lti7fgsf dxf;lrj ejfgL 
k|;fb v/]nn] ug{e'Psf] lyof] eg ]cltly jQmfsf ] 
¿kdf /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3–g]kfnsf dxf;lrj 
l6sf bfxfn / g]kfn ckfË dfgjclwsf/ s]Gb|sf 
cWoIf hulbz k|;fb clwsf/L /xg'ePsf] lyof] . 
o; ;+3sf cWoIf ls/0f lzNksf/åf/f pNn]lvt 
zLif{sdf n]lvPsf] sfo{kq k|:t't ug'{ePsf] lyof] 
eg] pQm sfo{kq pk/ g]kfn ckfË ;dfhsf 
cWoIf t]h s'df/L ltjf/L / af}l4s ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf cleefjs tyf n]vs 
cfgGb/fd kf}8]nn] l6Kk0fL ug'{ePsf] lyof] . 
bf]>f] ;+ljwfg;efdf ckf·tf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;xefuLtfsf] nflu ;+3åf/f 
cg;gdf ;lqmo ;xeflutf 
klxnf] ;+ljwfg;efaf6 gofF ;+ljwfg 
aGg g;s]kl5 d+;L/ $ ut] b]zdf k'gM 
;+ljwfg;efsf nflu bf]>f] lgjf{rg ;DkGg eof] . 
bf]>f] lgjf{rgsf] kl/0ffd;Fu} lgjf{lrt tyf 
dgf]gog u/L dGqLkl/ifbsf] u7g k|lqmof;Fu} 
;+ljwfg;efn] klg cfˆgf] ult lng k|f/De 
u/] kZrft ckfËtfsf] If]qaf6 k|ltlglwTj 
;'lglZrt ug{sf lglDt ;/sf/ tyf ;DalGwt 
;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ bjfa ;[hgf ug{]x]t'n] /fli6«o 
ckfË dxf;+3–g]kfnsf] cu'jfO{df r/0fj4 
cfGbf]ng :j¿k l/n] cg;gsf] k|f/De u/]sf] 
lyof] . o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] 
klg ;Dk"0f{ zf/Ll/s ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] 
tkm{af6 r/0faå ¿kdf sfo{;ldltsf 
kbflwsf/Lx¿ ljleGg ;dodf ;+o'Qm ¿kdf l/n] 
cg;gdf a;L bafa ;[hgf u/]sf] lyof] . ;f] !! 
lbg;Dd rn]sf] l/n] cg;gdf ;+3sf tkm{af6 
klxnf] k6s ;+3s} pkfWoIf ;~ho afGtjf / 
;lrj s[i0f uxt/fh a:g' ePsf] lyof] eg] bf]>f] 
k6sdf ;+3sf tkm{af6 sf]iffWoIf zflGt gsdL{ 
/ ;b:o ljlgtf /]UdL a:g' ePsf] lyof] . To;}u/L 
l/n] cg;gs} clGtd lbg ;+3sf cWoIf ls/0f 
lzNksf/ a:g' ePsf] lyof] . pQm l/n] cg;gdf 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] gofF aGg] ;+ljwfgdf 
;'lglZrt ug{sf nflu ;+3sf pkfWoIf tyf 
snfsf/ ;~ho afGtjfåf/f ;f]xL cg;gdf k|ToIf 
lrq lgdf{0f u/L P}Soaåtfdf yk an k'/fpg' 
ePsf] lyof] . df3 @@ af6 k|f/De ePsf] pQm 
l/n] cg;g kmfu'g # df ;/sf/sf tkm{af6 
k|wfgdGqL tyf dGqLkl/ifbsf] sfof{nosf ;lrj 
;"o{k|;fb l;njfn / ckfËtfsf] If]qaf6 /fli6«o 
ckfË dxf;+3–g]kfnaLr jt{dfg ;+ljwfg;efdf 
@^ hgfsf] dgf]lgt l;6 cGt/ut clgjfo{ 
¿kdf k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] eGg] lnlvt ;xdltsf] 
;fy cg;g :ylut ePsf] lyof] . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 4
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
snfsf/ ;~ho afGtjfsf] t];|f]Psn lrqsnf k|bz{gL ;DkGg 
o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] o; 
;+3sf pkfWoIf tyf snfsf/ ;~ho afGtjfsf] 
æ;+3if{sf WjgLx¿Æ gfds t];|f] Psn lrqsnf 
k|bz{gL @)&) r}q !$ ut] ;DkGg u¥of] . r}q & 
ut]af6 cf}krfl/s ¿kdf k|f/De eO{ r}q !$ ut] 
;DkGg ePsf] pQm PsxKt] Psn lrqsnf k|bz{gL 
gS;fnl:yt g]kfn nlntsnf k|1f k|lti7fgsf] 
k|bz{gLxndf ljleGg k|sf/sf #! yfg lrqx¿ 
/fvL k|bz{g ul/Psf] lyof] . lrqsnf k|bz{gLdf 
/flvPsf laqmL ePsf lrqx¿sf] hDdf /sdsf] 
s]lx k|ltzt zf/Ll/s ckfËtf ePsf u/La 
tyf h]x]Gbf/ ljBfyL{x¿sf nflu 5fqj[lQ k|bfg 
ug]{ xt]'n] cfofh]gf ul/Psf]pQm sfo{qmdsf] 
pb3f6g dfggLo ;+:s[lt, ko{6g tyf gfu/Ls 
p8oog dGqfnosf dGqL led k|;fb cfrfo{sf] 
k|d'v cfltYotfdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . 
sfo{qmddf g]kfn nlntsnf k|1f k|lti7fgsf 
s'nklt ls/0f dfgGw/, n]vs tyf snf 
;ldIfs k|f]=8f= cle ;'j]bL, cd]l/sg b'tfjf;sf 
Public Affairs Of!cer – Susan Parker Burns 
nufotsf JolQmTjx¿sf] pkl:ylt lyof] . 
k|bz{gLsf] clGtd lbg r}q !$ ut] sfo{qmdsf] 
cf}krfl/s ¿kdf g]kfn nlntsnf k|1f 
k|lti7fgsf] c/gLsf] Uofn/Ldf cd]/Lsg 
b'tfj;s} Cultural Affairs Of!cer - Ms. 
Polnerow Marrisa sf] k|d'v cfltYotfdf 
;ldIffTds sfo{qmd ;DkGg eof] . o;sf ;fy} 
jl/i7 snfsf/ u]x]G›dfg cdfTo, /fli6«o ckfË 
dxf;+3–g]kfnsf cWoIf, ;'bz{g ;'j]bL, snfsf/ 
tyf snf ;ldIfs /d]z vgfn nufotsf 
JolQmx¿n] ;Dk"0f{ snf k|bz{gL tyf afGtjfsf] 
snfsf]af/]df ;ldIffTds ¿kdf af]Ng'ePsf]lyof]. 
;+3sf tkm{af6 cWoIf ls/0f lzNksf/n] snfsf/ 
;+ho afGtjfsf] Psn k|bz{gLdf ;xof]u ug'{x'g] 
;Dk"0f{ ;+3;+:yf tyf JolQmx¿nfO{ wGojfb lbg' 
ePsf] lyof] . 
ckf·tfd}qL ;fj{hlgs oftfoft k|j4{gsf lglDt uf]li7 ;DkGg 
@)&! c;f/ ^ ut] nlntk'/sf] hfjnfv]nl:yt 
g]kfn k|zf;lgs k|lzIf0f k|lti7fgsf] xndf nlntk'/ 
lhNnfsf ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf :6fkmx¿nfO{ 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] oftfoft ;]jfdf 
kxFr"ljifos cgl'zIf0f sfoq{mdsf] cfofh]gf u/L 
;DkGg u¥of] . nlntk'/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf 
:yfgLo ljsf; clwsf/L kz'klt kf]v|]nsf] k|d'v 
cfltYotfdf ;DkGg ;f] sfo{qmddf ;+3sf cWoIf 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 5
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
ls/0f lzNksf/n] cWoIftf ug{e'Psf] lyof] eg ] 
;+3s} pkfWoIf ;~ho afGtjfn] æ;fj{hlgs 
oftfoftdf ljBdfg gLltut Joj:yf, jt{dfg 
cj:yf / ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] e"ldsfÆ ljifos 
sfo{kq k|:t't ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . nlntk'/ 
lhNnfsf ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿df 
sfd ug]{ sl/a #) hgf sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf d'2fx¿ / pgLx¿n] 
ug'{kg]{ d}qLk"0f{ Jojxf/x¿sf] af/]df ;';"lrt 
tyf ;+j]bgzLn agfpg] p2]Zosf ;fy 
cfof]hgf ul/Psf] pQm sfo{qmddf oftfoft;Fu 
k|ToIf ;/f]sf/ /fVg] ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfosf 
k|ltlglwx¿ h:t} g]kfn oftfoft :jtGq dhb'/ 
;Fu7gsf cWoIf, sf]iffWoIf / ;b:ox¿ tyf 
;kmf OsfO{ sldl6sf ;lrj, lhNnf hg:jf:Yo 
sfof{nosf k|d'v, nlntk'/ oftfoft ldlga; 
;]jf ;ldltsf pkfWoIf, dlxnf tyf afnaflnsf 
sfof{nosf k|d'v, nlntk'/ pkdxfgu/kflnsf 
;dfh sNof0f ljefusf k|d'v, lzIff ljefusf 
;xfos clwsf/L, nlntk'/ ckfËtf ;dGjo 
;ldltsf ;+of]hs / nlntk'/ lhNnf ljsf; 
;ldltsf ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf 
/x]sf] lyof] . 
sl/a tLg 306f;Dd ;~rflnt pQm sfo{qmddf 
;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿df sfd ug]{ 
sd{rf/Lx¿sf nflu Hofb} g}dxTjk"0f{/x]sf]k|ltlqmof 
lbPsf lyP . sfo{qmddf pkl:yt ;xefuL cltly 
jQmfx¿n] sfo{qmd cToGt} ;fGble{s /x]sf] / o:tf 
k|sf/sf ;r]tgfd"ns sfo{qmdx¿ cfufdL lbgx¿df 
k'gM rfns tyf ;xrfnsx¿nfO{lbg'kg]{cfjZostf 
cfNF}ofPsf lyP . o;sf sf/0fn]pgLx¿sf]afgL 
Jojxf/df 7"nf] kl/jt{g Nofpg ;Sg] ;d]t bfaL 
u/]sf lyP . 
Paula Sotnik ;“usf] 
;+:yfut cg'ej cfbfgk|bfg sfo{qmd ;DkGg 
;+o'Qm/fHo cd]l/sfaf6 g]kfn cfPsL 
Ms. Sotnik n] g]kfnsf] ;du| ckfËtf 
cfGbf]ngnfO{ a'‰g] qmddf o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s 
ckfË ;+3—g]kfn;Fu @)&! a}zfv * ut] 
cg'ej cfbfgk|bfg a}7s ;+3s} sfof{nodf 
;DkGg eof] . Ms. Paula Sotnik Ps 
cGt/f{li6«o ckfËtf clwsf/sdL{ x'g . pgn] 
Institute for Community Inclusion, 
School for Global Inclusion & Social 
Development gfds Ps ;+:yfdf cfj4 
eP/ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf xsclwsf/sf 
k|j4{gsf nflu ljleGg tj/af6 sfd ub}{cfO/x]sL 
l5g . 
g]kfndf ljz]ifu/L kx"Fro'Qm jftfj/0f ;[hgf 
ug{sf nflu gLlt lgdf{0f txdf ePsf 
pknlAwx¿, sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf ;s/fTds 
kl/jt{gx¿ / cfufdL lbgdf /0fgLlts ¿kdf 
rflng'kg]{ cleofgx¿sf ;DaGwdf ;d]t a[xt 
5nkmn ePsf] lyof] . ;+o'Qm/fHo cd]l/sfdf 
ToxfFsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] NofPsf] 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 6
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
kl/jt{gsf sf/0fx¿ / ;~rfng ul/Psf] 
hgjsfntsf sfo{qmdx¿, ;zlQms/0fsf 
sfo{qmdx¿ / hLljsf]kfh{g tyf lzIff, 
:jf:Yo, /f]huf/ nufotsf ultljlwx¿sf] 
k|fs[ltsf af/]df a[xt 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . 
To;}u/L 5nkmns} qmddf g]kfndf sfo{/t 
cGt/f{li6«o lgsfox¿n] klg g]kfnsf ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf] xsclwsf/ k|j4{gsf nflu 
ub}{ cfPsf] cfly{s ;xof]u / d'2f k|fyldsLs/0fsf 
;DaGwdf ;d]t ;ldIff ul/Psf]lyof] . 
dlxnf lx+;f lj¿4sf] ;r]tLs/0f cleofg ;DkGg 
o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË;+3—g]kfnn] dlxnf 
lj¿4 x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lx+;f / lje]bsf] cGTo 
ug{sf nflu cfˆgf] :yfkgf sfnb]lv g} ljljw 
k|sf/sf ultljlwx¿ ;~rfng ub{}cfO/x]sf] 5 . 
ljz]ifu/L o; ;+3n] We Can National Alliance 
;Fusf] ;fem]bf/Ldf ckfËtf ePsf dlxnfx¿sf] 
b[li6sf]0faf6 ljleGg lhNnfx¿df em08} kfFrjif{ 
eGbf a9Lsf] ljleGg sfo{qmdLs cleofg g} 
;~rfng u/L ;r]tgf clej[l4sf] sfo{ u¥of] . 
xfn o; ;F3;Fu em08} kfFr xhf/ t kl/jt{gsf] 
;+jfxs cyf{t Change Maker g} 5g eg] jt{dfg 
;dodf of] ;+3 We Can National Allaince- 
Nepal sf] sfo{;ldltsf] ;b:o ;+:yf ;d]t xf] . 
o;} s|ddf ldlt @)&) r}q % ut] o; ;+3n] 
e"tk"j{ sd{rf/L kl/ifb / /fli6«o h]i7 gfu/Ls 
dxf;+3sf kbflwsf/Lx¿, sd{rf/Lx¿ tyf 
pgsf] e]63f6s} qmddf @)&! a}zfv !! ut] 
g]kfndf sfo{/t s]lx ;lqmo t/ sf]if clej[l4sf 
b[li6sf]0fn] sdhf]/ /x]sf sl/a !@ j6f ckfËtfsf] 
If]qdf sfo{/t ;+3;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx¿nfO{ 
k|:tfjgf n]vg tyf sf]if clej[l4sf] k|efjsf/L 
k4lt tyf cf}hf/x¿, hgjsfnt / k|efjsf/L 
;~rf/sf tf}/ tl/sfx¿sf ;DaGwdf cfwf 
lbgsf] tflnd ;d]t ;+3s} sfof{nodf k|bfg 
ul/Psf] lyof] . 
ltgLx¿sf kl/jf/x¿nfO{ dlxnf lx+;f lj¿4 
x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lx+;fx¿sf] cGTosf nflu 
Pslbg] ædlxnf lx+;f lj¿4sf] cleofgÆ 
ljifos cGtls|of sfo{qmd sf7df8f}Fsf] 
z+vd"ndf cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . 
pQm sfo{s|ddf o; ;+3sf cWoIf ls/0f 
lzNksf/ / sf]iffWoIf zfGtL gsdL{åf/f 
dlxnf lx+;f lj¿4sf] ;DaGwdf ljleGg 
k|:t'tLx¿ ub}{ cg'lzIf0f ug'{ePsf] lyof] . 
pQm sfo{qmddf em08} #) hgf hlt dlxnf 
tyf k'?ifx¿sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . To;} 
u/L ldlt @)&! a}zfv !* ut] o; ;+34f/f 
cfO{ Pg g]kfndf ;+nUg k|lzIffyL{x¿sf] nflu 
Ps lbg] dlxnf lx+;f lj¿4 x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf 
lx+;fx¿sf] cGTo ;DalGw cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd 
nlntk'/ lhNnfsf] du/ufpmF eGg] :yfgdf 
cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg ul/of]. sl/a $) hgf 
dlxnf tyf k'?if ;xefuL /x]sf] ;f] sfo{qmddf 
klg o; ;+3sf cWoIf ls/0f lzNksf/ / 
sf]iffWoIf zflGt gsdLn{] k|lzIf0f ug{e'Psf] 
lyof] . ldlt @)&! cfiff9 @( df o; ;+3n] 
b /]o'sfO{ g]kfnsf] sfof{no ;fg]kfdf /]o'sfO{;Fu 
cfj4 JolQmx¿sf] nflu ædlxnf lx+;f lj¿4sf] 
cleofgÆ ljifos Ps cGt/ls|of sfo{qmdsf] 
cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 7
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno / /fli6«o 
zf/Ll/s ckf· ;+3—g]kfnsf] ;+o'Qm ;fem]bf/Ldf 
;DkGg sfo{qmdsf ultljlwx¿sf] 
;"rgfd"ns xf]l8{· af]8{sf]lgdf{0f / k|lt:yfkg 
cfly{s jif{@)&)÷)&! sf] :jLs[t jflif{s sfo{qmd 
cg';f/ dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f 
dGqfno / o; ;+3sf] ;+o'Qm ;fem]bf/Ldf ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ef}lts kx"Fr clej[l4sf nflu 
;r]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ p2]Zon] sf7df8f}F, eQmk'/ / 
nlntk'/ lhNnfsf ;"o{ljgfos, nugv]n, 
Odf8f]n, nlntk'/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf]sfof{no 
/ rfkfufpmF uflj;sf] sfof{no u/L hDdf kfFr 
:yfgx¿df ljleGg k|sf/sf lrqfTds ;"rgfd"ns 
xf]l8{Ë af]8{ lgdf{0f ul/ k|lt:yfkg ul/of] . 
g]kfn ko{6g af]8{;“u k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg M 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] 3'Dg], :jtGqk"j{s 
lxF88'n ug]{ / dgf]/~hg ug]{ clwsf/ 
k|j4{gsf nflu kxFr"o'Qm ko{6g ljsf; 
ug'{ ckl/xfot{f ePsf]n] kxFr"o'Qm ko6{g 
ljsf;sf nflu g]kfndf ;a{k|yd g]kfn ko{6g 
af]8{;Fu o; ;+3n] @)&) kmfu'0f !( df 
hgjsfnt a}7s cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . 
a}7sdf o; ;+3sf tkm{af6 sfo{;ldltsf 
kbflwsf/Lx¿ nufot cGo ckfËtf 
clwsf/sdL{x¿sf] ;xeflutf lyof] eg] af]8{sf 
tkm{af6 lgldQ sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs tyf ko{6sLo 
;|ft]tyf ;fwg ljsf; zfvfsf jl/i7 lgb{z]s 
glGbgL yfkf, k|aGws d0fL/fh nfld5fg] / 
;f]xL zfvfsf ;xfos Joj:yfks Ogrfh{ 
bLks/fh hf]zL a}7sdf ;xeflutf /x]sf] 
lyof] . g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf] xs clwsf/sf nflu lgdf{0f 
ul/Psf] ljleGg gLlt lgod, sfg'g tyf 
sfo{qmdx¿sf]af/]df hfgsf/L u/fpFb}ckfËtf 
d}qL ef}lts ;+/rgf lgdf{0fsf nflu Wofgfsif{0f 
;lxtsf] 1fkgkq x:tfGt/0f ul/of] . 
pQm Wofgfsif{0f kq a'lem;s] kZrft af]8{sf 
tkm{af6 k|ltlglwx¿n] Ps}k6sdf ;du|tfdf 
kx"Fro'Qm jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf sfo{x¿ ug{ c;Dej 
/x]sf]n] gd"gfut ¿kdf ;a};Fu ldn]/ ;xsfo{sf 
¿kdf sfd ug{ pT;flxt /x]sf] k|ltj4tf JoQm 
u/] . ;fy}, ko{6g If]qdf sfo{/t ;a} ;/sf/L tyf 
gLlh lgsfox¿;Fu ;xsfo{ ;d]t u/]/ cufl8 
a9g] ;d]t k|ltj4tf JoQm u/] . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 8
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
sf7df8f} dxfgu/kflnsf;Fu k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg M 
sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfn] cf=j= @)&)÷)&! df 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu ljt/0f ug]{ 
eg]sf] ;]jf ;'ljwfx¿sf] af/]df lj:t[t ¿kdf 
a'‰g / To;sf] Jofks k|efjsfl/tfsf ;DaGwdf 
5nkmn ug{]/ ef}lts kx"Fr tyf ;~rf/ 
;]jf lgb]{lzsfsf] clwstd sfof{Gjogsf 
nflu Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg] p2]Zon] o; ;+3n] 
ldlt @)&) kmfu'g @# df sf7df8f}F 
dxfgu/kflnsfsf k|d'v tyf sfo{sf/L clws[t 
nId0f cof{n tyf ;dfh sNof0f zfvfsf zfvf 
clws[t ;Gt s'df/ yfkf;Fu a}7s ;DkGg eof] . 
pQm a}7sdf o; ;+3sf s]lGb|o sfo{;ldltsf 
kbflwsf/L tyf ;fwf/0f ;b:ox¿sf] ;d]t 
;xeflutf lyof] . ;f] sfo{qmddf ljz]ifu/L 
o; ;3+sf tkma{f6 sf7df8fF}dxfgu/kflnsfn] 
ckfËtfd}qL ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf nflu 
rflng' kg]{ kxnsbdLsf ;DaGwdf Wofgfsif{0f 
u/fpgsf nflu Wofgfsif{0fkq x:tfGt/0f 
ul/Psf] lyof] . dxfgu/kflnsfsf 
k|d'v tyf sfo{sf/L clws[tn] gofF aGg] 
ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿nfO{ oyf;Dej cj/f]wd'Qm 
agfpgsf nflu cfˆgf] tkm{af6 ;Sbf] kxn 
ug]{ ;d]t k|ltj4tf JoQm ug'{eof] . 
5nkmnsf qmddf dxfgu/kflnsfn] 
o; cf=j= @)&)÷)&! df sf7df8f} 
F pkTosfdf ljz]ifu/L sf7df8f}Fsf] ;8s 
lj:tf/sf sfo{qmd cGt/ut ;Dej ePsf 
;a} :yfgx¿df ckfËtfd}qL ;8s lgdf{0f ug]{ 
k|ltj4tf JoQm ug{'ePsf] lyof ]. sf7df8fF} 
dxfgu/kflnsfsf k|d'v tyf sfo{sf/L clws[t 
nId0f cof{nn] gd"gfut ¿kdf Go"/f]8sf] 
ljzfn ahf/ glhs ;fj{hlgs kfls{Ë :yfgdf 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] rnfpg ]rf/kfË]| 
:s'6/x¿nfO{ nlIft u/L ckfËtfsf] nf]uf] 6fF;L 
ljz]if kflsË{sf] Joj:yf ug]{ k|ltj4tf ug{e'of ] 
eg] b/af/dfu{sf] ;fO8jfsnfO{ gd"gfut ¿kdf 
ckfËtfdq}L ;8ssf ¿kdf lj:tf/ ug{];dt] 
k|ltj4tf JoQm u/]sf lyP . 
oftfoft dGqfno;“u k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg M 
sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf /x]sf] ljz]ifu/L ;fj{hlgs 
oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿ / ckfËtfd}qL ef}lts 
k"jf{wf/sf ljifox¿nfO{ lnP/ g]kfn ;/sf/ 
cGt/utsf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/ tyf oftfoft 
dGqfnosf ;lrj >L t'n;L k|;fb l;6f}nf;Fu 
ldlt @)&! a}zfv @( ut] o; ;+3sf] 
s]lGb|o sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx¿åf/f lghs} 
sfo{sIfdf k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg u¥of] . a}7sdf 
ljz]ifu/L pNn]lvt ljifox¿nfO{ g} lnP/ 
g]kfn ;/sf/n] kfl/t u/]sf] ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf nflu kxFr"o'Qm efl}ts ;/+rgf tyf 
;~rf/ ;]jf lgb{l]zsf @)^(, sf] ke|fjsf/L 
sfof{Gjogsf nflu Wofgfsif{0f kq x:tfGt/0f 
u/L ljBdfg ;d:ofx¿nfO{ ;f/f+zdf hfgsf/L 
u/fOPsf] lyof] . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 9
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
;fy} To; dGqfnosf ;lrjn] ef}lts k"jf{wf/ 
lgdf{0fsf sfo{qmdx¿ b]zJofkL ¿kdf aGg] 
qmd hf/L /xs]f] ePtfklg sf7df8fFd}f dfq 
o:tf d'2fx¿n] a9L k|fyldstf kfPsf]n] clns 
a9L b]zJofkL agfpg' kg]{df hf]8 lbg cfu|x 
ug'{ePsf] lyof] . To;}u/L sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf 
g} pQm lgb{l]zsfsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog xg' 
g;ls/x]sfn] To;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf 
nflu dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f 
dGqfnon] g} cfˆgf] ;+of]hsTjdf ;a} ;DalGwt 
dGqfnox¿ /xg] u/L Pp6f ljz]if sfof{Gjogsf] 
of]hgf lgdf{0f u/L cg'udg ;ldltsf] ;d]t 
g]kfn a}°;{;+3;“u k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg 
g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f hf/L æckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf nflu kx"Fro'Qm ef}lts ;+/rgf 
tyf ;~rf/ ;j]f lgb{l]zsf—@)^(Æ, ckfË 
;+/If0f tyf sNof0f P]g @)#( / ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw cGt/f{li6«o 
dxf;lGw @))^ df ;d]t k|i6 ¿kdf gLlh tyf 
;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf nflu vf]lnPsf jf :yfkgf 
ul/Psf] :yfg tyf ;fwgx¿ ckfËtfd}qL agfOg' 
kg]{ k|fjwfgnfO{ sfof{Gjogdf Nofpgsf nflu 
bafj ;h[gf ug{]p2Z]on] gk]fnsf] al}ͪ Ifq]df 
gkfOPsf] ckfËtfd}qL jftfj/0fnfO{ lnP/ g]kfn 
a}Í;{ ;+3;Fu ldlt @)&! h]7 & ut] sfof{nosf 
;lrj s]zj k|;fb clwsf/L;Fu e]63f6 u/L ;f] 
lgdf{0f u/L of]hgfut ¿kdf cufl8 a9g'kg]{ 
cfjZostf /x]sf] cf}FNofpg'eof] . 
;+3sf] cWoIfsf gfddf Wofgfsif{0f kq ;d]t 
x:tfGt/0f ul/of] . 
o;} qmddf xfn ;~rfngdf /x]sf a}ÍLs If]qnfO{ 
nlIft u/L ckfËtfd}qL jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf 
nflu o; ;+3dfkm{t cfj4tf /x]sf a}Íx¿df 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu of]Uotf 
/ Ifdtfsf cfwf/df /f]huf/L k|j4{g ug]{, 
agL;s]sf / gofFaGg]a}Ísf ejgx¿df kx"Fro'Qm 
ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf0{f ug{,]a}Ídf :yfkgf 
ul/Psf] sfp06/x¿ xf]rfk'8sf tyf XjLnlro/ 
k|of]ustf{x¿sf nflu ;d]t ;xh¿kdf kx"Fr 
k'Ug] u/L prfOsf] lgdf{0f ul/g'kg]{, ATM :ynx¿ 
klg ;xh ¿kdf ;a} k|sf/sf ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿n] k|of]u ug{;Sg] u/L lgdf{0f ul/g' 
kg]{ / ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] :j/f]huf/sf 
nflu a}Íaf6 C0f lng rfx]sf] ;Gbe{df ;a}eGbf 
;x'lnot Jofhb/df ;xh ta/n] C0f pknAw 
u/fpg] h:tf d2'fx¿df 5nkmn ul/of]. 
k|ltlqmofdf ;+3 cfkm}Fdf lg0ff{os gePtf klg 
To;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;a} 
a}Íx¿df kqfrf/ ug{]/ ;f]lx cg';f/ sfd ;d]t 
ug{sf nflu cg'/f]w ug]{ k|ltj4tf ul/Psf] lyof] . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I10
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
g]kfn oftfoft Joj;foL /fli6«o 
dxf;+3;“u k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg M 
;fj{hlgs oftfoftnfO{ ckfËtfd}qL agfpgsf 
nflu g]kfn oftfoft Joj;foL /fli6«o 
dxf;+3sf] uDeL/ Wofgsif{0f u/fpgsf nflu 
ldlt @)&! c;f/ !* ut] dxf;+3sf cWoIf 
of]u]Gb|gfy sd{rfo{nfO{ e]6 u/L Wofgfsif{0f kq 
a'emfOof] . 5nkmnsf qmddf dxf;+3sf cWoIf 
sd{rfo{n] g]kfndf /x]sf oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿ 
ljz]iftM ;fj{hlgs p2]Zosf nflu k|of]u 
ul/g]nfO{ oyf;Dej ckfËtfd}qL agfpgsf 
nflu oftfoftdf ef}lts lgdf{0f tyf oftfoft 
Joj:yf dGqfnon] k|To]s ;fj{hlgs uf8Lx¿nfO{ 
¿6 l;:6ddf rnfpg kf|/De ug{k'g{,]gofF 
oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿ leqofpFbf v]/L g} ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ b[li6ut u/L o;sf] ;]l6Ë 
ug'{kg]{, ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿df 
sfo{/t rfns tyf ;xrfnsx¿nfO{ 8«fO{leË 
nfO;G; k|bfg ubf{ v]/L g} Psb'O{ 306fsf] 
;fdflhs ;+j]bglzntfsf d'2fx¿df cg'lzIf0f 
ug'{kg]{, gk]fndf oftfoft dfq }xg]{]5'§};/sf/L 
lgsfo gePsf]n] oftfoft ljsf; af]8{sf] lgdf{0f 
u/L sfo{ ug{ ;s]df lb3{sfnLg ¿kdf ;d:of 
;dfwfg x'g] hLls/ ug'{eof] . 
;x/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f 
ljefu;“u k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg 
o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnsf 
k|ltlglwx¿n] ;x/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f 
ljefusf dxflgb{z]s zDe"s]=;L=;Fu @)&! 
c;f/ !( ut ]lghs }sfofs{Ifdf e]63f6 ul/of]. 
pQm e]63f6df ljz]ifu/L o; ;+3n] gofF ag]sf 
ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿ g]kfn /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f 
cfrf/ ;+lxtf @)^) / g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f hf/L 
ul/Psf] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu 
ef}lts kx"Fr tyf ;~rf/ ;]jf lgb]{lzsf @)^(, 
sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog x'g g;s]sf]df uDeL/ 
Wofgfsif{0f u/fPsf] lyof] . hjfkmdf dxflgb]{zs 
s]= ;L=n] ljefu cToGt} uDeL/ ePsf] / ;f]lx 
cg';f/ g }pQm lgb{l]zsfnfO{ kg'M cfˆgf ;Dk0"f{ 
lgsfox¿df kqfrf/ ;d]t ug]{ k|ltj4tf JoQm 
ul/Psf] lyof] . 
e]63f6sf qmddf ljefu pQm ljifodf ;+o'Qm 
¿kdf ldn]/ sfd ug{ OR5's ePsf]n] cfufdL 
lbgx¿df ;xsfo {;dt]ug]{ kl|tj4tf ug{e'of ]. 
To;}u/L ljefus} g]t[Tjdf ag]sf gofF ejgx¿ 
ckfËtf d}qL ePgePsf] ;DaGwdf Physical 
Audit u/L ;'emfj lbgsf nflu ;d]t cfu|x 
ug'{eof] . sf7df8f}Fdf dflg;x¿sf] ;a}eGbf a9L 
cfjfthfjt x'g] :yfg x]/L To;nfO{ k"0f{ ckfËtf 
d}qL agfpgsf nflu s] ug'{kb{5 egL ;'emfj 
lbgsf nflu cg'/f]w ug'{eof] . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 11
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
ef}lts kx"“ro'Qm lgb]{lzsf @)^( sf] ;DaGwdf sfof{zfnf ;DkGgM 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu cj/f]wd'Qm 
jftfj/0f ;h[gf ug{]k|d'v p2]Zon] ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw cGt/f{li6«o 
dxf;lGw @))^ sf] cfwf/e"t Joj:yfx¿df 
cfwfl/t /xL dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh 
sNof0f dGqfno / g]kfndf ckfËtfsf] If]qdf 
sfof{/t ;+3;+:yfx¿sf] ;+o'Qm kxnåf/f hf/L 
ul/Psf] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu 
ef}lts kx"Fro'Qm tyf ;~rf/ ;]jf lgb]{lzsf 
@)^( sf] sfof{Gjog cj:yfsf] k'g/fjnf]sg 
u/L k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] sfo{of]hgf agfpg] 
p2]Zon] o; ;+3n] ldlt @)&! h]7 @& ut] 
sf7df8f}Fsf] jN8{ 6]«8 ;]G6/df Ps sfof{zfnf 
uf]li7sf] cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . dlxnf, 
afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnosf 
;lrj >L lbg]zx/L clwsf/Lsf] k|d'v 
cfltYotfdf ;DkGg ;f] sfof{zfnf uf]li7sf] 
cWoIftf ;+3sf cWoIf >L ls/0f lzNksf/n] 
ug'{ePsf] lyof] eg] ljz]if cltlysf ¿kdf 
dGqfnos} ;x;lrj >L zÍ/ kf7s, pk;lrj 
x'dsnf kf08], zx/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f 
ljefusf dxflgb]{zs ;'lgn s0f{, vfg]kfgL 
tyf 9n lgsf; ljefusf ;Llgo/ l8lehg 
O{lGhlgo/ lxd k|;fb uf}td, lzIff dGqfno 
cGtu{tsf ;dfj]zL lzIff zfvfsf u0f]z kf}8]n 
/ /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3—g]kfnsf cWoIf ;'bz{g 
;'j]bL x'g'x'GYof] . 
;+3sf ;lrj s[i0f uxt/fhåf/f ;xhLs/0f 
ul/Psf] ;f] sfof{zfnfnfO{ ljz]ifu/L b'O{ 
r/0fdf ljefhg u/L 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . 
sfo{qmdsf] klxnf] ;qdf cf;g u|x0fsf] 
cf}krfl/s k|f/De;Fu} ;+3sf pkfWoIf ;~ho 
afGtjfåf/f ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu 
ef}lts kxFr"o'Qm tyf ;~rf/ ;]jf lgb{l]zsf 
@)^( sf] jt{dfg sfof{Gjogsf] cj:yf / 
cfufdL sfo{of]hgf zLif{sdf sfo{kq k|:t't 
ug'{ePsf] lyof] . sfo{qmdsf] bf]>f] r/0fdf o; 
lgb]{lzsfsf] sfof{Gjogdf b]lvPsf ;d:of tyf 
r'gf}ltx¿ / tLgsf ;dfwfgsf nflu cfufdL 
lbgdf cjnDag ul/g'kg]{ pkfox¿sf] ;Gbe{df 
pkl:yt ;xeflux¿nfO{ ljleGg ;ft ;d"xdf 
ljefhg u/L ;dx"ut sfo{;d]t ul/Psf]lyof] . 
pQm ;d"xut 5nkmnsf] ;xhLs/0f eg] dlxnf, 
afnaflnsf tyf ;dfhsNof0f dGqfnosf 
pk;lrj xd'snf kf08]n] ug{e'Psf] lyof] . 
sfo{qmdsf] 5nkmnsf bf}/fgdf em08} !% dlxgf 
k'/f ul/;ss]f] pQm lgb{l]zsfsf] Jojxfl/s 
sfof{Gjogsf] kIf rfFlx cToGt} lkmtnf] /x]sf] 
eGb} pkl:yt clwsf+z ;xefuLx¿n] l6Kk0fL 
u/]sf lyP . sfo{qmddf af]Nb} k|d'v cltly 
tyf dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f 
dGqfnosf ;lrj >L lbg]zx/L clwsf/Ln] 
;f] lgb{l]zsf sfof{Gjogsf nflu cfkm" cToGt} 
lqmofzLn /x]sf] t/ ;/sf/L lgsfox¿aLr g} 
k/:k/ ;dGjogsf] cEof; sdhf]/ ePsf]n] 
ck]Iffs[t ¿kdf sfof{Gojg ug{ g;lsPsf] 
lhls/ ug{e'of ]. To;}n]o;};Gbe{df ul/Psf]of] 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I12
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
sfo{qmdsf] k|ltkmnnfO{ lj:t[t sfo{of]hgf agfO{ 
cfufdL lbgdf o;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog 
ug{sf nflu dGqfno h'g;'s} k|sf/sf] ;xof]u 
ug{ tof/ /x]sf] atfpg'eof] . sfo{qmdsf]cGTodf 
o; ;+3n] ;f] sfo{qmdaf6 k|fKt k|ltkmnx¿sf] 
cfwf/df /xL cfufdL lbgsf nflu ul/g'kg]{ 
Ps a[xt sfo{of]hgfsf] to u/L dGqfnonfO{ 
x:tfGt/0f ;d]t ul/Psf] 5 . 
æg]kfndf XjLnlro/ pTkfbgM 
ljifos sfof{zfnf uf]li7 ;DkGg 
g]kfndf Psfb gLhLIf]qsf] kxndf afx]s 
xfn;Dd XjLnlro/ pTkfbg ePsf] 5}g . oBlk, 
g]kfndf XjLnlro/ k|of]ustf{x¿sf] olsg 
tYofÍ gePtf klg ljleGg cWoogx¿n] 
em08} #% nfvsf] xf/fxf/Ldf /x]sf] ;fj{hlgs 
u/]sf 5g . g]kfndf ;/b/ ( xhf/ jflif{s 
XjLnlro/ cfjZos /x]sf] b]lvG5 . olt 7"nf] 
;+Vofdf /x]sf XjLnlro/ k|of]ustf{x¿sf nflu 
xfn;Dd g]kfndf :jb]zL XjLnlro/ pTkfbg 
ePsf] 5}g / To;sf nflu k|oTg ;d]t ul/Psf] 
klg b]lvGb}g . ;f]lx ljifonfO{ dWogh/ u/L o; 
/fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfn, :jfanDaL 
hLjg k4lt s]Gb| sf7df8f}F, g]kfn XjLlro/ 
Sna / dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfhsNof0f 
dGqfnon] ;+o'Qm ¿kdf XjLnlro/ 
pTkfbgsf] sfdnfO{ k|f/De u/]sf] 5 . ;f]lx 
sfo{qmd cGt/ut o; ;+3sf nflu ljz]iftM 
g]kfndf XjLnlro/ pTkfbgsf] ;DefJotf / 
r'gf}ltx¿nfO{ lnP/ Ps cg';GwgfTds cWoog 
u¥of] . pQm cWoogaf6 k|fKt ;"rgfx¿nfO{ 
lnP/ sf7df8fFs}f] lqk/']Zj/df ldlt @)&! c;f/ 
!( ut] dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfhsNof0f 
dGqfnosf pk;lrj x'dsnf kf08]sf] k|d'v 
cfltYotfdf ;DkGg ul/of]. 
sfo{qmddf pkl:yt em08} %) hgf XjLnlro/ 
k|of]ustf{x¿, XjLnlro/ ljt/s tyf 
pTkfbgstf{x¿;Fu a[xt 5nkmn u/L yk 
cfjZos ;r"gfx¿ ;d]t ;Íng ul/Psf]lyof] . 
pQm k|fKt;Dk"0f{ ;"rgfx¿sf] cfwf/df g]kfndf 
XjLnlro/ pTkfbgM ;DefJotf / r'gf}ltx¿ 
gfds Ps cg';GwfgfTds cWoog k|ltj]bgsf] 
;d]t k|:t't ul/Psf] lyof] . o;sf] k|d'v p2]Zo 
eg]sf] g]kfndf xfn;Dd s]–s:tf k|sf/sf 
XjLnlro/x¿ k|of]udf cfPsf 5g, ltlgx¿sf] 
;xh pknAwtfsf nflu :jb]zd} s] ug{ ;lsG5 
egL ;DefJotfsf] vf]hL ;d]t ug{'/x]sf] lyof] . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 13
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
cj/f]wd'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fdf /fli6«o 
zf/Ll/s ckf· ;+3—g]kfnsf] k|of; 
/fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] cfˆgf] 
:yfkgfsfnb]vL g }efl}ts kxFr'sf] ;jfnnfO { 
ljleGg k|sf/sf ;r]tgf clej[l4, Ifdtf ljsf; 
tyf hgjsfntsf sfo{qmdx¿ ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 
5 . kx"Fro'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0fn] dfq ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;fdflhs ;xefuLtf, 
u'0f:t/o'Qm hLjg:t/ / ;dfg cj;/x¿df kx"Fr 
lgwf{/0f ug{]ePsf]n] kxFr"o'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu cfhsf] k|d'v 
cfjZostf xf] . oxL cfjZostfnfO{ dWogh/ 
u/L o; ;+3n] ef}lts kx'Frsf] ;jfnnfO{ ljut 
8]9bzsb]lv lg/Gt/ ¿kdf cufl8 a9fO /x]sf] 
5 . zfl//Ls ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu 
/fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] ub{}cfPsf] 
o; k|sf/sf] sbdnfO{ ljleGg lgsfox¿af6 
;x|fgf ul/Psf]5 . g]kfndf ef}lts kx'Frsf] 
;jfnnfO{ ;a}eGbf klxn] o; ;+3n] kl/ro 
u/fPsf] s'/fdf s'g} b'O{dt 5}g . o; ;+3n] 
;g !((& df :yfkgf eP kZrft g} ljleGg 
lsl;dsf efl}ts kx'rFsf] af/d]f /fli6«o:t/, 
If]lqo:t/ / lhNnf:t/df cleofgs} ¿kdf 
ljleGg k|sf/sf sfo{s|dx¿ ub{} cfO/x]sf] 5 . 
ef}lts kx'Fr eg]sf] s] xf] < o;sf] cefjdf 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] s:tf lsl;dsf 
;d:ofx¿ ef]Ug'k/]sf] 5 < / o:tf ;d:of s;/L 
x6fpg ;lsG5 eGg] ;jfndf g]kfndf ;'¿jft 
xF'bfsf] cj:yf b]lv g} /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË 
;+3n] o;sf] nflu 7'nf] e'ldsf v]Nb} cfO/x]sf] 
5 . ;g !((& b]vL g} lg/Gt/ cleofgsf] 
¿kdf efl}ts kj'f{wf/ kxFr'sf] Ifq]df sfd 
ul//x]sf] kl/k]|Iodf Tolt a]nfsf] ;fem]bf/L ;+:yf 
8]gdfs{sf] The Danish RomatismAssociation 
/ l8=P;=cfO{=lar ;xsfo{ u/L /fi6«JofkL 
¿kdf g} ljleGg lsl;dsf 
k}/jL tyf hgr]tgfd'ns 
cleofgx¿ ;DkGg u¥of] . 
xfd|f] o; k|sf/sf] 
cleofgaf6 k|efljt eP/ 
g]kfn ;/sf/sf ljleGg lgsfox¿ h:t} 
gu/kflnsf / lhlj;x¿af6 ;d]t ;fgf];fgf] 
cfly{s ;|f]t ;Íng u/L ef}lts kxF'rsf] 
cleofgnfO{ To; ;dob]lv g} lg/Gt/ cufl8 
nfg] sfd eO/x]sf] lyof] . o;sf ;fy}, zfl//Ls 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ hf]8g] dfWodsf] 
¿kdf tyf hgr]tgf km}nfpg] dfWodsf] ¿kdf 
;d]t of] cleofgnfO{ ;+3n] cufl8 a9fO/x]sf] 
5 . 
;g @))) sf] bf}/fg eGbf cuf8L / To; k5fl8sf 
lbgdf ;d]t :jo+ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] 
;+3;+:yf tyf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu 
sfd ug{];+3;+:yfnfO{ klg kxFr'sf] ;jfnnfO{ 
g]kfndf Nofpg'k5{ eg]/ /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË 
;+3—g]kfnn] ;'¿jft u/]sf] xf] . /fli6«o ckfË 
dxf;3+–g]kfnn] klg kxFr'sf] ;jfnnfO {cuf8L 
a9fPsf] 5 / dxf;+3sf] ;b:o ;+:yfsf] ¿kdf 
/fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] kxFr'sf] 
;jfnnfO{ p7fO/x]sf] x'gfn] dxf;+3 / cGo 
;+3;+:yfn] klg o;n] kx'Frsf] ljifodf sfd 
u5{ eg]/ klxrfg :yflkt u/]sf] 5 . jt{dfg 
;dodf klg o; ;+3 kxFr"o'Qm jftfj/0f 
lgdf{0fs} d'2fnfO{ lnP/ culf8 a9L/x]sf] 5 . 
jf:tjdf kx'Fro'Qmtf eg]sf] ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf nflu kx"Fr clej[l4 ug{sf nflu 
cfjZos kg]{ klxnf] ;t{ xf] . o;y{, of] cfkm}Fdf 
Pp6f a[xt ljifo klg xf] . g]kfndf dfq geP/ 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I14
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
cGt/f{li6«o:t/d} o;n] 7"nf] dxTj kfPsf] 5 . 
kx"Fro'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0fsf] lgdf{0fn] s]jn 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu dfq geP/ 
;a} k|sf/sf dflg;x¿ h:t} a[4a[4f, c;Qm, 
ue{jtL dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;xhtf k'¥ofpFb5 t/, 
xfd|f] h:tf cltsd ljsl;t b]zx¿df o:tf 
d'2fx¿k|ltsf] ;r]tLs/0fsf] cj:yf cToGt} 
gfh's 5 . h;sf sf/0fn] ubf{ o; If]qdf sfd 
ug{ cem} sl7g klg 5 . oBkL, ljz]if u/L 
/fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] sf7df8f}+ 
pkTosf / To;sf If]lqo zx/x¿ h:t} sf:sL, 
kf]v/f, g]kfnuGh, wgu9L, afFs], s}nfnL k"j{sf] 
df]/ª, ;'g;/L h:tf If]qx¿df Tolta]nf klg 
kxF'r s] xf] <, o;nfO{ xfd|f] kmfObfsf] nflu 
s;/L hf]8g ;S5f}FeGg] h:tf s/'fx¿sf] 
hfgsf/Låf/f ;r]tLs/0f clej[l4 u/]sf] lyof] . 
xfn /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] k'gM 
;f]lx cleofgnfO{ ;lqmotf lbg ljleGg k|sf/sf 
ultljlwx¿sf] k|f/De u/]sf] 5 . 
ljz]ifu/L /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/;+lxtf 
@)^) cfO;s] kZrft / g]kfn ;/sf/n] ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw cGt/f{li6«o 
dxf;lGw @))^ sf] kIf /fi6« eO;s]kl5 ;f]lx 
gLltut k|fjwfgnfO{ 6]sL 5'§} ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf] nflu efl}ts kxFr"tyf ;~rf/ ;j]f 
lgb]{lzsf @)^( sf];d]t lgdf{0f ul/Psf]5 . ca 
o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu lglZrt ¿kdf s'g} 
Pp6f ;+3;+:yfn] of] s'/fnfO{ cuf8L a9fpg'k5{ 
eGg] p2]Zon] /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3— 
g]kfnn] k|d'v lgsfosf] ¿kdf sfd ul//x]sf] 5 
/ o;sf] cnfjf ljut s]xL aif{b]vL ckfËtfd}qL 
oftfoftsf] s'/fnfO{ klg csf]{ Pp6f cleofgsf] 
¿kdf cufl8 a9fPsf] 5 . of] cleofgsf] 
¿kdf /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] 
ut @÷# aif{ cuf8L Pp6f lkmgNof08l:yt 
Abilis Foundation sf] cfly{s ;xof]udf 
utjif {xfdLn ]Pp6f Ps jif{]sfo{qmd ;dt] 
;~rfng u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . o; kl/of]hgf 
cGt/ut ljz]iftM sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf sf7df8f}F, 
eQmk'/ / nlntk'/ lhNnfsf] ;fj{hlgs 
oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿nfO{ ckfËtfd}qL agfpsf 
nflu ;jf/L wgL, ;jf/L rfns tyf ;xrfns 
/ 6«flkms k|x/Lx¿nfO{ ckfËtfsf] ;jfnx¿nfO{ 
;r]tLs/0f u¥of] . h;sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k 
pgLx¿df uDeL/tf a9]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . jt{dfg 
;dodf ljleGg ;jf/LwgLx¿, oftfoft Joj:yf 
ljefu / ;DalGwt dGqfnox¿nfO{ ckfËtfd}qL 
;jf/L;fwgx¿sf] k|j4{gsf nflu 3R3rfpg] 
sfdx¿ k|z:t} dfqfdf eO/x]sf 5g . 
o;/L /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] lg/Gt/ 
¿kdf efl}ts kxFr"/ ckfËtfd}qL oftfoftsf] 
nflu Pp6f :yflkt ;+:yfsf] ¿kdf /x]/ sfd 
ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . ;fy}, jt{dfg kl/k|]Iodf 
ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿sf] n]vfhf]vf (Physical 
Audit) sf] ljifonfO{ lnP/ cuf8L a9fpg'sf] 
;fy} ¥ofDk lgdf{0fsf] nflu cfjZos k/fdz{ 
lbg k/fdz{ ;d"x g} lgdf{0f u/L k/fdz{ lbg] 
sfd klg ul//x]sf 5f}+ . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I15
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
k|fs[lts k|sf]k / ckf·tf 
cfh eGbf em08} @^ jif{ cufl8 lj=;+= @)$% 
;fnsf] s'/f xf] . hLjgdf klxnf] k6s Psflaxfg} 
cf]5ofgd} ;'lt/x]s} cj:yfdf dnfO{ lgs} 
cftlÍt agfof] . k"jL{ g]kfnsf] pbok'/ lhNnf 
s]Gb| ePsf] sl/j ^ /]S6/ :s]nsf] e"sDk hfFbf 
pbok'/ lhNnfs} k"jL{ If]qsf] a;fxf uflj;df 
/x]sf] d]/f] 3/ lgs} a]/ xNnfof] . ;f];dfodf d]/f] 
kl/jf/sf sl/a ;a} h:tf] ;b:ox¿ 3/sf] tn 
em/L ;Sg' ePsf] lyof] . t/, d eg] PSn} pQm 
3/sf] dflyNnf] tnfdf g} lrRofO{ /x]sf] lyPF . 
d;Fu} ;'t]sf] d]/f bfh' klg dflyNnf] tnfaf6 
g} xfdkmfnL ;Sg' ePsf] lyof] . d xfdkmfNg' 
t s] ;'t]sf] 7fpFaf6 csf]{ 7fpFdf ;lhn} hfg 
;Sg] cj:yfdf lyOg t/ xfd|f] 3/df s'g} IftL 
gePsf] sf/0f d ;–s';n g} /xg ;kmn eP . 
olb d]/f] 3/ s]xL ePsf] eP ;fob ;a}eGbf 
klxn] d g} Tof] k|sf]kdf kg]{ lyPF xf]nf . To; 
;dodf pbok'/, ;'g;/L / wgs'6f If]qdf uPsf] 
e'sDksf] wSsfn] lgs} ef}lts / dfgjLo Iflt 
eof] . slt ckfËtf ePsf Joltmx¿nfO{ To; 
e'sDkn] Iflt k'¥ofof] egL Plsg yfxf rflxF 
ePg . oBlk, d of] eGg ;S5' ls olb d]/f] 
3/ e"sDkn] eTs]sf] eP To;sf] k|ToIf klxnf] 
df/df d g} ky]{ xf]nf lsgsL d ckfËtfsf] 
sf/0fn] ;lhn} ;'/IfL 7fpFdf uP/ a:g ;Sg] 
cj:yfdf lyOg . 
jf:tjdf k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] a]nf h'g;'s};d'bfo 
hf]lvddf ePtfklg pgLx¿n] a]xf]g]{ hf]lvdsf] 
uflDeo{tf pgLx¿sf] cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs 
cj:yf, p¢f/ ;fdfu|L, k|sf]k ;DaGwL r]tgf 
tyf JolQmut udgzLntfdf e/kg{]/x]5 . 
hxfF;Dd ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;jfn 
k|fs[lts k|sf]k;Fu hf]l8G5, 
pgLx¿sf] cfly{s tyf 
;fdflhs cj:yf eGbf klg 
JolQmut udgzLntfn] 
k|fs[lts k|sf]kn] 7"nf] 
k|efj kfb{5 . o;sf] 
kl/0ffd:j¿k ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ s'g} klg 
k|fs[ltsf] 7"nf] k|s[lt k|sf]ksf] ;dodf cToGt} 
uDeL/ hf]lvddf kb{5 . k|sf]ksf] a]nfdf ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ p4f/ ug]{ JolQm ;d]t 
hf]lvddf kg{];Defjgf ePsfn ]cfˆg }kl/jf/sf 
;b:o klg pgLx¿nfO {p4f/ ug{ tTk/ x'bF}gg . 
blIf0f Plzofsf b]zx¿dWo] g]kfn klg k|fs[lts 
k|sf]ksf] b[li6sf]0fn] cToGt} 7"nf] hf]lvddf 
/x]sf] 5 . e"sDk, af9Lklx/f] / cfunflu h:tf 
b'3{6gfx¿ ljleGg ;dodf g]kfndf 36b} 
cfO/x]sf] 5 . oL b'3{6gfx¿sf] k|efj Go"gLs/0f 
ug{ s]Gb|b]lv :yfgLo:t/;Dd ljleGg ;+oGqx¿ 
;+rfngdf /x]sf] ePtfklg ckfËtf ePsf 
Jofltmx¿sf ;jfndf Wofg k'Ug ;ls/x]sf] 
b]lvb}g . xfdLn] x]g]{ xf] eg] clxn];Ddsf] s'g} 
klg k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f cleofgdf ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf] ;jfndf ;Daf]wg ul/Psf] kfOb}g . 
g]kfndf clxn] gofF ;+ljwfg n]vg k|s[of hf/L 
5 . cGt/f{li6«o:t/df g]kfn ;/sf/n] ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw cGt/f{li6«o 
dxf;lGw—@))^ ;d]t cg'df]bg ul/;s]sf] 5 . 
o; kl/k|]Iodf g]kfndf klg lzIff, :jf:Yo, zflGt 
k|s[of nufotsf kIfx¿df ck]lIft ¿kdf geP 
klg s]lx xb;Dd ckfËtfsf ;jfn k|ltlalDjt 
ePsf] kfOG5 . oBlk k|fs[lts k|sf]k ;DalGw 
ckfËtf ePsf Joltmx¿sf ;jfndf ;DaGwLt 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I16
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
lgsfon] Wofg k'¥ofpg ;s]sf] b]lvb}g . o;sf 
k5fl8 ljleGg sf/s tTjx¿ x'g ;S5g. t/ 
cfhsf] kl/j]zdf ckfËtfsf ;jfn k|fs[lts 
k|sf]ksf] x/]s k|qm[ofut of]hgfdf k|ltlglwTj 
x'g'kb{5 . 
xfn;Dd klg g]kfndf k|fs[lts k|sf]k Go'gLs/0fsf] 
cGo ;fjwfgLx¿ ckgfPklg ckfËtf d}qL 
ef}lts jftfj/0fsf] ljifodf Wofg k'¥ofPsf] 
cj:yf b]lvGb}g . Pp6f ;fj{hgLs ejg egf}+ 
oft JolQmut ejgx¿df cfs:dLs 9f]sfx¿, 
nfO6x¿, r's'nx¿ s'g}klg ckfËtf d}qL kfpg 
;lsGb}g . o; lsl;dsf] ef}lts ;+/rgfn] 
k|fs[lts k|sf]kdf ;a}eGbf klxnf] df/ eg]sf] 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ g} x'g]5 . o; 
;jfndf d oxfF Pp6f pbfxf/0f lbg rfxfG5', 
Pp6f tflndsf] ;Lnlznfdf d hfkfg uPsf] 
lyP . hfkfgsf] 6f]sLof] l:yt hfOsfsf] tflnd 
s]Gb|sf] ;ft gDa/ ¿ddf dnfO /flvPsf] lyof] 
h'g sf]7f cGo sf]7f eGbf b'O{ u'0ff 7"nf] lyof] . 
h;df P6]h 6jfOn]6 afy¿df ;lhn} d]/f] 
x'NrLo/ hfg cfpg ;Sg] agfOPsf] lyof] . 
lah'nL altsf :jLrx¿ 9f]sfsf r'Ss'nx¿, 
;f]s];, 6]an cfbL e]6Lg] u/L Pp6f ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmn] ;lhn} k|of]u ug{ ;Sg] agfOPsf] 
lyof] . t/ ToxfF d]/f] sf]7fsf] csf]{ cgf}7f] 
laifo eg]sf] cfktsfnLg 9f]sf xf] . h'g d}n] 
w]/} b]zx¿df ed|0f ubf{ o:tf] Joj:yf kfpg 
;s]sf] lyOg . h'g 9f]sf d]/f] sf]7fsf] blIf0f 
tkm{ agfOPsf] lyof] . o; 9f]sf eGbf aflx/ 
klg ;fgf] cf/fd ug]{ nla agfOPsf] lyof] . 
h'g nlaaf6tn emg{ ;lsg] u/L tLg j6f 
nfdf]–nfdf] :nf]kaf6f] agfOPsf] lyof] . h'g 
af6f]af6 ;lhn} XjLnlro/df d tnemg{ ;Sy] . 
o;n] ToxfF s] b]vfp5 eg] ;fË JolQm eGbf 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQm k|fs[lts k|sf]kdf a9L 
hf]lvdf x'G5g / pgLx¿sf] nflu Tof] jftfj/0f 
lgdf{0f ug'{k5{ eGg] ;f+r]ljsf; eO;s]sf] 5 . 
o;/L x]bf{ ca xfdLn] s'g} klg k|fs[lts k|sf]k 
;Defljt If]qdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] 
tYofÍ lhNnf k|sf]k ;ldltn] /fVg' kb{5 . 
Emergency Planning ubf{ ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿åf/f ;~rflnt ;+:yf (DPOs) x¿;Fu 
;dGjo u/L ckfËtfsf] k|s[lt, pgLx¿nfO{ 
p¢f/ ubf{ rflxg] ;fdfu|L, ;xof]usf af/]df 
lhNnf k|sf]k ;ldltn] hfgsf/L lng' kb{5 . 
To;f] ubf{ lhNnf k|sf]k ;ldltnfO{ cem ;lhnf] 
x'g]5 . csf]{ tkm{ k|fs[lts k|sf]k k"j{ ;fjwfgL 
ckgfpgsf nflu ;~rf/ ul/g] ;'rgfsf] 
dfWod, ckfËtfd}lq x'g'kb{5 . ljz]if u/]/ 
alx/f / cltc;Qm ckfËtf ePsf Joltmx¿n] 
;dodf ;"rgf kfpg ;Sb}gg / pgLx¿ cem 
hf]lvddf kb{5g . cfktsflngåf/ jf dfu{x¿ 
ljleGg k|fs[ltsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] 
nflu ;xh / kx'Frof]Uo lgdf{0f ul/g' kb{5 . 
k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu 
;+rfng u/Lg] tflnd, tof/ kfl/g] k|rf/k|;f/ 
;fdfu|L, ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;Nnfx 
/ pgLx¿sf] k|ToIf ;xeflutfdf ug{'kb{5 . 
lhNnf k|sf]k Go"gLsf/0f ;ldlt, ;fd'bflos 
k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f ;ldltdf plgx¿sf] k|ToIf 
;xeflutf u/fpg' kb{5 . o;/L ckfËtf ePsf 
Joltmx¿nfO{ k|fs[lts k|sf]kaf6 hf]ufpg 
pNn]lvt ;jfnx¿df ;DalGwt lgsfo nfUg' 
kb{5 eg] ckfËtf ;DaGwL ;+3;Fu7gx¿n] 
klg o; ;jfndf ljleGg sfo{s|dx¿ Nofpg' 
cfjZo b]lvG5 . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I17
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
ofqf ;+:d/0f 
ckf·tf ePsf o"jfx¿sf] ljZjJofkL r'gf}ltx¿ 
ljifos Ps cGt/f{li6«o cWoog sfo{qmd 
l;of]n, blIf0f sf]l/of 
x/]s bfz{lgsx¿sf] hLjgk|ltsf] cf—cfˆg} 
b[li6sf]0f / kl/efiff eP h:t} d]/f] klg hLjg 
k|ltsf] cfˆg} k[ys b[li6sf]0f 5 . jf:tjdf d]/f] 
nflu hLjg Ps cg'ej} cg'ejx¿sf] ;Fufnf] 
xf] lsgsL dflg; hGd]sf] lbgb]lv cg'ej ug{ 
k|f/De u5{ / gd¿~h]n;Dd cg'ej} cg'ej 
dfq ul//x]sf] x'G5 . s'g} klg JolQmsf] hLjg 
hGd]b]lv gd¿~h]n;Ddsf] nflu k"0f{ ePsf] 
x'Fb}g . b]Vg]nfO{ k"0f{ h:tf] nfu]tfklg ef]Ug]nfO{ 
ck"0f{ g} nfu]sf] x'G5 . o;y{, d}n] klg d]/f] 
hLjgsf] klxnf] k6s ljZjs} pTs[i6 ljsl;t 
/fi6« blIf0f sf]/Lofsf] cGt/fl{i6«o e|d0f ug{] 
cj;/ kfPsf] lyPF . h;af6 d}n] gf}nf] cg'ej 
u/]sf] 5' . pQm e|d0f d]/f] hLjgsf nflu cToGt} 
7"nf] zlQm ag]sf] dxz'; u/]sf] 5' . 
Rehabilitation International (RI) / Korean 
Society for Rehabilitation of Persons with 
Disabilities (KSRPD) sf] ;+o'Qm cfof]hgfdf 
;g @))% b]lv k|f/De ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o cWoog 
sfo{qmddf g]kfnsf] klxnf] k|ltlglwsf ¿kdf 
ut cui6 @)!# df blIf0f sf]l/ofsf] /fhwfgL 
l;of]n ed|0f ug{]cj;/ kfPsf ]lyP F. ckfËtf 
ePsf o"jfx¿sf] ljZjJofkL r'gf}ltx¿ ljifos 
pQm !# lbg] cWoog e|d0f sfo{qmd cui6 !( 
b]lv #!, @)!# ;Ddsf] lyof] . Plzof k|zflGto 
If]qx¿af6 cfJxfg ul/Psf] pQm cGt/f{li6«o 
cWoog sfo{qmddf g]kfn ;lxt ef/t, aËnfb]z, 
e'6fg, kfls:tfg, lshL{ls:tfg, tfhls:tfg, 
lkmlnlkG;, OG8f]g]l;of / leotgfdaf6 !÷! 
hgf u/L hDdf !) hgf / :jo+ cfof]hs b]zaf6 
* hgf ;xefuL ;lxt @ 
hgf sfo{qmd ;+of]hsx¿ 
u/L hDdf @) hgfsf] ;d"xdf ;xefuL lyofF}. 
pQm cWoog sfo{qmdsf] d'Vo p2]Zo Plzof 
k|zflGto If]qdf / blIf0f sf]l/ofdf ePsf 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;d:of tyf 
r'gf}ltx¿sf ;DaGwdf j[xt 5nkmn ug{]/ ;f] 
r'gf}ltx¿sf ;dfwfgsf nflu ckfËtf ePs} 
o"jfx¿sf] Ifdtf clej[l4åf/f g]t[Tj ljsf; 
u/L ;xeflutfdf clej[l4 ug'{ /x]sf] lyof] . 
!# lbg;Dd /x]sf] pQm cGt/f{li6«o cWoog 
sfo{qmdaf6 d}n] w]/} s'/fx¿ hfGg], a'‰g] / 
l;Sg] cj;/ kfPF . ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ cj;/ t 
Ps} :yfgaf6 !) j6f ljleGg b]zx¿df 
eO/x]sf] ckfËtf cfGbf]ng ;DalGw lj:t[t 
¿kdf hfgsf/L lng kfOof] eg] blIf0f 
sf]l/of h:tf] Ps clt ljsl;t b]zdf ckfËtf 
cfGbf]ngsf] P]ltxfl;s k[i7e"ld tyf o;sf 
ljsf;sf ;DaGwdf k|ToIf cWoog ug{ kfOof] . 
cWoog ;dofjlwdf xfdLn] ljz]ifu/L (KSRPD) 
/ ToxfFsf] ckfËtf clwsf/ k|j4{gsf ;DaGwdf 
P]ltxfl;s k[i7e"ldsf ;DaGwdf hfgsf/L lng 
kfOof] . To;}u/L, :jfanDaL hLjgk4ltsf] 
cjwf/0ff tyf jt{dfg cj:yf / o;sf 
;xof]uL gLltx¿sf ;DaGwdf ;d]t Jojxfl/s 
¿kdf l;Sg kfOof] . jf:tjdf, blIf0f sf]l/ofn] 
ef}lts kx"Frdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] kx"Fr 
clje[l4sf nflu cToGt} ;x|fgLo / k|z+;gLo 
sfo{ u/]sf] kfOof] eg] ;"rgf / k|ljlwsf] If]qdf 
klg plQs} dfqfdf gofF–gofF k|ljlwx¿sf] 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I18
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
ljsf; u/]sf] kfOof] . h;sf] kl/0ffd ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu b}lgs hLjgofkg lbg 
k|ltlbg ;xh / ;/n aGb} uPsf] cg'e"lt eof] . 
o;sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf 
nflu :jfanDaL hLjg k4ltsf] Jojxfl/s 
sfof{Gjogdf qmlds ljsf; ePsf] kfOof] . 
e|d0f cWoogsf qmddf xfdLn] ToxfFsf ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu agfOPsf / alg/x]sf 
ljleGg cfw'lgs k|sf/sf ;xof]uL ;fdfu|Lx¿ 
k|ToIf ¿kdf cjnf]sg ug{ kfof}F eg] ToxfFsf] 
;fF:s[lts k/Dk/fsf] klg b[Zofjnf]sg u/]sf 
lyof}F . e|d0fs} qmddf xfdLn] blIf0f sf]l/ofsf] 
ckfËtf ;DalGw ag]sf] 3/]n' P]g, j}b]lzs 
gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx¿, Incheon Strategy 
(2012 to 2022), ckfËtf / cGt/f{li6«o ljsf; 
tyf ;xz|flAb ljsf; nIodf ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf] ;xeflutf tyf To;df blIf0f 
sf]l/ofn] xfn;Dd ul//x]sf] sfd / eljiodf 
ug{ ;Sg] sfdsf ;DaGwdf 5nkmn, tyf 
k/fdz{ sfo{qmdx¿df ;xeflu eOof] . xfdLn] 
blIf0f sf]l/ofdf cWoogsf] qmddf Korean 
Council Center for Independent Living of 
Persons with Disabilities, Korea Agency for 
Digital Opportunity and Promotion, National 
Assembly, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 
KOICA, Korea Employment Agency for the 
Disabled, Junglip Electronic, National Human 
Rights Commission nufotsf :yfgx¿sf] 
:ynut e|d0f u/L ljleGg k|sf/sf hfgsf/Lx¿ 
lng kfOPsf] lyof] . 
!# lbg;Ddsf] nfdf] o; cGt/f{li6«o cWoog 
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gLlt Joj;foLs s]Gb|x¿n] ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ k|j4{gsf nflu Joj;flos 
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xsclwsf/ :yflkt ug{sf nflu gofF 9fFrfdf 
gljgtd ;fFr]sf ;fy nflu k/]sf] 5' . 
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The Challenges and Promise of Inclusive 
Tourism in Nepal 
Dr. Scott Rains writes daily on travel and issues in the tourism industry of interest 
to people with disabilities. His work appears online at www.RollingRains.com. He 
is the founder of the global forum on Inclusive Tourism – Tour Watch. Rains’ 
articles have appeared in numerous publications: New Mobility, Emerging Horizons, 
Venture, Brave New Traveler, Challenges, TravelBiz Monitor, Enabled Online, 
Contours, Accessible Portugal, Audacity, Travel and Transitions, eTur Brazil, 
Success & Ability, Turismo Polibea, and Disaboom among others. Dr. Scott came 
to Nepal in May 2014 to promote the accessible tourism in Nepal. During his short 
visit, he visited Kathmandu, Chitwan and Pokhara to practically see the situation 
of accessibility and met with with many stakeholders from government agencies, 
private agencies and disabled people organizations' leaders to work for promoting 
accessible tourism in Nepal. NAPD-Nepal, in this regards, requested him to write 
an article comprising the real learning from Nepal. 
I came to Nepal to build on the 
work of one of the countries 
most experienced and respected 
travel professionals, Pankaj 
Padhanananga of Four Season 
Travel and Tours.My assignment 
was to experience and evaluate 
the accessibility for wheelchair 
users of their Nepal sampler 
itinerary. It includes Kathmandu 
for culture, Chitwan for a jungle 
experience and Pokhara to get 
close to the Himalayas. Since I 
use a wheelchair and travel with 
a personal assistant part of the 
project was to build the capacity 
of their suppliers, including 
personal care assistants. 
Something new is happening 
in the world. Never before 
have had so many people with 
By Dr. Scott Rains 
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disabilities had the possibility to live 
such long and productive lives. In fact, 
never has the older population of the 
world outnumbered the young as it 
does today. The rules of that future 
are being born in choices we make 
today. I applaud my friend Pankaj 
Pradhananga for allowingme, through 
the sponsorship of Four Season Travel 
and Tours, to place before you the 
opportunity to choose an approach 
to doing business that ethically and 
sustainably draws in this underserved 
market. I wanted to write each person 
who attended the workshops because 
it is clear you are motivated to follow 
through. 
Already a joint Nepali and 
international group have formed to 
build the country’s first accessible 
public restroom in Kathmandu. I’d 
like to see one simultaneously built in 
Chitwan and Pokhara so I can begin 
to tell the world that inclusion of 
travelers with disabilities is a national 
value in Nepali hospitality and so that 
Nepali businesses would see more of 
us active in society. 
In my final workshop which was at 
the US Embassy in Kathmandu I left 
behind a challenge for Nepalese as 
well as development programs run by 
my own country. I specified these steps 
in my final report to key stakeholders: 
Hold professional training for airports 
and airlines by Chicago's Open Doors 
Organization 
Purchase lift-equipped vans by hotels 
for airport pick up and side trips such 
as those modified by Braun Lifts of 
Minnesota 
Train a national pool of Personal 
Care Assistants using internationally 
accepted standards using experienced 
trainers such a those at the Philippine's 
PINATI. 
Build a photo collection showing real 
disabled people as models enjoying 
Nepal using the stock photo service 
PhotoAbility.net. 
See to it that there are at least one 
hotel room independently accessible 
wth ADA-like international standards 
(especially with a roll-in shower) at 
each Nepali tourist destination city. 
The challenges are significant. 
Nepal will not be a disabled-friendly 
destination over night – but it can be 
soon. 
In 2002 and again in 2005 a study 
done in the USA showed that American 
with disabilities was spending $13.6 
billion annually on travel. Europe 
estimates that its disabled population 
spends even more. Australia claims 
that its travelers with disabilities add 
at least another $9 billion each year. 
When the tourism sector in Nepal 
understands that it is hurting itself by 
not serving this market not only will 
hotels and airlines change but that 
spirit of social inclusion will spill over 
to education, employment and public 
infrastructure. 
The key to achieving tourism for all in 
Nepal is a practical approach known 
as Universal Design. It begins by 
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observing that real people come in 
a variety of shapes, sizes and levels 
of ability. It seeks to create for he 
broadest range of people under the 
broadest range of conditions so that 
a product, space or service does not 
need to be later modified for so called 
"special” people or circumstances. 
Universal Design imagines people with 
disabilities, child, and older people as 
participating in society. Then it builds 
to allow that to happen. 
To allow Nepalese tourism to grow to 
its potential here is a list of the Goals 
of Universal Design as developed 
by Professor Edward Steinfeld. A 
more detailed version of these goals, 
with examples of each, is found in 
his recent book, Universal Design: 
Creating Inclusive vironments (Wiley & 
Sons, Inc.). 
Goal 1: Body Fit – Accommodating a 
wide a range of body sizes and abilities 
Goal 2: Comfort – Keeping demands 
within desirable limits of body function 
Goal 3: Awareness – Ensuring that 
critical information for use is easily 
perceived 
Goal 4: Understanding – Making 
methods of operation and use intuitive, 
clear and unambiguous 
Goal 5: Wellness – Contributing 
to health promotion, avoidance of 
disease and prevention of injury 
Goal 6: Social Integration – Treating 
all groups with dignity and respect 
Goal 7: Personalization – Incorporating 
opportunities for choice and the 
expression of individual preferences 
Goal 8: Cultural Appropriateness – 
Respecting and reinforcing 
cultural values and the social and 
environmental context of any design 
project 
I have no doubt after my experience 
traveling through Nepal that this 
human-centered social philosophy is 
culturally appropriate with Nepalese 
values. I also see signs of enthusiasm 
for greater inclusion in tourism 
around the country. I look forward to 
evaluating the practical that will have 
taken place when I return next year. 
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Interview with Ms Paula Sotnik 
Email: Paula.Sotnik@umb.edu 
Website: www.serviceandinclusion.org 
Ms. Paula Sotnik is a recognized expert consultant, trainer and 
author on access and accommodations; culture brokering; 
diversity; outreach and recruitment strategies; team and 
partnership development; measurable outcome oriented strategic 
planning; national service, volunteerism and disability legislation, policy knowledge 
and practice acquired through years of personal, educational and professional life 
experiences. She serves as a consultant reviewer and trainer for an international 
fellowship exchange program. As part of her action, she came to Nepal coordinating 
with Sagar Prasain – a youth with disability, and provided training on fund raising and 
project proposal writing skills to the twelve different Disabled People Organizations 
(DPOs) leaders at NAPD-Nepal. At the mean time, the following interview was 
taken with her particularly focusing on her visit to Nepal. Her responses to the 
questions in interview were given in details: 
Q. Could you please share us 
your visit purpose to Nepal ? 
Response: Our organization, the 
Institute for Community Inclusion (ICI) 
had a great opportunity to host an 
IREX fellow-Sagar Prasain from Nepal 
last Fall. The Institute for Community 
Inclusion is a freestanding center at 
UMASS Boston that supports the rights 
of children and adults with disabilities 
to participate in all aspects of the 
community. Mr. Prasain’s goal was to 
learn about U.S. disability law, policies 
and practices. He accomplished this 
goal yet we achieved much more which 
truly benefited our staff. Mr. Prasain 
educated us about what it’s like to live 
with and experience disability in Nepal. 
As a result, our staff became much 
more culturally responsive in how they 
approach people with disabilities from 
other countries. 
Ms. Paula Sotnik 
Mr. Prasain and I also deve loped 
a project and strategies to address 
some of the access and issues in 
Nepal, through his newly formed 
nongovernmental organization, 
Sangai Hami. I was fortunate to obtain 
a travel grant to Nepal to continue our 
collective work. My main objectives 
were to: 
provide a training on access, 
mmodations, Universal Design, CRPD 
and inclusion to participants with and 
without disabilities 
learn as much as I could about what 
it’s like to live with a disability in Nepal 
learn about advocacy activities, 
disability services and supports from 
visiting many DPOs and talking to 
leaders in the disability community 
My trip and the opportunity to learn 
from others in Nepal was a life 
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changing experience for me. I am 
truly grateful to all in Nepal who spent 
time and educated me. Also I am 
very grateful to the U.S. Department 
of State grant awarded to the IREX 
Community Solutions Program, which 
made Mr. Prasain’s fellowship and my 
trip to Nepal possible. I truly hope to 
return to this beautiful and embracing 
country one day in the future and 
continue to work with my new friends 
to achieve a fully inclusive Nepal. 
Q. How did you find the disability 
movement in Nepal ? 
Response: With very little resources, 
a group of very dedicated committed 
people who are passionate about 
equality and inclusion and possess 
a strong and consistent voice, are 
making a huge difference in Nepal. 
From the capacity development and 
leadership of National Federation of 
the Disabled Nepal and the National 
Association of the Physical Disabled 
Nepal to the dedication by mothers’ of 
children with Down Syndrome starting 
the Down Syndrome Society of Nepal 
in a mother’s home, these individuals 
are accomplishing a shared goal of 
providing opportunities for individuals 
with disabilities of all ages to learn 
grow and succeed. I met with a 
young woman who, recognizing a 
lack of services for youth with autism 
and other intellectual disabilities left 
her government position to start a 
much needed school, Special School 
for Disabled and Rehabilitation 
Center. This school has successfully 
transitioned children to regular 
education classes. And I learned much 
from the work by staffs of the National 
Association of Hard of Hearing and 
Deafened Nepal, who are educating 
schools and parents of young children 
to recognize and address hearing 
disabilities. 
I was so inspired by the young 
leaders with disabilities who tirelessly, 
articulately and intelligently study 
best practices, inclusive policies and 
strategies for potential application to 
Nepal. These young leaders are our 
future and this effort will make for 
a future inclusive Nepal. I was very 
encouraged by young leaders without 
disabilities in healthcare, architecture, 
media and communication fields 
who participated in our training and 
developed action plans on how they 
will advance equal rights, access and 
inclusion in their respective fields and 
professionals. So, while accessibility 
issues exist and progressive programs 
for people with significant disabilities 
are still in development, the efforts 
and strength of committed Nepalis, 
with and without disabilities, will 
continue the momentum necessary 
for including all citizens in their 
communities, regardless of ability or 
disability, and valuing their individual 
contributions. 
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Q. What are the major 
differences that you have found 
between your country and 
Nepal in terms of protecting and 
promoting the human rights of 
Persons with Disabilities ? 
Response: The United States has a 
long history of advocacy for equal 
rights, culminating in the Civil 
Rights Act of 1964. This Act laid the 
foundation for equal civil and human 
rights for individuals with disabilities, 
leading to a number of laws starting 
with the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 
the Americans with Disabilities Act 
(ADA) in 1990 and others. The 
ADA is a wide-ranging civil rights 
law that prohibits, under certain 
circumstances, discrimination based 
on disability. These laws would not 
have been passed without advocacy 
by individuals with disabilities. One 
action, called the Capitol Crawl is 
seen by many present-day disability 
activists in the United States as being 
the single action most responsible 
for 'forcing' the ADA in to law. Over 
60 activists left their wheelchairs and 
mobility devices and began crawling 
the 83 stone steps up to the U.S.Capitol 
Building to demonstrate the unfairness 
and even cruelties of inaccessibility. 
The ADA was passed shortly after and 
this strong advocacy action symbolizes 
how people with disabilities unite, 
have a voice and make a difference. 
Although Nepal progressed and 
ratified the Convention on the Rights 
of People with Disabilities and enacted 
laws, e.g., the Social Welfare Act 
1992 and the Education Act of 2000, 
Nepalis with disabilities indicate that 
these laws and related policies are 
not implemented and there are no 
consequences for noncompliance. 
More importantly, I learned that 
these laws mandate what should be 
“provided” to people with disabilities 
with rather than guaranteeing equal 
rights for individuals to actively and 
meaningfully participate in society. 
Also, language in these laws indicate 
the government has the power to 
provide access and supports but is 
not obligated to ensure equal and 
accessible resources and services. 
Thus, governmental authorities may 
be able to postpone or deny demands 
for equal conditions due to a lack of 
resources. However, it may not be fair 
to compare countries and we need 
to take Nepal’s political history into 
account. Nepalis have only been able 
to exercise and enjoy democratic rights 
since 2006, a relatively brief period in 
which to see major systemic changes. 
However, this new democratic society 
will continue to set a strong foundation 
for the future development of rights 
based disability policy. 
Q. As being a disability right expert 
having more than twenty years of 
working experience, what do you 
see the major gaps to be worked for 
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towards promoting the rights of PWDs 
in Nepal ? 
Response: The first factor that comes 
to mind is the need to increase 
individuals with disabilities who have 
decision-making power in leadership 
roles in government. Secondly, equality 
and inclusion is everyone’s business 
and responsibility, not just people 
with disabilities and DPOs. Thus it 
is critical to educate government, 
employers, students, schools, non-disability 
related NGOs, health care 
workers and more. Education should 
not just focus on legal compliance 
but focus on stories of how citizens 
with disabilities are important to 
Nepali society. Individuals telling their 
stories about how they have made 
positive and significant contributions 
to their families, community and 
society are paramount. Educating 
everyone that people with disabilities, 
with opportunities to equal access 
and supports if needed, are and can 
become are teachers, doctors, lawyers, 
mothers, fathers, and leaders in Nepal. 
And any education efforts should 
focus on Universal Design to show 
everyone how elements of inclusive 
programmatic and architectural 
design doesn’t just benefit individuals 
with disabilities, but benefits everyone! 
Additionally, I frequently heard that the 
government has the laws but lacks a 
viable implementation plan to ensure 
and promote the rights of individuals 
with disabilities. As mentioned, strong 
consistent Nepali NGOs and DPOs 
can work together to develop a strong 
coordinated and united effort, with one 
voice, to compel and assist with the 
development and implementation of a 
plan for accessibility and inclusion that 
includes overall goals with concrete 
and measurable objectives, and most 
importantly an evaluation system that 
holds all parties accountable. Like the 
U.S., all structures and agencies that 
that are funded by or benefit from 
government funds lead the example 
in becoming fully accessible and 
inclusive. By doing so, these entities can 
set a good example for businesses and 
other community resources to achieve 
accessibility so that all individuals may 
benefit. 
Q. It is obvious that its state's 
first responsibility to protect and 
promote the fundamental rights 
of its every citizen. However, it 
seems very desperate in terms 
of persons with disabilities 
not only in particular country 
instead globally. Therefore, 
what do you think it to be so ? 
Response: Circumstances and views of 
people with disabilities are changing 
for the better, but doing so very slowly. 
In the not too distant past, people with 
disabilities were viewed as recipients, 
objects of charity,powerlessandwithout 
a voice. Governmental officials did not 
prioritize the interests and needs of the 
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disability community. Over the past 
years, there has been an increased 
emphasis on supporting more 
individuals with disabilities to vote 
and have more of a voice in choosing 
their political leaders. We are also 
now seeing people with disabilities 
assuming more leadership positions, 
in valued roles in the media and 
actively engaged in their communities. 
However in many developing 
countries people with disabilities still 
lack essential services and access to 
education, work, health services and 
participation in the governmental 
decisions. We are still facing prejudice 
and being thought of as “less than” by 
many of our fellow citizens. I remain 
optimistic that the Convention on the 
Rights of People with Disabilities will 
universally mandate that states should 
uphold the rights of everyone. I see 
an increase in our youth and young 
adults, with and without disabilities, 
taking the Convention very seriously 
and strongly advocating for equal 
access and inclusion. This trend, by 
our young leaders, will create a more 
equalizing and accessible future in 
which countries and states prioritize 
the needs and interests of individuals 
with disabilities. 
Q. Finally, thank you so much 
for your precious time and 
opinions for the above raised 
queries. Would you like to say 
anything more besides these ? 
Response: As mentioned the DPOs 
work tirelessly with little to no 
resources. Many of the staff are not 
paid or paid very little for long hours. 
Some funds might be provided by 
government, donations and/or by 
other international organizations but 
may not be enough to support all the 
work that is necessary to successfully 
implement projects that make a 
difference in the lives of individuals 
with disabilities. From talking with 
many of the DPOs it seems that a 
capacity building effort is needed to 
assist DPOs to obtain and manage 
larger government and foundation 
grants. The focus should encourage 
effective partnering to build a strong 
proposal and leverage resources, 
working with an intermediary 
seasoned organization that not only 
subcontracts small amounts to DPOs 
but, more importantly, replicates 
competitions through which DPOs may 
hone their skills to develop strong and 
winning proposals, and subsequently 
be funded. This strategy, successfully 
used in the Unites States, may hold 
promise for Nepali DPOs to increase 
their ability to self-sufficiently compete 
and be awarded significant grants, 
without relying on larger international 
organizations for small subcontracts. 
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c;'/lIft dxz'; x'g]ub{5 . To;sf]kl/0ffd:j¿k 
dlxnf ofq'x¿nfO{ uf8Lx¿df ofqf ug{ dg} 
gnfUg klg ;Sb5 . o:tf 36gfx¿ ePsf] 
a]nfdf :jo+ kLl8t dlxnfn] dnfO{ o:tf] eof] 
eg]/ cfjfh p7fOPtf klg uf8Lsf cGo 
ofq'x¿n] p;nfO{ g/fd|f] ¿kdf lng], eL8df 
ws]lNnG5 gL, 5f]OxfN5 gL, of] dlxnf g} v/fa 
xf] eGg] tl/sfn] hjfkm lbg] ul/Psf]n] w]/} 
dlxnfx¿ cfkm' lx+;fdf k/]tfklg ;x]/ a;]sf] 
cj:yf 5 . olb eGg rfx] klg sxfFeGg], s;nfO{ 
eGg] / p;n] To;sf] afkt hl/jfgf sf]af6 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I28
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
lng], p;n] Gofo kfpg] ls gkfpg] eGg] h:tf 
s'/fx¿sf] k|i6tf 5}g . o;y{, o:tf d'2fx¿sf] 
;Daf]wgsf nflu s;}n] klg ;xof]u gug]{ ePsf]n] 
cem} klg oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿ leq Psbd} 
w]/} lx+;fx¿ 3l6/x]sf] xfdLn] kfO/x]sf 5f}F . / 
xfdL cfkm}n] klg b}lgs h;f] o:tf s's[Tox¿sf] 
lzsf/ x'g afWo 5f}F . 
o:t} cj:yf ljBdfg /lx/x]df g]kfndf ePsf 
gLltlgdf{0f stf{x¿n] cem}klg ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf nflu s:tf] lsl;dsf] oftfoftsf] 
;fwg Nofpg'k5{ / s;/L To;nfO{ Joj:yfkg 
ug'{k5{ eGg] s'/fx¿ cfh;Dd klg ;f]lrPsf] 
5}g . To:t} u/L ;femf a;s} s'/f ubf{ klg 
k5fl8af6 r9]/ cuf8Laf6 emg]{ h'g Joj:yf 
5 To;sf] b'/L klg cln nfdf] ePsf] sf/0fn] 
ubf{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu /flvPsf] 
l;6;Dd g} k'Ug sl7g x'g] cj:yf 5 . To;}n] 
To:tf ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwg agfpbf 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu dfq geP/ 
ue{jtL dlxnf, h]i7 gfu/Lsx¿ ;a}nfO{ ;xh 
x'g] vfnsf ;jf/L ;fwgx¿ agfPdf ;a}sf] nflu 
;fj{hlgs ;jf/L ;fwg kx'Frof]Uo x'g ;Sb5 . 
csf]{ s'/f g]kfndf ;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf 
Ifdtf eGbf a9L ofq' /fVg] x'gfn] klg a9L lx+;f 
x'g uPsf] kfpg ;lsG5 . To:tf] le8ef8df 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQm tyf dlxnfn] ;jf/L 
;fwgdf r9g] cj;/ klg Psbd} Go'g x'g] 
ub{5 lsgsL XjLnlro/ k|of]ustf{ tyf ;]tf] 
58L k|of]ustf{ JolQmx¿nfO{ uf8Ldf r9fpg 
;Sg] cj:yf g} x'b}g . pgLx¿nfO{ ;xof]u u/]/ 
uf8Ldf r9fpg w]/} ;do nfUg] xFb'f ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ b]v]/ klg uf8L g} g/f]Sg] 
;d:of 5 . To;}n] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ 
To;df klg dlxnfx¿sf] oftfoftsf 
;fwgdf kx'rFPsbd} Go'g /x]sf] 5 . gLlt 
lgdf{0fstf{x¿n] klg o:tf s'/fx¿nfO{ Psbd} 
ljrf/ u/]/ gLltlgod agfpg] a]nfdf ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;+nUgtf a9fpg ;s]df cem} 
/fd|f] x'g] lyof] . ckfËtf ePsf dlxnfx¿sf] 
;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf lx+;fsf] Go'gLs/0fsf] 
nflu klg ;j{k|yd t ;/sf/n] Pp6f dfkb08 
lgwf{/0f ug'{kb{5 . o;f] x'g ;s]df eL8sf] 
df}sf p7fpg]x¿n] Tof] cj;/ kfpb}gg eg] 
l;6df ePsf] JolQmn] lx+;fTds sfd u/]df 
c¿n] klg b]Vg ;S5g / ;fy lbg ;S5g . 
csf]{ s'/f kLl8t :jo+n] klg cfjfh p7fpg 
;Sg] cj:yf /xG5 . o;af6 lx+;f lgd'{n} kfg{ 
g;lsPtf klg Go'gLs/0f eg] ug{ ;lsG5 . 
oL ;a} s'/f ul//xFbf ;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf ;a} 
g/fd|} dfq x'G5 eg]/ a:g' eGbf klg xfdL cfkm'n] 
klg kxn ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . ha;Dd xfdL r'k nfu]/ 
a:5fF}ta;Dd Gofo kfpb}gf+} . pbfx/0fsf nflu 
d}n] g} ef]u]sf] 36gf oxfFx¿ ;dIf hfgsf/L 
u/fpg rfxG5' . Pslbg d sfnf]k'naf6 ldqkfs{ 
cfpg] s|ddf d / d]/f] ;fyL ;+o'Qm oftfoft r9 
of}+ . To;df n]lvPsf] dlxnf l;6df c¿ g} a:g' 
ePsf] xFb'f xfdL b'a}hgfn] dlxnf l;6df dlxnf 
a:g kfpg'k5{ gL efO, To;}n] of] l;6 xfd|f] nflu 
ldnfO lbg'; g eg]/ ha ;xrfnsnfO{ xfdLn] 
eGofF}Tolta]nf p;n] xfdLnfO{ Psbd }g/fd|f] 
zAbx¿ k|of]u u/L kf]yL af;]sf] /fd|f] x'b}g 
eGb} ufnL u¥of] . xfdL klg p;Fu k|ltjfb u¥of}F 
h;sf] sf/0fn] ToxfF xfdLx¿aLr emu8f g} k¥of] 
. o; 36gfn] xfdLnfO{ Psbd} g/fd|f] nfUof] / 
ldqkfs{df cf]ln{P/ uf8L gDa/ l6kL ;8s kf/L 
hfg] s|ddf Pshgf 6«flkms k|x/L;Fu e]6 eof] 
. e]6 x'gf;fy gLh;Fu d}n] uf8Ldf n]lvPsf 
dlxnf, ckfËtfl;6 pgLx¿s} nflu k|of]u x'g] 
u/]sf 5g ls 5}gg eg]/ xh'/x¿n] cg'udg 
ug'{ePsf] 5 sL 5}g eg]/ k|Zg u/] . clg pxfFn] 
hjfkmdf cg'udg ul//x]sf] / klxnfsf] t'ngfdf 
w]/} g} ;'wf/ cfPsf] atfpg' eof] . To;kZrft, 
d}n] cfkm"dfyL ePsf] 36gf ;a} ;'gfP/ uf8L 
gDa/ pxfFnfO{ lbPF . pxfFn] dnfO{ ;femf a;df 
r9fP/ ckfËtf l;6df a;fn]/ k7fpg'eof] . 
To;sf] b'O{ lbg kZrft dnfO{ 6«flkms k|x/L 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I29
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
sfof{no uf}zfnfaf6 kmf]g cfof] / tkfO{dfly g/ 
fd|f] Jojxf/ ug]{ ;xrfns / To;sf] rfnsnfO{ 
uf8L ;lxt oxfF NofPsf 5f}F . To;}n] tkfO{F t'¿Gt 
oxfF cfpg'k¥of] egL kmfg]ug{e'of] . ckm;f]r Û 
;f]xL ;dodf d !) lbgsf nflu ;+:yfut 
sfo{n] s}nfnL uPsf] sf/0f ToxfF cfpg ;Dej 
gePsf]n] pgLx¿nfO{ ;DemfP/ 5f]l8lbg cg'/f]w 
u/] . o; 36gfn] dnfO{ s] nfUof] eg] xfdLn] 
cfjfh p7fP/ 6«flkms;Dd k'¥ofof} eg] ToxfFaf6 
Gofosf] nflu s]xL x'g]/x]5 t/ o;nfO{ s;/L 
lg/Gt/tf lbg] eGg] s'/fx¿ ;fF]Rg h¿/L 
5 . csf]{ tk{m o;/L 6«flkms k|x/Ln] cToGt} 
;lqmotfsf ;fy xfd|f] ;jfndf ;'g'jfO{ ug{sf] 
k5f8L Tolta]nf /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË 
;+3—g]kfnsf] Pp6f ;d"x g}lyof]/ pQm ;d"xn] 
;d"xut 5nkmn g} u/L Pp6f cleofg ;~rfng 
u/]sf] lyof] . o; cleofg cGt/ut o;n] slxn] 
oftfoft Joj:yf ljefunfO{, slxn] 6«flkmsnfO{, 
slxn] rfns t slxn] ;xrfnsnfO{ hfu¿s 
ul//x]sf] lyof] . h;n] ubf{ uf}zfnf sfnf]k'n 
/Tgkfs{ rNg] uf8Ldf -cfO;d]6«f]h_ ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ s;/L uf8L r9fpg], 
s'g l;6df a;fNg] tyf s;/L cf]/fNg] eGg] 
s'/fdf pxfFx¿nfO{ cled'vLs/0f ul/Psf]n] 
pxfFx¿n];xof]u ug'{ePsf] xf]nf eGg] dnfO{ 
nfUof] . /, ca o;nfO{ Ifl0fs eGbf klg s;/L 
lgoldt agfpg] eGg] s'/fdf Psbd} ;f]Rg' h¿/L 
5 . /fli6«o:t/df ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf 
nflu sfd ul//x]sf] ;+3;+:yfx¿n] klg 
a]nfa]nfdf oftfoft Joj:yf ljefu, dGqfno, 
6«flkms, rfns, ;xrfnsnfO{ hgr]tgf clej[l4 
ug]{ vfnsf sfo{s|d ug{'clt g }h¿/L x'G5 . 
g]kfnsf hgtfdf cem};Dd klg ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿nfO{ l;6 5f]l8lbg' k5{, cf/lIft l;6sf] 
;'lglZrttf x'g'k5{ eGg] efjgfsf] ljsf; 
geO;s]sf] x'Fbf Jofks ¿kdf hgr]tgfd'ns 
sfo{s|dsf] cfjZostf 5 . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I30
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
kx'“ro'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf cj/f]w 
tyf ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿ 
kx'Fro'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ k|fKt ug{]klxnf] cfwf/ 
xf] . kx'Fr cfkm}df a[xt 5 . ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQmx¿sf] ;Gbe{df kx'Fr eGgfn] ef}lts, 
;fdflhs, cfly{s, gLltut cflb a'lemG5 . 
oxfF xfdL ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] nflu 
ef}lts cj/f]w, To;n] kf/]sf] r'gf}lt / 
;dfwfgsf pkfox¿df s]lGb|t 5f+}. dflg; 
cfkm}n] lgdf{0f u/]sf] ef}lts ;+/rgfn]ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿ / cGo JolQmx¿df km/s 
5'6ofPsf] x'G5 . ckfËtf dfgj ljljwtfsf] 
Ps kf6f] dfq} xf] . To;nfO{ ef}lts ;+/rgf 
tyf jftfj/0fn] yf]/ ax't k|efj kf/]sf] x'G5 . 
ef}lts kxFr'cGtu{t oftfoft tyf ;8s dflysf ] 
kx'Fr, k}bn dfu{, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{, k|ljlw 
dflysf] kxFr', ;r"gf tyf ;~rf/df kx'Fr tyf 
;Dk"0f{ cfGtl/s tyf afXo ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿ 
;dfj]z ePsf x'G5g . 
;fdfGotof Pp6f JolQmnfO{ lzIff lng], 
hLljsf]kfh{g ug]{, cfˆgf] :jf:Yo hfFr ug]{, 
dgf]/~hgsf s[ofsnfkx¿df efu lng] clwsf/ 
x'G5 . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ klg cfkm"nfO{ 
dg k/]sf] ljBfno tyf ljZj ljBfnodf uP/ 
cWoog ug]{, ljZjf; nfu]sf] :jf:Yo ;+:yfdf 
cfkm'nfO{ hrfpg] clg cfˆgf] Ifdtfn] EofPsf] 
sfd ug]{ tyf ;fyLx¿;Fu 3'Dg kfs{ tyf l;g]df 
3/df hfg] /x/ x'G5 / To;f] ug]{ k"0f{ clwsf/ 
;d]t 5 . t/, g]kfndf ckfËtf ePs} sf/0fn] 
s"n hg;+Vofsf] em08} !%Ü JolQmx¿ cfˆgf oL 
clwsf/x¿af6 jl~rt 5g . 
kx"Fr clej[l4sf pkfox¿ M 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf ]kxFr'df 
j[l4 ug{' eg]sf] pgLx¿nfO{ ;dfhdf 
k'g:yf{kgf ug'{ xf] . ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf ]kxFr'nfO{ 
j[l4 ug{ lgdf{0f ul/g] 
ef}lts k"jf{wf/x¿nfO{ 
ckfËtfd}lq agfpg' k5{ . 
g]kfn /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/ ;lx+tf 
@)^) n] klg o; ljifonfO{ pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . 
sd;]sd tNnf] tnf;Dd XjLnlro/ l5g{ ;Sg] 
k|j]zåf/ lgdf0{f ug{'kg]{ tyf ¥ofDk lgdf0{f 
ug'{ kg]{ pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . ef}lts kx'Fr eGgfn] 
XjLnlro/ dfq} geP/ j}zfvL, 6«fO;fOsn 
k|of]ustf{, b[li6ljxLg tyf alx/fx¿sf nflu 
a|]n tyf ;f+s]lts klxrfg x'g h¿/L x'G5 . 
To:t} gk]fn ;/sf/åf/f hf/L ul/Psf]æckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf] nflu ef}lts jftfj/0f tyf 
;~rf/ ;j]fdf kxFr';DalGw lgb{l]zsf @)^(Æ 
df clt ;'Id k|fljlws s'/fnfO{ ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 
5 . t/ cj:yf p:t} g} x'g'sf] k5f8L xfd|f] 
sfof{Gjog ug]{ z}nL lhDd]af/ /x]sf] b]lvG5 . 
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfgn] klg ;Dk"0f{ 
gfu/Lsx¿nfO{ ;dfg Jojxf/ ul/g]5 eg]sf] 
5 . t/ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ ;dfhdf bf]>f] 
bhf{sf gful/s ;/x /xg afWo 5g . ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf] nflu ag]sf] /fli6«o gLlt tyf 
sfo{qmd, ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/;lx+tf, ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw dxf;GwL 
nufotsf bh{gf+} gLltlgodx¿ xFb'fx'Fb} klg 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] efl}ts kxFr';xh 
x'g ;s]sf] 5g}h;sf sf/0f xhf/f+}ckfËtf 
ePsf afnaflnsfx¿ ljleGg ;]jf ;'ljwfx¿sf] 
pkef]uaf6 jl~rt 5g . xhf/f}+ ckfËtf ePsf 
dlxnfx¿ of}g tyf k|hgg :jf:Yo lngaf6 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 31
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
alGrt 5g . xhf/f}+ ckfËtf ePsf o"jfx¿ 
a]/f]huf/ eP/ 3/df a:g afWo 5g . xhf/f}+ 
ckfËtf ePsf j[4j[4fx¿ ;8sdf dfu]/ a:g 
afWo 5g of t s'g} j[4f>ddf si6s/ hLjg 
Joltt ul//x]sf 5g . 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw 
cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGw @))^ n] plgx¿sf] 
kx'Frsf] ljifodf af]n] klg To;sf] sfof{Gjog 
x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh 
sNof0f dGqfnon] ;Dk"0f{ ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿nfO{ 
tyf ;"rgf tyf ;+rf/nfO{ ckfËtfd}qL agfpg 
lgb]{lzsf g} hf/L u/]tfklg To;sf] k|efjsf/L 
sfof{Gjog x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . xfdL;Fu gLlt 
tyf lgodsf] cefj 5}g . t/, ePsf gLltlgod 
tyf lgb{l]zsfx¿nfO{ s;/L sfof{jog ug{] 
eGg] lb3{sflng /0fgLltsf] cefj 5 . g]kfn 
;/sf/n] æckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] nflu 
ef}lts jftfj/0f tyf ;~rf/ ;]jfdf kx'Fr 
;DalGw lgb]{lzsf @)^(Æ df hfl/ ul/;s]sf]5 . 
t/, To;sf] k|efjsfl/tf b]Vg eg] kfOPsf] 5}g . 
lgb]{lzsf k|efjsf/L eof] ePg eg]/ d"NofÍg 
ug]{ ;do gePklg lgb{l]zsf kof{Kt tof/L lagf 
g} cfPsf] b]lvG5 . oxfF lgb]{lzsf eGbf klg 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] ef]lu/x]sf 
ef}lts cj/f]wx¿nfO{ s;/L kxFr'of]Uo agfpg] 
eGg] ;jfn xf] . ef}lts ;+/rgfnfO{ kx'Frof]Uo 
agfpg s'g} Pp6f dfq} dGqfno jf ;+3;+:yfsf] 
e"ldsfn] k'Ub}g . ef}lts cj/f]w x6fpg] d'4f 
;Dk"0f{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] ;femf d'4f xf] . ;Dk"0f{ 
;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] ;xsfo{ tyf ;fem]bf/Ln]dfq} 
oL cj/f]wx¿nfO{ ;dfwfg ug{ ;Dej 5 . 
ckfË ;+/If0f tyf sNof0f P]g @)#(, ;jf/L 
tyf oftfoft P]g, jfo" ;]jf P]g, ;fj{hlgs 
oftfoft cfrf/ ;lx+tf ;/sf/n] NofPsf] 
lgb]{lzsf eGbf w]/} k'/fgf] x'g . lgb]{lzsf / 
dfly pNn]lvt P]g tyf lgodx¿ Ps cfk;df 
aflemg] b]lvG5 . To;sf/0f ;a} eGbf klxn] 
;DalGwt ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu a;]/ ;xsfo{ 
u/L oL P]gx¿nfO{ ckfËtfd}lq agfpg h¿/L 
b]lvG5 . gq kx'Fr lgb]{lzsfsf] sfof{Gjog 
;xh b]lvb}g . bf]>f], ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ 
k|lt ul/g] Jojxf/ tyf ;f]rfO{ xf] . ha;Dd 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] af/]df ;sf/fTds 
;f]Fr /flvGg ta;Dd kl/jt{g b]Vg ;Dej 
5}g . o:sf nflu ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿, 
pgLx¿sf] ;+:yf tyf ;DalGwt lgsfon] r]tgf 
tyf hfgsf/L d'ns cleofg ug{ cfjZos 5 . 
gLlt lgdf{0fsf] sfo{b]lv ;8s lgdf{0f;Ddsf 
sfo{x¿df ckfËtf ePsf JolQmnfO{ Pp6f 
gfu/Lssf] x}l;otn] g;f]r]/ sNof0fsf/L gh/n] 
x]g]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . t]>f], ef}lts ;+/rgfnfO{ 
kxFr'of]Uo agfpg] lhDd]jf/ lgsfo sf]–sf] x'g 
/ plgx¿sf] lhDd]jf/L s]–s] xf] eGg] klxrfg 
ug{ h¿/L 5 . lgb]{lzsf klg of] ljifodf 
df}g 5 . dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfhsNof0f 
dGqfnonfO{ dfq} lhDd]jf/L lbP/ /fHosf 
cGo lgsfo klG5g kfpg] cj:yfdf b]lvb}g 
lsgsL oL ;a} dGqfnox¿;Fu Pscsf{df 
cGt/;DalGwt 5g . ;"rgf, :yflgo, cy{, 
v]ns'b nufotsf dGqfnox¿sf] klg plQs} 
bfloTjsf] ljifo xf] . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ 
tyf pgLx¿åf/f ;+rflnt ;+3;+:yfx¿ / 
cGt/f{li6«o bft[lgsfox¿n] ef}lts ;+/rgf tyf 
;+rf/ ;]jfnfO{ kx'Fof]Uo agfpg klg plQs} 
dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng' kb{5 . kx'Frof]Uo jftfj/0f 
lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu ;Dk"0f{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ 
hjfkmb]lx agfpg h¿/L 5 . 
cGTodf, ePsf gLltlgod, P]g sfg'gsf] 
sfo{Gjog eP gePsf] x]g]{ tyf ;DalGwt 
lgsfonfO{ ;'emfj lbg d"NofÍg tyf cg'udg 
ug{ cToGt} h¿/L 5 . o;sf nflu ;DalGwt 
;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ ;d]6]/ dlxnf, afnaflnsf 
tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnosf] dftxtdf Pp6f 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I32
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
;ldlt lgdf{0f ug{ h¿/L 5 . Tof] eGbf klg 
cl3 lgb{l]zsf sfofG{jog ug {s ]s ]ug {;lsG5 
/ To;sf nflu slt ;do nfU5 eg] j[xt 
lb3{sflng /0fgLlt agfpg' k5{ . /f0fgLlt cg';f/ 
sfo{ ljefhg u/L ;DalGwt lgsfo cl3 a9bf 
To;sf] k|ltkmn l5§} k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . s'g} klg 
sfo{qmd nfu" ug{'k"j {To;n ]lbg] kl|tkmn slt 
x'g], k|efj s:tf] /xg], ;/f]sf/jfnf sf]–sf] x'g, 
;d:of slQsf] hl6n 5 eGg] h:tf cfwf/e"t 
k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/ hfGg' h¿/L 5 . o;sf nflu 
cg';Gwfg x'g h¿/L 5 . kx'Fr lgb]{lzsf 
cfpg' cl3 / cfPkl5 b]lvPsf kl/jt{g tyf 
eljiodf ug'{ kg{]tof/Lsf nflu klg cg';Gwfg 
ug{ h¿/L 5 . lagf cg';Gwfg xr'jfsf] e/df 
ul/Psf] lg0f{on] lbg] k|ltkmn klg sdhf]/ x'G5 . 
Pp6f JolQmn] ckfËtf ePsf sf/0fn] lzIff, 
:jf:Yo, /f]huf/ tyf ;dfhaf6 alxlis[t x'g' 
x'Fb}g . ;dfhsf x/]s s[ofsnfkx¿df lagf 
cj/f]w p;n] ;xeflutf hgfpg kfpg' kb{5 . 
of] g} jf:tljs ;dfj]zL xf] . ckfËtf ePsf 
JolQm sdhf]/ xf]Ogg, plgx¿ zf/Ll/s tyf 
dfgl;s ¿kdf sdhf]/ x'b}df /fHonfO{ of]ubfg 
lbg g;Sg] x'b}gg . To;}n], /fHosf] st{Jo 
pgLx¿nfO{ ;xh ¿kdf cfjthfjt ug{ kfpg] 
jftfj/0f lgdf{0f u/f];, ;"rgf tyf ;+rf/af6 
al~rt x'g gk/f]; . ;Dk"0f{ gfu/Lssf] ;dfg 
;xeflutfaf6 dfq} /fHo ;+j[l4sf] af6f]df cl3 
a9g ;S5 . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 33
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
Physical Access for Women with 
Disabilities and its Challenges 
The writer-Ms. Gurung is, professionally, a lecturer at Padma Kanya 
College and is associated with International Disability Alliance 
(IDA). She is a researcher in disabilities issues and is a woman with 
disability right activist who has been active for ensuring, protecting and promoting 
their rights for last seven years. 
Waking up, dragging my body 
and legs towards ground, crawling 
myself towards small door, going to 
bathroom, getting toilet with great 
difficulty, taking shower with others 
assistance with full humiliation, going 
out of house with other’s support, 
dragging my wheelchair, waiting 
someone else to carry my wheelchair 
up the stairs, (some sympathize on me 
and some intend to take advantage), 
crossing the crowded street, waiving 
hands, waiting for hours with fears in 
heart and finally returning back home 
without access to transport are the daily 
activities, I encountermost of the times. 
Voice of woman with disability 
Referring to the above mentioned voice 
of woman with disability, let me begin 
my discussion: Are there any places 
where women with disabilities (WWDs) 
can go/ live accessible¿ Are there 
places where WWDs are perceived 
as easily as others¿ Are there places 
where WWDs feel secured and do 
their work freely ? 
The answers to these questions are 
complex because disability is a unique, 
multidimensional and contested issue 
(WHO, 2011) within the wider human 
Ms.PratimaGurung 
rights framework. Because of the 
multifaceted nature of disability, as 
defined by Convention on the Rights of 
Persons with Disabilities 2006 defines 
‘the interaction between persons 
with impairments, attitudinal and 
environmental barriers that hinder their 
full and effective participation in society 
on an equal basis with others’ (United 
Nations, 2006 ). Barriers to access 
are obstacles that make lives difficult, 
sometimes impossible for Persons with 
Disabilities (PwDs) to do the things. 
Barriers to accessibility like attitudinal, 
information and communication, 
technological, organizational and 
architectural and physical escort 
to numerous challenges for full 
participation in education, health and 
employment, support services and 
complete daily activities. Comparing 
these barriers the groups that confront 
discrimination / marginalization such 
as women or ethnic minorities, PwDs 
face widespread challenges, several 
forms of discrimination range from 
assumptions about capabilities and 
dependency. So it is unfair on PwDs 
to simply generalize oppression as a 
whole because oppression based on 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I34
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
disability experience resulting from 
the interaction of health conditions, 
personal factor and environmental 
factor varies greatly (WHO, 2011) 
and has different causes, meanings 
and effects. 
In the same vein, discrimination 
against WWDs is distinct facing 
"intersection" of sex and impairment, 
which combines to create an 
unique and particular experience of 
disadvantage and discrimination, 
not suffered by others in fulfilling 
daily activities (Lee and White, 2000; 
Ghai, 2003, Shadow Report, 2011). 
Societal discrimination against WWDs 
remains largely unquestioned and is 
a clandestine issue in larger discourse 
of women and disability. So the aim 
of this article is to reflect some forms 
of barrier in relation to gender and 
disabilities focused on physical and 
attitudinal barrier and understand 
how the challenges have played 
predominant role in shaping the lives 
of WWDs. 
The General Principle and Article 
9 of CRPD defines accessibility as 
an essential component stating that 
accessible barrier free environment 
is the first step towards fulfilling the 
rights of people with disabilities to live 
independently and participate fully 
in all aspects of life. Accessibility is a 
broad term covering all aspects and 
can be viewed as the "ability to access" 
and benefit from some system or entity 
as non-disabled community members. 
Like in other facets, the impact of 
physical accessibility for WWDs is 
more vulnerable and serious in both 
private and public sphere. Women 
with severe type of disabilities are 
more dependent on other people for 
their mobility where accessibility was 
one of the prime factors they pointed 
out that hindered their day to day lives 
leading miserable and vulnerable 
condition (Gurung, 2013). 
In Nepal, the challenges to ensure 
barrier free movement of PwDs are 
multiple; there is a general lack of 
public investment in infrastructure, a 
lack of enforcement of regulations and 
standards in building and planning 
and an overall deficit in terms of 
stakeholder awareness on disability, 
universal design on accessibility 
issues. On a policy level, disability 
is still mainly dealt with by using a 
medical approach and is mainly 
sequestered to the realm of health or 
welfare policies. The design of the built 
environment is one of the major and 
critical determinants of accessibility 
and impacts significantly on the social 
inclusion and participation of WWDs. 
For most WWDs physical accessibility 
to the building is often the first and 
most obvious challenge encountered. 
WWDs require information about 
accessible services and resources 
but information on the number and 
location of physical accessible service 
facilities and practices is not readily 
available. 
The public transportation and physical 
infrastructures like road, pavements, 
toilets public buildings and offices are 
not disabled friendly. Some WWDs 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I35
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
who posses to use private vehicle 
have restriction because driving 
independently are limited by law 
even one is able to drive. So they are 
compelled to rely on public transport 
which is troublesome or on taxis are 
expensive or on other individuals 
who are unsafe and inconvenient, 
expensive, and inadequately equipped 
at most of the times. The transportation 
services for WWDs are infrequent 
because waiting vehicle and picking 
WWDs in the vehicle is seldom activities. 
Waiting public vehicle for hours and 
sometimes for whole day is frequent 
and stereotypes, neglected, prejudicial 
attitudes and ignorance from the 
strangers and staffs of transportation 
services is obvious which leave WWDs 
feel insecure, fear, inferiority complex, 
uncomfortable and degraded which 
is an attitudinal behavior and remain 
undelivered most of times so such 
acts remains more frequent in more 
serious way in day to day lives of 
WWDs. Problemarises when times are 
limited, inflexible and defined work/ 
destination remains unflufilled and 
they negotiate many other challenges 
before reaching the destination. 
Inappropriate languages and 
offensive words are significant subtle 
challenges encountered by WWDs 
when accessing public transportation 
and are the most difficult situation to 
address and overcome. 
Inaccessible public amenities and 
poor maintenance of public toilets 
and vehicles, roads, transit and lack 
of assistance for WWDs increases 
vulnerability and fears of sexual assault 
and harassment in the daily lives results 
WWDs confining them inside the four 
walls. Families from developing world 
in the private sphere are not enough to 
provide physical access and assistance 
to WWDs regularly. For WWDs most 
public toilets are not disabled friendly. 
If the toilets are available, the public 
toilets in most places are open which 
add difficult situation and problem for 
WWDs. The lack of poor state of public 
toilets and toilets at home leaves no 
option to use open space, exposing 
them to the danger of sexual assault 
most of the times. In rural areas the 
problem of private toilet is more 
complicated due to geography and 
lack of ignorance. In addition lack of 
safe and clean toilet poses a serious 
safety and public health hazard to 
WWDs especially during menstruation 
and pregnancy stage. WWDs are of 
diverse backgrounds and different 
experiences and the disability will 
impact differently on the lives of each 
individual. When service provider are 
unable to recognize and embrace 
their diversity it has a profound impact 
on the development of attitudes and 
whether or not WWDs access services 
remains a question most of the times. 
In addition, lack of knowledge about 
disability as a human right issue is 
another barrier that hinders lives of 
WWDs. In absence of accessible and 
safe infrastructures, built external 
environment they feel uneasy to move 
and fall behind many indicators like 
education, health, employment, 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 36
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
livelihood opportunities, socialization, 
participation and decision making 
body, tourism etc. Studies report that 
20% WWDs go to hospital for check 
up as they have accessibility barrier 
and have no assistance. Encapsulating 
all these notions, the intersection of 
‘sex’ and ‘disability’ as a primary 
maker in regard to accessibility has 
several impacts on WWDs denying 
participating in social, civil and 
political processes. 
Disability awareness, attitudes and 
understanding and training should be 
integral part and accessibility should be 
seen as a cross cutting issue amongst 
actions, programs and policies that 
concern a broad range of government 
agencies and ministries, including 
those infrastructures, communication, 
education, employment, services and 
human right. Attention should be paid 
to the cross-sectionalities between 
disability and gender issues, twin track 
approach to promote gender and 
equality in accessibility and services 
are required. Greater use of providing 
special services to right holders and 
incentives to transportation owner 
from duty bearer mechanism should 
be initiated as a campaign for effective 
accessibility. Advocacy by Disabled 
People ledOrganization (DPOs) play a 
major role putting access issues on the 
social agenda. In true spirit of accessing 
services WWDs should be given space 
to articulate their needs based on 
universal design rather than have 
others make policies and programs 
on their behalf. Information based on 
research and study before planning, 
programming and implementing is 
required. Each actors of the society 
should be obliged, be responsible 
and make efforts to make inclusive, 
barrier free and safe environment as 
obligatory legal provision. 
Email: pgurung@ida-secretariat.org 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I37
jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! 
km/flsnf] ;8s ;f“3'/f] ;f]“r 
xfd|f] b]zsf] /fhwfgL sf7df8f}+df clxn] ;8s 
la:tf/ eO/x]sf] 5 . 8f= afa'/fd e66/fO{n]cfkm" 
k|wfgdGqL xFb'f lbnfH ]ofg lbP/ ;'¿ ug'{ePsf] 
;8s la:tf/sf] sfo{n] clxn] ;DkGg lt/ lg/ 
Gt/tf kfO/x]sf] 5 . To;}sf] kmn:j¿k clxn] 
sf7df8f}+sf w]/} 7fpFdf gofF ;8s alg;s], 
sltaGb} klg 5g . tL ;8s lrNnf 5g, km/flsnf 
5g . t/ hlthlt ;8s km/flsnf] aGb} 5g, 
;8ssf k]6L ptLptL ;fF3'/f x'b}5g / Tof] eGbf 
klg ;fF3'/f] xFb'}5, dfG5]sf] ;fF]r . d lxF88'nsf 
nflu XjLnlro/sf ]ko|f]u u5'{. d / d h:tf 
cGo ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ ;8s la:tf/ 
cfof]hgfn] ;d]6g ;s]g . km/flsnf] ;8ssf 
;fF3'/f k]6Lx¿df d]/f] XjLnlro/ c6b}g . st} 
c6L xfNg] eP klg Tof] ;8ssf] ;tx eGbf w]/} 
dfly x'G5, . clg ToxfF XjLnlro/ r9g} ;Sb}g . 
/, olb r9L xfn] klg aLrlt/ st} lah'nLsf] 
kf]nn] d]/f] XjLnlro/sf] af6f] 5]lslbG5 / d 
km]/L kmls{P/ ;8sd} cf]n{g' k5{ . 
;8s k]6Lsf] cefjdf d'Vo ;8sd} XjLnlro/ 
u'8fpg' d h:tf xhf/f}+ XjLnlro/ k|of]u ug]{ 
JolQmx¿sf] afWotf xf] . t/ o;f] ug{' ;'/lIft 
klg x'Fb}g / ;lhnf] klg x'Fb}g . ;of}+ uf8L / 
df]6/;fOsnx¿ tLj| ultdf u'l8/x]sf :yfgaf6 
XjLnlro/ u'8fpFbf Ps t b'3{6gfdf kl/g] 
hf]lvd /xG5 eg ]csf{]uf8L rfnsx¿n]klg æsxfF 
;8ssf] aLrdf lxF8]sf] <Æ eg]/ l/;fpF5g . t/, 
pgLx¿nfO{ yfxf x'Fb}g ls To;f] ug{' XjLnlro/df 
lxF8g] dfG5]x¿sf] /x/ xf]Og afWotf xf], 
cfjZostf xf] eg]/ . 
XjLnlro/ k|of]u ug]{x¿nfO{ dfq} of] zx/df 
lxF8g cK7of/f] x'g] xf]Og . cGo lsl;dsf 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ klg cJojl:yt / 
;fF3'/f] ;8s k]l6sf sf/0f w]/} ;f:tL x'g] u/]sf] 
kfOG5 . d]/f] Pshgf ;fyL h;n] cfFvf b]Vb} 
gg, pgL af6f]df lxF8bf 
aLrdf 78ofPsf kf]ndf 
7f]lsG5g, yfxf g} glbO{ 
vlgPsf vfN8f]df n85g . 
c´ PskN6 t ;8sdf 9n 
;kmf ul/;s] kl5 lgsf;L 
x'g] vfN8f]sf] 9Ssg aGb 
gu/L /flvPsf] /x]5 . d]/f] ;fyL ToxL vfN8f] 
df v;]5g . Tof] a]nf t pgnfO{ a]:;/L g} rf]6 
nfu]sf] lyof] . To:t} u/L j}zfvL / cGo ;xof]uL 
n67L 6]s]/ lxF8g] slt ;fyLx¿sf] n67L 
lrlKng], vfN8f]df c8sg] h:tf ;d:of klg 
d}n] b]v]sf] 5' . 
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ sf7df8f}+sf 
;8sdf lxF8g hlxn] ;'s} d'l:sn t x'G5 
g}, To; dfyL klg jiff{ ;'¿ ePkl5 t 3/ 
af6 aflx/ lg:sg] ;Sg] cj:yf klg x'Fb}g . 
xfd|f] /fhwfgLdf 9n lgsf;sf] /fd|f] of]hgf / 
Joj:yfkg gePsf] xFb'f cln 7n"f] kfgL k/k]l5 
sf7df8f+s}f w/]}h;f] ;8sx¿ ;fgf] ;fgf ]vfn]f 
g} aG5 . Tof] ;8s vf]nfnfO{ tg{ ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿n] ;Sb}gg . d'Vo ;8ssf] 
t o:tf] xfn ePsf] a]nf cGo leqL ;8ssf] 
a]xfnsf] rrf{ u/L ;fbo 5}g . ltgdf jiff{sf] 
;dodf k'/} lxnf] el/Psf] x'G5 . o;/L ckfËtf 
ePsf JolQmx¿sf af/]df Ps ldg]6 klg g;f]lr 
agfOPsf ;8s / ;8s k]6Lx¿sf sf/0fn] 
xfdLnfO{ sf7df8f}+df lxF88'n ug{ Psbd} ;d:of 
ePsf] 5 . ;lhnf];8s gePsf sf/0fn]sltko 
cj:yfdf xfdL 3/d} ylGsP/ a:g' k/]sf] 5 . 
oxL sf/0fn] ub{f g} xfdLn] ckfËtf gePsf cGo 
;fyLx¿n] kfpg'ePsf] cj;/ / r'gf}tLx¿af6 
alGrt ePsf 5f}+ . To;}n] casf lbgx¿df 
/fHon] ;8s dfq} xf]Og ckfËtf ePsf cfkmgf 
gfu/Lsx¿nfO{ x]g]{;f]Fr klg km/flsnf]agfpg' kg]{5 . 
www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I38
Disability Rights in Nepal: NAPD Magazine
Disability Rights in Nepal: NAPD Magazine

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Disability Rights in Nepal: NAPD Magazine

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  • 3. o; c+sdf ljifo ;"rL != /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnsf dxTjk"0f{ ultljlwx¿ !–& @= dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno / /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnsf] ;+o'Qm ;fem]bf/Ldf ;DkGg sfo{qmdsf ultljlwx¿=== *–!# #= cj/f]wd'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fdf /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnsf] k|of; !$–!% $= k|fs[lts k|sf]k / ckfËtf !^–!& %= ckfËtf ePsf o"jfx¿sf] ljZjJofkL r'gf}ltx¿ ljifos Ps cGt/f{li6«o cWoog sfo{qmd !*–!( ^= The Challenges and Promise of Inclusive Tourism in Nepal @)–@@ &= Interview with Ms Paula Sotnik @#–@& *= ;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf ckfËtf ePsf dlxnfx¿sf] ;jfn @*–#) (= kxF'ro'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf cj/f]w tyf ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿ #!–## !)= Physical Access for Women with Disabilities..... #$–#& !!= km/flsnf] ;8s ;fF3'/f] ;f]Fr #* dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] ;r]lts/0f cleofg sfo{qmd ckfËtf d}qL ;fj{hlgs oftfoft k|a{4gsf lglDt lhNnf :t/Lo sfo{qmd
  • 4. ===? ;DkfbsLo ckfËtf Ps ljsl;t cjwf/0ff xf] . ckfËtf s'g} klg JolQmsf] zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, af}l4s tyf :gfo'df x'g] lb3{sflng c;Ifdtf cyjf b'a{ntf / jftfj/0fLo tyf cjwf/0ffut ;fFr]/ k|j[ltut cj/f]wx¿ aLrsf]cGtlqmofsf]pkh xf]h;n]tL JolQmx¿nfO{ ;dfhdf c¿ ;fË JolQm ;/x ;dfg ¿kdf cy{k"0f{ / k|efjsf/L ;xefuL x'gaf6 jl~rt u/fpFb5 . o;y{, ckfËtfsf] ljsf;sf] b[li6sf]0f cg';f/ jt{dfg ;dodf ljZjJofkL ¿kdf g} ul/Psf] cEof; eg]sf] æckfËtfsf] ;fdflhs 9fFrfÆ xf] . of] 9fFrf ckfËtfsf] cGo 9fFrfx¿ h:t} k/Dk/fut tyf wfld{s 9fFrf / d]l8sn tyf ;]jfd'vL 9fFrf eGbf lgtfGQ km/s 5 . ckfËtfsf] ;fdflhs 9fFrfn] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf zf/Ll/s c;Ifdtf jf b'a{ntfnfO{ eGbf klg pgLx¿nfO{ c;Ifd jf b'a{n agfpg] sf/sx¿nfO{ k|d'v dfG5 . cyf{t, afXo jftfj/0f, k|j[ltut ;fFr]tyf cjwf/0ffut cj/f]w / ;fdflhs cj/f]wx¿nfO{k|d'v d'2f dfGb5 . o;y{, ckfËtf ;d:of xf]Og . of] Ps cj:yf dfq xf] . xfd|f] b]zsf] ;Gbe{df udglzntfsf] ;d:of ePsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ h:t} XjLnlro/ k|of]ustf{x¿, b[li6ljxLg, kf]lnof], kIf3ft nufotnfO{ ;a}eGbf klxn] udgzLntfsf] ;d:of xf] . pgLx¿sf] nflu uf;, af;, skf; hlts} cfwf/e"t cfjZostf udgzLntf xf] . t/, pgLx¿sf] of] clwsf/ k"0f{¿kdf pkef]UoxLg 5 . o;sf] k|d'v sf/0f cj/f]wd'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0fsf] cefj xf] . xfd|f] b]zdf slxFklg st}klg s;}sf] ;xof]u glnO{ :jtGq ¿kdf lxF88'n ug{;Sg] ;8s tyf oftfoftsf] cefj 5 . sf7df8f}F h:tf] b]zs} 7"nf] /fhwfgLsf] zx/, oxfFsf ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿ h:t} ;lkË dxnx¿, xf]6n /]i6'F/]06x¿, ;fj{hlgs dgf]/~hgsf :ynx¿ h:t} kfs{x¿, ;fj{hlgs zf}rfnox¿, ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿, c:ktfn, z}lIfs ;+:yfx¿, ;/sf/L tyf ;fj{hlgs ejgx¿ s'g}klg st}klg cj/f]wd'Qm 5}gg . h;sf sf/0f ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ rfx]/ klg 3/af6 aflx/ lg:sg] ;Defjgf sd 5 . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGw @))^ n] ;d]t ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] JolQmut udglzntfnfO{ wf/f @) df k|i6 ¿kdf ljleGg k|sf/sf k|fjwfgx¿ /fv]/ ;'lglZrt u/]sf] 5 . g]kfn ;/sf/ o;sf] kIf/fi6« ePs} sf/0fn ]klg s]lx jif {cufl8 æckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu efl}ts kxFr" tyf ;~rf/ ;j]f lgb{l]zsf @)^(Æ ;fjh{lgs u/L qmdj4 ¿kdf gLltut ljsf; u/]sf] 5 . oBlk, o;sf] Jojxfl/s sfof{Gjogdf eg] pbfl;gtf b]lvPsf] 5 . xfn g]kfnL ckfËtf cfGbf]ng klg cj/f]wd'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf] ;§f cGo xs clwsf/sf] gLltut Joj:yf lt/ g} a9L s]lGb|t /xFb} cfPsf] b]lvG5 . oBkL, oL ;a} gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx¿sf] pkef]u ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] udglzntfn] dfq ;'lglZrt u5{ eGg] tYonfO{ Wofgdf /flvPsf] kfOb}g . udglzntfn] JolQmsf] hLjgdf slt kl/jt{g Nofpg ;S5 eGg] s'/fsf] ;a't k|df0f kl5Nnf] ;dodf g]kfndf lelqPsf] rf/kfË]|:s'6/sf] k|of]un] cfhLjg 3/d} ;Lldt eP/ a:g afWo ePsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;fdflhs cfGbf]ngdf ePsf] ;lqmo ;xeflutfn] k|i6« kfb{5 . o;y{, casf] ckfËtf cfGbf]ng d"ntM cj/f]wd'Qm jftfj/0f lgdf{0fdf ;lqmo /xg' kb{5 h;n] ubf{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] udglzntfdf j[l4 ub{5 . udglzntf a9] kl5 ;fj{hlgs hLjgsf x/]s kIfx¿;Fu ;xeflutf j[l4 ub{5 . ;xeflutfn] pgLx¿sf] 1fg, l;k / cg'ejdf clej[lå eO ;zlQms/0f x'G5 . kl/0ffdtM ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu k|bfg ul/Psf] ;]jf;'ljwfx¿df pgLx¿sf] ;xh kxFr"clej[lå eO {/fi6« ljsf;df bL3s{flng ;j]f k|bfg ug {;S5g . o;y{, ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] udglzntf j[låsf nflu cj/f]wd'Qm jftfj/0f lgdf{0f cfhsf] klxnf] ;t{ xf] . gj ;dfgtf å}dfl;s Novel Equality Bio-Monthly jif{ !@, c+s !* ;Nnfxsf/ cd[t/Tg zfSo ls/0f lzNksf/ k|wfg ;Dkfbs ;+ho afGtjf ;+of]hs s[i0f uxt/fh ;xof]uLx? zflGt gsdL{ nIdL >]i7 ljlgtf /]UdL /fdrGb| yfkf nIdL kf7s n]cfp6÷u|flkms l8u >]i7 -t]h s'df/ >]i7_ dig_shrestha@yahoo.com df]jfO{nM (*$!%^&(^# se/ l8hfO{g ;Ltf a/fn lk|lG6Ë ef]hk'/ l;4sfnL lk|lG6Ë k|]; kmf]g g+=M $#&^#(*, (*%!)(**)) k|sfzs /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3–g]kfn s]Gb|Lo sfof{no Hjfun–!), nlntk'/ kf]=a=g+= *(&%, O{=lk=l;= (&! kmf]g g+=M ±(&& ! %@^)(@* ˆofS; g+= ±(&& ! %@^)#%) Email: info@napdnepal.org.np napdnepal@gmail.com Website: www.napdnepal.org.np
  • 5. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckf· ;+3—g]kfnsf dxTjk"0f{ ultljlwx¿ /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckf· ;+3—g]kfnsf] 5}7f}“ jflif{s ;fwf/0f;ef ;DkGg x'Fbf s]xL ;'emfj ;lxt sl/a %) hgf ;fwf/0f ;b:ox¿sf] ;j{;Ddltdf pQm k|ltj]bg kfl/t ul/Psf] lyof] . ;+:yfut k|ult k|ltj]bg / cfly{s k|ltj]bg kZrft ljwfg ;+zf]wg ;ldlt, lgjf{rg ;ldlt tyf cf=j= @)&).)&! sf] nflu n]vfkl/Ifs lgo'lQmsf] nflu ;efdf k|:tfj ul/Psf] lyof] . ptm k|:tfjnfO{ ;fwf/0f;efaf6 ;j{;Ddtn] cgd'f]bg ul/Psf]lyof] . cGTodf ;fwf/0f;efsf cWoIf cd[t/Tg zfSon] ;a}nfO{ wGojfb lb+b} lgjf{rg ;ldltnfO{ clVtof/ k|bfg u/L cf}krfl/s ¿kdf sfo{;ldlt la36g u/L aGb;q ;dfkg ePsf ]wf]if0ff ug{'ePsf] lyof] . ttkZrft lgjf{rg ;dLltsf] k|lqmof cg';f/ gofF sfo{;ldltsf] lgjf{rg k|s[of cuf8L a9fOPsf] lyof] . ptm lgjf{rg k|s[of ;DkGg u/L ls/0f lzNksf/sf] cWoIftfdf & ;b:oLo gof{F sfo{;ldltsf] ;j{;Ddltn] rog ul/Psf] s'/f lgjf{rg ;ldltn] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] lyP . ;f] ;fwf/0f;efaf6 lgjf{lrt gofF sfo{;ldltdf ls/0f lzNksf/ cWoIf, ;~ho afGtjf pkfWoIf, s[i0f axfb'/ ;'gf/ ;lrj, zflGt b]jL gsdL{ sf]iffWoIf, nIdL >]i7 ;b:o, ljlgtf /]UdL ;b:o, /fdrGb| yfkf ;b:o rog ePsf lyP . o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnsf] 5}7f}F jflif{s ;fwf/0f;ef æl;cf/kL8Lsf] k"0f{ sfof{Gjog cfhsf]cfjZostf, gofFaGg];+ljwfgdf xfd|f] clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttfÆ eGg] d"n gf/fsf ;fy ;+3s} sfof{no Hjfun, nlntk'/df a}zfv @*, @)&) df eJotfsf ;fy gofF sfo{;ldltsf] rog;lxt ;DkGg eof] . pQm sfo{qmddf ;+3sf ;lrj ;~ho afGtjfåf/f ;+:yfut k|ult k|ltj]bg k]z ul/Psf] lyof] eg] ;+3s} sf]iffWoIf NfIdL >]i7åf/f cf=j= @)^(.)&) sf] cfo Joo ljj/0f tyf efjL cg'dfgLt ah]6 ;d]t k9]/ ;'gfOPsf] lyof] . ptm ;lrjåf/f k|:t't k|ult k|ltj]bg tyf sf]iffWoIfåf/f cfo Joo ljj/0f ;fwf/0f ;b:ox¿ lar 5nkmndf /flvPsf] ckf·tfd}qL ;fj{hlgs oftfoft k|j4{gsf lglDt lhNnf:tl/o uf]li7 nlntk'/M o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3— g]kfnn] æckfËtfd}qL ;fj{hlgs oftfoft k|j4{gsf ljBdfg ;d:of tyf r'gf}ltx¿ / ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] e"ldsfÆ ljifos sfo{zfnf uf]li7 ;+3s} sfof{nodf ldlt @)&) c;f/ @# df cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . nlntk'/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt cGt/ut nlntk'/ ckfËtf ;dGjo ;ldltsf] cfly{s ;xof]udf cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm sfo{qmddf nlntk'/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf k|ltlglw ljZj]Zj/ sf]O/fnfsf] www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 1
  • 6. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! k|d'v cfltYotfdf ;f] sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf nlntk'/ lhNnfdf rNg] ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿;Fu k|ToIf ;/f]sf/ /fVg] ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox¿ dlxnf tyf afnaflnsfsf] sfof{no nlntk'/, nlntk'/ ckfË ;dGjo ;ldlt, clvn oftfoft dhb'/ ;+3, g]kfn oftfoft :jljo" dhb'/ ;+3 afudlt nufotsf ;+:Yffx¿sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf ;+3sf cWoIf ls/0f lzNksf/n] sfo{kq k|:t't ug{e'Psf] lyof] eg ];+3s} sf]iffWoIf zflGtb]jL gsdL{åf/f :jfut dGtJo;lxt ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿ k|of]u ubf{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] ;fdgf ug{k'/]sf ;d:ofx¿sf] af/]df ;d]t pNn]v ug'{ePsf] lyof] . ;+3sf pkfWoIf ;~ho afGtjfåf/f ;~rflnt pQm sfo{qmddf pkl:yt ;xefuLx¿n] nlntk'/ lhNnfdf rNg] ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿df s;/L ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;xefuLtfnfO{ clej[l4 ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] ;Gbe{df ;a}n] PsLs[t ¿kdf a[xt cleofg g };~rfng ug{k'g]{cfjZostf cf}FNofPsf lyP . g]kfndf klxnf] k6s ljZjJofkL kx'“ro"Qmtf ;r]tgf lbj; ;DkGg o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnåf/f g]kfndf klxnf] k6s Global Accessibility Awareness Day [GAAD] cyf{t g]kfnLdf ljZjJofkL kxFr"o'Qmtf ;rt]gf lbj; eJotfsf ;fy dgfOof ]. g]kfn ;/sf/ cGt/ut ;"rgf tyf k|ljlw ljefusf dxflgb]{zs slknb]j >]i7sf] k|d'v cfltYotfdf cfof]lht pQm sfo{qmddf dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnosf pk;lrj ;"o{k|;fb >]i7, sDKo'6/ Pzf]l;og g]kfnsf cWoIf O{lGhlgo/ ljgf]b 9sfn, g]kfn b'/;~rf/ k|flws/0fsf cfgGb/fh vgfn, /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfnsf cWoIf ;'bz{g ;'j]bL nufotsf ljz]if JolQmTjx¿sf] cfltYotfdf ;f] sfo{qmd ( d], @)!# df cgfdgu/sf] o"lgog xfp;df Ps cGt/lqmofTds sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg ul/of] . of] lbjz Ps ;fdflhs cys k|of; xf] h'g Los Angeles df a;]/ Web Developer sf] ¿kdf sfd ug]{ Joe Devon eGg] JolQmn] cfˆgf] Anudf kf]i6 u/]sf] Pp6f ljrf/af6 k|f/De ePsf] xf] h;nfO{ Jennison Asuncion eGg] Toronto df a;]/ kx"Fro'Qmtf ;DalGw g} sfd ug]{ Joj;flos JolQmn] l6j6/dfkm{t k|fKt u/]/ b'a} hgfn] of] cleofgnfO{ oyfzL3| Jofks ¿kdf k|rf/k|;f/ u/] . of] cleofgnfO{ Pp6f lbj;sf ¿kdf gf]e]Da/ @)!! b]lv cf}krfl/s ¿kdf Ps lbgsf nflu Pp6f ljz]if www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 2
  • 7. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! l8lh6n k|ljlwx¿ h:t} j]j;fO6, l:s|g 6r, df]jfOn, ;ˆ6j]o/ tyf PK; nufotsf ljB'lto ;fdfu|Lx¿df s;/L kxFr"lj:tf/ ug {;lsG5 egL s]lGb|t /xG5 . ljZjJofkL kx"“ro"Qmtf ;r]tgf lbj; ;DkGg s]Gb|df ;DalGwt ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox¿sf] ;xefuLtfdf b'O{ 306fsf] cGt/lqmofTds sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . ;"rgf tyf k|ljlw ljefusf dxflgb{z]ssf] k|d'v cfltYotfdf cfof]hgf ul/Psf]pQm sfoq{mddf o; k6s ljleGg CIT sn]hdf cWoog/t ljwfyL{x¿, lzIfsx¿ / j]j;fO6 8]enf]k/x¿nfO{ ;xefuL u/fOPsf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf pkl:yt cltly ;xefuLx¿n] o:tf k|sf/sf sfo{qmdx¿nfO{ cem} a9L lg/Gt/tf lbO{ o; If]qsf ljifox¿ lnP/ cWoog tyf cWofkg ug]{ sn]hx¿df ;d]t ;r]tLs/0f ug{ ;s]sf] v08df o;n] lgs} 7"nf] km8sf] dfg{ ;Sg] ljZjf; ;d]t JoQm u/] . To;}u/L ;/sf/L If]qaf6 klg gLlh If]qnfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug{sf nflu ljleGg k|sf/sf k|f]T;fxgsf sfo{qmdx¿ Nofpg' cfjZos /x]sf] atfP . dfgjclwsf/ dxfe]nf @)!# df ;+3sf] ;lqmo ;xefuLtf Scienti !c Committee / sfo{qmd ;ldltdf /x]/ ckfËtfsf d'2fnfO{ lg/Gt/ jsfnt u/L pRr k|fyldstfsf ;fy p7fpgsf nflu dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf lyP . To;}u/L o; ;+3;Fusf] lbgsf ¿kdf dgfpg k|f/De ul/of] . of] lbjz ljz]ifu/L ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;"rgf / k|ljlwdf kx"Fr clej[l4sf nflu s]lGb|t 5 . o;y{, of] Ps lbg ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] o; ;+3n] g]kfndf bf];|f] k6s Global! Accessibility!Awareness Day [GAAD] cyf{t gk]fnLdf ljZjJofkL kxFr"o'Qmtf ;rt]gf lbj; dgfOof] . ;"rgf / k|ljlwsf] If]qdf k|ToIf ;/f]sf/ /fVg] ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L / gLlh If]qnfO{ ;d]t ;xefuL u/fO{ ;r]tgf clej[l4 u/]sf] lyof] . o; jif{ klg o; ;+3n] d] !%, @)!$ sf lbg ;f]lx p2]Zofg'¿k kf6gsf] ondfof g]kfndf em08} ljut % jif{b]lv lg/Gt/ ¿kdf b]ze/L 5l/P/ /x]sf ;Dk"0f{ dfgjclwsf/jfbL ;+3;+:yfx¿sf] ;xefuLtfdf l8;]Da/ !) sf lbg dgfOg] cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ lbj; o; jif{ blnt u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf dxf;+3sf] ;+of]hsTjdf dgfOPsf] lyof] . pQm dxfe]nfdf o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u¥of] . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] If]qaf6 l;Ë} k|ltlglwTj u/]sf]o; ;+3n] ljleGg ;ldltdf /x]/ ckfËtfsf] d'2fnfO{ d"nk|jfxLs/0f ug{ cd"No of]ubfg lgjf{x u¥of] . o; ;+3sf ;lrj s[i0f uxt/fh pQm dxfe]nfsf] www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 3
  • 8. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! ;xsfo{df o; jif{sf] dfgjclwsf/ dxfe]nf dgfpg] qmddf æckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] dfgjclwsf/sf] jt{dfg cj:yf, ;d:of / ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿Æ jN8{ 6]8«;]G6/df ldlt @)&) d+l;/ @) ut] cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg eof] . o; ;+3sf ;lrj s[00f uxt/fhåf/f ;~rfng ul/Psf] pQm sfof{zfnf uf]li7sf] k|d'v cfltYotf dfgj clwsf/ k|lti7fgsf dxf;lrj ejfgL k|;fb v/]nn] ug{e'Psf] lyof] eg ]cltly jQmfsf ] ¿kdf /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3–g]kfnsf dxf;lrj l6sf bfxfn / g]kfn ckfË dfgjclwsf/ s]Gb|sf cWoIf hulbz k|;fb clwsf/L /xg'ePsf] lyof] . o; ;+3sf cWoIf ls/0f lzNksf/åf/f pNn]lvt zLif{sdf n]lvPsf] sfo{kq k|:t't ug'{ePsf] lyof] eg] pQm sfo{kq pk/ g]kfn ckfË ;dfhsf cWoIf t]h s'df/L ltjf/L / af}l4s ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf cleefjs tyf n]vs cfgGb/fd kf}8]nn] l6Kk0fL ug'{ePsf] lyof] . bf]>f] ;+ljwfg;efdf ckf·tf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;xefuLtfsf] nflu ;+3åf/f cg;gdf ;lqmo ;xeflutf klxnf] ;+ljwfg;efaf6 gofF ;+ljwfg aGg g;s]kl5 d+;L/ $ ut] b]zdf k'gM ;+ljwfg;efsf nflu bf]>f] lgjf{rg ;DkGg eof] . bf]>f] lgjf{rgsf] kl/0ffd;Fu} lgjf{lrt tyf dgf]gog u/L dGqLkl/ifbsf] u7g k|lqmof;Fu} ;+ljwfg;efn] klg cfˆgf] ult lng k|f/De u/] kZrft ckfËtfsf] If]qaf6 k|ltlglwTj ;'lglZrt ug{sf lglDt ;/sf/ tyf ;DalGwt ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ bjfa ;[hgf ug{]x]t'n] /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3–g]kfnsf] cu'jfO{df r/0fj4 cfGbf]ng :j¿k l/n] cg;gsf] k|f/De u/]sf] lyof] . o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] klg ;Dk"0f{ zf/Ll/s ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] tkm{af6 r/0faå ¿kdf sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx¿ ljleGg ;dodf ;+o'Qm ¿kdf l/n] cg;gdf a;L bafa ;[hgf u/]sf] lyof] . ;f] !! lbg;Dd rn]sf] l/n] cg;gdf ;+3sf tkm{af6 klxnf] k6s ;+3s} pkfWoIf ;~ho afGtjf / ;lrj s[i0f uxt/fh a:g' ePsf] lyof] eg] bf]>f] k6sdf ;+3sf tkm{af6 sf]iffWoIf zflGt gsdL{ / ;b:o ljlgtf /]UdL a:g' ePsf] lyof] . To;}u/L l/n] cg;gs} clGtd lbg ;+3sf cWoIf ls/0f lzNksf/ a:g' ePsf] lyof] . pQm l/n] cg;gdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] gofF aGg] ;+ljwfgdf ;'lglZrt ug{sf nflu ;+3sf pkfWoIf tyf snfsf/ ;~ho afGtjfåf/f ;f]xL cg;gdf k|ToIf lrq lgdf{0f u/L P}Soaåtfdf yk an k'/fpg' ePsf] lyof] . df3 @@ af6 k|f/De ePsf] pQm l/n] cg;g kmfu'g # df ;/sf/sf tkm{af6 k|wfgdGqL tyf dGqLkl/ifbsf] sfof{nosf ;lrj ;"o{k|;fb l;njfn / ckfËtfsf] If]qaf6 /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3–g]kfnaLr jt{dfg ;+ljwfg;efdf @^ hgfsf] dgf]lgt l;6 cGt/ut clgjfo{ ¿kdf k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] eGg] lnlvt ;xdltsf] ;fy cg;g :ylut ePsf] lyof] . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 4
  • 9. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! snfsf/ ;~ho afGtjfsf] t];|f]Psn lrqsnf k|bz{gL ;DkGg o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] o; ;+3sf pkfWoIf tyf snfsf/ ;~ho afGtjfsf] æ;+3if{sf WjgLx¿Æ gfds t];|f] Psn lrqsnf k|bz{gL @)&) r}q !$ ut] ;DkGg u¥of] . r}q & ut]af6 cf}krfl/s ¿kdf k|f/De eO{ r}q !$ ut] ;DkGg ePsf] pQm PsxKt] Psn lrqsnf k|bz{gL gS;fnl:yt g]kfn nlntsnf k|1f k|lti7fgsf] k|bz{gLxndf ljleGg k|sf/sf #! yfg lrqx¿ /fvL k|bz{g ul/Psf] lyof] . lrqsnf k|bz{gLdf /flvPsf laqmL ePsf lrqx¿sf] hDdf /sdsf] s]lx k|ltzt zf/Ll/s ckfËtf ePsf u/La tyf h]x]Gbf/ ljBfyL{x¿sf nflu 5fqj[lQ k|bfg ug]{ xt]'n] cfofh]gf ul/Psf]pQm sfo{qmdsf] pb3f6g dfggLo ;+:s[lt, ko{6g tyf gfu/Ls p8oog dGqfnosf dGqL led k|;fb cfrfo{sf] k|d'v cfltYotfdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf g]kfn nlntsnf k|1f k|lti7fgsf s'nklt ls/0f dfgGw/, n]vs tyf snf ;ldIfs k|f]=8f= cle ;'j]bL, cd]l/sg b'tfjf;sf Public Affairs Of!cer – Susan Parker Burns nufotsf JolQmTjx¿sf] pkl:ylt lyof] . k|bz{gLsf] clGtd lbg r}q !$ ut] sfo{qmdsf] cf}krfl/s ¿kdf g]kfn nlntsnf k|1f k|lti7fgsf] c/gLsf] Uofn/Ldf cd]/Lsg b'tfj;s} Cultural Affairs Of!cer - Ms. Polnerow Marrisa sf] k|d'v cfltYotfdf ;ldIffTds sfo{qmd ;DkGg eof] . o;sf ;fy} jl/i7 snfsf/ u]x]G›dfg cdfTo, /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3–g]kfnsf cWoIf, ;'bz{g ;'j]bL, snfsf/ tyf snf ;ldIfs /d]z vgfn nufotsf JolQmx¿n] ;Dk"0f{ snf k|bz{gL tyf afGtjfsf] snfsf]af/]df ;ldIffTds ¿kdf af]Ng'ePsf]lyof]. ;+3sf tkm{af6 cWoIf ls/0f lzNksf/n] snfsf/ ;+ho afGtjfsf] Psn k|bz{gLdf ;xof]u ug'{x'g] ;Dk"0f{ ;+3;+:yf tyf JolQmx¿nfO{ wGojfb lbg' ePsf] lyof] . ckf·tfd}qL ;fj{hlgs oftfoft k|j4{gsf lglDt uf]li7 ;DkGg @)&! c;f/ ^ ut] nlntk'/sf] hfjnfv]nl:yt g]kfn k|zf;lgs k|lzIf0f k|lti7fgsf] xndf nlntk'/ lhNnfsf ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf :6fkmx¿nfO{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] oftfoft ;]jfdf kxFr"ljifos cgl'zIf0f sfoq{mdsf] cfofh]gf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . nlntk'/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf :yfgLo ljsf; clwsf/L kz'klt kf]v|]nsf] k|d'v cfltYotfdf ;DkGg ;f] sfo{qmddf ;+3sf cWoIf www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 5
  • 10. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! ls/0f lzNksf/n] cWoIftf ug{e'Psf] lyof] eg ] ;+3s} pkfWoIf ;~ho afGtjfn] æ;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf ljBdfg gLltut Joj:yf, jt{dfg cj:yf / ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] e"ldsfÆ ljifos sfo{kq k|:t't ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . nlntk'/ lhNnfsf ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿df sfd ug]{ sl/a #) hgf sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf d'2fx¿ / pgLx¿n] ug'{kg]{ d}qLk"0f{ Jojxf/x¿sf] af/]df ;';"lrt tyf ;+j]bgzLn agfpg] p2]Zosf ;fy cfof]hgf ul/Psf] pQm sfo{qmddf oftfoft;Fu k|ToIf ;/f]sf/ /fVg] ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfosf k|ltlglwx¿ h:t} g]kfn oftfoft :jtGq dhb'/ ;Fu7gsf cWoIf, sf]iffWoIf / ;b:ox¿ tyf ;kmf OsfO{ sldl6sf ;lrj, lhNnf hg:jf:Yo sfof{nosf k|d'v, nlntk'/ oftfoft ldlga; ;]jf ;ldltsf pkfWoIf, dlxnf tyf afnaflnsf sfof{nosf k|d'v, nlntk'/ pkdxfgu/kflnsf ;dfh sNof0f ljefusf k|d'v, lzIff ljefusf ;xfos clwsf/L, nlntk'/ ckfËtf ;dGjo ;ldltsf ;+of]hs / nlntk'/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . sl/a tLg 306f;Dd ;~rflnt pQm sfo{qmddf ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿df sfd ug]{ sd{rf/Lx¿sf nflu Hofb} g}dxTjk"0f{/x]sf]k|ltlqmof lbPsf lyP . sfo{qmddf pkl:yt ;xefuL cltly jQmfx¿n] sfo{qmd cToGt} ;fGble{s /x]sf] / o:tf k|sf/sf ;r]tgfd"ns sfo{qmdx¿ cfufdL lbgx¿df k'gM rfns tyf ;xrfnsx¿nfO{lbg'kg]{cfjZostf cfNF}ofPsf lyP . o;sf sf/0fn]pgLx¿sf]afgL Jojxf/df 7"nf] kl/jt{g Nofpg ;Sg] ;d]t bfaL u/]sf lyP . Paula Sotnik ;“usf] ;+:yfut cg'ej cfbfgk|bfg sfo{qmd ;DkGg ;+o'Qm/fHo cd]l/sfaf6 g]kfn cfPsL Ms. Sotnik n] g]kfnsf] ;du| ckfËtf cfGbf]ngnfO{ a'‰g] qmddf o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfn;Fu @)&! a}zfv * ut] cg'ej cfbfgk|bfg a}7s ;+3s} sfof{nodf ;DkGg eof] . Ms. Paula Sotnik Ps cGt/f{li6«o ckfËtf clwsf/sdL{ x'g . pgn] Institute for Community Inclusion, School for Global Inclusion & Social Development gfds Ps ;+:yfdf cfj4 eP/ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf xsclwsf/sf k|j4{gsf nflu ljleGg tj/af6 sfd ub}{cfO/x]sL l5g . g]kfndf ljz]ifu/L kx"Fro'Qm jftfj/0f ;[hgf ug{sf nflu gLlt lgdf{0f txdf ePsf pknlAwx¿, sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf ;s/fTds kl/jt{gx¿ / cfufdL lbgdf /0fgLlts ¿kdf rflng'kg]{ cleofgx¿sf ;DaGwdf ;d]t a[xt 5nkmn ePsf] lyof] . ;+o'Qm/fHo cd]l/sfdf ToxfFsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] NofPsf] www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 6
  • 11. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! kl/jt{gsf sf/0fx¿ / ;~rfng ul/Psf] hgjsfntsf sfo{qmdx¿, ;zlQms/0fsf sfo{qmdx¿ / hLljsf]kfh{g tyf lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/ nufotsf ultljlwx¿sf] k|fs[ltsf af/]df a[xt 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . To;}u/L 5nkmns} qmddf g]kfndf sfo{/t cGt/f{li6«o lgsfox¿n] klg g]kfnsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] xsclwsf/ k|j4{gsf nflu ub}{ cfPsf] cfly{s ;xof]u / d'2f k|fyldsLs/0fsf ;DaGwdf ;d]t ;ldIff ul/Psf]lyof] . dlxnf lx+;f lj¿4sf] ;r]tLs/0f cleofg ;DkGg o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË;+3—g]kfnn] dlxnf lj¿4 x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lx+;f / lje]bsf] cGTo ug{sf nflu cfˆgf] :yfkgf sfnb]lv g} ljljw k|sf/sf ultljlwx¿ ;~rfng ub{}cfO/x]sf] 5 . ljz]ifu/L o; ;+3n] We Can National Alliance ;Fusf] ;fem]bf/Ldf ckfËtf ePsf dlxnfx¿sf] b[li6sf]0faf6 ljleGg lhNnfx¿df em08} kfFrjif{ eGbf a9Lsf] ljleGg sfo{qmdLs cleofg g} ;~rfng u/L ;r]tgf clej[l4sf] sfo{ u¥of] . xfn o; ;F3;Fu em08} kfFr xhf/ t kl/jt{gsf] ;+jfxs cyf{t Change Maker g} 5g eg] jt{dfg ;dodf of] ;+3 We Can National Allaince- Nepal sf] sfo{;ldltsf] ;b:o ;+:yf ;d]t xf] . o;} s|ddf ldlt @)&) r}q % ut] o; ;+3n] e"tk"j{ sd{rf/L kl/ifb / /fli6«o h]i7 gfu/Ls dxf;+3sf kbflwsf/Lx¿, sd{rf/Lx¿ tyf pgsf] e]63f6s} qmddf @)&! a}zfv !! ut] g]kfndf sfo{/t s]lx ;lqmo t/ sf]if clej[l4sf b[li6sf]0fn] sdhf]/ /x]sf sl/a !@ j6f ckfËtfsf] If]qdf sfo{/t ;+3;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx¿nfO{ k|:tfjgf n]vg tyf sf]if clej[l4sf] k|efjsf/L k4lt tyf cf}hf/x¿, hgjsfnt / k|efjsf/L ;~rf/sf tf}/ tl/sfx¿sf ;DaGwdf cfwf lbgsf] tflnd ;d]t ;+3s} sfof{nodf k|bfg ul/Psf] lyof] . ltgLx¿sf kl/jf/x¿nfO{ dlxnf lx+;f lj¿4 x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lx+;fx¿sf] cGTosf nflu Pslbg] ædlxnf lx+;f lj¿4sf] cleofgÆ ljifos cGtls|of sfo{qmd sf7df8f}Fsf] z+vd"ndf cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . pQm sfo{s|ddf o; ;+3sf cWoIf ls/0f lzNksf/ / sf]iffWoIf zfGtL gsdL{åf/f dlxnf lx+;f lj¿4sf] ;DaGwdf ljleGg k|:t'tLx¿ ub}{ cg'lzIf0f ug'{ePsf] lyof] . pQm sfo{qmddf em08} #) hgf hlt dlxnf tyf k'?ifx¿sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . To;} u/L ldlt @)&! a}zfv !* ut] o; ;+34f/f cfO{ Pg g]kfndf ;+nUg k|lzIffyL{x¿sf] nflu Ps lbg] dlxnf lx+;f lj¿4 x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lx+;fx¿sf] cGTo ;DalGw cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd nlntk'/ lhNnfsf] du/ufpmF eGg] :yfgdf cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg ul/of]. sl/a $) hgf dlxnf tyf k'?if ;xefuL /x]sf] ;f] sfo{qmddf klg o; ;+3sf cWoIf ls/0f lzNksf/ / sf]iffWoIf zflGt gsdLn{] k|lzIf0f ug{e'Psf] lyof] . ldlt @)&! cfiff9 @( df o; ;+3n] b /]o'sfO{ g]kfnsf] sfof{no ;fg]kfdf /]o'sfO{;Fu cfj4 JolQmx¿sf] nflu ædlxnf lx+;f lj¿4sf] cleofgÆ ljifos Ps cGt/ls|of sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 7
  • 12. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno / /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckf· ;+3—g]kfnsf] ;+o'Qm ;fem]bf/Ldf ;DkGg sfo{qmdsf ultljlwx¿sf] ;"rgfd"ns xf]l8{· af]8{sf]lgdf{0f / k|lt:yfkg cfly{s jif{@)&)÷)&! sf] :jLs[t jflif{s sfo{qmd cg';f/ dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno / o; ;+3sf] ;+o'Qm ;fem]bf/Ldf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ef}lts kx"Fr clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ p2]Zon] sf7df8f}F, eQmk'/ / nlntk'/ lhNnfsf ;"o{ljgfos, nugv]n, Odf8f]n, nlntk'/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf]sfof{no / rfkfufpmF uflj;sf] sfof{no u/L hDdf kfFr :yfgx¿df ljleGg k|sf/sf lrqfTds ;"rgfd"ns xf]l8{Ë af]8{ lgdf{0f ul/ k|lt:yfkg ul/of] . g]kfn ko{6g af]8{;“u k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg M ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] 3'Dg], :jtGqk"j{s lxF88'n ug]{ / dgf]/~hg ug]{ clwsf/ k|j4{gsf nflu kxFr"o'Qm ko{6g ljsf; ug'{ ckl/xfot{f ePsf]n] kxFr"o'Qm ko6{g ljsf;sf nflu g]kfndf ;a{k|yd g]kfn ko{6g af]8{;Fu o; ;+3n] @)&) kmfu'0f !( df hgjsfnt a}7s cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . a}7sdf o; ;+3sf tkm{af6 sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx¿ nufot cGo ckfËtf clwsf/sdL{x¿sf] ;xeflutf lyof] eg] af]8{sf tkm{af6 lgldQ sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs tyf ko{6sLo ;|ft]tyf ;fwg ljsf; zfvfsf jl/i7 lgb{z]s glGbgL yfkf, k|aGws d0fL/fh nfld5fg] / ;f]xL zfvfsf ;xfos Joj:yfks Ogrfh{ bLks/fh hf]zL a}7sdf ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] xs clwsf/sf nflu lgdf{0f ul/Psf] ljleGg gLlt lgod, sfg'g tyf sfo{qmdx¿sf]af/]df hfgsf/L u/fpFb}ckfËtf d}qL ef}lts ;+/rgf lgdf{0fsf nflu Wofgfsif{0f ;lxtsf] 1fkgkq x:tfGt/0f ul/of] . pQm Wofgfsif{0f kq a'lem;s] kZrft af]8{sf tkm{af6 k|ltlglwx¿n] Ps}k6sdf ;du|tfdf kx"Fro'Qm jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf sfo{x¿ ug{ c;Dej /x]sf]n] gd"gfut ¿kdf ;a};Fu ldn]/ ;xsfo{sf ¿kdf sfd ug{ pT;flxt /x]sf] k|ltj4tf JoQm u/] . ;fy}, ko{6g If]qdf sfo{/t ;a} ;/sf/L tyf gLlh lgsfox¿;Fu ;xsfo{ ;d]t u/]/ cufl8 a9g] ;d]t k|ltj4tf JoQm u/] . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 8
  • 13. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! sf7df8f} dxfgu/kflnsf;Fu k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg M sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfn] cf=j= @)&)÷)&! df ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu ljt/0f ug]{ eg]sf] ;]jf ;'ljwfx¿sf] af/]df lj:t[t ¿kdf a'‰g / To;sf] Jofks k|efjsfl/tfsf ;DaGwdf 5nkmn ug{]/ ef}lts kx"Fr tyf ;~rf/ ;]jf lgb]{lzsfsf] clwstd sfof{Gjogsf nflu Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg] p2]Zon] o; ;+3n] ldlt @)&) kmfu'g @# df sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfsf k|d'v tyf sfo{sf/L clws[t nId0f cof{n tyf ;dfh sNof0f zfvfsf zfvf clws[t ;Gt s'df/ yfkf;Fu a}7s ;DkGg eof] . pQm a}7sdf o; ;+3sf s]lGb|o sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/L tyf ;fwf/0f ;b:ox¿sf] ;d]t ;xeflutf lyof] . ;f] sfo{qmddf ljz]ifu/L o; ;3+sf tkma{f6 sf7df8fF}dxfgu/kflnsfn] ckfËtfd}qL ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf nflu rflng' kg]{ kxnsbdLsf ;DaGwdf Wofgfsif{0f u/fpgsf nflu Wofgfsif{0fkq x:tfGt/0f ul/Psf] lyof] . dxfgu/kflnsfsf k|d'v tyf sfo{sf/L clws[tn] gofF aGg] ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿nfO{ oyf;Dej cj/f]wd'Qm agfpgsf nflu cfˆgf] tkm{af6 ;Sbf] kxn ug]{ ;d]t k|ltj4tf JoQm ug'{eof] . 5nkmnsf qmddf dxfgu/kflnsfn] o; cf=j= @)&)÷)&! df sf7df8f} F pkTosfdf ljz]ifu/L sf7df8f}Fsf] ;8s lj:tf/sf sfo{qmd cGt/ut ;Dej ePsf ;a} :yfgx¿df ckfËtfd}qL ;8s lgdf{0f ug]{ k|ltj4tf JoQm ug{'ePsf] lyof ]. sf7df8fF} dxfgu/kflnsfsf k|d'v tyf sfo{sf/L clws[t nId0f cof{nn] gd"gfut ¿kdf Go"/f]8sf] ljzfn ahf/ glhs ;fj{hlgs kfls{Ë :yfgdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] rnfpg ]rf/kfË]| :s'6/x¿nfO{ nlIft u/L ckfËtfsf] nf]uf] 6fF;L ljz]if kflsË{sf] Joj:yf ug]{ k|ltj4tf ug{e'of ] eg] b/af/dfu{sf] ;fO8jfsnfO{ gd"gfut ¿kdf ckfËtfdq}L ;8ssf ¿kdf lj:tf/ ug{];dt] k|ltj4tf JoQm u/]sf lyP . oftfoft dGqfno;“u k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg M sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf /x]sf] ljz]ifu/L ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿ / ckfËtfd}qL ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf ljifox¿nfO{ lnP/ g]kfn ;/sf/ cGt/utsf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/ tyf oftfoft dGqfnosf ;lrj >L t'n;L k|;fb l;6f}nf;Fu ldlt @)&! a}zfv @( ut] o; ;+3sf] s]lGb|o sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx¿åf/f lghs} sfo{sIfdf k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg u¥of] . a}7sdf ljz]ifu/L pNn]lvt ljifox¿nfO{ g} lnP/ g]kfn ;/sf/n] kfl/t u/]sf] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu kxFr"o'Qm efl}ts ;/+rgf tyf ;~rf/ ;]jf lgb{l]zsf @)^(, sf] ke|fjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu Wofgfsif{0f kq x:tfGt/0f u/L ljBdfg ;d:ofx¿nfO{ ;f/f+zdf hfgsf/L u/fOPsf] lyof] . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 9
  • 14. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! ;fy} To; dGqfnosf ;lrjn] ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fsf sfo{qmdx¿ b]zJofkL ¿kdf aGg] qmd hf/L /xs]f] ePtfklg sf7df8fFd}f dfq o:tf d'2fx¿n] a9L k|fyldstf kfPsf]n] clns a9L b]zJofkL agfpg' kg]{df hf]8 lbg cfu|x ug'{ePsf] lyof] . To;}u/L sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf g} pQm lgb{l]zsfsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog xg' g;ls/x]sfn] To;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnon] g} cfˆgf] ;+of]hsTjdf ;a} ;DalGwt dGqfnox¿ /xg] u/L Pp6f ljz]if sfof{Gjogsf] of]hgf lgdf{0f u/L cg'udg ;ldltsf] ;d]t g]kfn a}°;{;+3;“u k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f hf/L æckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu kx"Fro'Qm ef}lts ;+/rgf tyf ;~rf/ ;j]f lgb{l]zsf—@)^(Æ, ckfË ;+/If0f tyf sNof0f P]g @)#( / ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGw @))^ df ;d]t k|i6 ¿kdf gLlh tyf ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf nflu vf]lnPsf jf :yfkgf ul/Psf] :yfg tyf ;fwgx¿ ckfËtfd}qL agfOg' kg]{ k|fjwfgnfO{ sfof{Gjogdf Nofpgsf nflu bafj ;h[gf ug{]p2Z]on] gk]fnsf] al}ͪ Ifq]df gkfOPsf] ckfËtfd}qL jftfj/0fnfO{ lnP/ g]kfn a}Í;{ ;+3;Fu ldlt @)&! h]7 & ut] sfof{nosf ;lrj s]zj k|;fb clwsf/L;Fu e]63f6 u/L ;f] lgdf{0f u/L of]hgfut ¿kdf cufl8 a9g'kg]{ cfjZostf /x]sf] cf}FNofpg'eof] . ;+3sf] cWoIfsf gfddf Wofgfsif{0f kq ;d]t x:tfGt/0f ul/of] . o;} qmddf xfn ;~rfngdf /x]sf a}ÍLs If]qnfO{ nlIft u/L ckfËtfd}qL jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf nflu o; ;+3dfkm{t cfj4tf /x]sf a}Íx¿df ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu of]Uotf / Ifdtfsf cfwf/df /f]huf/L k|j4{g ug]{, agL;s]sf / gofFaGg]a}Ísf ejgx¿df kx"Fro'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf0{f ug{,]a}Ídf :yfkgf ul/Psf] sfp06/x¿ xf]rfk'8sf tyf XjLnlro/ k|of]ustf{x¿sf nflu ;d]t ;xh¿kdf kx"Fr k'Ug] u/L prfOsf] lgdf{0f ul/g'kg]{, ATM :ynx¿ klg ;xh ¿kdf ;a} k|sf/sf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] k|of]u ug{;Sg] u/L lgdf{0f ul/g' kg]{ / ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] :j/f]huf/sf nflu a}Íaf6 C0f lng rfx]sf] ;Gbe{df ;a}eGbf ;x'lnot Jofhb/df ;xh ta/n] C0f pknAw u/fpg] h:tf d2'fx¿df 5nkmn ul/of]. k|ltlqmofdf ;+3 cfkm}Fdf lg0ff{os gePtf klg To;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;a} a}Íx¿df kqfrf/ ug{]/ ;f]lx cg';f/ sfd ;d]t ug{sf nflu cg'/f]w ug]{ k|ltj4tf ul/Psf] lyof] . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I10
  • 15. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! g]kfn oftfoft Joj;foL /fli6«o dxf;+3;“u k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg M ;fj{hlgs oftfoftnfO{ ckfËtfd}qL agfpgsf nflu g]kfn oftfoft Joj;foL /fli6«o dxf;+3sf] uDeL/ Wofgsif{0f u/fpgsf nflu ldlt @)&! c;f/ !* ut] dxf;+3sf cWoIf of]u]Gb|gfy sd{rfo{nfO{ e]6 u/L Wofgfsif{0f kq a'emfOof] . 5nkmnsf qmddf dxf;+3sf cWoIf sd{rfo{n] g]kfndf /x]sf oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿ ljz]iftM ;fj{hlgs p2]Zosf nflu k|of]u ul/g]nfO{ oyf;Dej ckfËtfd}qL agfpgsf nflu oftfoftdf ef}lts lgdf{0f tyf oftfoft Joj:yf dGqfnon] k|To]s ;fj{hlgs uf8Lx¿nfO{ ¿6 l;:6ddf rnfpg kf|/De ug{k'g{,]gofF oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿ leqofpFbf v]/L g} ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ b[li6ut u/L o;sf] ;]l6Ë ug'{kg]{, ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿df sfo{/t rfns tyf ;xrfnsx¿nfO{ 8«fO{leË nfO;G; k|bfg ubf{ v]/L g} Psb'O{ 306fsf] ;fdflhs ;+j]bglzntfsf d'2fx¿df cg'lzIf0f ug'{kg]{, gk]fndf oftfoft dfq }xg]{]5'§};/sf/L lgsfo gePsf]n] oftfoft ljsf; af]8{sf] lgdf{0f u/L sfo{ ug{ ;s]df lb3{sfnLg ¿kdf ;d:of ;dfwfg x'g] hLls/ ug'{eof] . ;x/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f ljefu;“u k}/jL a}7s ;DkGg o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnsf k|ltlglwx¿n] ;x/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f ljefusf dxflgb{z]s zDe"s]=;L=;Fu @)&! c;f/ !( ut ]lghs }sfofs{Ifdf e]63f6 ul/of]. pQm e]63f6df ljz]ifu/L o; ;+3n] gofF ag]sf ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿ g]kfn /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/ ;+lxtf @)^) / g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f hf/L ul/Psf] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu ef}lts kx"Fr tyf ;~rf/ ;]jf lgb]{lzsf @)^(, sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog x'g g;s]sf]df uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f u/fPsf] lyof] . hjfkmdf dxflgb]{zs s]= ;L=n] ljefu cToGt} uDeL/ ePsf] / ;f]lx cg';f/ g }pQm lgb{l]zsfnfO{ kg'M cfˆgf ;Dk0"f{ lgsfox¿df kqfrf/ ;d]t ug]{ k|ltj4tf JoQm ul/Psf] lyof] . e]63f6sf qmddf ljefu pQm ljifodf ;+o'Qm ¿kdf ldn]/ sfd ug{ OR5's ePsf]n] cfufdL lbgx¿df ;xsfo {;dt]ug]{ kl|tj4tf ug{e'of ]. To;}u/L ljefus} g]t[Tjdf ag]sf gofF ejgx¿ ckfËtf d}qL ePgePsf] ;DaGwdf Physical Audit u/L ;'emfj lbgsf nflu ;d]t cfu|x ug'{eof] . sf7df8f}Fdf dflg;x¿sf] ;a}eGbf a9L cfjfthfjt x'g] :yfg x]/L To;nfO{ k"0f{ ckfËtf d}qL agfpgsf nflu s] ug'{kb{5 egL ;'emfj lbgsf nflu cg'/f]w ug'{eof] . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 11
  • 16. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! ef}lts kx"“ro'Qm lgb]{lzsf @)^( sf] ;DaGwdf sfof{zfnf ;DkGgM ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu cj/f]wd'Qm jftfj/0f ;h[gf ug{]k|d'v p2]Zon] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGw @))^ sf] cfwf/e"t Joj:yfx¿df cfwfl/t /xL dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno / g]kfndf ckfËtfsf] If]qdf sfof{/t ;+3;+:yfx¿sf] ;+o'Qm kxnåf/f hf/L ul/Psf] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu ef}lts kx"Fro'Qm tyf ;~rf/ ;]jf lgb]{lzsf @)^( sf] sfof{Gjog cj:yfsf] k'g/fjnf]sg u/L k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] sfo{of]hgf agfpg] p2]Zon] o; ;+3n] ldlt @)&! h]7 @& ut] sf7df8f}Fsf] jN8{ 6]«8 ;]G6/df Ps sfof{zfnf uf]li7sf] cfof]hgf u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnosf ;lrj >L lbg]zx/L clwsf/Lsf] k|d'v cfltYotfdf ;DkGg ;f] sfof{zfnf uf]li7sf] cWoIftf ;+3sf cWoIf >L ls/0f lzNksf/n] ug'{ePsf] lyof] eg] ljz]if cltlysf ¿kdf dGqfnos} ;x;lrj >L zÍ/ kf7s, pk;lrj x'dsnf kf08], zx/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f ljefusf dxflgb]{zs ;'lgn s0f{, vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefusf ;Llgo/ l8lehg O{lGhlgo/ lxd k|;fb uf}td, lzIff dGqfno cGtu{tsf ;dfj]zL lzIff zfvfsf u0f]z kf}8]n / /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3—g]kfnsf cWoIf ;'bz{g ;'j]bL x'g'x'GYof] . ;+3sf ;lrj s[i0f uxt/fhåf/f ;xhLs/0f ul/Psf] ;f] sfof{zfnfnfO{ ljz]ifu/L b'O{ r/0fdf ljefhg u/L 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmdsf] klxnf] ;qdf cf;g u|x0fsf] cf}krfl/s k|f/De;Fu} ;+3sf pkfWoIf ;~ho afGtjfåf/f ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu ef}lts kxFr"o'Qm tyf ;~rf/ ;]jf lgb{l]zsf @)^( sf] jt{dfg sfof{Gjogsf] cj:yf / cfufdL sfo{of]hgf zLif{sdf sfo{kq k|:t't ug'{ePsf] lyof] . sfo{qmdsf] bf]>f] r/0fdf o; lgb]{lzsfsf] sfof{Gjogdf b]lvPsf ;d:of tyf r'gf}ltx¿ / tLgsf ;dfwfgsf nflu cfufdL lbgdf cjnDag ul/g'kg]{ pkfox¿sf] ;Gbe{df pkl:yt ;xeflux¿nfO{ ljleGg ;ft ;d"xdf ljefhg u/L ;dx"ut sfo{;d]t ul/Psf]lyof] . pQm ;d"xut 5nkmnsf] ;xhLs/0f eg] dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfhsNof0f dGqfnosf pk;lrj xd'snf kf08]n] ug{e'Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmdsf] 5nkmnsf bf}/fgdf em08} !% dlxgf k'/f ul/;ss]f] pQm lgb{l]zsfsf] Jojxfl/s sfof{Gjogsf] kIf rfFlx cToGt} lkmtnf] /x]sf] eGb} pkl:yt clwsf+z ;xefuLx¿n] l6Kk0fL u/]sf lyP . sfo{qmddf af]Nb} k|d'v cltly tyf dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnosf ;lrj >L lbg]zx/L clwsf/Ln] ;f] lgb{l]zsf sfof{Gjogsf nflu cfkm" cToGt} lqmofzLn /x]sf] t/ ;/sf/L lgsfox¿aLr g} k/:k/ ;dGjogsf] cEof; sdhf]/ ePsf]n] ck]Iffs[t ¿kdf sfof{Gojg ug{ g;lsPsf] lhls/ ug{e'of ]. To;}n]o;};Gbe{df ul/Psf]of] www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I12
  • 17. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! sfo{qmdsf] k|ltkmnnfO{ lj:t[t sfo{of]hgf agfO{ cfufdL lbgdf o;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu dGqfno h'g;'s} k|sf/sf] ;xof]u ug{ tof/ /x]sf] atfpg'eof] . sfo{qmdsf]cGTodf o; ;+3n] ;f] sfo{qmdaf6 k|fKt k|ltkmnx¿sf] cfwf/df /xL cfufdL lbgsf nflu ul/g'kg]{ Ps a[xt sfo{of]hgfsf] to u/L dGqfnonfO{ x:tfGt/0f ;d]t ul/Psf] 5 . æg]kfndf XjLnlro/ pTkfbgM ljifos sfof{zfnf uf]li7 ;DkGg g]kfndf Psfb gLhLIf]qsf] kxndf afx]s xfn;Dd XjLnlro/ pTkfbg ePsf] 5}g . oBlk, g]kfndf XjLnlro/ k|of]ustf{x¿sf] olsg tYofÍ gePtf klg ljleGg cWoogx¿n] em08} #% nfvsf] xf/fxf/Ldf /x]sf] ;fj{hlgs u/]sf 5g . g]kfndf ;/b/ ( xhf/ jflif{s XjLnlro/ cfjZos /x]sf] b]lvG5 . olt 7"nf] ;+Vofdf /x]sf XjLnlro/ k|of]ustf{x¿sf nflu xfn;Dd g]kfndf :jb]zL XjLnlro/ pTkfbg ePsf] 5}g / To;sf nflu k|oTg ;d]t ul/Psf] klg b]lvGb}g . ;f]lx ljifonfO{ dWogh/ u/L o; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfn, :jfanDaL hLjg k4lt s]Gb| sf7df8f}F, g]kfn XjLlro/ Sna / dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfhsNof0f dGqfnon] ;+o'Qm ¿kdf XjLnlro/ pTkfbgsf] sfdnfO{ k|f/De u/]sf] 5 . ;f]lx sfo{qmd cGt/ut o; ;+3sf nflu ljz]iftM g]kfndf XjLnlro/ pTkfbgsf] ;DefJotf / r'gf}ltx¿nfO{ lnP/ Ps cg';GwgfTds cWoog u¥of] . pQm cWoogaf6 k|fKt ;"rgfx¿nfO{ lnP/ sf7df8fFs}f] lqk/']Zj/df ldlt @)&! c;f/ !( ut] dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfhsNof0f dGqfnosf pk;lrj x'dsnf kf08]sf] k|d'v cfltYotfdf ;DkGg ul/of]. sfo{qmddf pkl:yt em08} %) hgf XjLnlro/ k|of]ustf{x¿, XjLnlro/ ljt/s tyf pTkfbgstf{x¿;Fu a[xt 5nkmn u/L yk cfjZos ;r"gfx¿ ;d]t ;Íng ul/Psf]lyof] . pQm k|fKt;Dk"0f{ ;"rgfx¿sf] cfwf/df g]kfndf XjLnlro/ pTkfbgM ;DefJotf / r'gf}ltx¿ gfds Ps cg';GwfgfTds cWoog k|ltj]bgsf] ;d]t k|:t't ul/Psf] lyof] . o;sf] k|d'v p2]Zo eg]sf] g]kfndf xfn;Dd s]–s:tf k|sf/sf XjLnlro/x¿ k|of]udf cfPsf 5g, ltlgx¿sf] ;xh pknAwtfsf nflu :jb]zd} s] ug{ ;lsG5 egL ;DefJotfsf] vf]hL ;d]t ug{'/x]sf] lyof] . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 13
  • 18. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! cj/f]wd'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fdf /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckf· ;+3—g]kfnsf] k|of; /fli6«o zf/Ll/s ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] cfˆgf] :yfkgfsfnb]vL g }efl}ts kxFr'sf] ;jfnnfO { ljleGg k|sf/sf ;r]tgf clej[l4, Ifdtf ljsf; tyf hgjsfntsf sfo{qmdx¿ ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . kx"Fro'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0fn] dfq ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;fdflhs ;xefuLtf, u'0f:t/o'Qm hLjg:t/ / ;dfg cj;/x¿df kx"Fr lgwf{/0f ug{]ePsf]n] kxFr"o'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu cfhsf] k|d'v cfjZostf xf] . oxL cfjZostfnfO{ dWogh/ u/L o; ;+3n] ef}lts kx'Frsf] ;jfnnfO{ ljut 8]9bzsb]lv lg/Gt/ ¿kdf cufl8 a9fO /x]sf] 5 . zfl//Ls ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] ub{}cfPsf] o; k|sf/sf] sbdnfO{ ljleGg lgsfox¿af6 ;x|fgf ul/Psf]5 . g]kfndf ef}lts kx'Frsf] ;jfnnfO{ ;a}eGbf klxn] o; ;+3n] kl/ro u/fPsf] s'/fdf s'g} b'O{dt 5}g . o; ;+3n] ;g !((& df :yfkgf eP kZrft g} ljleGg lsl;dsf efl}ts kx'rFsf] af/d]f /fli6«o:t/, If]lqo:t/ / lhNnf:t/df cleofgs} ¿kdf ljleGg k|sf/sf sfo{s|dx¿ ub{} cfO/x]sf] 5 . ef}lts kx'Fr eg]sf] s] xf] < o;sf] cefjdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] s:tf lsl;dsf ;d:ofx¿ ef]Ug'k/]sf] 5 < / o:tf ;d:of s;/L x6fpg ;lsG5 eGg] ;jfndf g]kfndf ;'¿jft xF'bfsf] cj:yf b]lv g} /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3n] o;sf] nflu 7'nf] e'ldsf v]Nb} cfO/x]sf] 5 . ;g !((& b]vL g} lg/Gt/ cleofgsf] ¿kdf efl}ts kj'f{wf/ kxFr'sf] Ifq]df sfd ul//x]sf] kl/k]|Iodf Tolt a]nfsf] ;fem]bf/L ;+:yf 8]gdfs{sf] The Danish RomatismAssociation / l8=P;=cfO{=lar ;xsfo{ u/L /fi6«JofkL ¿kdf g} ljleGg lsl;dsf k}/jL tyf hgr]tgfd'ns cleofgx¿ ;DkGg u¥of] . xfd|f] o; k|sf/sf] cleofgaf6 k|efljt eP/ g]kfn ;/sf/sf ljleGg lgsfox¿ h:t} gu/kflnsf / lhlj;x¿af6 ;d]t ;fgf];fgf] cfly{s ;|f]t ;Íng u/L ef}lts kxF'rsf] cleofgnfO{ To; ;dob]lv g} lg/Gt/ cufl8 nfg] sfd eO/x]sf] lyof] . o;sf ;fy}, zfl//Ls ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ hf]8g] dfWodsf] ¿kdf tyf hgr]tgf km}nfpg] dfWodsf] ¿kdf ;d]t of] cleofgnfO{ ;+3n] cufl8 a9fO/x]sf] 5 . ;g @))) sf] bf}/fg eGbf cuf8L / To; k5fl8sf lbgdf ;d]t :jo+ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;+3;+:yf tyf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu sfd ug{];+3;+:yfnfO{ klg kxFr'sf] ;jfnnfO{ g]kfndf Nofpg'k5{ eg]/ /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] ;'¿jft u/]sf] xf] . /fli6«o ckfË dxf;3+–g]kfnn] klg kxFr'sf] ;jfnnfO {cuf8L a9fPsf] 5 / dxf;+3sf] ;b:o ;+:yfsf] ¿kdf /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] kxFr'sf] ;jfnnfO{ p7fO/x]sf] x'gfn] dxf;+3 / cGo ;+3;+:yfn] klg o;n] kx'Frsf] ljifodf sfd u5{ eg]/ klxrfg :yflkt u/]sf] 5 . jt{dfg ;dodf klg o; ;+3 kxFr"o'Qm jftfj/0f lgdf{0fs} d'2fnfO{ lnP/ culf8 a9L/x]sf] 5 . jf:tjdf kx'Fro'Qmtf eg]sf] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu kx"Fr clej[l4 ug{sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ klxnf] ;t{ xf] . o;y{, of] cfkm}Fdf Pp6f a[xt ljifo klg xf] . g]kfndf dfq geP/ www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I14
  • 19. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! cGt/f{li6«o:t/d} o;n] 7"nf] dxTj kfPsf] 5 . kx"Fro'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0fsf] lgdf{0fn] s]jn ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu dfq geP/ ;a} k|sf/sf dflg;x¿ h:t} a[4a[4f, c;Qm, ue{jtL dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;xhtf k'¥ofpFb5 t/, xfd|f] h:tf cltsd ljsl;t b]zx¿df o:tf d'2fx¿k|ltsf] ;r]tLs/0fsf] cj:yf cToGt} gfh's 5 . h;sf sf/0fn] ubf{ o; If]qdf sfd ug{ cem} sl7g klg 5 . oBkL, ljz]if u/L /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] sf7df8f}+ pkTosf / To;sf If]lqo zx/x¿ h:t} sf:sL, kf]v/f, g]kfnuGh, wgu9L, afFs], s}nfnL k"j{sf] df]/ª, ;'g;/L h:tf If]qx¿df Tolta]nf klg kxF'r s] xf] <, o;nfO{ xfd|f] kmfObfsf] nflu s;/L hf]8g ;S5f}FeGg] h:tf s/'fx¿sf] hfgsf/Låf/f ;r]tLs/0f clej[l4 u/]sf] lyof] . xfn /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] k'gM ;f]lx cleofgnfO{ ;lqmotf lbg ljleGg k|sf/sf ultljlwx¿sf] k|f/De u/]sf] 5 . ljz]ifu/L /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/;+lxtf @)^) cfO;s] kZrft / g]kfn ;/sf/n] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGw @))^ sf] kIf /fi6« eO;s]kl5 ;f]lx gLltut k|fjwfgnfO{ 6]sL 5'§} ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] nflu efl}ts kxFr"tyf ;~rf/ ;j]f lgb]{lzsf @)^( sf];d]t lgdf{0f ul/Psf]5 . ca o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu lglZrt ¿kdf s'g} Pp6f ;+3;+:yfn] of] s'/fnfO{ cuf8L a9fpg'k5{ eGg] p2]Zon] /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3— g]kfnn] k|d'v lgsfosf] ¿kdf sfd ul//x]sf] 5 / o;sf] cnfjf ljut s]xL aif{b]vL ckfËtfd}qL oftfoftsf] s'/fnfO{ klg csf]{ Pp6f cleofgsf] ¿kdf cufl8 a9fPsf] 5 . of] cleofgsf] ¿kdf /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] ut @÷# aif{ cuf8L Pp6f lkmgNof08l:yt Abilis Foundation sf] cfly{s ;xof]udf utjif {xfdLn ]Pp6f Ps jif{]sfo{qmd ;dt] ;~rfng u/L ;DkGg u¥of] . o; kl/of]hgf cGt/ut ljz]iftM sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf sf7df8f}F, eQmk'/ / nlntk'/ lhNnfsf] ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿nfO{ ckfËtfd}qL agfpsf nflu ;jf/L wgL, ;jf/L rfns tyf ;xrfns / 6«flkms k|x/Lx¿nfO{ ckfËtfsf] ;jfnx¿nfO{ ;r]tLs/0f u¥of] . h;sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k pgLx¿df uDeL/tf a9]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . jt{dfg ;dodf ljleGg ;jf/LwgLx¿, oftfoft Joj:yf ljefu / ;DalGwt dGqfnox¿nfO{ ckfËtfd}qL ;jf/L;fwgx¿sf] k|j4{gsf nflu 3R3rfpg] sfdx¿ k|z:t} dfqfdf eO/x]sf 5g . o;/L /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnn] lg/Gt/ ¿kdf efl}ts kxFr"/ ckfËtfd}qL oftfoftsf] nflu Pp6f :yflkt ;+:yfsf] ¿kdf /x]/ sfd ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . ;fy}, jt{dfg kl/k|]Iodf ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿sf] n]vfhf]vf (Physical Audit) sf] ljifonfO{ lnP/ cuf8L a9fpg'sf] ;fy} ¥ofDk lgdf{0fsf] nflu cfjZos k/fdz{ lbg k/fdz{ ;d"x g} lgdf{0f u/L k/fdz{ lbg] sfd klg ul//x]sf 5f}+ . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I15
  • 20. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! k|fs[lts k|sf]k / ckf·tf cfh eGbf em08} @^ jif{ cufl8 lj=;+= @)$% ;fnsf] s'/f xf] . hLjgdf klxnf] k6s Psflaxfg} cf]5ofgd} ;'lt/x]s} cj:yfdf dnfO{ lgs} cftlÍt agfof] . k"jL{ g]kfnsf] pbok'/ lhNnf s]Gb| ePsf] sl/j ^ /]S6/ :s]nsf] e"sDk hfFbf pbok'/ lhNnfs} k"jL{ If]qsf] a;fxf uflj;df /x]sf] d]/f] 3/ lgs} a]/ xNnfof] . ;f];dfodf d]/f] kl/jf/sf sl/a ;a} h:tf] ;b:ox¿ 3/sf] tn em/L ;Sg' ePsf] lyof] . t/, d eg] PSn} pQm 3/sf] dflyNnf] tnfdf g} lrRofO{ /x]sf] lyPF . d;Fu} ;'t]sf] d]/f bfh' klg dflyNnf] tnfaf6 g} xfdkmfnL ;Sg' ePsf] lyof] . d xfdkmfNg' t s] ;'t]sf] 7fpFaf6 csf]{ 7fpFdf ;lhn} hfg ;Sg] cj:yfdf lyOg t/ xfd|f] 3/df s'g} IftL gePsf] sf/0f d ;–s';n g} /xg ;kmn eP . olb d]/f] 3/ s]xL ePsf] eP ;fob ;a}eGbf klxn] d g} Tof] k|sf]kdf kg]{ lyPF xf]nf . To; ;dodf pbok'/, ;'g;/L / wgs'6f If]qdf uPsf] e'sDksf] wSsfn] lgs} ef}lts / dfgjLo Iflt eof] . slt ckfËtf ePsf Joltmx¿nfO{ To; e'sDkn] Iflt k'¥ofof] egL Plsg yfxf rflxF ePg . oBlk, d of] eGg ;S5' ls olb d]/f] 3/ e"sDkn] eTs]sf] eP To;sf] k|ToIf klxnf] df/df d g} ky]{ xf]nf lsgsL d ckfËtfsf] sf/0fn] ;lhn} ;'/IfL 7fpFdf uP/ a:g ;Sg] cj:yfdf lyOg . jf:tjdf k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] a]nf h'g;'s};d'bfo hf]lvddf ePtfklg pgLx¿n] a]xf]g]{ hf]lvdsf] uflDeo{tf pgLx¿sf] cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs cj:yf, p¢f/ ;fdfu|L, k|sf]k ;DaGwL r]tgf tyf JolQmut udgzLntfdf e/kg{]/x]5 . hxfF;Dd ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;jfn k|fs[lts k|sf]k;Fu hf]l8G5, pgLx¿sf] cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs cj:yf eGbf klg JolQmut udgzLntfn] k|fs[lts k|sf]kn] 7"nf] k|efj kfb{5 . o;sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ s'g} klg k|fs[ltsf] 7"nf] k|s[lt k|sf]ksf] ;dodf cToGt} uDeL/ hf]lvddf kb{5 . k|sf]ksf] a]nfdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ p4f/ ug]{ JolQm ;d]t hf]lvddf kg{];Defjgf ePsfn ]cfˆg }kl/jf/sf ;b:o klg pgLx¿nfO {p4f/ ug{ tTk/ x'bF}gg . blIf0f Plzofsf b]zx¿dWo] g]kfn klg k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] b[li6sf]0fn] cToGt} 7"nf] hf]lvddf /x]sf] 5 . e"sDk, af9Lklx/f] / cfunflu h:tf b'3{6gfx¿ ljleGg ;dodf g]kfndf 36b} cfO/x]sf] 5 . oL b'3{6gfx¿sf] k|efj Go"gLs/0f ug{ s]Gb|b]lv :yfgLo:t/;Dd ljleGg ;+oGqx¿ ;+rfngdf /x]sf] ePtfklg ckfËtf ePsf Jofltmx¿sf ;jfndf Wofg k'Ug ;ls/x]sf] b]lvb}g . xfdLn] x]g]{ xf] eg] clxn];Ddsf] s'g} klg k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f cleofgdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;jfndf ;Daf]wg ul/Psf] kfOb}g . g]kfndf clxn] gofF ;+ljwfg n]vg k|s[of hf/L 5 . cGt/f{li6«o:t/df g]kfn ;/sf/n] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGw—@))^ ;d]t cg'df]bg ul/;s]sf] 5 . o; kl/k|]Iodf g]kfndf klg lzIff, :jf:Yo, zflGt k|s[of nufotsf kIfx¿df ck]lIft ¿kdf geP klg s]lx xb;Dd ckfËtfsf ;jfn k|ltlalDjt ePsf] kfOG5 . oBlk k|fs[lts k|sf]k ;DalGw ckfËtf ePsf Joltmx¿sf ;jfndf ;DaGwLt www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I16
  • 21. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! lgsfon] Wofg k'¥ofpg ;s]sf] b]lvb}g . o;sf k5fl8 ljleGg sf/s tTjx¿ x'g ;S5g. t/ cfhsf] kl/j]zdf ckfËtfsf ;jfn k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] x/]s k|qm[ofut of]hgfdf k|ltlglwTj x'g'kb{5 . xfn;Dd klg g]kfndf k|fs[lts k|sf]k Go'gLs/0fsf] cGo ;fjwfgLx¿ ckgfPklg ckfËtf d}qL ef}lts jftfj/0fsf] ljifodf Wofg k'¥ofPsf] cj:yf b]lvGb}g . Pp6f ;fj{hgLs ejg egf}+ oft JolQmut ejgx¿df cfs:dLs 9f]sfx¿, nfO6x¿, r's'nx¿ s'g}klg ckfËtf d}qL kfpg ;lsGb}g . o; lsl;dsf] ef}lts ;+/rgfn] k|fs[lts k|sf]kdf ;a}eGbf klxnf] df/ eg]sf] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ g} x'g]5 . o; ;jfndf d oxfF Pp6f pbfxf/0f lbg rfxfG5', Pp6f tflndsf] ;Lnlznfdf d hfkfg uPsf] lyP . hfkfgsf] 6f]sLof] l:yt hfOsfsf] tflnd s]Gb|sf] ;ft gDa/ ¿ddf dnfO /flvPsf] lyof] h'g sf]7f cGo sf]7f eGbf b'O{ u'0ff 7"nf] lyof] . h;df P6]h 6jfOn]6 afy¿df ;lhn} d]/f] x'NrLo/ hfg cfpg ;Sg] agfOPsf] lyof] . lah'nL altsf :jLrx¿ 9f]sfsf r'Ss'nx¿, ;f]s];, 6]an cfbL e]6Lg] u/L Pp6f ckfËtf ePsf JolQmn] ;lhn} k|of]u ug{ ;Sg] agfOPsf] lyof] . t/ ToxfF d]/f] sf]7fsf] csf]{ cgf}7f] laifo eg]sf] cfktsfnLg 9f]sf xf] . h'g d}n] w]/} b]zx¿df ed|0f ubf{ o:tf] Joj:yf kfpg ;s]sf] lyOg . h'g 9f]sf d]/f] sf]7fsf] blIf0f tkm{ agfOPsf] lyof] . o; 9f]sf eGbf aflx/ klg ;fgf] cf/fd ug]{ nla agfOPsf] lyof] . h'g nlaaf6tn emg{ ;lsg] u/L tLg j6f nfdf]–nfdf] :nf]kaf6f] agfOPsf] lyof] . h'g af6f]af6 ;lhn} XjLnlro/df d tnemg{ ;Sy] . o;n] ToxfF s] b]vfp5 eg] ;fË JolQm eGbf ckfËtf ePsf JolQm k|fs[lts k|sf]kdf a9L hf]lvdf x'G5g / pgLx¿sf] nflu Tof] jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug'{k5{ eGg] ;f+r]ljsf; eO;s]sf] 5 . o;/L x]bf{ ca xfdLn] s'g} klg k|fs[lts k|sf]k ;Defljt If]qdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] tYofÍ lhNnf k|sf]k ;ldltn] /fVg' kb{5 . Emergency Planning ubf{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿åf/f ;~rflnt ;+:yf (DPOs) x¿;Fu ;dGjo u/L ckfËtfsf] k|s[lt, pgLx¿nfO{ p¢f/ ubf{ rflxg] ;fdfu|L, ;xof]usf af/]df lhNnf k|sf]k ;ldltn] hfgsf/L lng' kb{5 . To;f] ubf{ lhNnf k|sf]k ;ldltnfO{ cem ;lhnf] x'g]5 . csf]{ tkm{ k|fs[lts k|sf]k k"j{ ;fjwfgL ckgfpgsf nflu ;~rf/ ul/g] ;'rgfsf] dfWod, ckfËtfd}lq x'g'kb{5 . ljz]if u/]/ alx/f / cltc;Qm ckfËtf ePsf Joltmx¿n] ;dodf ;"rgf kfpg ;Sb}gg / pgLx¿ cem hf]lvddf kb{5g . cfktsflngåf/ jf dfu{x¿ ljleGg k|fs[ltsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] nflu ;xh / kx'Frof]Uo lgdf{0f ul/g' kb{5 . k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;+rfng u/Lg] tflnd, tof/ kfl/g] k|rf/k|;f/ ;fdfu|L, ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;Nnfx / pgLx¿sf] k|ToIf ;xeflutfdf ug{'kb{5 . lhNnf k|sf]k Go"gLsf/0f ;ldlt, ;fd'bflos k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f ;ldltdf plgx¿sf] k|ToIf ;xeflutf u/fpg' kb{5 . o;/L ckfËtf ePsf Joltmx¿nfO{ k|fs[lts k|sf]kaf6 hf]ufpg pNn]lvt ;jfnx¿df ;DalGwt lgsfo nfUg' kb{5 eg] ckfËtf ;DaGwL ;+3;Fu7gx¿n] klg o; ;jfndf ljleGg sfo{s|dx¿ Nofpg' cfjZo b]lvG5 . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I17
  • 22. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! ofqf ;+:d/0f ckf·tf ePsf o"jfx¿sf] ljZjJofkL r'gf}ltx¿ ljifos Ps cGt/f{li6«o cWoog sfo{qmd l;of]n, blIf0f sf]l/of x/]s bfz{lgsx¿sf] hLjgk|ltsf] cf—cfˆg} b[li6sf]0f / kl/efiff eP h:t} d]/f] klg hLjg k|ltsf] cfˆg} k[ys b[li6sf]0f 5 . jf:tjdf d]/f] nflu hLjg Ps cg'ej} cg'ejx¿sf] ;Fufnf] xf] lsgsL dflg; hGd]sf] lbgb]lv cg'ej ug{ k|f/De u5{ / gd¿~h]n;Dd cg'ej} cg'ej dfq ul//x]sf] x'G5 . s'g} klg JolQmsf] hLjg hGd]b]lv gd¿~h]n;Ddsf] nflu k"0f{ ePsf] x'Fb}g . b]Vg]nfO{ k"0f{ h:tf] nfu]tfklg ef]Ug]nfO{ ck"0f{ g} nfu]sf] x'G5 . o;y{, d}n] klg d]/f] hLjgsf] klxnf] k6s ljZjs} pTs[i6 ljsl;t /fi6« blIf0f sf]/Lofsf] cGt/fl{i6«o e|d0f ug{] cj;/ kfPsf] lyPF . h;af6 d}n] gf}nf] cg'ej u/]sf] 5' . pQm e|d0f d]/f] hLjgsf nflu cToGt} 7"nf] zlQm ag]sf] dxz'; u/]sf] 5' . Rehabilitation International (RI) / Korean Society for Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities (KSRPD) sf] ;+o'Qm cfof]hgfdf ;g @))% b]lv k|f/De ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o cWoog sfo{qmddf g]kfnsf] klxnf] k|ltlglwsf ¿kdf ut cui6 @)!# df blIf0f sf]l/ofsf] /fhwfgL l;of]n ed|0f ug{]cj;/ kfPsf ]lyP F. ckfËtf ePsf o"jfx¿sf] ljZjJofkL r'gf}ltx¿ ljifos pQm !# lbg] cWoog e|d0f sfo{qmd cui6 !( b]lv #!, @)!# ;Ddsf] lyof] . Plzof k|zflGto If]qx¿af6 cfJxfg ul/Psf] pQm cGt/f{li6«o cWoog sfo{qmddf g]kfn ;lxt ef/t, aËnfb]z, e'6fg, kfls:tfg, lshL{ls:tfg, tfhls:tfg, lkmlnlkG;, OG8f]g]l;of / leotgfdaf6 !÷! hgf u/L hDdf !) hgf / :jo+ cfof]hs b]zaf6 * hgf ;xefuL ;lxt @ hgf sfo{qmd ;+of]hsx¿ u/L hDdf @) hgfsf] ;d"xdf ;xefuL lyofF}. pQm cWoog sfo{qmdsf] d'Vo p2]Zo Plzof k|zflGto If]qdf / blIf0f sf]l/ofdf ePsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;d:of tyf r'gf}ltx¿sf ;DaGwdf j[xt 5nkmn ug{]/ ;f] r'gf}ltx¿sf ;dfwfgsf nflu ckfËtf ePs} o"jfx¿sf] Ifdtf clej[l4åf/f g]t[Tj ljsf; u/L ;xeflutfdf clej[l4 ug'{ /x]sf] lyof] . !# lbg;Dd /x]sf] pQm cGt/f{li6«o cWoog sfo{qmdaf6 d}n] w]/} s'/fx¿ hfGg], a'‰g] / l;Sg] cj;/ kfPF . ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ cj;/ t Ps} :yfgaf6 !) j6f ljleGg b]zx¿df eO/x]sf] ckfËtf cfGbf]ng ;DalGw lj:t[t ¿kdf hfgsf/L lng kfOof] eg] blIf0f sf]l/of h:tf] Ps clt ljsl;t b]zdf ckfËtf cfGbf]ngsf] P]ltxfl;s k[i7e"ld tyf o;sf ljsf;sf ;DaGwdf k|ToIf cWoog ug{ kfOof] . cWoog ;dofjlwdf xfdLn] ljz]ifu/L (KSRPD) / ToxfFsf] ckfËtf clwsf/ k|j4{gsf ;DaGwdf P]ltxfl;s k[i7e"ldsf ;DaGwdf hfgsf/L lng kfOof] . To;}u/L, :jfanDaL hLjgk4ltsf] cjwf/0ff tyf jt{dfg cj:yf / o;sf ;xof]uL gLltx¿sf ;DaGwdf ;d]t Jojxfl/s ¿kdf l;Sg kfOof] . jf:tjdf, blIf0f sf]l/ofn] ef}lts kx"Frdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] kx"Fr clje[l4sf nflu cToGt} ;x|fgLo / k|z+;gLo sfo{ u/]sf] kfOof] eg] ;"rgf / k|ljlwsf] If]qdf klg plQs} dfqfdf gofF–gofF k|ljlwx¿sf] www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I18
  • 23. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! ljsf; u/]sf] kfOof] . h;sf] kl/0ffd ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu b}lgs hLjgofkg lbg k|ltlbg ;xh / ;/n aGb} uPsf] cg'e"lt eof] . o;sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu :jfanDaL hLjg k4ltsf] Jojxfl/s sfof{Gjogdf qmlds ljsf; ePsf] kfOof] . e|d0f cWoogsf qmddf xfdLn] ToxfFsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu agfOPsf / alg/x]sf ljleGg cfw'lgs k|sf/sf ;xof]uL ;fdfu|Lx¿ k|ToIf ¿kdf cjnf]sg ug{ kfof}F eg] ToxfFsf] ;fF:s[lts k/Dk/fsf] klg b[Zofjnf]sg u/]sf lyof}F . e|d0fs} qmddf xfdLn] blIf0f sf]l/ofsf] ckfËtf ;DalGw ag]sf] 3/]n' P]g, j}b]lzs gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx¿, Incheon Strategy (2012 to 2022), ckfËtf / cGt/f{li6«o ljsf; tyf ;xz|flAb ljsf; nIodf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;xeflutf tyf To;df blIf0f sf]l/ofn] xfn;Dd ul//x]sf] sfd / eljiodf ug{ ;Sg] sfdsf ;DaGwdf 5nkmn, tyf k/fdz{ sfo{qmdx¿df ;xeflu eOof] . xfdLn] blIf0f sf]l/ofdf cWoogsf] qmddf Korean Council Center for Independent Living of Persons with Disabilities, Korea Agency for Digital Opportunity and Promotion, National Assembly, Ministry of Health and Welfare, KOICA, Korea Employment Agency for the Disabled, Junglip Electronic, National Human Rights Commission nufotsf :yfgx¿sf] :ynut e|d0f u/L ljleGg k|sf/sf hfgsf/Lx¿ lng kfOPsf] lyof] . !# lbg;Ddsf] nfdf] o; cGt/f{li6«o cWoog sfo{qmd l;sfOsf b[li6sf]0fn] cToGt} kmnbfoL /Xof] . d}n] u/]sf] ;f] cWoogsf] ljZn]if0ffg';f/ blIf0f sf]l/of ljsf;sf b[li6sf]0fn] cToGt} cufl8 5 . ;"rgf / k|ljlwsf] If]qdf nfdf] km8sf] df/]sf] 5 . xfd|f] b]z / blIf0f sf]l/ofdf kfPsf] d'Vo km/s eg]sf] xfd|f] b]zdf æw]/} gLlt yf]/} sfof{GjogÆ pgLx¿sf] b]zdf æyf]/} gLlt w]/} sfof{GjogÆ xf] . pgLx¿ agfOPsf gLlt lgodx¿sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogdf k"0f{ ¿kdf hf]8 lbFbf /x]5g . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/sf nflu ;/sf/ cToGt} ;+j]bgzLn /x]sf] kfOof] . ;/sf/L ;+/rgfsf cfwf/df x]bf{ blIf0f sf]l/ofdf ckfËtf clwsf/ k|j4{gsf nflu k|wfgdGqLsf] ;+of]hsTjdf dGqfnosf dGqLx¿ ;b:o /xg] u/L sfo{bn agfOPsf] /x]5 . o;n] ubf{ agfOPsf gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx¿sf] lg/Gt/ kmnf]ck ug]{ / dGqLx¿n] To;sf] k|ultsf] ;DaGwdf lg/Gt/ hfgsf/L u/fO/xg] ul/bf] /x]5 . o;sf] k|d'v ljz]iftf eg]sf] ckfËtfsf] d'2fnfO{ /fli6«o d'2fsf] ¿kdf k|fyldsLs/0f ul/Psf] /x]5 h;sf sf/0f k|To]s dGqfno ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] d'2fk|lt ;+j]bgzLn eO{ clgjfo{ ¿kdf sfd ug}{ kg]{ /x]5 . blIf0f sf]l/ofdf ckfËtf cfGbf]ng ;kmn x'g'sf] k|d'v sf/0f eg]sf] ToxfFsf ckfËtf cfGbf]ngsdL{x¿n] cfˆgf] clwsf/sf] cfGbf]ngsf qmddf @÷$ hgfn] hLjgsf] cfx'lt g} lbPsf /x]5g h;sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k cfh b]lvg] kl/jt{g k|fKt ePsf] /x]5 . blIf0f sf]l/ofsf] csf]{ ljz]iftf eg]sf] gLlt Joj;foLs s]Gb|x¿n] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ k|j4{gsf nflu Joj;flos ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj (Corporate Social Responsibility) sf] /fd|f] ljsf; u/]sf] kfOof] . blIf0f sf]l/ofsf] e|d0fn] dnfO{ jf:tjdf ckfËtf cfGbf]ngdf cfˆgf xsclwsf/ :yflkt ug{sf nflu lg/Gt/ ;+3if{ ug{ cToGt} pTk|]l/t u/]sf] 5 . ;du| ckfËtf cfGbf]ng / o"jf cfGbf]ngdf ckfËtf ePsf o"jfx¿sf] klxrfg, pgLx¿sf] ;xeflutf / lg0ff{os k|lqmofdf ;dfj]z tyf lgoGq0fsf] cefj 5 . o; sf/0f kl5Nnf] ;do d ;du| cfGbf]ngdf ckfËtf ePsf o"jfx¿sf] xsclwsf/ :yflkt ug{sf nflu gofF 9fFrfdf gljgtd ;fFr]sf ;fy nflu k/]sf] 5' . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I19
  • 24. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! The Challenges and Promise of Inclusive Tourism in Nepal Dr. Scott Rains writes daily on travel and issues in the tourism industry of interest to people with disabilities. His work appears online at www.RollingRains.com. He is the founder of the global forum on Inclusive Tourism – Tour Watch. Rains’ articles have appeared in numerous publications: New Mobility, Emerging Horizons, Venture, Brave New Traveler, Challenges, TravelBiz Monitor, Enabled Online, Contours, Accessible Portugal, Audacity, Travel and Transitions, eTur Brazil, Success & Ability, Turismo Polibea, and Disaboom among others. Dr. Scott came to Nepal in May 2014 to promote the accessible tourism in Nepal. During his short visit, he visited Kathmandu, Chitwan and Pokhara to practically see the situation of accessibility and met with with many stakeholders from government agencies, private agencies and disabled people organizations' leaders to work for promoting accessible tourism in Nepal. NAPD-Nepal, in this regards, requested him to write an article comprising the real learning from Nepal. I came to Nepal to build on the work of one of the countries most experienced and respected travel professionals, Pankaj Padhanananga of Four Season Travel and Tours.My assignment was to experience and evaluate the accessibility for wheelchair users of their Nepal sampler itinerary. It includes Kathmandu for culture, Chitwan for a jungle experience and Pokhara to get close to the Himalayas. Since I use a wheelchair and travel with a personal assistant part of the project was to build the capacity of their suppliers, including personal care assistants. Something new is happening in the world. Never before have had so many people with By Dr. Scott Rains www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I20
  • 25. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! disabilities had the possibility to live such long and productive lives. In fact, never has the older population of the world outnumbered the young as it does today. The rules of that future are being born in choices we make today. I applaud my friend Pankaj Pradhananga for allowingme, through the sponsorship of Four Season Travel and Tours, to place before you the opportunity to choose an approach to doing business that ethically and sustainably draws in this underserved market. I wanted to write each person who attended the workshops because it is clear you are motivated to follow through. Already a joint Nepali and international group have formed to build the country’s first accessible public restroom in Kathmandu. I’d like to see one simultaneously built in Chitwan and Pokhara so I can begin to tell the world that inclusion of travelers with disabilities is a national value in Nepali hospitality and so that Nepali businesses would see more of us active in society. In my final workshop which was at the US Embassy in Kathmandu I left behind a challenge for Nepalese as well as development programs run by my own country. I specified these steps in my final report to key stakeholders: Hold professional training for airports and airlines by Chicago's Open Doors Organization Purchase lift-equipped vans by hotels for airport pick up and side trips such as those modified by Braun Lifts of Minnesota Train a national pool of Personal Care Assistants using internationally accepted standards using experienced trainers such a those at the Philippine's PINATI. Build a photo collection showing real disabled people as models enjoying Nepal using the stock photo service PhotoAbility.net. See to it that there are at least one hotel room independently accessible wth ADA-like international standards (especially with a roll-in shower) at each Nepali tourist destination city. The challenges are significant. Nepal will not be a disabled-friendly destination over night – but it can be soon. In 2002 and again in 2005 a study done in the USA showed that American with disabilities was spending $13.6 billion annually on travel. Europe estimates that its disabled population spends even more. Australia claims that its travelers with disabilities add at least another $9 billion each year. When the tourism sector in Nepal understands that it is hurting itself by not serving this market not only will hotels and airlines change but that spirit of social inclusion will spill over to education, employment and public infrastructure. The key to achieving tourism for all in Nepal is a practical approach known as Universal Design. It begins by www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I21
  • 26. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! observing that real people come in a variety of shapes, sizes and levels of ability. It seeks to create for he broadest range of people under the broadest range of conditions so that a product, space or service does not need to be later modified for so called "special” people or circumstances. Universal Design imagines people with disabilities, child, and older people as participating in society. Then it builds to allow that to happen. To allow Nepalese tourism to grow to its potential here is a list of the Goals of Universal Design as developed by Professor Edward Steinfeld. A more detailed version of these goals, with examples of each, is found in his recent book, Universal Design: Creating Inclusive vironments (Wiley & Sons, Inc.). Goal 1: Body Fit – Accommodating a wide a range of body sizes and abilities Goal 2: Comfort – Keeping demands within desirable limits of body function Goal 3: Awareness – Ensuring that critical information for use is easily perceived Goal 4: Understanding – Making methods of operation and use intuitive, clear and unambiguous Goal 5: Wellness – Contributing to health promotion, avoidance of disease and prevention of injury Goal 6: Social Integration – Treating all groups with dignity and respect Goal 7: Personalization – Incorporating opportunities for choice and the expression of individual preferences Goal 8: Cultural Appropriateness – Respecting and reinforcing cultural values and the social and environmental context of any design project I have no doubt after my experience traveling through Nepal that this human-centered social philosophy is culturally appropriate with Nepalese values. I also see signs of enthusiasm for greater inclusion in tourism around the country. I look forward to evaluating the practical that will have taken place when I return next year. www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I22
  • 27. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! Interview with Ms Paula Sotnik Email: Paula.Sotnik@umb.edu Website: www.serviceandinclusion.org Ms. Paula Sotnik is a recognized expert consultant, trainer and author on access and accommodations; culture brokering; diversity; outreach and recruitment strategies; team and partnership development; measurable outcome oriented strategic planning; national service, volunteerism and disability legislation, policy knowledge and practice acquired through years of personal, educational and professional life experiences. She serves as a consultant reviewer and trainer for an international fellowship exchange program. As part of her action, she came to Nepal coordinating with Sagar Prasain – a youth with disability, and provided training on fund raising and project proposal writing skills to the twelve different Disabled People Organizations (DPOs) leaders at NAPD-Nepal. At the mean time, the following interview was taken with her particularly focusing on her visit to Nepal. Her responses to the questions in interview were given in details: Q. Could you please share us your visit purpose to Nepal ? Response: Our organization, the Institute for Community Inclusion (ICI) had a great opportunity to host an IREX fellow-Sagar Prasain from Nepal last Fall. The Institute for Community Inclusion is a freestanding center at UMASS Boston that supports the rights of children and adults with disabilities to participate in all aspects of the community. Mr. Prasain’s goal was to learn about U.S. disability law, policies and practices. He accomplished this goal yet we achieved much more which truly benefited our staff. Mr. Prasain educated us about what it’s like to live with and experience disability in Nepal. As a result, our staff became much more culturally responsive in how they approach people with disabilities from other countries. Ms. Paula Sotnik Mr. Prasain and I also deve loped a project and strategies to address some of the access and issues in Nepal, through his newly formed nongovernmental organization, Sangai Hami. I was fortunate to obtain a travel grant to Nepal to continue our collective work. My main objectives were to: provide a training on access, mmodations, Universal Design, CRPD and inclusion to participants with and without disabilities learn as much as I could about what it’s like to live with a disability in Nepal learn about advocacy activities, disability services and supports from visiting many DPOs and talking to leaders in the disability community My trip and the opportunity to learn from others in Nepal was a life www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I23
  • 28. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! changing experience for me. I am truly grateful to all in Nepal who spent time and educated me. Also I am very grateful to the U.S. Department of State grant awarded to the IREX Community Solutions Program, which made Mr. Prasain’s fellowship and my trip to Nepal possible. I truly hope to return to this beautiful and embracing country one day in the future and continue to work with my new friends to achieve a fully inclusive Nepal. Q. How did you find the disability movement in Nepal ? Response: With very little resources, a group of very dedicated committed people who are passionate about equality and inclusion and possess a strong and consistent voice, are making a huge difference in Nepal. From the capacity development and leadership of National Federation of the Disabled Nepal and the National Association of the Physical Disabled Nepal to the dedication by mothers’ of children with Down Syndrome starting the Down Syndrome Society of Nepal in a mother’s home, these individuals are accomplishing a shared goal of providing opportunities for individuals with disabilities of all ages to learn grow and succeed. I met with a young woman who, recognizing a lack of services for youth with autism and other intellectual disabilities left her government position to start a much needed school, Special School for Disabled and Rehabilitation Center. This school has successfully transitioned children to regular education classes. And I learned much from the work by staffs of the National Association of Hard of Hearing and Deafened Nepal, who are educating schools and parents of young children to recognize and address hearing disabilities. I was so inspired by the young leaders with disabilities who tirelessly, articulately and intelligently study best practices, inclusive policies and strategies for potential application to Nepal. These young leaders are our future and this effort will make for a future inclusive Nepal. I was very encouraged by young leaders without disabilities in healthcare, architecture, media and communication fields who participated in our training and developed action plans on how they will advance equal rights, access and inclusion in their respective fields and professionals. So, while accessibility issues exist and progressive programs for people with significant disabilities are still in development, the efforts and strength of committed Nepalis, with and without disabilities, will continue the momentum necessary for including all citizens in their communities, regardless of ability or disability, and valuing their individual contributions. www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I24
  • 29. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! Q. What are the major differences that you have found between your country and Nepal in terms of protecting and promoting the human rights of Persons with Disabilities ? Response: The United States has a long history of advocacy for equal rights, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This Act laid the foundation for equal civil and human rights for individuals with disabilities, leading to a number of laws starting with the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 and others. The ADA is a wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits, under certain circumstances, discrimination based on disability. These laws would not have been passed without advocacy by individuals with disabilities. One action, called the Capitol Crawl is seen by many present-day disability activists in the United States as being the single action most responsible for 'forcing' the ADA in to law. Over 60 activists left their wheelchairs and mobility devices and began crawling the 83 stone steps up to the U.S.Capitol Building to demonstrate the unfairness and even cruelties of inaccessibility. The ADA was passed shortly after and this strong advocacy action symbolizes how people with disabilities unite, have a voice and make a difference. Although Nepal progressed and ratified the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities and enacted laws, e.g., the Social Welfare Act 1992 and the Education Act of 2000, Nepalis with disabilities indicate that these laws and related policies are not implemented and there are no consequences for noncompliance. More importantly, I learned that these laws mandate what should be “provided” to people with disabilities with rather than guaranteeing equal rights for individuals to actively and meaningfully participate in society. Also, language in these laws indicate the government has the power to provide access and supports but is not obligated to ensure equal and accessible resources and services. Thus, governmental authorities may be able to postpone or deny demands for equal conditions due to a lack of resources. However, it may not be fair to compare countries and we need to take Nepal’s political history into account. Nepalis have only been able to exercise and enjoy democratic rights since 2006, a relatively brief period in which to see major systemic changes. However, this new democratic society will continue to set a strong foundation for the future development of rights based disability policy. Q. As being a disability right expert having more than twenty years of working experience, what do you see the major gaps to be worked for www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I25
  • 30. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! towards promoting the rights of PWDs in Nepal ? Response: The first factor that comes to mind is the need to increase individuals with disabilities who have decision-making power in leadership roles in government. Secondly, equality and inclusion is everyone’s business and responsibility, not just people with disabilities and DPOs. Thus it is critical to educate government, employers, students, schools, non-disability related NGOs, health care workers and more. Education should not just focus on legal compliance but focus on stories of how citizens with disabilities are important to Nepali society. Individuals telling their stories about how they have made positive and significant contributions to their families, community and society are paramount. Educating everyone that people with disabilities, with opportunities to equal access and supports if needed, are and can become are teachers, doctors, lawyers, mothers, fathers, and leaders in Nepal. And any education efforts should focus on Universal Design to show everyone how elements of inclusive programmatic and architectural design doesn’t just benefit individuals with disabilities, but benefits everyone! Additionally, I frequently heard that the government has the laws but lacks a viable implementation plan to ensure and promote the rights of individuals with disabilities. As mentioned, strong consistent Nepali NGOs and DPOs can work together to develop a strong coordinated and united effort, with one voice, to compel and assist with the development and implementation of a plan for accessibility and inclusion that includes overall goals with concrete and measurable objectives, and most importantly an evaluation system that holds all parties accountable. Like the U.S., all structures and agencies that that are funded by or benefit from government funds lead the example in becoming fully accessible and inclusive. By doing so, these entities can set a good example for businesses and other community resources to achieve accessibility so that all individuals may benefit. Q. It is obvious that its state's first responsibility to protect and promote the fundamental rights of its every citizen. However, it seems very desperate in terms of persons with disabilities not only in particular country instead globally. Therefore, what do you think it to be so ? Response: Circumstances and views of people with disabilities are changing for the better, but doing so very slowly. In the not too distant past, people with disabilities were viewed as recipients, objects of charity,powerlessandwithout a voice. Governmental officials did not prioritize the interests and needs of the www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I26
  • 31. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! disability community. Over the past years, there has been an increased emphasis on supporting more individuals with disabilities to vote and have more of a voice in choosing their political leaders. We are also now seeing people with disabilities assuming more leadership positions, in valued roles in the media and actively engaged in their communities. However in many developing countries people with disabilities still lack essential services and access to education, work, health services and participation in the governmental decisions. We are still facing prejudice and being thought of as “less than” by many of our fellow citizens. I remain optimistic that the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities will universally mandate that states should uphold the rights of everyone. I see an increase in our youth and young adults, with and without disabilities, taking the Convention very seriously and strongly advocating for equal access and inclusion. This trend, by our young leaders, will create a more equalizing and accessible future in which countries and states prioritize the needs and interests of individuals with disabilities. Q. Finally, thank you so much for your precious time and opinions for the above raised queries. Would you like to say anything more besides these ? Response: As mentioned the DPOs work tirelessly with little to no resources. Many of the staff are not paid or paid very little for long hours. Some funds might be provided by government, donations and/or by other international organizations but may not be enough to support all the work that is necessary to successfully implement projects that make a difference in the lives of individuals with disabilities. From talking with many of the DPOs it seems that a capacity building effort is needed to assist DPOs to obtain and manage larger government and foundation grants. The focus should encourage effective partnering to build a strong proposal and leverage resources, working with an intermediary seasoned organization that not only subcontracts small amounts to DPOs but, more importantly, replicates competitions through which DPOs may hone their skills to develop strong and winning proposals, and subsequently be funded. This strategy, successfully used in the Unites States, may hold promise for Nepali DPOs to increase their ability to self-sufficiently compete and be awarded significant grants, without relying on larger international organizations for small subcontracts. www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I27
  • 32. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! ;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf ckf·tf ePsf dlxnfx¿sf] ;jfn h;/L ;a} JolQmnfO{ uf;, af; / skf;sf] cfjZostf kb{5 To;/L g} oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿sf] klg plQs} cfjZostf / dxTj 5 . o;sf] k|d'v sf/0f eg]sf] dflg;sf] udglzntfsf] clwsf/ xf] . em§ x]bf{ oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿ eGgfn] u'8g] uf8L tyf a;x¿ dfq} a'lemg] ePtfklg oxfF xfdL ;a} lsl;dsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu pko'Qm x'g] lsl;dsf ;jf/L ;fwgx¿sf] s'/f u5f}{+ . ;fy;fy}, ;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf dlxnfx¿sf] s'/f ubf{ ljz]ifu/L ;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf lbOg] ckfËtf cf/If/0f l;6 tyf ckfËtf ePsf dlxnf dfly x'g]lx+;fsf af/]df s'/f ug'{kg]{x'G5 . o;} k|;Fudf d}n] cfkm"n] ;fj{hlgs oftfoft k|of]u ubf{ ef]Ug'k/]sf]jf:tljs tYox¿nfO{hf]8g rfxfG5' . ;a}eGbf klxn] Pp6f jf:tljs 36gfaf6 k|f/De ug{ rfxG5' . d k|foMh;f] cfˆgf] sfof{nosf] sfdn] ubf{ b}lgsh;f] sf]6]Zj/af6 sfnf]k'n hfg] ub{5' . o;/L hfg] qmddf d}n] sf]6]Zj/af6 ldqkfs{;Dd / ToxfFb]vL sfnf] k'n;Dd u/L b'Oj6f uf8L r8g] u5'{ . sl/a cfwf 306fsf] ;do nfUg] of] af6f]sf] ofqfdf k|foM d a; r9g] u5'{ lsgsL cGo ;jf/L ;fwg eGbf d]/f] nflu a; g} pko'Qm x'g] ub{5 . t/, d a; r9g] qmddf a;df bfFof kl§sf] ckfËtf l;6 / afFof kl§ dlxnf cf/If0f l;6df h;sf] lgDtL tf]lsPsf] x'G5 pxfFx¿ geP/ cGo JolQmåf/f g} el/Psf] x'G5 . slxn]sfxLFt k'?if ;fyLx¿ cg'/f]w u/]kZrft p7Llbg'x'G5 . t/, ;w}F ;a} hgfn] To;f] ug{ dfGg'x'Gg . o:tf] cj:yfdf /fHon] Joj:yf u/]sf] sfg'gL Joj:yfsf] Jojxfl/s sfof{Gjog eof ]of ePg eg]/ cgu'dg ug{' clt cfjZos 5 . cf/lIft l;6x¿ ckfËtf ePs} JolQmx¿sf nflu ;'lglZrt ug{sf nflu xfdL cfkm}Fklg ko|f; ul//xs]f] xG'5f+} eg ]o:tf ] cj:yfdf uf8Ls} rfns tyf ;xrfnsx¿n] klg ;xhLs/0f ug'{ePsf] v08df xfdLnfO{ cln ;xh x'G5 . o;sf nflu Psbd} bl/nf] cg'udgsf] cfjZostf /x]sf] d}n] dxz'; u/]sf] 5' . csf]{ s'/f ;fj{hlgs oftfoftleq lx+;fsf] s'/f clnslt hf]8g rfxG5' . xfdL ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5 / xfdL ;a} ofqf ug]{ u5f}{+ . k|foM ofqf ug]{ s|ddf dlxnf dfly lx+;f a9L ePsf] xfdL e]65f}F . Psbd} x'nd'nsf] ;dodf olb ckfËtf l;6df sf]xL c¿ ckfËtf ePsf ;fyL g} a;]sf] / dlxnf l;6df klg dlxnf lbbL alxgL g} a;]sf] cj:yfdf pxfFx¿nfO{ p7fpg] cj:yf klg x'Fb}g . o:tf] a]nfdf pleg'kg]{ g} cj:yf x'G5 . o:tf] kl/l:yltdf x'nd'nsf] kmfObf p7fP/ sltko k'?if ;fyLx¿n] dlxnf dfly ljleGg k|sf/sf lx+;fTds ls|ofsnfk ul//x]sf] x'G5g . h:t}, s'lxgfn] w]/} g} wsNg], lxkn] ws]Ng], v'§fx¿ s'lNrlbg], dlxnfsf ;+j]bglzn c+ux¿ 5f]O{lbg], g/fd|f zAbx¿sf] k|of]u u/]/ lh:sfpg], xftx¿ ;dfpg] cflb . o;sf sf/0fn] ofqf ug]{ dlxnfnfO{ lxgtfaf]w x'g'sf ;fy} c;'/lIft dxz'; x'g]ub{5 . To;sf]kl/0ffd:j¿k dlxnf ofq'x¿nfO{ uf8Lx¿df ofqf ug{ dg} gnfUg klg ;Sb5 . o:tf 36gfx¿ ePsf] a]nfdf :jo+ kLl8t dlxnfn] dnfO{ o:tf] eof] eg]/ cfjfh p7fOPtf klg uf8Lsf cGo ofq'x¿n] p;nfO{ g/fd|f] ¿kdf lng], eL8df ws]lNnG5 gL, 5f]OxfN5 gL, of] dlxnf g} v/fa xf] eGg] tl/sfn] hjfkm lbg] ul/Psf]n] w]/} dlxnfx¿ cfkm' lx+;fdf k/]tfklg ;x]/ a;]sf] cj:yf 5 . olb eGg rfx] klg sxfFeGg], s;nfO{ eGg] / p;n] To;sf] afkt hl/jfgf sf]af6 www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I28
  • 33. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! lng], p;n] Gofo kfpg] ls gkfpg] eGg] h:tf s'/fx¿sf] k|i6tf 5}g . o;y{, o:tf d'2fx¿sf] ;Daf]wgsf nflu s;}n] klg ;xof]u gug]{ ePsf]n] cem} klg oftfoftsf ;fwgx¿ leq Psbd} w]/} lx+;fx¿ 3l6/x]sf] xfdLn] kfO/x]sf 5f}F . / xfdL cfkm}n] klg b}lgs h;f] o:tf s's[Tox¿sf] lzsf/ x'g afWo 5f}F . o:t} cj:yf ljBdfg /lx/x]df g]kfndf ePsf gLltlgdf{0f stf{x¿n] cem}klg ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu s:tf] lsl;dsf] oftfoftsf] ;fwg Nofpg'k5{ / s;/L To;nfO{ Joj:yfkg ug'{k5{ eGg] s'/fx¿ cfh;Dd klg ;f]lrPsf] 5}g . To:t} u/L ;femf a;s} s'/f ubf{ klg k5fl8af6 r9]/ cuf8Laf6 emg]{ h'g Joj:yf 5 To;sf] b'/L klg cln nfdf] ePsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu /flvPsf] l;6;Dd g} k'Ug sl7g x'g] cj:yf 5 . To;}n] To:tf ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf ;fwg agfpbf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu dfq geP/ ue{jtL dlxnf, h]i7 gfu/Lsx¿ ;a}nfO{ ;xh x'g] vfnsf ;jf/L ;fwgx¿ agfPdf ;a}sf] nflu ;fj{hlgs ;jf/L ;fwg kx'Frof]Uo x'g ;Sb5 . csf]{ s'/f g]kfndf ;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf Ifdtf eGbf a9L ofq' /fVg] x'gfn] klg a9L lx+;f x'g uPsf] kfpg ;lsG5 . To:tf] le8ef8df ckfËtf ePsf JolQm tyf dlxnfn] ;jf/L ;fwgdf r9g] cj;/ klg Psbd} Go'g x'g] ub{5 lsgsL XjLnlro/ k|of]ustf{ tyf ;]tf] 58L k|of]ustf{ JolQmx¿nfO{ uf8Ldf r9fpg ;Sg] cj:yf g} x'b}g . pgLx¿nfO{ ;xof]u u/]/ uf8Ldf r9fpg w]/} ;do nfUg] xFb'f ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ b]v]/ klg uf8L g} g/f]Sg] ;d:of 5 . To;}n] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ To;df klg dlxnfx¿sf] oftfoftsf ;fwgdf kx'rFPsbd} Go'g /x]sf] 5 . gLlt lgdf{0fstf{x¿n] klg o:tf s'/fx¿nfO{ Psbd} ljrf/ u/]/ gLltlgod agfpg] a]nfdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;+nUgtf a9fpg ;s]df cem} /fd|f] x'g] lyof] . ckfËtf ePsf dlxnfx¿sf] ;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf lx+;fsf] Go'gLs/0fsf] nflu klg ;j{k|yd t ;/sf/n] Pp6f dfkb08 lgwf{/0f ug'{kb{5 . o;f] x'g ;s]df eL8sf] df}sf p7fpg]x¿n] Tof] cj;/ kfpb}gg eg] l;6df ePsf] JolQmn] lx+;fTds sfd u/]df c¿n] klg b]Vg ;S5g / ;fy lbg ;S5g . csf]{ s'/f kLl8t :jo+n] klg cfjfh p7fpg ;Sg] cj:yf /xG5 . o;af6 lx+;f lgd'{n} kfg{ g;lsPtf klg Go'gLs/0f eg] ug{ ;lsG5 . oL ;a} s'/f ul//xFbf ;fj{hlgs oftfoftdf ;a} g/fd|} dfq x'G5 eg]/ a:g' eGbf klg xfdL cfkm'n] klg kxn ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . ha;Dd xfdL r'k nfu]/ a:5fF}ta;Dd Gofo kfpb}gf+} . pbfx/0fsf nflu d}n] g} ef]u]sf] 36gf oxfFx¿ ;dIf hfgsf/L u/fpg rfxG5' . Pslbg d sfnf]k'naf6 ldqkfs{ cfpg] s|ddf d / d]/f] ;fyL ;+o'Qm oftfoft r9 of}+ . To;df n]lvPsf] dlxnf l;6df c¿ g} a:g' ePsf] xFb'f xfdL b'a}hgfn] dlxnf l;6df dlxnf a:g kfpg'k5{ gL efO, To;}n] of] l;6 xfd|f] nflu ldnfO lbg'; g eg]/ ha ;xrfnsnfO{ xfdLn] eGofF}Tolta]nf p;n] xfdLnfO{ Psbd }g/fd|f] zAbx¿ k|of]u u/L kf]yL af;]sf] /fd|f] x'b}g eGb} ufnL u¥of] . xfdL klg p;Fu k|ltjfb u¥of}F h;sf] sf/0fn] ToxfF xfdLx¿aLr emu8f g} k¥of] . o; 36gfn] xfdLnfO{ Psbd} g/fd|f] nfUof] / ldqkfs{df cf]ln{P/ uf8L gDa/ l6kL ;8s kf/L hfg] s|ddf Pshgf 6«flkms k|x/L;Fu e]6 eof] . e]6 x'gf;fy gLh;Fu d}n] uf8Ldf n]lvPsf dlxnf, ckfËtfl;6 pgLx¿s} nflu k|of]u x'g] u/]sf 5g ls 5}gg eg]/ xh'/x¿n] cg'udg ug'{ePsf] 5 sL 5}g eg]/ k|Zg u/] . clg pxfFn] hjfkmdf cg'udg ul//x]sf] / klxnfsf] t'ngfdf w]/} g} ;'wf/ cfPsf] atfpg' eof] . To;kZrft, d}n] cfkm"dfyL ePsf] 36gf ;a} ;'gfP/ uf8L gDa/ pxfFnfO{ lbPF . pxfFn] dnfO{ ;femf a;df r9fP/ ckfËtf l;6df a;fn]/ k7fpg'eof] . To;sf] b'O{ lbg kZrft dnfO{ 6«flkms k|x/L www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I29
  • 34. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! sfof{no uf}zfnfaf6 kmf]g cfof] / tkfO{dfly g/ fd|f] Jojxf/ ug]{ ;xrfns / To;sf] rfnsnfO{ uf8L ;lxt oxfF NofPsf 5f}F . To;}n] tkfO{F t'¿Gt oxfF cfpg'k¥of] egL kmfg]ug{e'of] . ckm;f]r Û ;f]xL ;dodf d !) lbgsf nflu ;+:yfut sfo{n] s}nfnL uPsf] sf/0f ToxfF cfpg ;Dej gePsf]n] pgLx¿nfO{ ;DemfP/ 5f]l8lbg cg'/f]w u/] . o; 36gfn] dnfO{ s] nfUof] eg] xfdLn] cfjfh p7fP/ 6«flkms;Dd k'¥ofof} eg] ToxfFaf6 Gofosf] nflu s]xL x'g]/x]5 t/ o;nfO{ s;/L lg/Gt/tf lbg] eGg] s'/fx¿ ;fF]Rg h¿/L 5 . csf]{ tk{m o;/L 6«flkms k|x/Ln] cToGt} ;lqmotfsf ;fy xfd|f] ;jfndf ;'g'jfO{ ug{sf] k5f8L Tolta]nf /fli6«o zfl//Ls ckfË ;+3—g]kfnsf] Pp6f ;d"x g}lyof]/ pQm ;d"xn] ;d"xut 5nkmn g} u/L Pp6f cleofg ;~rfng u/]sf] lyof] . o; cleofg cGt/ut o;n] slxn] oftfoft Joj:yf ljefunfO{, slxn] 6«flkmsnfO{, slxn] rfns t slxn] ;xrfnsnfO{ hfu¿s ul//x]sf] lyof] . h;n] ubf{ uf}zfnf sfnf]k'n /Tgkfs{ rNg] uf8Ldf -cfO;d]6«f]h_ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ s;/L uf8L r9fpg], s'g l;6df a;fNg] tyf s;/L cf]/fNg] eGg] s'/fdf pxfFx¿nfO{ cled'vLs/0f ul/Psf]n] pxfFx¿n];xof]u ug'{ePsf] xf]nf eGg] dnfO{ nfUof] . /, ca o;nfO{ Ifl0fs eGbf klg s;/L lgoldt agfpg] eGg] s'/fdf Psbd} ;f]Rg' h¿/L 5 . /fli6«o:t/df ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu sfd ul//x]sf] ;+3;+:yfx¿n] klg a]nfa]nfdf oftfoft Joj:yf ljefu, dGqfno, 6«flkms, rfns, ;xrfnsnfO{ hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ vfnsf sfo{s|d ug{'clt g }h¿/L x'G5 . g]kfnsf hgtfdf cem};Dd klg ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ l;6 5f]l8lbg' k5{, cf/lIft l;6sf] ;'lglZrttf x'g'k5{ eGg] efjgfsf] ljsf; geO;s]sf] x'Fbf Jofks ¿kdf hgr]tgfd'ns sfo{s|dsf] cfjZostf 5 . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I30
  • 35. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! kx'“ro'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf cj/f]w tyf ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿ kx'Fro'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ k|fKt ug{]klxnf] cfwf/ xf] . kx'Fr cfkm}df a[xt 5 . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] ;Gbe{df kx'Fr eGgfn] ef}lts, ;fdflhs, cfly{s, gLltut cflb a'lemG5 . oxfF xfdL ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] nflu ef}lts cj/f]w, To;n] kf/]sf] r'gf}lt / ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿df s]lGb|t 5f+}. dflg; cfkm}n] lgdf{0f u/]sf] ef}lts ;+/rgfn]ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ / cGo JolQmx¿df km/s 5'6ofPsf] x'G5 . ckfËtf dfgj ljljwtfsf] Ps kf6f] dfq} xf] . To;nfO{ ef}lts ;+/rgf tyf jftfj/0fn] yf]/ ax't k|efj kf/]sf] x'G5 . ef}lts kxFr'cGtu{t oftfoft tyf ;8s dflysf ] kx'Fr, k}bn dfu{, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{, k|ljlw dflysf] kxFr', ;r"gf tyf ;~rf/df kx'Fr tyf ;Dk"0f{ cfGtl/s tyf afXo ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿ ;dfj]z ePsf x'G5g . ;fdfGotof Pp6f JolQmnfO{ lzIff lng], hLljsf]kfh{g ug]{, cfˆgf] :jf:Yo hfFr ug]{, dgf]/~hgsf s[ofsnfkx¿df efu lng] clwsf/ x'G5 . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ klg cfkm"nfO{ dg k/]sf] ljBfno tyf ljZj ljBfnodf uP/ cWoog ug]{, ljZjf; nfu]sf] :jf:Yo ;+:yfdf cfkm'nfO{ hrfpg] clg cfˆgf] Ifdtfn] EofPsf] sfd ug]{ tyf ;fyLx¿;Fu 3'Dg kfs{ tyf l;g]df 3/df hfg] /x/ x'G5 / To;f] ug]{ k"0f{ clwsf/ ;d]t 5 . t/, g]kfndf ckfËtf ePs} sf/0fn] s"n hg;+Vofsf] em08} !%Ü JolQmx¿ cfˆgf oL clwsf/x¿af6 jl~rt 5g . kx"Fr clej[l4sf pkfox¿ M ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf ]kxFr'df j[l4 ug{' eg]sf] pgLx¿nfO{ ;dfhdf k'g:yf{kgf ug'{ xf] . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf ]kxFr'nfO{ j[l4 ug{ lgdf{0f ul/g] ef}lts k"jf{wf/x¿nfO{ ckfËtfd}lq agfpg' k5{ . g]kfn /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/ ;lx+tf @)^) n] klg o; ljifonfO{ pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . sd;]sd tNnf] tnf;Dd XjLnlro/ l5g{ ;Sg] k|j]zåf/ lgdf0{f ug{'kg]{ tyf ¥ofDk lgdf0{f ug'{ kg]{ pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . ef}lts kx'Fr eGgfn] XjLnlro/ dfq} geP/ j}zfvL, 6«fO;fOsn k|of]ustf{, b[li6ljxLg tyf alx/fx¿sf nflu a|]n tyf ;f+s]lts klxrfg x'g h¿/L x'G5 . To:t} gk]fn ;/sf/åf/f hf/L ul/Psf]æckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] nflu ef}lts jftfj/0f tyf ;~rf/ ;j]fdf kxFr';DalGw lgb{l]zsf @)^(Æ df clt ;'Id k|fljlws s'/fnfO{ ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 . t/ cj:yf p:t} g} x'g'sf] k5f8L xfd|f] sfof{Gjog ug]{ z}nL lhDd]af/ /x]sf] b]lvG5 . g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfgn] klg ;Dk"0f{ gfu/Lsx¿nfO{ ;dfg Jojxf/ ul/g]5 eg]sf] 5 . t/ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ ;dfhdf bf]>f] bhf{sf gful/s ;/x /xg afWo 5g . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] nflu ag]sf] /fli6«o gLlt tyf sfo{qmd, ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/;lx+tf, ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw dxf;GwL nufotsf bh{gf+} gLltlgodx¿ xFb'fx'Fb} klg ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] efl}ts kxFr';xh x'g ;s]sf] 5g}h;sf sf/0f xhf/f+}ckfËtf ePsf afnaflnsfx¿ ljleGg ;]jf ;'ljwfx¿sf] pkef]uaf6 jl~rt 5g . xhf/f}+ ckfËtf ePsf dlxnfx¿ of}g tyf k|hgg :jf:Yo lngaf6 www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 31
  • 36. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! alGrt 5g . xhf/f}+ ckfËtf ePsf o"jfx¿ a]/f]huf/ eP/ 3/df a:g afWo 5g . xhf/f}+ ckfËtf ePsf j[4j[4fx¿ ;8sdf dfu]/ a:g afWo 5g of t s'g} j[4f>ddf si6s/ hLjg Joltt ul//x]sf 5g . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGw @))^ n] plgx¿sf] kx'Frsf] ljifodf af]n] klg To;sf] sfof{Gjog x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnon] ;Dk"0f{ ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿nfO{ tyf ;"rgf tyf ;+rf/nfO{ ckfËtfd}qL agfpg lgb]{lzsf g} hf/L u/]tfklg To;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . xfdL;Fu gLlt tyf lgodsf] cefj 5}g . t/, ePsf gLltlgod tyf lgb{l]zsfx¿nfO{ s;/L sfof{jog ug{] eGg] lb3{sflng /0fgLltsf] cefj 5 . g]kfn ;/sf/n] æckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] nflu ef}lts jftfj/0f tyf ;~rf/ ;]jfdf kx'Fr ;DalGw lgb]{lzsf @)^(Æ df hfl/ ul/;s]sf]5 . t/, To;sf] k|efjsfl/tf b]Vg eg] kfOPsf] 5}g . lgb]{lzsf k|efjsf/L eof] ePg eg]/ d"NofÍg ug]{ ;do gePklg lgb{l]zsf kof{Kt tof/L lagf g} cfPsf] b]lvG5 . oxfF lgb]{lzsf eGbf klg ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] ef]lu/x]sf ef}lts cj/f]wx¿nfO{ s;/L kxFr'of]Uo agfpg] eGg] ;jfn xf] . ef}lts ;+/rgfnfO{ kx'Frof]Uo agfpg s'g} Pp6f dfq} dGqfno jf ;+3;+:yfsf] e"ldsfn] k'Ub}g . ef}lts cj/f]w x6fpg] d'4f ;Dk"0f{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] ;femf d'4f xf] . ;Dk"0f{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] ;xsfo{ tyf ;fem]bf/Ln]dfq} oL cj/f]wx¿nfO{ ;dfwfg ug{ ;Dej 5 . ckfË ;+/If0f tyf sNof0f P]g @)#(, ;jf/L tyf oftfoft P]g, jfo" ;]jf P]g, ;fj{hlgs oftfoft cfrf/ ;lx+tf ;/sf/n] NofPsf] lgb]{lzsf eGbf w]/} k'/fgf] x'g . lgb]{lzsf / dfly pNn]lvt P]g tyf lgodx¿ Ps cfk;df aflemg] b]lvG5 . To;sf/0f ;a} eGbf klxn] ;DalGwt ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu a;]/ ;xsfo{ u/L oL P]gx¿nfO{ ckfËtfd}lq agfpg h¿/L b]lvG5 . gq kx'Fr lgb]{lzsfsf] sfof{Gjog ;xh b]lvb}g . bf]>f], ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ k|lt ul/g] Jojxf/ tyf ;f]rfO{ xf] . ha;Dd ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] af/]df ;sf/fTds ;f]Fr /flvGg ta;Dd kl/jt{g b]Vg ;Dej 5}g . o:sf nflu ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿, pgLx¿sf] ;+:yf tyf ;DalGwt lgsfon] r]tgf tyf hfgsf/L d'ns cleofg ug{ cfjZos 5 . gLlt lgdf{0fsf] sfo{b]lv ;8s lgdf{0f;Ddsf sfo{x¿df ckfËtf ePsf JolQmnfO{ Pp6f gfu/Lssf] x}l;otn] g;f]r]/ sNof0fsf/L gh/n] x]g]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . t]>f], ef}lts ;+/rgfnfO{ kxFr'of]Uo agfpg] lhDd]jf/ lgsfo sf]–sf] x'g / plgx¿sf] lhDd]jf/L s]–s] xf] eGg] klxrfg ug{ h¿/L 5 . lgb]{lzsf klg of] ljifodf df}g 5 . dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfhsNof0f dGqfnonfO{ dfq} lhDd]jf/L lbP/ /fHosf cGo lgsfo klG5g kfpg] cj:yfdf b]lvb}g lsgsL oL ;a} dGqfnox¿;Fu Pscsf{df cGt/;DalGwt 5g . ;"rgf, :yflgo, cy{, v]ns'b nufotsf dGqfnox¿sf] klg plQs} bfloTjsf] ljifo xf] . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿ tyf pgLx¿åf/f ;+rflnt ;+3;+:yfx¿ / cGt/f{li6«o bft[lgsfox¿n] ef}lts ;+/rgf tyf ;+rf/ ;]jfnfO{ kx'Fof]Uo agfpg klg plQs} dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng' kb{5 . kx'Frof]Uo jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu ;Dk"0f{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ hjfkmb]lx agfpg h¿/L 5 . cGTodf, ePsf gLltlgod, P]g sfg'gsf] sfo{Gjog eP gePsf] x]g]{ tyf ;DalGwt lgsfonfO{ ;'emfj lbg d"NofÍg tyf cg'udg ug{ cToGt} h¿/L 5 . o;sf nflu ;DalGwt ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ ;d]6]/ dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnosf] dftxtdf Pp6f www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I32
  • 37. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! ;ldlt lgdf{0f ug{ h¿/L 5 . Tof] eGbf klg cl3 lgb{l]zsf sfofG{jog ug {s ]s ]ug {;lsG5 / To;sf nflu slt ;do nfU5 eg] j[xt lb3{sflng /0fgLlt agfpg' k5{ . /f0fgLlt cg';f/ sfo{ ljefhg u/L ;DalGwt lgsfo cl3 a9bf To;sf] k|ltkmn l5§} k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . s'g} klg sfo{qmd nfu" ug{'k"j {To;n ]lbg] kl|tkmn slt x'g], k|efj s:tf] /xg], ;/f]sf/jfnf sf]–sf] x'g, ;d:of slQsf] hl6n 5 eGg] h:tf cfwf/e"t k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/ hfGg' h¿/L 5 . o;sf nflu cg';Gwfg x'g h¿/L 5 . kx'Fr lgb]{lzsf cfpg' cl3 / cfPkl5 b]lvPsf kl/jt{g tyf eljiodf ug'{ kg{]tof/Lsf nflu klg cg';Gwfg ug{ h¿/L 5 . lagf cg';Gwfg xr'jfsf] e/df ul/Psf] lg0f{on] lbg] k|ltkmn klg sdhf]/ x'G5 . Pp6f JolQmn] ckfËtf ePsf sf/0fn] lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/ tyf ;dfhaf6 alxlis[t x'g' x'Fb}g . ;dfhsf x/]s s[ofsnfkx¿df lagf cj/f]w p;n] ;xeflutf hgfpg kfpg' kb{5 . of] g} jf:tljs ;dfj]zL xf] . ckfËtf ePsf JolQm sdhf]/ xf]Ogg, plgx¿ zf/Ll/s tyf dfgl;s ¿kdf sdhf]/ x'b}df /fHonfO{ of]ubfg lbg g;Sg] x'b}gg . To;}n], /fHosf] st{Jo pgLx¿nfO{ ;xh ¿kdf cfjthfjt ug{ kfpg] jftfj/0f lgdf{0f u/f];, ;"rgf tyf ;+rf/af6 al~rt x'g gk/f]; . ;Dk"0f{ gfu/Lssf] ;dfg ;xeflutfaf6 dfq} /fHo ;+j[l4sf] af6f]df cl3 a9g ;S5 . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 33
  • 38. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! Physical Access for Women with Disabilities and its Challenges The writer-Ms. Gurung is, professionally, a lecturer at Padma Kanya College and is associated with International Disability Alliance (IDA). She is a researcher in disabilities issues and is a woman with disability right activist who has been active for ensuring, protecting and promoting their rights for last seven years. Waking up, dragging my body and legs towards ground, crawling myself towards small door, going to bathroom, getting toilet with great difficulty, taking shower with others assistance with full humiliation, going out of house with other’s support, dragging my wheelchair, waiting someone else to carry my wheelchair up the stairs, (some sympathize on me and some intend to take advantage), crossing the crowded street, waiving hands, waiting for hours with fears in heart and finally returning back home without access to transport are the daily activities, I encountermost of the times. Voice of woman with disability Referring to the above mentioned voice of woman with disability, let me begin my discussion: Are there any places where women with disabilities (WWDs) can go/ live accessible¿ Are there places where WWDs are perceived as easily as others¿ Are there places where WWDs feel secured and do their work freely ? The answers to these questions are complex because disability is a unique, multidimensional and contested issue (WHO, 2011) within the wider human Ms.PratimaGurung rights framework. Because of the multifaceted nature of disability, as defined by Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2006 defines ‘the interaction between persons with impairments, attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others’ (United Nations, 2006 ). Barriers to access are obstacles that make lives difficult, sometimes impossible for Persons with Disabilities (PwDs) to do the things. Barriers to accessibility like attitudinal, information and communication, technological, organizational and architectural and physical escort to numerous challenges for full participation in education, health and employment, support services and complete daily activities. Comparing these barriers the groups that confront discrimination / marginalization such as women or ethnic minorities, PwDs face widespread challenges, several forms of discrimination range from assumptions about capabilities and dependency. So it is unfair on PwDs to simply generalize oppression as a whole because oppression based on www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I34
  • 39. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! disability experience resulting from the interaction of health conditions, personal factor and environmental factor varies greatly (WHO, 2011) and has different causes, meanings and effects. In the same vein, discrimination against WWDs is distinct facing "intersection" of sex and impairment, which combines to create an unique and particular experience of disadvantage and discrimination, not suffered by others in fulfilling daily activities (Lee and White, 2000; Ghai, 2003, Shadow Report, 2011). Societal discrimination against WWDs remains largely unquestioned and is a clandestine issue in larger discourse of women and disability. So the aim of this article is to reflect some forms of barrier in relation to gender and disabilities focused on physical and attitudinal barrier and understand how the challenges have played predominant role in shaping the lives of WWDs. The General Principle and Article 9 of CRPD defines accessibility as an essential component stating that accessible barrier free environment is the first step towards fulfilling the rights of people with disabilities to live independently and participate fully in all aspects of life. Accessibility is a broad term covering all aspects and can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some system or entity as non-disabled community members. Like in other facets, the impact of physical accessibility for WWDs is more vulnerable and serious in both private and public sphere. Women with severe type of disabilities are more dependent on other people for their mobility where accessibility was one of the prime factors they pointed out that hindered their day to day lives leading miserable and vulnerable condition (Gurung, 2013). In Nepal, the challenges to ensure barrier free movement of PwDs are multiple; there is a general lack of public investment in infrastructure, a lack of enforcement of regulations and standards in building and planning and an overall deficit in terms of stakeholder awareness on disability, universal design on accessibility issues. On a policy level, disability is still mainly dealt with by using a medical approach and is mainly sequestered to the realm of health or welfare policies. The design of the built environment is one of the major and critical determinants of accessibility and impacts significantly on the social inclusion and participation of WWDs. For most WWDs physical accessibility to the building is often the first and most obvious challenge encountered. WWDs require information about accessible services and resources but information on the number and location of physical accessible service facilities and practices is not readily available. The public transportation and physical infrastructures like road, pavements, toilets public buildings and offices are not disabled friendly. Some WWDs www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I35
  • 40. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! who posses to use private vehicle have restriction because driving independently are limited by law even one is able to drive. So they are compelled to rely on public transport which is troublesome or on taxis are expensive or on other individuals who are unsafe and inconvenient, expensive, and inadequately equipped at most of the times. The transportation services for WWDs are infrequent because waiting vehicle and picking WWDs in the vehicle is seldom activities. Waiting public vehicle for hours and sometimes for whole day is frequent and stereotypes, neglected, prejudicial attitudes and ignorance from the strangers and staffs of transportation services is obvious which leave WWDs feel insecure, fear, inferiority complex, uncomfortable and degraded which is an attitudinal behavior and remain undelivered most of times so such acts remains more frequent in more serious way in day to day lives of WWDs. Problemarises when times are limited, inflexible and defined work/ destination remains unflufilled and they negotiate many other challenges before reaching the destination. Inappropriate languages and offensive words are significant subtle challenges encountered by WWDs when accessing public transportation and are the most difficult situation to address and overcome. Inaccessible public amenities and poor maintenance of public toilets and vehicles, roads, transit and lack of assistance for WWDs increases vulnerability and fears of sexual assault and harassment in the daily lives results WWDs confining them inside the four walls. Families from developing world in the private sphere are not enough to provide physical access and assistance to WWDs regularly. For WWDs most public toilets are not disabled friendly. If the toilets are available, the public toilets in most places are open which add difficult situation and problem for WWDs. The lack of poor state of public toilets and toilets at home leaves no option to use open space, exposing them to the danger of sexual assault most of the times. In rural areas the problem of private toilet is more complicated due to geography and lack of ignorance. In addition lack of safe and clean toilet poses a serious safety and public health hazard to WWDs especially during menstruation and pregnancy stage. WWDs are of diverse backgrounds and different experiences and the disability will impact differently on the lives of each individual. When service provider are unable to recognize and embrace their diversity it has a profound impact on the development of attitudes and whether or not WWDs access services remains a question most of the times. In addition, lack of knowledge about disability as a human right issue is another barrier that hinders lives of WWDs. In absence of accessible and safe infrastructures, built external environment they feel uneasy to move and fall behind many indicators like education, health, employment, www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I 36
  • 41. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! livelihood opportunities, socialization, participation and decision making body, tourism etc. Studies report that 20% WWDs go to hospital for check up as they have accessibility barrier and have no assistance. Encapsulating all these notions, the intersection of ‘sex’ and ‘disability’ as a primary maker in regard to accessibility has several impacts on WWDs denying participating in social, civil and political processes. Disability awareness, attitudes and understanding and training should be integral part and accessibility should be seen as a cross cutting issue amongst actions, programs and policies that concern a broad range of government agencies and ministries, including those infrastructures, communication, education, employment, services and human right. Attention should be paid to the cross-sectionalities between disability and gender issues, twin track approach to promote gender and equality in accessibility and services are required. Greater use of providing special services to right holders and incentives to transportation owner from duty bearer mechanism should be initiated as a campaign for effective accessibility. Advocacy by Disabled People ledOrganization (DPOs) play a major role putting access issues on the social agenda. In true spirit of accessing services WWDs should be given space to articulate their needs based on universal design rather than have others make policies and programs on their behalf. Information based on research and study before planning, programming and implementing is required. Each actors of the society should be obliged, be responsible and make efforts to make inclusive, barrier free and safe environment as obligatory legal provision. Email: pgurung@ida-secretariat.org www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I37
  • 42. jif{ –!@, cÍ–!*, @)&! km/flsnf] ;8s ;f“3'/f] ;f]“r xfd|f] b]zsf] /fhwfgL sf7df8f}+df clxn] ;8s la:tf/ eO/x]sf] 5 . 8f= afa'/fd e66/fO{n]cfkm" k|wfgdGqL xFb'f lbnfH ]ofg lbP/ ;'¿ ug'{ePsf] ;8s la:tf/sf] sfo{n] clxn] ;DkGg lt/ lg/ Gt/tf kfO/x]sf] 5 . To;}sf] kmn:j¿k clxn] sf7df8f}+sf w]/} 7fpFdf gofF ;8s alg;s], sltaGb} klg 5g . tL ;8s lrNnf 5g, km/flsnf 5g . t/ hlthlt ;8s km/flsnf] aGb} 5g, ;8ssf k]6L ptLptL ;fF3'/f x'b}5g / Tof] eGbf klg ;fF3'/f] xFb'}5, dfG5]sf] ;fF]r . d lxF88'nsf nflu XjLnlro/sf ]ko|f]u u5'{. d / d h:tf cGo ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ ;8s la:tf/ cfof]hgfn] ;d]6g ;s]g . km/flsnf] ;8ssf ;fF3'/f k]6Lx¿df d]/f] XjLnlro/ c6b}g . st} c6L xfNg] eP klg Tof] ;8ssf] ;tx eGbf w]/} dfly x'G5, . clg ToxfF XjLnlro/ r9g} ;Sb}g . /, olb r9L xfn] klg aLrlt/ st} lah'nLsf] kf]nn] d]/f] XjLnlro/sf] af6f] 5]lslbG5 / d km]/L kmls{P/ ;8sd} cf]n{g' k5{ . ;8s k]6Lsf] cefjdf d'Vo ;8sd} XjLnlro/ u'8fpg' d h:tf xhf/f}+ XjLnlro/ k|of]u ug]{ JolQmx¿sf] afWotf xf] . t/ o;f] ug{' ;'/lIft klg x'Fb}g / ;lhnf] klg x'Fb}g . ;of}+ uf8L / df]6/;fOsnx¿ tLj| ultdf u'l8/x]sf :yfgaf6 XjLnlro/ u'8fpFbf Ps t b'3{6gfdf kl/g] hf]lvd /xG5 eg ]csf{]uf8L rfnsx¿n]klg æsxfF ;8ssf] aLrdf lxF8]sf] <Æ eg]/ l/;fpF5g . t/, pgLx¿nfO{ yfxf x'Fb}g ls To;f] ug{' XjLnlro/df lxF8g] dfG5]x¿sf] /x/ xf]Og afWotf xf], cfjZostf xf] eg]/ . XjLnlro/ k|of]u ug]{x¿nfO{ dfq} of] zx/df lxF8g cK7of/f] x'g] xf]Og . cGo lsl;dsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ klg cJojl:yt / ;fF3'/f] ;8s k]l6sf sf/0f w]/} ;f:tL x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . d]/f] Pshgf ;fyL h;n] cfFvf b]Vb} gg, pgL af6f]df lxF8bf aLrdf 78ofPsf kf]ndf 7f]lsG5g, yfxf g} glbO{ vlgPsf vfN8f]df n85g . c´ PskN6 t ;8sdf 9n ;kmf ul/;s] kl5 lgsf;L x'g] vfN8f]sf] 9Ssg aGb gu/L /flvPsf] /x]5 . d]/f] ;fyL ToxL vfN8f] df v;]5g . Tof] a]nf t pgnfO{ a]:;/L g} rf]6 nfu]sf] lyof] . To:t} u/L j}zfvL / cGo ;xof]uL n67L 6]s]/ lxF8g] slt ;fyLx¿sf] n67L lrlKng], vfN8f]df c8sg] h:tf ;d:of klg d}n] b]v]sf] 5' . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ sf7df8f}+sf ;8sdf lxF8g hlxn] ;'s} d'l:sn t x'G5 g}, To; dfyL klg jiff{ ;'¿ ePkl5 t 3/ af6 aflx/ lg:sg] ;Sg] cj:yf klg x'Fb}g . xfd|f] /fhwfgLdf 9n lgsf;sf] /fd|f] of]hgf / Joj:yfkg gePsf] xFb'f cln 7n"f] kfgL k/k]l5 sf7df8f+s}f w/]}h;f] ;8sx¿ ;fgf] ;fgf ]vfn]f g} aG5 . Tof] ;8s vf]nfnfO{ tg{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿n] ;Sb}gg . d'Vo ;8ssf] t o:tf] xfn ePsf] a]nf cGo leqL ;8ssf] a]xfnsf] rrf{ u/L ;fbo 5}g . ltgdf jiff{sf] ;dodf k'/} lxnf] el/Psf] x'G5 . o;/L ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf af/]df Ps ldg]6 klg g;f]lr agfOPsf ;8s / ;8s k]6Lx¿sf sf/0fn] xfdLnfO{ sf7df8f}+df lxF88'n ug{ Psbd} ;d:of ePsf] 5 . ;lhnf];8s gePsf sf/0fn]sltko cj:yfdf xfdL 3/d} ylGsP/ a:g' k/]sf] 5 . oxL sf/0fn] ub{f g} xfdLn] ckfËtf gePsf cGo ;fyLx¿n] kfpg'ePsf] cj;/ / r'gf}tLx¿af6 alGrt ePsf 5f}+ . To;}n] casf lbgx¿df /fHon] ;8s dfq} xf]Og ckfËtf ePsf cfkmgf gfu/Lsx¿nfO{ x]g]{;f]Fr klg km/flsnf]agfpg' kg]{5 . www.napdnepal.org.np gj ;dfgtf I38