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1
g]kfnsf ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf nflu ;+:yfut tyf lgofds
vfsf
vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno
sf7df8f}+, g]kfn
a}zfv,@)&$
2
ljifo ;"rL
!= kl/ro
!=! ;x/L If]qx?sf] juL{s/0f
!=@ ;x/L ;/;kmfOsf] kl/k|]Io
!=# ;/;kmfOsf] kl/ro
!=$ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] cf}lrTo
@= sfg'gL tyf gLltut kl/j]z
#= ;+:yfut tyf lgodg vfsfsf] p2]Zox? / sfo{If]q
$= ;+:yfut e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx?
$=! dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ;du| lhDd]jf/L
$=@ e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx?
$=# :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnL / lj;h{gsf] l8hfOg / lgdf{0f
$=$ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ ;Íng / 9'jfgL
$=% dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg, lj;h{g / clGtd pkof]u
$=^ jftfj/0fLo cg'udg tyf cg'kfng
$=& hgr]tgf clej[l4, Ifdtf ljsf;, tflnd / cg';Gwfg
$=* gLltut ;dGjo, k|fljlws ;xof]u / ah]6 Joj:yfkg
cg';"rL M
cg';"rL ! M ;+:yfut k|aGw
cg';"rL @ M dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg k|zf]wg ;+oGqsf] nflu ;fO6 5gf}6 dfkb08
cg';"rL # M kmf]xf]/kfgLsf dfgsx?
1
kl/R5]b !
kl/ro
!=! ;x/L If]qx?sf] juL{s/0f
:yfgLo k'g{;+/rgf cfof]un] jlu{s[t u/]sf] jlu{s/0f cg'?k hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df ;x/L If]qx?sf] juL{s/0f / /fli6«o
;x/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ gLlt @))( df kl/eflift dWojtL{ / ;fgf ;x/x? lgDg ad]lhd /x]sf 5g.
tflnsf ! M ;x/L If]qx?sf] juL{s/0f
;x/L If]q Go"gtd
hg;+Vof
jflif{s /fhZj
-?= bz nfvdf_
;+/rgf
dxfgu/kflnsf #)),))) $))  pkdxfgu/kflnsf / gu/kflnsfsf nflu rflxg] ;j} k"jf{wf/ x'g'kg]{5 .
 %)) ;}ofsf] ljz]if1 ;]jf ;lxtsf] xl:k6n ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 /+uzfnf ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 Kf|ljlws lzIffno ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 ;+u|xfno ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 6ld{gn ;lxtsf] j;kfs{ x'g'kg]{5 .
 t/sf/L tyf kmnkm'n ljls| s]Gb| ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
pkdxfgu/kflnsf !%),))) !))  gu/kflnsfsf nflu rflxg] ;j} k"jf{wf/ x'g'kg]{5 .
 @)) ;}ofsf] xl:k6n ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 /+uzfnf jf v]nd}bfg / se8{xn ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 ;efxn ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
gu/kflnsf  cfˆgf] If]q leq Nof08lkmn ;fO6 x'g'kg]{ jf ;f] gePdf e/kbf]{
j}slNks Aoj:yfkg ;'lglZrt ePsf] x'g' kg]{5 .
 v'nf If]q ePsf] / kfs{ pbofg ePsf] jf x'g ;Sg] ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 xf6ahf/ If]q ePsf] jf /fVg kof{Kt 7fFp ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 slDtdf Ps :jf:Yo s]Gb| ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 bdsn, PDj'n]G; ;]jf ;lxtsf] sfof{no :yfkgf ug{ cfjZos hUuf
k|ofKt ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 ;fgf, demf}nf / 7"nf pbof]u ;+rfngdf /x]sf x'g'kg]{5 .
 ;+rf/, ljB't / ;8s oftfoft ;]jf pknAw ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 a}+s tyf ljlQo ;+:yf ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 v]nd}bfg ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 j;kfs{ ePsf] jf ;f]sf] nflu cfjZos hUuf ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 ;fj{hlgs zf}rfno ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
 ;fd'bflos ejg jf ;efxn ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .
lxdfn @),))) @
kxf8 #%,))) #=%
lelq dw];- kxf8L
e"efu _
#%,))) #=%
lelq dw];- -;dy/
e"efu _
&%,))) &=%
t/fO{ &%,))) &=%
2
;x/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO gLlt, @)^^ df kl/eflift
;x/L
If]q
Go"gtd hg;+Vof jflif{s /fhZj
-?= bz nfvdf_
;+/rgf
dWojtL{ ;x/x? !),)))–%),))) /fhZjsf] dfkb08 5}g
t/ hg;+Vofsf]
hg3gTj k|lt ju{
x]S6/ !) JolQm /
slDtdf klg %)Ü
hg;+Vof s[lif afx]ssf]
If]qdf nfu]sf]
x'g'kg]{
cfwf/e"t ;'ljwfx? h:t} lu|8 ljh'nL, ;~rf/, dfWolds
ljBfno, :jf:Yo ;]jfx?;fgf ;x/x? %,)))–$),)))
!=@ ;x/L ;/;kmfO kl/k|]Io
g]kfnn] ljutsf] bzsb]lv cfwf/e"t ;/;kmfO -rkL{sf] kx'Fr_ df ;'wf/ ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . ;g @))! df @$Ü sf]
t'ngfdf ;g @)!! df se/]hdf j[l4 eO{ ^$Ü -;x/ – (!Ü / u|fdL0f – %^Ü_ k'u]sf] lyof] . ;g @)!! df /fli6«o
;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgfsf] sfof{Gjog kZrft g]kfndf ;/;kmfO / :jR5tfsf] cj:yf ;'wf/df ult
cfPsf]n] w]/} ufpF, gu/kflnsf / lhNnfx? v'nf lb;fd'Qm 3f]if0ff eO{ /x]sf 5g . /fli6«o Joj:yfkg ;"rgf cfof]hgf
-@)!$_ sf cg';f/ cfwf/e"t ;/;kmfOsf] se/]hdf j[l4 eO{ xfn &)Ü k'u]sf] 5 .
;x/x?df ;/;kmfOsf] se/]h vfN8] rkL{, ;'wfl/Psf] rkL{ / ;]lK6s 6ofÍhl8t rkL{x? k|of]u ug]{ 3/kl/jf/x?df
e/ kb{5 .
g]kfndf b|'t ultdf ;x/Ls/0f eO{ /x]sf] 5 . ;g @)!! df !&Ü /x]sf] ;x/L hg;+Vof xfn $)Ü k'u]sf] cg'dfg
ul/Psf] 5 . #)Ü ;x/L hg;+Vofsf] rkL{ 9n k|0ffnLdf hf]l8Psf] / $*Ü hg;+Vofsf] rkL{ ;]lK6s 6ofÍdf hf]l8Psf
5g ,!@Ü hg;+Vof;+u ;fwf/0f rk{L{ 5 eg] (Ü hg;+Vof;+u s'g} lsl;dsf] rkL{sf] ;'ljwf 5}g / !Ü hg;+Vofsf]
;DaGwdf tYofÍsf] cfefj /xsf] 5 . gu/kflnsf] ;+Vof %* af6 j[l4 eP/ xfn @$^ k'u]sf] 5 / w]/}h;f] ;fgf
;x/x? gu/kflnsfsf] ?kdf juL{s[t ePsf 5g eg] ;]lK6s 6ofÍdf hf]l8Psf] rkL{sf] ;+Vofdf klg cem j[l4 ePsf]
5 .
!=# ;/;kmfOsf] kl/ro
;/;kmfO M– dfgj dnd'qsf] ;'/lIft lj;h{gsf nflu ;]jf / ;'ljwfx?sf] Joj:yfnfO{ ;/;kmfO elgG5 . ;/;kmfOn]
kmf]xf]/d}nf ;+sng / kmf]xf]/ kfgLsf] lj;h{g dfkm{t :jR5tf sfodnfO{ ug'{nfO{ a'emfpF5 . hg:jf:Yo k|j4{gsf nflu
ul/Psf ljleGg :j:ys/ lqmofsnfkx?sf] ;du| sfo{ ;kmfO xf] .
:jR5tf M– :jR5tf eGgfn] cfkm" / jl/kl/sf] jftfj/0f ;kmf u/L /f]usf] lj:tf/ /f]Sg' / la/fdL x'gaf6 aRg
ckgfOg] ;Dk"0f{ Joxf/x? x'g . :jR5tfn] JolQm / ;d'bfosf] cfgLafgLnfO{ hgfpF5 . -;|f]tM k"0f{ ;/;kmfO dfu{bz{g, @)&# _
To;}n], ;/;kmfOdf lgDg ljifox? ;dfj]z ePsf] x'G5g M
s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:Yffkg (Faecal Sludge Mangement)
v_ kmf]xf]/kfgL Joj:yfkg / k|zf]wg -9n tyf ljs]lGb|t k|0ffnLx? b'j}_ . kmf]xf]/kfgL eGgfn] cf}Bf]uLs t/n kmf]xf]/
;d]tnfO{ hgfpFb5 .
u_ jiff{tsf] kfgL -gfnf_ Joj:yfkg, /
3_ 7f]; kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkg .
3
!=$ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] cf}lrTo
Kfmf]xf]/ kfgL (Wastewater) / dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ (Faecal sludge) Joj:yfkg ug{ lgDg adf]lhdsf k|0ffnLx?
zx/L If]qsf] cfjZostf / pko'Qm k|ljlwsf cfwf/df 5gf}6 ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
s_ k|zf]wg ;lxtsf] 9n k|0ffnL .
v_ k|zf]wg ;lxtsf] 9n k|0ffnL tyf dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg (Faecal sludge management) Plss[t
k|0ffnL .
u_ 9n Joj:yfkgsf nflu hg3gTj gePsf] cyjf 5l/Psf j:tL /x]sf] :yfgdf dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg .
;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ ;]lK6s 6ofÍaf6 vfnL ug]{, ;Íng tyf 9'jfgL ug]{ sfo{ Joj:yLt ?kdf x'g
;s]sf] 5}g . cfˆgf] 3/sf] ;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug{ k/]df lghL If]qsf pBdLx?nfO{ af]nfP/ ug]{ ul/G5 . ;x/x?df
;]lK6s 6ofÍ lgoldt ?Kfdf vfnL ug]{ kl/kf6L 5}g / ha vfN8f] jf ;]lK6s 6ofÍx? el/P/ aflx/ aUb5g ta dfq
vfnL ug]{ ul/G5 . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ug]{ ;]jfx?sf] lgodg ug]{ ;+:yfsf] cefjdf ;]lK6s 6ofÍaf6
lgsflnPsf] n]bf] / kmf]xf]/kfgLnfO{ k|zf]wg lagf g} glhs}sf] gbL, ;LdfGt hdLg, 9n jf gfnLdf hyfefjL ?kdf
ˆofSg] ul/G5 .
ck|zf]lwt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/n] ;tx / hdLgd'lgsf kfgLsf ;|f]tx?nfO{ k|b"lift agfpg'sf ;fy} hg:jfYo /
jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n c;/ kb{5 . rkL{af6 lg:sg] dfgj kmf]xf]/n] kfg]{ k|lts"n :jR5tf ;DaGwL c;/ af/] s]xL
3/w'/Lx? dfq ;r]t /x]sf 5g . :ynut ;/;kmfOsf] of]hgf th'{df / Joj:yfkgdf ;x/L ;/;kmfO / kmf]xf]/kfgL
Joj:yfkg nfO{ a]jf:tf ul/Psf]] 5, rkL{ lgdf{0fdf dfq s]lGb|t /xL s]lx gu/kflnsfx?df dfq 9n lgdf{0f ;Lldt
x'g'sf] ;fy} :ynut ;/;kmfOnfO{ cgf}krfl/s / c:yfoL ;/;kmfO ;]jf k|jfxsf] ?kdf x]l/Psf] 5 .
w]/} :yfg÷If]qx?nfO{ v'nf lb;fd'Qm 3f]if0ff u/]kl5 ;+3Lo ;/sf/, :yfgLo tx -gu/kflnsf / ufFpkflnsf_, ;d'bfo
/ 3/w'/Lx?n] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ sfo{ ljsf;sf] Ph]08fsf] ?kdf cufl8 a9fO{ k"0f{ ;/;kmfO
tkm{ pGd'v eO/x]sf 5g . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] ;xL Joj:yfkg lagf ;'wfl/Psf] ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf k|ofKt
/ lbuf] xF'b}g .
To;n], gbL÷kfgL ;|f]tdf k/]sf] k|b"if0fsf] ef/nfO{ sd ug{ lskmfotL / lbuf] pkfox?sf] vfhL ug{kg]{ ePsf]5 .
dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkgsf] nflu lgofds / ;+:yfut vfsfnfO{ ;anLs/0f, tflnd / lzIff,
Joj;flos of]hgfsf] ljsf; / sfof{Gjog, ;+efJo ;dfwfgsf pkfox?sf] k|fljlws / ljQLo ljZn]if0fsf ;fy} ;]jf
k|jfx / ;~rfng tyf dd{t ;+ef/df lbuf]kgf cfjZos 5 .
4
kl/R5]b–@
sfg'gL / gLltut kl/j]z
o; v08n] ;x/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO ;]jfx? ;DaGwL sfg'gsf] l;+xfjnf]sg, gLlt / dfu{bz{gx?nfO{ qmdfut
>[+vnfsf] ?kdf j0f{g ub{5 .
!= g]kfnsf] ;+lawfg
g]kfnsf] ;+lawfgsf] bkmf %^ cg';f/ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs g]kfnsf] d'n ;+/rgf ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLo tx u/L tLg
txsf] /x]sf] 5 . :yfgLo tx cGtu{t ufpFkflnsf, gu/kflnsf / lhNnf ;ef x'g]5g . ufpFkflnsf /
gu/kflnsfx?df j8fx?sf] ;+Vof ;+3Lo sfg'gdf Joj:yf eP cg';f/ x'g] 5 .
g]kfnsf] ;+lawfgn] ;'/lIft kfgL / ;/;kmfOsf] kx'FrnfO{ lgDg adf]lhd cfwf/e"t clwsf/sf] ?kdf k|Tofe"t u/]sf] 5 .
@= PsLs[t vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf gLlt tyf sfg'g
g]kfndf vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf;+u ;DalGwt P]g sfg'g / gLltx? ljleGg ;dodf lgdf{0f ePtf klg tL
P]g sfg'gsf] cg'kfng / sfof{Gjog g} d'Vo r'gf}tLx?sf] ?kdf /x]sf 5g . o;}nfO{ dgg u/]/ vfg]kfgL tyf
;/;kmfO ;+u ;DalGwt P]g, lgodfjnL sf ;fy} PsLs[t vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf gLlt vfg]kfgL tyf
;/;kmfO dGqfnon] tof/ ul//x]sf] 5 . log} ;fwgx?sf dfWodaf6 jt{dfg gLltx? / sfg'gnfO{ Pp6} Jofks
sfg'gL / ;+:yfut vfsfleq PsLs[t ug]{ / nIo k|flKtdf ;dGjofTds 9Ën] cufl8 a9L ;'wfl/Psf], ;dfj]zL / lbuf]
vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;DaGwL ;]jfx? k|bfg ug{ cg's"n jftfj/0f l;h{gf x'g'sf ;fy}, ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{
dfu{bz{g x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .
#= hn;|f]t P]g, @)$(
hn;|f]tsf] ;d'lrt pkof]u, ;+/If0f, Joj:yfkg / ljsf; ug{ hn;|f]t P]g @)$( sf] k|f/De ePsf] xf] . o;n] b]z
leq /x]sf] hn;|f]tsf] :jfldTj /fHodf /x]sf] sfg'gL cfwf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . o;n] hn;|f]tsf] nfebfos
pkof]ux?sf] lgwf{/0f ug{ To:tf] pkof]uaf6 x'g] jftfj/0fLo tyf cGo xflgsf/s k|efjsf] /f]syfd ug{ Pj+ hn;|f]t
nfO{ k|b"if0f d'St /fVgsf] nflu sfg'gL Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
$= jftfj/0f ;+/If0f P]g, @)%# jftfj/0f ;+/If0f lgodfjnL, @)%$
o; P]gn] cfly{s ljsf; / jftfj/0f ;+/If0f aLrsf] cGof]Gofl>t ;DaGwaf6} lbuf] ljsf; x'g] s'/fnfO{ Wofgdf /fVb}
jftfj/0fLo x|f;af6 dfgj hflt, hLjhGt', jg:klt, k|s[lt tyf ef}lts j:t'dfly x'g ;Sg] k|lts"n k|efjnfO{
oyfzSo sd u/L :jR5 tyf :j:y jftfj/0f sfod ug{ / k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] ;d'lrt pkof]u / Joj:yfkgaf6
jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ug]{ ;DaGwdf sfg'gL Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
;kmf jftfj/0fdf afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ M wf/f #) -!_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ :jR5 / :j:y jftfj/0fdf afFRg kfpg]
xs x'g] 5 . -@_ jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0f jf x|f;af6 x'g] Iflt jfkt kLl8tnfO{ k|b"ifsaf6 sfg'g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{
kfpg] xs x'g] 5 .
:jf:Yo ;DaGwL xs M wf/f #% -$_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ :jR5 vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOdf kx'Frsf] xs x'g] 5 .
5
P]gdf cfof]hgfsf] k|s[lt / cfsf/sf] cfwf/df jftfj/0fLo k|efj d"NofÍg (EIA) jf k|f/lDes jftfj/0fLo k/LIf0f
(IEE) ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 . o; P]gn] k|b"if0fsf] lgoGq0f jf jftfj/0fnfO{ Iflt k'¥ofpg] sfo{x?sf] /f]syfd
ug{sf] nflu jftfj/0f lg/LIfssf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . lgodfjnLn] vfg]kfgL;+u ;DalGwt cfof]hgfx?sf] nflu EIA jf
IEE ug'{kg]{ cj:yfsf] ;"rL cf}+NofPsf] 5 . of] P]gdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd ;x/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO gLlt,
@))( df kmf]xf]/kfgLsf] lj;h{g gbL÷kfgLdf ubf{ kfgLsf] u'0f:t/ ;+/If0f ug{ lgodg ug]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
%= :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%%
:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%% / :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g lgodfjnL, @)%^, df clwsf/sf] lgIf]k0f, lhDd]jf/L /
:yfgLo txx?nfO{ ;|f]tx? lbg] cfwf/ to ug'{sf] ;fy} vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf ;]jfx?sf] nflu ;d]t ljs]lGb|s[t
tl/sfaf6 :yfgLo ljsf; k|lqmofsf] g]t[Tj ug]{ k|fjwfg /x]sf] 5 . o; P]gn] k|fs[lts ;|f]tx? :yfgLo tx ;DklQ x'g]
/ k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] pkof]udf s/ nufO{ :yfgLo txsf] ;zlQms/0fsf] kl/sNkgf u/]sf] 5 .
:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gdf ;/;kmfO ;DjlGw k|fjwfgx? o; k|sf/ /x]sf 5g M–
:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gsf] bkmf %^ df :yflgo txn] ;/;kmfO, 9n lgsf; ;]jf z'Ns nufpg ;Sg] Joj:yf 5 .
gu/kflnsfsf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/ M bkmf (^ -!_ -u_ hn;|f]t, jftfj/0f / ;/;kmfO{ ;DjlGw -^_ df gu/kflnsf
If]qleq ;/;kmfOsf sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{ / -&_ df kmf]xf]/ d}nf ;+sng, 9'jfgL tyf tx nufpg] ;DjlGw sfdsf]
;+rfng / Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/fpg] Joj:yf 5 .
ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/ M bkmf @* -r_ -$_ a;f]af; If]qdf cfaZos 9n lgsf;sf]
Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/fpg] Joj:yf 5 .
^= /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/ ;+lxtf, @)^)
/fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/ ;+lxtfn] 3/leq vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf k|fjwfgdf 3/af6 lg:sg] kmf]xf]/kfgL,
jiff{tsf] kfgLsf] ;Íng tyf lj;h{g / rkL{ lgdf{0f / cGo ;/;kmfOsf ;'ljwfx? ;d]tsf] dfgsx? tof/ u/L
dfu{bz{g k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . of] cfrf/ ;+lxtf 7"nf ;x/x?sf] nflu w]/} ;fGble{s 5 tyf ;fgf ;x/ / ;x/f]Gd'v
ahf/x?sf] nflu o;sf] ;fGble{stf sd /x]sf] 5 . o;sf dfgs / dfu{bz{gx? cg'udg, ko{j]If0f, / cg'kfng ug{
r'gf}tLsf ?kdf /x]sf 5g .
&= vfg]kfgL Joj:yfkg af]8{ P]g, @)^#
Vffg]kfgL Joj:yfkg af]8{sf] sfo{If]q leq gu/kflnsfx? kb{5g . o; P]gn] ;x/L If]qx?sf vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO
;]jfx?df :yfgLo tx / vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;+:yfx?sf] ;xeflutfdf hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . ;fy} o; P]gn]
vfg]kfgLsf] ;DklQx?sf] :jfldTj, vfg]kfgLsf] Joj:yf / ;/;kmfOsf] ;]jfx? pknAw u/fpg :jfoQ / :jtGq
vfg]kfgL Joj:yfkg af]8{ :yfkgf ug]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . o; P]gn] ;]jf k|bfos -;fj{hlgs jf lghL_ nfO{ nfO;]G;
lbg], k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yfkg, ;~rfng tyf dd{t ;+ef/ / ;DklQx? lnhdf lbg ;lsg] klg Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
*= ;x/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO gLlt, @)^^
zx/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;]jfn] k'¥ofpg] ;]jfsf] If]q cfwf/e"t dfgljo cfjZostf k'/f ug]{ :t/ ;Dd dfq
l;ldt 5}g eGg] dfGotf /fv]sf] 5 . o; lgltn] pkef]QmfnfO{ ;'ne d"nodf ;'/lIft, ljZjf;gLo, kof{Kt / yk ;]jf
pknAw u/fO{ hLjg:t/ ;'wf/ ug]{ nIo lnPsf] 5 . oL pb]ZoxnfO{ bLug] ?kd xfl;n ug{sf nflu ;'xfFpbf] k"jf{wf/,
6
pko'Qm ;+:yfut ;+/rgf, cf}lrTok"0f{ nfut c;'nL Joj:yf, pko'Qm ljQLo jftfj/0f, yk hg;xeflutf / lg0f{o
k|lqmofdf pkef]Qmx?sf] ;+nUgtf, gLlh If]q;Fu pko'Qm ;fem]bf/Lsf] Joj:yfx? cToGt} dxTjk"0f{ tTjsf ?kdf /x]sf
5g . o;sf cltltQm o; gLltn] jftfj/0f ;+/If0fsf pkfox? cjnDag ug'{sf ;fy} vfg]kfgLsf] dfu / k|of]u
kZrft pT;h{g Joj:yfkgsf pkfox?sf] dfWodaf6 hn;|f]]tsf cGo pkef]ux?;Fu ;Gt'ng sfod ug]{ pb]Zo /x]sf]
5 .
(= /fli6«o ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgf, @)^* / k"0f{ ;/;kmfO dfu{bz{g, @)&#
g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;g @)^* df /fli6«o ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgf sfof{Gjog u/L :yfgLo txsf] g]t[Tj,
jx';/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;fem]bf/L / ;d'bfosf] :jfldTjdf tn lbOPsf] dfu{bz{g l;4fGtnfO{ cg';/0f ub}{
;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] PsLs[t k|of;, ;~rfngdf ;dfGh:otf, v'nf lb;fd'Qm cj:yfsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg / k"0f{
;/;kmfO cleofg ;~rfng u/]sf] 5 . ufpFkflnsf / gu/kflnsf :t/df k"0f{ ;/;kmfOsf] gtLhf k|fKt ug{ u'?
of]hgfsf k|fjwfgx?nfO{ lj:tf/ u/L k"0f{ ;/;kmfO dfu{bz{g, @)&# vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ dGqfnoaf6 :jLs[t
ePsf] 5 .
dfu{bz{s l;4fGtx?, /fli6«o ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgf
!!= 7f]; kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkg P]g, @)!@
of] P]gsf] d'Vo p2]Zo 7f]; kmf]xf]/d}nfsf] sf/0fn] hg:jf:Yo / jftfj/0f kg]{ k|lts"n k|efjnfO{ Go"gLs/0f
!)= ;x/L jftjf/0f Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsf, @)^*
o; lgb]{lzsfn] k|zf]wg kZrft kmf]xf]/kfgLsf] dfgs / 7f]; kmf]xf]/d}nfnfO{ kmf]xf]/sf] ?kdf lj;h{g ug'{eGbf klxnf
sfod ug'{kg]{ cfjZos Go"gtd dfgsx?nfO{ lglZrt u/]sf] 5 . of] lgb]{lzsfsf] p2]Zox?df :j:y ;x/ lgdf{0fsf]
nflu jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0f Go"gLs/0f ug{] tyf lagf k|zf]wg kfgL÷gbLx?df 9nsf] lj;h{g ug{ aGb]h nufPsf] 5 .
o;n] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ug{ lghL If]qnfO{ k|f]T;flxt u/]sf] 5 . r]tgfsf] cefj tyf
k|fyldstfdf tn k/]sf] sf/0fn] of] lgb]{lzsfnfO{ sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg r'gf}tLk"0f{ /x]sf] 5 .
!!= g]kfn ;/sf/ sfo{ ljefhg lgodfjnL, @)^(
vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ dGqfno g]kfn ;/sf/sf] sfo{ljefhg lgodfjnL cg';f/ :oflg6/L 9n Joj:yfkgsf]
lhDdf vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefusf] x'g]5 egL Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .
!@= ;x/L ljsf; /0fgLlt, @)&#
/fli6«o ;x/L ljsf; gLlt, kZrft ;x/L ljsf; dGqfnosf] /fli6«o ;x/L ljsf; /0fgLlt, @)&# n] ;x/L ljsf;
If]q;+u ;DalGwt dxTjk"0f{ d'2fx? h:t} k|0ffnL, k"jf{wf/, jftfj/0f / cfly{s d'2fx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ ;xof]u
 v'nf lb;fd'Qm cj:yf, ;/;kmfO sfo{qmdsf] Go"gtd sfo{qmd x'g'kg]{ 5 .
 vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO cfof]hgfx?df zt k|ltzt ;/;kmfO ;'ljwfsf] ;'lglZrtf x'g'kg]{ .
 3/fo;L rkL{sf] nflu ;d'bfon] k|ljlwut 5gf}6sf] Joj:yf x'g'kg]{ .
 :yfgLo txn] ;/;kmfO lqmofsnfkx?sf] g]t[Tj ug'{kg]{ .
 uf=lj=;= jf gu/kflnsf, ;a} ;/;kmfO sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug]{ Go"gtd OsfO x'g'kg]{ .
 :yfgLo ?kdf Joj:yfkg ul/g] cfly{s ;xof]u ;+oGqsf] k|j4{g ug]{ . ;+:yfx?df ;/;kmfOsf ;'ljwfx?
clgjfo{ x'g'kg]{ k|fjwfg .
 gofF lgdf{0f x'g] ejgdf clgjfo{ zf}rfno x'g'kg]{ k|fjwfg .
 :jR5 afgLJojxf/ k|j4{gsf] nflu lgoldt ;fa'g kfgLn] xft w'g] Jojxf/ .
7
k'¥ofPsf] 5 . ;x/L ;/;kmfOdf hxfF ;+efjgf 5 ToxfF 9n k|0ffnL, :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx? / sfnf] kq] ;8ssf
;fy jiff{tsf] kfgL lj;h{g ug{ gfnfsf] Joj:yfkg ug{ s]lGb|t /x]sf] 5 . xfn;fn} ;/sf/n] æ;kmf ;x/Æ sfo{qmd
z'?jft u/]sf] 5 h;df kfFr j6f cjojx? kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkg, kfgL / kmf]xf]/kfgL Joj:yfkg, xl/ofnL k|j4{g,
k|b"if0f lgoGq0f / ;x/L ;f}Gbo{tf ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 .
!#= /fli6«o vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf If]qut ljsf; of]hgf -d:of}bf_, @)&#
vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] /fli6«o vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tfIf]qut ljsf; of]hgf th'{df ul//x]sf] 5 .
o; of]hgfn] ;femf b[li6sf]0f tyf /fli6«o k|fyldstf–d}qL /0fgLlt clVtof/ ub}{ k|To]s gful/sn] hxfF / hlxn] klg
:ki6 ;+of]hg, ;dGjo, ;fd~h:oLs/0f Pjd P]Soa4tf dfkm{t ;a}sf nflu ;'/lIft vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO ;'ljwf
k'¥ofpg] tkm{ sfo{qmlds vfsf k|:t't ub{} ;/f]sf/jfnfx? nfO{ lbzf lgb]{zg u/]sf] 5 .
8
kl/R5]b–#
;+:yfut tyf lgofds vfsfsf] p2]Zox? / sfo{If]q
dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ rqmsf] ;kmntfk"j{s sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;+:yfut tyf lgofds vfsfn]
;xof]u k"¥ofpg] 5 . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ rqmdf :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx?af6 dfgj
dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] ;'/lIft ;Íng, 9'jfgL / k|zf]wg tyf lj;h{g÷k'gMk|of]u kb{5g . of] ;]jf rqm k|efjsf/L
Joj:yfkgdf e/ kb{5 . vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO gLlt tyf /0fgLltx? / sfo{ k4ltnfO{ ;]jf rqmdf k|To]s
;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx?nfO{ lgodg nfu" ug]{ ;Gbe{df :ki6 kl/eflift ug{ cfjZos 5 . ;+:yfut
;+be{sf] ljleGg tx ;lxtsf] lj:t[t sfo{ k4ltsf] nflu cNksfnLg, dWosfnLg, tyf bL3{sfnLg :ynut ;/;kmfO
k|0ffnL ;lxt vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;Da4 gLlt Pj+ lgb]{lzsf k|lt ;/sf/sf] bx|f] klta4tf bzf{pFb5 .
:ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx?n] dfgj dnd'qLo / kmf]xf]/kfgLnfO{ ;Íng, ;dfj]z tyf cf+lzs k|zf]wg ub{5g . oL
k|0ffnLx?df hDdf ePsf] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ nfO{ ;+°ng u/L k|zf]wg kZrft lj;h{g ul/g] 5 .
o; dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg vfsfsf] p2]Zo dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg rqmdf k|efjsf/L of]hgf
th'{df, sfof{Gjog, cg'udg / lgodg ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ /x]sf] 5 . csf]{ cy{df o;n] ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo
kmf]xf]/sf] ;Íng, 9'jfgL, k|zf]wg, lj;h{g / clGtd pkof]u ug{] 5 .
d'Vo p2]Zox?df M
 dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] k|efjsf/L Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ;d¢ ;+:yfx?sf] e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/L kl/eflift ug'{, /
 ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkgsf] k|efjsf/L of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog / cg'udgsf] nflu
dfu{ k|z:t ug'{ /x]sf] 5 .
dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqm
o; ;+:yfut tyf lgofds vfsfn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] k|efjsf/L Joj:yfkg sf] nflu ;Da4 lhDd]jf/
;+:yfx?sf] Ifdtf clej[l4, ;~rfng dfu{bz{gsf] ljsf; ug{ klg ;xof]u ub{5 .
9
o:tf k|0ffnLx?sf] ?kdf ;]jf lbg] :ynut ;/;kmfO / If]qx? dfq o; vfsfsf] If]qleq kg]{5g . :yfgLo tx jf
o;sf] s'g} efudf kmf]xf]/kfgLsf] Joj:yfkg z'4Ls/0f ;+oGq ;lxtsf] 9n k|0ffnLsf] dfWodaf6 ePdf ;f] If]qdf of]
vfsf nfu" x'g] 5}g .
10
kl/R5]b–$
;+:yfut e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx?
o; vfsfleq kl/eflift ul/Psf ;/;kmfO ;]jfdf ;+nUg ;+:yfx?sf] ;+:yfut e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx? g]kfnsf]
;+lawfgdf Joj:yf ePsf k|fjwfgx?af6 oxfF /flvPsf] 5 . vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf gLlt, P]g, / If]qut ljsf;
of]hgf -d:of}bf_, k"0f{ ;/;kmfO dfu{bz{g, @)&#, /fli6«o ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgf, @)^* / :yfgLo :jfoQ
zf;g P]g,@)%% oL ;j}n] ;fd'lxs ?kdf gu/kflnsfx?, ufpFkflnsfx?sf] ;/;kmfO ;]jfx?sf] Joj:yfkgdf
dfu{bz{g / lgodg ug]{ ub{5g .
oL sfg'gL / gLltut k|fjwfgx?af6 ;/;kmfO, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] Joj:yfkg ;d]tsf] of]hgf th'{df /
Joj:yfkgsf] nflu d'Vo lhDd]jf/L cf–cfˆgf] sfo{ If]qleq :yfgLo tx -gu/kflnsf / ufpFkflnsf_ sf] ePsf] b]lvG5
. /fli6«o ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgfdf ;/;kmfO sfof{Gjogsf nflu gu/kflnsf / ufpF ljsf; ;ldltx?nfO{
sfof{Gjogsf tNnf] OsfO{ ?kdf kl/eflift u/]sf] 5 .
o;vfsfdf lbOPsf] e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lsf] cfwf/df gu/kflnsf / ufpFkflnsfx?n] :yfgLo kl/k|]Iodf cfjZos
k/]df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] Joj:yfkgsf nflu ljz]if ljlgodsf] th'{df ug{ ;lsg] 5g . To; k|sf/sf] ljz]if
ljlgodsf] th'{df ug]{ k|fjwfg :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gsf] bkmf &^ df Joj:yf ul/Psf]] 5 .
tflnsf # M ;/sf]sf/jfnfx?sf] e"ldsf
;/f]sf/jfnfx? gLlt tyf
dfu{bz{gx?
;dGjo k|fljlws
;xof]u
;Íng
tyf
9'jfgL
k|zf]wg lj;h{g
÷
clGtd
pkof]u
lgodg Ifdtf
clej[l4
cg'udg
vfg]kfgL tyf
;/;kmfO
dGqfno / ;+3Lo
dfldnf tyf
:yfgLo ljsf;
dGqfno



 
खानेपानी तथा
ढल ननकास
विभाग
    
hg;+Vof tyf
jftfj/0f
dGqfno
    
gu/kflnsf÷
ufpFkflnsf÷
;]jfk|bfos
        
vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf
;+:yf   


lghL
If]q÷pBdLx?
   
cg';Gwfg÷z}lIf
s k|lti7fg
  
ljsf; ;fem]bf/÷
/fli6«o jf
cGt/f{li6«o u}/
;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
  
11
$=! dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ;du| lhDd]jf/L
!= dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu :yfgLo txaf6 cfˆgf] sfo{ If]qleq of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog,
cg'udg / ;]jf k|jfxsf ;fy} Joj;flos gd'gfsf] ljsf; tyf k|of]usf] nflu lhDd]jf/ x'g] 5g .
@= :yfgLo txn] M
 vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnoaf6 k|fljlws tyf Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL ;xof]u
lng ;Sg]5g .
 :yfgLo ljsf; tyf ;+3Lo dfldnf dGqfnoaf6 :yfgLo ;'zf;g ;DaGwL ;xof]u lng ;Sg]5g .
 :yfgLo txsf] ;+:yfut / Joj:yfkg Ifdtf gx'Fbf;Dd dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqmsf]
;~rfng / Joj:yfkgsf] nflu vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO pkef]Qmf ;ldltnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg ;lsg] 5 .
 :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gsf] bkmf !!^ sf] cfwf/df dfgj dnd'lqo kmf]x/sf] Joj:yfkgdf ;+nUg lghL
Joj;foLnfO{ dfgj dnd'lqo kmf]x/sf] ;Íng, 9'jfgL, k|zf]wg / clGtd pkofusf nflu nfO;]G; lbg ;Sg]5g .
#= cfˆgf] ;+/rgf cg';f/ :yfgLo txx?n] hg:jf:Yo tyf jftfj/0f zfvf jf dxf–zfvfsf] :yfkgf ug'{ kg]{5 . dfgj
dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf ;]jfx? ;DaGwL lqmofsnfkx?sf] of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog / lgl/If0f ug]{ sfo{ ;f]
zfvf jf dxfzfvfn] g} ug]{ 5 . cfjZostfsf] cfwf/df o;n] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jfx?sf]
k|efjsf/L of]hgf th'{df, Joj:yfkg / lgodgsf nflu Ps ;ldlt÷;d"x u7g ug{ ;Sg]5 .
$= :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] ;dfj]zL of]hgf th'{df / sfof{Gjogsf] ;+of]hg
gu/kflnsf÷ufpFkflnsf vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;dGjo ;ldltx?sf] dfWodaf6 ug{ ;Sg] 5 .
gu/kflnsf÷ufpFkflnsfx?n] vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;dGjo ;ldltx?sf] dfWodaf6 cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?
tyf dflyNnf] lgsfox? aLrdf ;~rf/ / ;dfGh:otf, ;xnufgLsf] cj;/ ;'b[9 / cg'udg tyf cg'kfng ug{
;3fp k'¥ofpg] 5 . olb cf–cfˆgf] If]qdf vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;dGjo ;ldltx? u7g ePsf 5}gg eg]
:yfgLo txx?n] tL ;ldltx?sf] u7g ug{ ;lqmotf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ;+:yfut vfsf cg';"rL ! df lbOPsf] 5 .
$=@ e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx?
d'Vo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ljz]if e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx? lgDg adf]lhd /xg]5 .
!= vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno tyf vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu
s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGqsf] l8hfOg, kl/of]hgf k|ltj]bg, ;+:yfut tyf lgofds vfsf,
;~rfng lgb]{lzsf÷dfu{bz{gsf] ljsf; / k|rf/–k|;f/ ug]{ . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] k|efjsf/L
of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjogsf nflu :yfgLo txnfO{ ;Ifd agfpg dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg rqm ;DaGwL
;"rgf, lzIff / ;~rf/ ;fdfu|Lx?sf] ljsf; / k|rf/–k|;f/ ug]{ .
v_ ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;+u ;dGjo a}7s cfof]hgf ug]{ .
u_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGq lgdf{0fsf] nflu nfut ;fem]bf/L ug]{ / ;+emf}tf cg';f/ nfut
;fem]bf/L u/] gu/]sf] cg'udg ug]{ .
12
3_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqmsf] nflu :yfgLo txnfO{ k|efjsf/L sfo{qmd, Joj:yfkg /
cg'udg ug]{ sfo{df k|fljlws ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] .
ª_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug{ :yfgLo tx / cGo k|zf;lgs ;+oGqx?sf]
;+:yfut Ifdtf ;anLs/0f ug]{ / Ifdtf n]vfhf]vfsf] cfwf/df /fli6«o vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO tflnd s]Gb| tyf
cg';Gwfg ;+:yfx?sf] dfWodaf6 Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ .
r_ of] vfsfnfO{ ;+:yfut ug{ :yfgLo txnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ / o;nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{ pko'Qm x'g] lsl;dsf :yfg
ljz]ifsf] 5gf}6 nufot cGo sfuhftx? tof/ ug{ ;3fpg] .
5_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu bIf hgzlQm pTkfbg / k|rf/–k|;f/ ug{, cg'udg tyf cg'kfngsf]
nflu hg;+Vof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno;+u ;xsfo{ ug]{ .
h_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf /0fgLlt / k4ltx?sf ljz]iftfx?, PsLs[t vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf
gLlt, sfg'g, If]qut ljsf; of]hgfdf ;x/L ;/;kmfO dfu{bz{g /fVg tyf cfjZostf cg';f/ ;+zf]wg ug]{
;'lglZrttf ug]{ .
´_ ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] cg'ejsf] cfwf/df vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf gLlt /
;/;kmfO dfu{bzgdf ;+:yfut ;'wf/sf nflu o;sf] /0fgLltx?nfO{ ;do ;dodf kl/dfh{g ug]{ .
`_ lj:t[t cfof]hgf k|ltj]bg -l8hfO{g tyf nfut cg'dfg tof/L_, k|fljlws tyf ljlQo ;xof]u .
6_ cWoog, cg';Gwfg tyf ljsf; .
@= ;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno
s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] Joj:yfkg ;x/L ;/;kmfOsf] PsLs[t cjojsf] ?kdf :yfgLo txnfO{ of]hgf th'{df
/ sfof{Gjogdf gLltut lgb]{zg lbg] .
v_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] Joj:yfkgdf k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog / cg'udgsf] nflu :yfgLo txnfO{ pko'Qm
hgzlQm / ah]6 pknAw u/fpg] .
u_ :yfg ljz]if cg';f/ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ug{ ljlgod tof/ ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ / :yflgo
;efaf6 :jLs[t ug{ ;xhLs/0f ug]{ .
3_ vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno;+u dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg / /0fgLltx?df ;+:yfut ;'wf/sf]
nflu gLltut 5nkmn / ;~hfn tof/ ug]{ .
#= hg;+Vof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno
s_ ;x/L jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsf, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg , kmf]xf]/kfgL pT;h{g dfkb08 /
;"rsx? vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno dfkm{t :yfgLo txx?df k|rf/–k|;f/ ug]{ .
v_ ;x/L jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsfdf kl/eflift u/] cg';f/ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ , kmf]xf]/kfgL pT;h{g /
pTkflbt j:t'sf] cg'kfngsf] ;'lglZrtf eP gePsf] cg'udg ug]{ .
$= s[lif ljefu, s[lif dGqfno
s_ vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno, vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefusf] dfWodaf6 :yfgLo txnfO{ dfgj
dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ;+oGqaf6 pTkflbt k|fËfl/s dnsf] ;'/lIft k|of]u / ahf/Ls/0f ug{ dfu{bz{g /
;xof]u k|bfg ug]{ .
13
%= :yfgLo tx
s_ cfˆgf] sfo{ If]qleq dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] of]hgf / lgodgsf] nflu ;du|?kdf lhDd]jf/L jxg ug]{.
v_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg k|zf]wg s]Gb|sf] nflu hdLg / af6f] -cfjZos ePdf_ pknAw u/fpg] .
u_ cfˆgf] sfo{ If]qleq dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;ldlt÷;d"x u7g u/L
lg/LIf0f ug]{ .
3_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg k|zf]wg ;+oGqsf] l8hfOg, ;+:yfut tyf lgofds vfsf, Joj;flos of]hgf, /
;~rfng lgb]{lzsf÷dfu{bz{gsf] tof/L, :jLs[lt / hfgsf/L lbg] .
ª_ :yfgLo txsf] ;+:yfut / Joj:yfkg Ifdtf gx'Fbf;Dd dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;~rfng / dd{t ;+ef/
ug]{ lhDd]jf/L pkef]Qmf ;+:yfnfO{ lbg ;Sg] .
r_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] ;Íng, 9'jfgL, / ljlzi6s[t dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGqdf lj;h{g÷k'Mg
k|of]usf] nflu lghL Jofkf/LnfO{ nfO;]G; lbg] .
5_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] Joj;flos of]hgf cg';f/ pkef]Qmfn] ;]jf z'Nsaf6 ;~rfng ubf{ lbuf]
;~rfng geP;Dd ;~rfng / dd{t ;+ef/sf] nflu kof{Kt ;|f]tx? pknAw u/fpg]] .
h_ k|zf]wg ;+oGqdf dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ lj;h{g ug{ ;Defjgf eP;Dd glhssf] :yfgLo tx;+u ;dGjo ug]{ .
em_ ;/;kmfO k|j4{gdf vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;ldltx?;+u ;dGjo / ;DaGw a9fpg] .
`_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ;+oGq pkof]usf] nflu JolQmut / ;fj{hlgs rkL{x? lgdf{0fsf nflu dfkb08
cg';f/sf] ;]lK6s 6ofÍ / zf]slk6sf] l8hfOgsf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ .
6_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgnfO{ k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog, lgodg cg'kfng / ;+:yfut ;'wf/sf] ;'lglZrtf
sfod ug{ ;xlhs/0f ug]{ .
^= vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldltx?
s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGqsf] nflu :yfgLo tx sf] ;xof]udf hUuf / af6f]sf] ;'lglZrt ug]{ .
v_ ;]jf z'Nsaf6 lbuf] ;~rfng gx'Fbf;Dd :yfgLo txaf6 ;~rfng / dd{t ;+ef/ sf]ifsf] ;'lglZrtf ug]{ .
u_ Joj;flos of]hgfsf] ljsf; / sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;xof]u k|bfg ug]{ .
3_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] ;Íng, 9'jfgL, k|zf]wg / lj;h{g÷clGtd k|of]usf] nflu :yfgLo tx, gful/s, lghL
Jofkf/Lx?sf] aLrdf ;fem]bf/Lsf] nflu ;xhLs/0f ug]{ .
ª_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGqsf] ;~rfngsf] nflu ;dlk{t dfgj ;|f]tsf] Joj:yf ug]{ .
r_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgdf ;~rfng–Joj:yfkg cg'ejsf] cfwf/df s'g} ;d:of cfPdf :yfgLo tx,
vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefuaf6 ;xof]u lng ;lsg] 5 .
5_ :yfgLo txnfO{ k|efsf/L lgodg / ;+:yfut ;'wf/df ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] .
h_ ;fdflhs, cfly{s / ;f+:s[lts kIfnfO{ Wofg lb+b} pTkflbt - k|fËf/Ls dn / k|zf]lwt t/n kbfy{_ j:t'sf] ahf/
k|j4{gdf j[l4 ug]{ .
em_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqmsf] sfo{;DkfbgnfO{ k[i7kf]if0f k|bfg ug]{ .
&= lghL Joj;foL
s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jfsf] k|efjsf/L ;~rfngdf :yfgLo tx / vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO
;+:yf;+u ;fem]bf/L ug]{ .
v_ ;+emf}tfdf ePsf] k|fjwfg cg';f/ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ ;Íng / 9'jfgL, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ug]{
;+oGqsf] Joj:yfkg tyf pTkfbg ePsf] a:t'sf] clGtd pkof]u ug]{ .
u_ pTkflbt j:t'sf] u'0f:t/ ;'lgZrLt u/L ahf/Ls/0f ug]{ .
14
3_ pkef]QmfnfO{ ;]jf lbg] .
ª_ ;+emf}tf–kq cg';f/ ;]jf z'Ns ;Íng ug]{ .
r_ ;+emf}tf–kqsf] k'0f{ kl/kfngfsf] ;'lglZrtf ug{] .
*= cGt/fli6«o÷/fli6«o u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf
s_ hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{
v_ Ifdtf ljsf;, 1fg k|j4{g ug{]
u_ Joj;flos of]hgf ljsf; ug{]
3_ pTkflbt j:t'sf] ahf/ k|j4{g ug{]
(= ljsf; ;fem]bf/x?
s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu :yfgLo / /fli6«o :t/df ;+:yfut / Joj:yfkg Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug]{
tyf dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf nflu k|fljlws ;xof]u ug]{ .
v_ gd'gf k|zf]wg ;+oqsf] lgdf{0f / ljsf;sf] nflu sf]ifsf] Joj:yf ub]{ gd'gf sfo{s|d ;+rfng ug]{ .
$=# :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnL / lj;h{gsf] l8hfOg / lgdf{0f
s_ gofF lgdf{0f
!= ;]lK6s 6ofÍ / zf]slk6sf] l8hfOg hfFrsf] nflu /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/ ;+lxtf / dfu{bz{g -of] vfsfsf] efusf]
?kdf /xg]_ df ePsf] k|fjwfgnfO{ cg';/0f ul/g] 5 . gofF 3/x?sf] l8hfOg :jLs[t ubf{ :yfgLo txn] :ynut
;/;kmfO k|0ffnLsf] l8hfOg -rkL{, ;]lK6s 6ofÍ, zf]slk6_ / ;lhn} dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ lj;h{g ug]{ :yfgsf]
hfFr ug]{ 5 .
@= of] sfo{sf] nflu :yfgLo txn] lghL If]qnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg ;Sg]5 .
v_ df}h'bf ;+/rgf
!= /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/ ;+lxtf / dfu{bz{gdf ePsf] k|fjwfg cg';f/ xfn eO{/x]sf 3/ / ejgsf] lg/LIf0f ubf{
:yfgLo txn] :jLs[t l8hfOg cg';f/ ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLsf] lgdf{0f ePsf] 5, 5}g egL hfFr ug'{kg]{ 5 . kfngf gePdf
:yfgLo txn] lgdf{0fstf{nfO{ :jLs[t l8hfOg cg';f/ k'gMlgdf{0f ug{ lgb]{zg lbg]5 .
@= :yfgLo txn] :ynut ;/;kmfO jf ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx? cg'ko'Qm :yfgdf lgdf{0f u/]sf] eP 3/wgLnfO{ ;/;kmfOsf
k|0ffnLx? pko'Qm :yfgdf Joj:yf ug{ ;"rgf lbg ;Sg]5 .
#= o; sfo{sf] nflu :yfgLo txn] cjl:yt 3/÷ejgsf] :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx?sf] n]vfhf]vfsf] nflu lg/LIf0f ug{
lghL If]qnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg ;Sg]5 .
u_ 9n÷kmf]xf]/kfgLsf] lj;h{g
!= :yfgLo txn] 3/fo;L / cf}Bflus 9n÷kmf]xf]/kfgL ;'/lIft If]qdf jf jiff{tsf] kfgLsf] gfnLdf jf l;+rfO{sf] gx/df
lj;h{g u/] gu/]sf] lg/LIf0f ug{ ;Sg]5 .
15
@= a'Fbf ! sf] kfngf gePdf :yfgLo txn] :jLs[t lgod cg';f/ b08 ug{ ;Sg]5 . :yfgLo txn] 3/wgLnfO{ lgod ldrL
dfkb0f8 ljkl/t lgdf{0f ul/Psf] ;]lK6s 6ofÍdf 3/fo;L 9n÷kmf]xf]/kfgL k7fpg] u/]sf] ePdf :kli6s/0f ;f]Wg
;Sg]5 .
#= :yfgLo txn] 9n÷kmf]xf]/kfgL lj;h{gsf nflu k|of]u eO{/x]sf ljlwsf] klxrfg ug{ lghL If]qnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg
;Sg]5 .
$= :yfgLo txn] l/on :6]6, pBf]ux?, c:ktfnx?af6 lg:sg] 9n÷kmf]xf]/kfgLnfO{ aflx/L jftfj/0fdf lj;h{g ug'{eGbf
klxn] cfˆg} xftfleq k|zf]wg u/L lj;h{g u/fpg vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno / hg;+Vof tyf jftfj/0f
dGqfno -:yfgLo zfvfx?_ ;+u ldn]/ sfd ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
$=$ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ ;Íng / 9'jfgL
!= :yfgLo txn] k|ToIf ?kdf c;'/lIft tl/sf k|of]u u/L dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ kmfNg] sfo{ lj?4 lgod tof/ u/L
qmdfut ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug'{ kg]{5 .
@= :yfgLo txn] ;'/lIft ;ÍnLt, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ uf8Ldf 9'jfgL ug{sf nflu cg'dlt kq / dfgj dnd'qLo
kmf]xf]/ vfnL ug{] / 9'jfgL ug]{x?sf] nflu pko'Qm :jf:Yo / ;'/Iff ;DaGwL tflnd ;DaGwL dfgsx? / dfu{bz{gx?
Tof/ Aug'{ kg] {5. :yfgLo txn] cfjlws ?kdf 9'jfgL ug]{ uf8Lx?n] ;'/lIft tl/sfn] 9'jfgL u/] gu/]sf] lg/LIf0fsf]
cwf/df 9'jfgL ug]{ uf8Lx? sf] cg'dltkq gjLs/0f ug'{ kg]{5 .
#= :yfgLo txn] ;Íng / 9'jfgL ubf{ :jLs[t dfgs cg';f/ ;'/lIft / :jR5 tl/sfn] ;+rfng u/fpg] JolQmsf] :jf:Yo
/ ;'/Iffdf, hg:jf:Yo / jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj gkg]{ u/L oL sfo{x? ePsf 5g 5}gg elg ;'lglZrttf ug{
lg/LIf0f ug]{5 .
$= ;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug]{ ;]jfdf æ;Ílnt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wgsf] nflu tf]lsPsf] :yfgdf 9'jfgL u/L
lj;h{g ug]{ sfo{{Æ ;dfj]z ul/Psf] x'g]5 . :yfgLo txn] ;Ílnt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ tf]lsPsf] :yfgdf dfq
lj;h{g ul/sf] 5 / cGoq v'nf 7fpF÷kfgL÷gfnL÷9ndf lj;h{g ul/Psf] 5}g eGg] s'/f ;'lglZrt ug]{ 5 .
%= ;Ílnt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ hyfefjL ?kdf cglws[t lj;h{g u/]df :yfgLo txn] cfˆgf] :jLs[t lgod adf]lhd
bl08t ug]{5 .
^= dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] Joj:yfkgsf] nflu cf–cfˆgf] ;+:yfn] :jLs[t u/]sf] Joj;flos of]hgfsf] cfwf/df :yfgLo
txn] :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx?af6 ;Íng / 9'jfgLsf] nflu dx;'n lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg]5 . olb dfgj dnd'qLo
kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ug]{ k|0ffnLx? klxnf g} ;+rfngdf 5g / k|zf]wgsf] nflu ;Ílnt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ 9'jfgL
ul/G5 eg] :yfgLo txn] ;]jf rqm -;Íngb]lv k|zf]wg;Dd_ nfO{ ljrf/ ug{ ;Sg]5 / ;f]xL cg';f/ ;]jfsf] dx;'n
lgwf{/0f ug]{5 .
&= ;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug]{ sfo{ ;'lglZrt ug{ :yfgLo txn] cfˆgf] sfo{If]qleq 3/w'/L / ;+:yfx?sf] tYofÍfs ;+sng
u/L @–% jif{df Psk6s lgoldt ?kdf ;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug]{ of]hgf agfO{ ;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug{ ;Sg] 5g. Ps
k6s dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqm sfo{Gjogdf cfO;s]kl5 ;j} :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx?sf]
;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug]{ ;dosf] nflu tYofÍ k|of]u ul/g]5 .
16
$=% dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg, lj;h{g / clGtd pkof]u
!= vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldltsf] ;xof]udf :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ;+oGqsf] :yfg
;'lglZrt ubf{ cg';"rL @ df pNn]lvt Go"gtd cfjZstfdf cfwfl/t x'g'kg]{ 5 . hdLgsf] :jfldTj :yfgLo txsf] jf
;fj{hlgs x'g'kg]{ 5 . ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug'{eGbf klxn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] k|ltj]bg Pp6f :jtGq t]>f]
kIfaf6 tof/ / :jLs[t ul/g'kg]{5 .
@= :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg, lj;h{g / clGtd pkof]u ug]{ sfo{x? ubf{ ;x/L jftfj/0fLo
Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsfn] kl/eflift u/]sf] dfgsx? cg'kfng eP gePsf], t/n pT;h{g, ;fj{hlgs :jf:Yo /
jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj ljgf lj;h{g eP gePsf] lg/LIf0f ug]{ 5 . k|zf]lwt kfgLsf dfgsx? cg';"rL # df
lbOPsf] 5g .
#= dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf dfgsx? dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;~rfng dfu{bz{gdf kl/eflift
eP cg';f/ cg';/0f ug'{kg]{ 5 . :yfgLo txn] vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu jf ;DalGwt ;+:yfx?af6 dfgj
dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg k|0ffnlx?sf] l8hfOg, ;~rfng / dd{t ;+ef/ ;DaGwL k|fljlws / Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL
;xof]u lng ;Sg]5 .
$= :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGqsf] bIftf, ;+oGq ;~rfngsf] ;dLIff / dd{t ;+ef/sf]
k|ltj]bg / cfjZos k/]df ;+:yfut ;'wf/sf pkfox?sf] cfjlws lg/LIf0f ug{ ;Sg]5 .
%= :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gsf] bkmf !!^ cg';f/ :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] k|zf]wg ug{ lghL If]q jf
vfg]kfgL pkef]Qm tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldltnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg ;Sg]5 / pTkflbt j:t'sf] pkof]u÷ahf/Ls/0f afXo ;]jf
;+emf}tf cg';f/ ug{ ;Sg]5 .
^= ;]jf ;+emf}tfdf ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] e"ldsf / ;]jf z'Nssf] af/]df :ki6?kdf kl/eflift ul/g] 5 . :ygLo tx÷vfg]kfgL
pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldltn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wgsf] nflu ;Íng / 9'jfgL ;d]tsf] ;]jf z'Ns of]
vfsf adf]lhd lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg]5 .
&= :yfgLo txn] ;x/L jftjf/0f Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsfdf kl/eflift dfgs cg';f/ kmf]xf]/kfgL pT;h{g / pTkflbt j:t'sf]
cg'kfngsf] ;'lglZrtf ug{ hg;+Vof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno÷ljefusf] ;xof]u lng ;Sg]5 .
*= :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg k|0ffnLaf6 pTkflbt k|fËfl/s dnsf] ahf/Ls/0f ug{ / o;sf] ;'/lIft
k|of]usf] nflu s[lif dGqfno÷ljefusf] ;xof]u lng ;Sg]5 .
(= :yfgLo txn] k|fËfl/s dnsf] k'gMk|of]udf / pTkflbt j:t'x?sf] ahf/ ljsf;sf] nflu hgr]tgf l;h{gf ug{ lghL If]q,
u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf, cg';Gwfgug{] ;+:yf;+u ;xsfo{ ug{ ;Sg] 5 .
$=^ jftjf/0fLo cg'udg / cg'kfng
!= vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] ;x/L jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsfdf kl/eflift
u/] cg';f/ jf cGo dfu{bz{g ljz]if u/]/ k|zf]lwt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ / clGtd pkof]usf] nflu kmf]xf]/kfgL /
pT;h{g dfgsx?sf] cg'kfngdf :yfgLo txnfO{ ;Ifd agfpg] / kmf]xf]/kfgLsf] dfgsx?sf] k|rf/ k|;f/ ug{ hg;+Vof
tyf jftfj/0f dGqnfo;+u ;xsfo{ ug{ ;Sg]5.
@= vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon], lj;h{h ug]{ kmf]xf]/ kfgLsf] b08 hl/jfgf ug{
;Sg]5 .
17
$=& hgr]tgf clej[l4, Ifdtf ljsf;, tflnd / cg';Gwfg
!= vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] k|of]ustf{–d}qL dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/
Joj:yfkg ;~rfng dfu{bz{gsf] ljsf; ug]{ 5 . Tof] dfu{bz{gn] vfnL ug]{, 9'jfgL, / dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] k|zf]wg,
;~rfng tyf dd{t ;+ef/, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ug]{ ;+oGq, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ;+oGqaf6
pT;h{g, lj;h{g, u'0f:t/ lgoGq0f tyf pTkflbt j:t'sf] k|of]u, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg k|0ffnLaf6 pTkflbt
k|fËfl/s dnsf] ahf/Ls/0f÷k|of]usf] nflu nfO;]G; ;DaGwL k4lt / dfgsx? ;dfj]z ug]{ 5 .
@= :yfgLo txn] vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldlt÷;+:yf, gful/s ;dfh ;+:yf, cg';Gwfg / tflnd ;~rfng
ug]{ ;+:yfx?;+u ldn]/ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg af/] hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{5 .
#= :yfgLo txsf] Ifdtfdf /x]sf sdL sdhf]/Lx?sf] pko'Qm ?kdf lgwf{/0fsf] cfwf/df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/
Joj:yfkg sfo{sf] :yfgLo txsf] k|efjsf/L of]hgf, ;]jf k|jfx tyf cg'udg ug{ :jf:Yo / jftfj/0f dxfzfvf÷zfvfsf]
;+:yfut / Joj:yfksLo Ifdtfsf] ;'b[9Ls/0f x]t' vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon]
;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno;+u ;xsfo{ ug]{5 .
$= vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] 1fg tyf Ifdtfsf] sdL, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/
Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqmdf k|lqmof / pTkfbgsf] u'0f:t/ sfod ug]{ h:tf ljifo ;dfwfgsf] nflu cg';Gwfg / tflnd
;~rfng ug]{ ;+:yf -h:t}, /fli6«o vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO tflnd s]Gb|_, ljsf; ;fem]bf/, cGt/f{li6«o u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf
nufot cGo ;+u ;+nUg eO{ sfo{ ug]{ 5.
%= vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] ljsf; ;fem]bf/, cGt/f{li6«o u}/ ;/sf/L
;+:yfsf] ;xof]udf Ifdtf ljsf; ug{ / dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgdf 1fg / gjLgtfsf] af/]df ;xhLs/0f u/L
k|rf/–k|;f/ ug]{5g .
$=* gLltut ;dGjo, k|fljlws ;xof]u / ah]6 Joj:yfkg
!= g]kfn ;/sf/n] k|zf]wg ;+oGq lgdf{0fsf] nflu hUuf k|fKt ug{ :yfgLo tx÷vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO
;ldlt÷;+:yfnfO{ cfjZos ;xof]u k|bfg ug]{ 5 .
@= vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno / ;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnon] vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf gLlt,
P]gdf ;x/L ;/;kmfO of]hgf th'{dfsf nflu dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgnfO{ PsLs[t cjojsf] ?kdf ;dfof]lht
ug'{kg]{ 5 / If]qut ljsf; of]hgfdf ;fgf ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf;sf] nflu pko'Qm
of]hgf / ah]6sf] Joj:yf ug'{kg]{ 5 .
#= /fli6«o vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;dGjo ;ldltn] cGt/–dGqfno;+u ;DaGwsf nflu ;dGjo ug]{ 5 / hg;+Vof
tyf jftjf/0f dGqfno tyf s[lif dGqfnoaf6 ;dGjo ;ldltsf] ;+/rgfdf k|ltlglwsf] Joj:yf u/L k|zf]lwt
pTkfbg÷;xpTkfbgsf] ahf/Ls/0f ug{ ;xlhs/0f ug]{5 .
$= ax'kIfLo, l4kIfLo ljsf; ;fem]bf/n] ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jfx?nfO{ kl/df0ffTds j[l4sf]
nflu k|fljlws ;xof]u / nufgLsf] ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] 5g .
18
cg';"rL !
vfnL ug]{
gu/ jf; ;=;=
ufpFkflnsf jf; ;=;=
3/fo;L
:ynut ;/;kmfO
9'jfgL
k|zf]wg -lg=Jo=
jf vf=kf=p=;=;=
clGtd k|of]u jf
pkof]u
Vff=kf=;=d=
vf=kf=9=lg=lj=
;+:yfut vfsf
;+= df= :yf=lj=d=
:yfgLo tx
-gu/kflnsf ufpFkflnsf_
Vf=kf=;=l8=sf=
/f=jf=;=tf=s]/f=jf=;=;=;=
lb=n]=Jo=;ldlt OsfO
• :yfgLo tx O{=l~h=
• vf=kf=p=;=;= k|ltlglw
• vf=kf=;=l8=sf= jf cfJOsf k|ltlglw
• lghL Joj;foL
Vf=kf=p=;=;=
nfO;]G; k|fKt lghL Joj;foL
:yfgLo tx,
vf=kf=p=;=;= / ;xof]uL tx aLrdf
;embf/ –kq_
Vf=kf=p=;=;= / lghL Joj;foL
aLrdf
;]jf :t/sf] ;+emf}tf
k'gZr M
vf=kf=;=d vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno
;+=df=:yf=lj=d= ;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno
/f=jf;=;=;= /fli6«o vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO ;dGjo ;ldlt
vf=kf=9=lg=lj= vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu
/f=jf;=tf=s]= /fli6«o vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO tflnd s]Gb|
vf=kf=;=l8=sf vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO l8lehg sfof{no
gu/ jf; ;=;= gu/ vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO ;dGjo ;ldlt
vf=kf=p=;= vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldlt÷;+:yf
lg=Jo= lghL Joj;foL
jf; vfg]kfgL ;/;kmfO{ tyf :jR5tf
19
cg';"rL @
dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg :yn 5gf}6sf] nflu dfkb08
 hdLgsf] 5gf}6 hdLg pkof]u of]hgf jf hUuf k|flKt P]gsf] @)#$ dfWod4f/f jf :yfgLo tx tyf
cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;dGjodf ul/g] 5 .
 k|zf]wg ;+oGqaf6 lg:sg] uGwsf] ;d:of jf cGo sf/0fn] s[lif of]Uo hdLg, gbL÷kfgL ePsf] If]q,
c:ktfn jf ljBfnoaf6 cfpg] ;fdflhs Jojwfgaf6 hf]lug k|zf]wg :yn 3gf a:tLeGbf 6f9f
lgdf{0f÷:yfkgf ug'{kg]{ 5 .
 k|zf]wg–:yn ;fd'bflos ag jf jg If]qleq agfpg ;lsg] 5 t/ ;+/lIft If]qleq gk/]sf] x'g'kg]{ 5 .
 k|zf]wg :yn a:tLaf6 slDtdf klg #)) ld6/ 6f9f, vfg]kfgLsf] ;|f]teGbf #) ld6/ tn, ;+/lIft
wfld{s If]qleq gkg]{, ;dy/ hdLg jf *Ü eGbf sd le/fnf] ePsf] hdLg x'g'kg]{ 5 .
 ;fj{hlgs jf vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldltsf] :jfldTjdf hdLgsf] nfnk"hf{ ePsf] /
lgdf{0fsf] nflu ;fdflhs / jftfj/0fLo k|lts"n k|efj gkg]{ :yfg x'g'kg]{ 5 .
 k|zf]wg s]Gb| lgdf{0fsf] nflu 7f]; kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkg ug]{ / kmf]xf]/kfgL k|zf]wg s]Gb|leq jf oL
;'ljwfx? ePsf :yfgx?nfO{ pko'Qm :ynsf] ?kdf lnOg] 5 . tL k|0ffnLx? lgdf{0f ug]{ of]hgf ePdf
of] k|zf]wg s]Gb|nfO{ klg To; k|0ffnLdf g} PsLs[t ug'{kg]{ 5 .
20
21
22

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Nepal faecal sludge management and regulatory framework 2074

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  • 2. 2 ljifo ;"rL != kl/ro !=! ;x/L If]qx?sf] juL{s/0f !=@ ;x/L ;/;kmfOsf] kl/k|]Io !=# ;/;kmfOsf] kl/ro !=$ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] cf}lrTo @= sfg'gL tyf gLltut kl/j]z #= ;+:yfut tyf lgodg vfsfsf] p2]Zox? / sfo{If]q $= ;+:yfut e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx? $=! dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ;du| lhDd]jf/L $=@ e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx? $=# :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnL / lj;h{gsf] l8hfOg / lgdf{0f $=$ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ ;Íng / 9'jfgL $=% dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg, lj;h{g / clGtd pkof]u $=^ jftfj/0fLo cg'udg tyf cg'kfng $=& hgr]tgf clej[l4, Ifdtf ljsf;, tflnd / cg';Gwfg $=* gLltut ;dGjo, k|fljlws ;xof]u / ah]6 Joj:yfkg cg';"rL M cg';"rL ! M ;+:yfut k|aGw cg';"rL @ M dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg k|zf]wg ;+oGqsf] nflu ;fO6 5gf}6 dfkb08 cg';"rL # M kmf]xf]/kfgLsf dfgsx?
  • 3. 1 kl/R5]b ! kl/ro !=! ;x/L If]qx?sf] juL{s/0f :yfgLo k'g{;+/rgf cfof]un] jlu{s[t u/]sf] jlu{s/0f cg'?k hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df ;x/L If]qx?sf] juL{s/0f / /fli6«o ;x/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ gLlt @))( df kl/eflift dWojtL{ / ;fgf ;x/x? lgDg ad]lhd /x]sf 5g. tflnsf ! M ;x/L If]qx?sf] juL{s/0f ;x/L If]q Go"gtd hg;+Vof jflif{s /fhZj -?= bz nfvdf_ ;+/rgf dxfgu/kflnsf #)),))) $))  pkdxfgu/kflnsf / gu/kflnsfsf nflu rflxg] ;j} k"jf{wf/ x'g'kg]{5 .  %)) ;}ofsf] ljz]if1 ;]jf ;lxtsf] xl:k6n ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  /+uzfnf ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  Kf|ljlws lzIffno ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  ;+u|xfno ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  6ld{gn ;lxtsf] j;kfs{ x'g'kg]{5 .  t/sf/L tyf kmnkm'n ljls| s]Gb| ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 . pkdxfgu/kflnsf !%),))) !))  gu/kflnsfsf nflu rflxg] ;j} k"jf{wf/ x'g'kg]{5 .  @)) ;}ofsf] xl:k6n ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  /+uzfnf jf v]nd}bfg / se8{xn ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  ;efxn ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 . gu/kflnsf  cfˆgf] If]q leq Nof08lkmn ;fO6 x'g'kg]{ jf ;f] gePdf e/kbf]{ j}slNks Aoj:yfkg ;'lglZrt ePsf] x'g' kg]{5 .  v'nf If]q ePsf] / kfs{ pbofg ePsf] jf x'g ;Sg] ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  xf6ahf/ If]q ePsf] jf /fVg kof{Kt 7fFp ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  slDtdf Ps :jf:Yo s]Gb| ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  bdsn, PDj'n]G; ;]jf ;lxtsf] sfof{no :yfkgf ug{ cfjZos hUuf k|ofKt ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  ;fgf, demf}nf / 7"nf pbof]u ;+rfngdf /x]sf x'g'kg]{5 .  ;+rf/, ljB't / ;8s oftfoft ;]jf pknAw ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  a}+s tyf ljlQo ;+:yf ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  v]nd}bfg ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  j;kfs{ ePsf] jf ;f]sf] nflu cfjZos hUuf ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  ;fj{hlgs zf}rfno ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 .  ;fd'bflos ejg jf ;efxn ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 . lxdfn @),))) @ kxf8 #%,))) #=% lelq dw];- kxf8L e"efu _ #%,))) #=% lelq dw];- -;dy/ e"efu _ &%,))) &=% t/fO{ &%,))) &=%
  • 4. 2 ;x/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO gLlt, @)^^ df kl/eflift ;x/L If]q Go"gtd hg;+Vof jflif{s /fhZj -?= bz nfvdf_ ;+/rgf dWojtL{ ;x/x? !),)))–%),))) /fhZjsf] dfkb08 5}g t/ hg;+Vofsf] hg3gTj k|lt ju{ x]S6/ !) JolQm / slDtdf klg %)Ü hg;+Vof s[lif afx]ssf] If]qdf nfu]sf] x'g'kg]{ cfwf/e"t ;'ljwfx? h:t} lu|8 ljh'nL, ;~rf/, dfWolds ljBfno, :jf:Yo ;]jfx?;fgf ;x/x? %,)))–$),))) !=@ ;x/L ;/;kmfO kl/k|]Io g]kfnn] ljutsf] bzsb]lv cfwf/e"t ;/;kmfO -rkL{sf] kx'Fr_ df ;'wf/ ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . ;g @))! df @$Ü sf] t'ngfdf ;g @)!! df se/]hdf j[l4 eO{ ^$Ü -;x/ – (!Ü / u|fdL0f – %^Ü_ k'u]sf] lyof] . ;g @)!! df /fli6«o ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgfsf] sfof{Gjog kZrft g]kfndf ;/;kmfO / :jR5tfsf] cj:yf ;'wf/df ult cfPsf]n] w]/} ufpF, gu/kflnsf / lhNnfx? v'nf lb;fd'Qm 3f]if0ff eO{ /x]sf 5g . /fli6«o Joj:yfkg ;"rgf cfof]hgf -@)!$_ sf cg';f/ cfwf/e"t ;/;kmfOsf] se/]hdf j[l4 eO{ xfn &)Ü k'u]sf] 5 . ;x/x?df ;/;kmfOsf] se/]h vfN8] rkL{, ;'wfl/Psf] rkL{ / ;]lK6s 6ofÍhl8t rkL{x? k|of]u ug]{ 3/kl/jf/x?df e/ kb{5 . g]kfndf b|'t ultdf ;x/Ls/0f eO{ /x]sf] 5 . ;g @)!! df !&Ü /x]sf] ;x/L hg;+Vof xfn $)Ü k'u]sf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . #)Ü ;x/L hg;+Vofsf] rkL{ 9n k|0ffnLdf hf]l8Psf] / $*Ü hg;+Vofsf] rkL{ ;]lK6s 6ofÍdf hf]l8Psf 5g ,!@Ü hg;+Vof;+u ;fwf/0f rk{L{ 5 eg] (Ü hg;+Vof;+u s'g} lsl;dsf] rkL{sf] ;'ljwf 5}g / !Ü hg;+Vofsf] ;DaGwdf tYofÍsf] cfefj /xsf] 5 . gu/kflnsf] ;+Vof %* af6 j[l4 eP/ xfn @$^ k'u]sf] 5 / w]/}h;f] ;fgf ;x/x? gu/kflnsfsf] ?kdf juL{s[t ePsf 5g eg] ;]lK6s 6ofÍdf hf]l8Psf] rkL{sf] ;+Vofdf klg cem j[l4 ePsf] 5 . !=# ;/;kmfOsf] kl/ro ;/;kmfO M– dfgj dnd'qsf] ;'/lIft lj;h{gsf nflu ;]jf / ;'ljwfx?sf] Joj:yfnfO{ ;/;kmfO elgG5 . ;/;kmfOn] kmf]xf]/d}nf ;+sng / kmf]xf]/ kfgLsf] lj;h{g dfkm{t :jR5tf sfodnfO{ ug'{nfO{ a'emfpF5 . hg:jf:Yo k|j4{gsf nflu ul/Psf ljleGg :j:ys/ lqmofsnfkx?sf] ;du| sfo{ ;kmfO xf] . :jR5tf M– :jR5tf eGgfn] cfkm" / jl/kl/sf] jftfj/0f ;kmf u/L /f]usf] lj:tf/ /f]Sg' / la/fdL x'gaf6 aRg ckgfOg] ;Dk"0f{ Joxf/x? x'g . :jR5tfn] JolQm / ;d'bfosf] cfgLafgLnfO{ hgfpF5 . -;|f]tM k"0f{ ;/;kmfO dfu{bz{g, @)&# _ To;}n], ;/;kmfOdf lgDg ljifox? ;dfj]z ePsf] x'G5g M s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:Yffkg (Faecal Sludge Mangement) v_ kmf]xf]/kfgL Joj:yfkg / k|zf]wg -9n tyf ljs]lGb|t k|0ffnLx? b'j}_ . kmf]xf]/kfgL eGgfn] cf}Bf]uLs t/n kmf]xf]/ ;d]tnfO{ hgfpFb5 . u_ jiff{tsf] kfgL -gfnf_ Joj:yfkg, / 3_ 7f]; kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkg .
  • 5. 3 !=$ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] cf}lrTo Kfmf]xf]/ kfgL (Wastewater) / dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ (Faecal sludge) Joj:yfkg ug{ lgDg adf]lhdsf k|0ffnLx? zx/L If]qsf] cfjZostf / pko'Qm k|ljlwsf cfwf/df 5gf}6 ug{ ;lsg] 5 . s_ k|zf]wg ;lxtsf] 9n k|0ffnL . v_ k|zf]wg ;lxtsf] 9n k|0ffnL tyf dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg (Faecal sludge management) Plss[t k|0ffnL . u_ 9n Joj:yfkgsf nflu hg3gTj gePsf] cyjf 5l/Psf j:tL /x]sf] :yfgdf dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg . ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ ;]lK6s 6ofÍaf6 vfnL ug]{, ;Íng tyf 9'jfgL ug]{ sfo{ Joj:yLt ?kdf x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . cfˆgf] 3/sf] ;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug{ k/]df lghL If]qsf pBdLx?nfO{ af]nfP/ ug]{ ul/G5 . ;x/x?df ;]lK6s 6ofÍ lgoldt ?Kfdf vfnL ug]{ kl/kf6L 5}g / ha vfN8f] jf ;]lK6s 6ofÍx? el/P/ aflx/ aUb5g ta dfq vfnL ug]{ ul/G5 . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ug]{ ;]jfx?sf] lgodg ug]{ ;+:yfsf] cefjdf ;]lK6s 6ofÍaf6 lgsflnPsf] n]bf] / kmf]xf]/kfgLnfO{ k|zf]wg lagf g} glhs}sf] gbL, ;LdfGt hdLg, 9n jf gfnLdf hyfefjL ?kdf ˆofSg] ul/G5 . ck|zf]lwt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/n] ;tx / hdLgd'lgsf kfgLsf ;|f]tx?nfO{ k|b"lift agfpg'sf ;fy} hg:jfYo / jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n c;/ kb{5 . rkL{af6 lg:sg] dfgj kmf]xf]/n] kfg]{ k|lts"n :jR5tf ;DaGwL c;/ af/] s]xL 3/w'/Lx? dfq ;r]t /x]sf 5g . :ynut ;/;kmfOsf] of]hgf th'{df / Joj:yfkgdf ;x/L ;/;kmfO / kmf]xf]/kfgL Joj:yfkg nfO{ a]jf:tf ul/Psf]] 5, rkL{ lgdf{0fdf dfq s]lGb|t /xL s]lx gu/kflnsfx?df dfq 9n lgdf{0f ;Lldt x'g'sf] ;fy} :ynut ;/;kmfOnfO{ cgf}krfl/s / c:yfoL ;/;kmfO ;]jf k|jfxsf] ?kdf x]l/Psf] 5 . w]/} :yfg÷If]qx?nfO{ v'nf lb;fd'Qm 3f]if0ff u/]kl5 ;+3Lo ;/sf/, :yfgLo tx -gu/kflnsf / ufFpkflnsf_, ;d'bfo / 3/w'/Lx?n] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ sfo{ ljsf;sf] Ph]08fsf] ?kdf cufl8 a9fO{ k"0f{ ;/;kmfO tkm{ pGd'v eO/x]sf 5g . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] ;xL Joj:yfkg lagf ;'wfl/Psf] ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf k|ofKt / lbuf] xF'b}g . To;n], gbL÷kfgL ;|f]tdf k/]sf] k|b"if0fsf] ef/nfO{ sd ug{ lskmfotL / lbuf] pkfox?sf] vfhL ug{kg]{ ePsf]5 . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkgsf] nflu lgofds / ;+:yfut vfsfnfO{ ;anLs/0f, tflnd / lzIff, Joj;flos of]hgfsf] ljsf; / sfof{Gjog, ;+efJo ;dfwfgsf pkfox?sf] k|fljlws / ljQLo ljZn]if0fsf ;fy} ;]jf k|jfx / ;~rfng tyf dd{t ;+ef/df lbuf]kgf cfjZos 5 .
  • 6. 4 kl/R5]b–@ sfg'gL / gLltut kl/j]z o; v08n] ;x/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO ;]jfx? ;DaGwL sfg'gsf] l;+xfjnf]sg, gLlt / dfu{bz{gx?nfO{ qmdfut >[+vnfsf] ?kdf j0f{g ub{5 . != g]kfnsf] ;+lawfg g]kfnsf] ;+lawfgsf] bkmf %^ cg';f/ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs g]kfnsf] d'n ;+/rgf ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLo tx u/L tLg txsf] /x]sf] 5 . :yfgLo tx cGtu{t ufpFkflnsf, gu/kflnsf / lhNnf ;ef x'g]5g . ufpFkflnsf / gu/kflnsfx?df j8fx?sf] ;+Vof ;+3Lo sfg'gdf Joj:yf eP cg';f/ x'g] 5 . g]kfnsf] ;+lawfgn] ;'/lIft kfgL / ;/;kmfOsf] kx'FrnfO{ lgDg adf]lhd cfwf/e"t clwsf/sf] ?kdf k|Tofe"t u/]sf] 5 . @= PsLs[t vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf gLlt tyf sfg'g g]kfndf vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf;+u ;DalGwt P]g sfg'g / gLltx? ljleGg ;dodf lgdf{0f ePtf klg tL P]g sfg'gsf] cg'kfng / sfof{Gjog g} d'Vo r'gf}tLx?sf] ?kdf /x]sf 5g . o;}nfO{ dgg u/]/ vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO ;+u ;DalGwt P]g, lgodfjnL sf ;fy} PsLs[t vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf gLlt vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] tof/ ul//x]sf] 5 . log} ;fwgx?sf dfWodaf6 jt{dfg gLltx? / sfg'gnfO{ Pp6} Jofks sfg'gL / ;+:yfut vfsfleq PsLs[t ug]{ / nIo k|flKtdf ;dGjofTds 9Ën] cufl8 a9L ;'wfl/Psf], ;dfj]zL / lbuf] vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;DaGwL ;]jfx? k|bfg ug{ cg's"n jftfj/0f l;h{gf x'g'sf ;fy}, ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ dfu{bz{g x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . #= hn;|f]t P]g, @)$( hn;|f]tsf] ;d'lrt pkof]u, ;+/If0f, Joj:yfkg / ljsf; ug{ hn;|f]t P]g @)$( sf] k|f/De ePsf] xf] . o;n] b]z leq /x]sf] hn;|f]tsf] :jfldTj /fHodf /x]sf] sfg'gL cfwf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . o;n] hn;|f]tsf] nfebfos pkof]ux?sf] lgwf{/0f ug{ To:tf] pkof]uaf6 x'g] jftfj/0fLo tyf cGo xflgsf/s k|efjsf] /f]syfd ug{ Pj+ hn;|f]t nfO{ k|b"if0f d'St /fVgsf] nflu sfg'gL Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . $= jftfj/0f ;+/If0f P]g, @)%# jftfj/0f ;+/If0f lgodfjnL, @)%$ o; P]gn] cfly{s ljsf; / jftfj/0f ;+/If0f aLrsf] cGof]Gofl>t ;DaGwaf6} lbuf] ljsf; x'g] s'/fnfO{ Wofgdf /fVb} jftfj/0fLo x|f;af6 dfgj hflt, hLjhGt', jg:klt, k|s[lt tyf ef}lts j:t'dfly x'g ;Sg] k|lts"n k|efjnfO{ oyfzSo sd u/L :jR5 tyf :j:y jftfj/0f sfod ug{ / k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] ;d'lrt pkof]u / Joj:yfkgaf6 jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ug]{ ;DaGwdf sfg'gL Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . ;kmf jftfj/0fdf afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ M wf/f #) -!_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ :jR5 / :j:y jftfj/0fdf afFRg kfpg] xs x'g] 5 . -@_ jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0f jf x|f;af6 x'g] Iflt jfkt kLl8tnfO{ k|b"ifsaf6 sfg'g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xs x'g] 5 . :jf:Yo ;DaGwL xs M wf/f #% -$_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ :jR5 vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOdf kx'Frsf] xs x'g] 5 .
  • 7. 5 P]gdf cfof]hgfsf] k|s[lt / cfsf/sf] cfwf/df jftfj/0fLo k|efj d"NofÍg (EIA) jf k|f/lDes jftfj/0fLo k/LIf0f (IEE) ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 . o; P]gn] k|b"if0fsf] lgoGq0f jf jftfj/0fnfO{ Iflt k'¥ofpg] sfo{x?sf] /f]syfd ug{sf] nflu jftfj/0f lg/LIfssf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . lgodfjnLn] vfg]kfgL;+u ;DalGwt cfof]hgfx?sf] nflu EIA jf IEE ug'{kg]{ cj:yfsf] ;"rL cf}+NofPsf] 5 . of] P]gdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd ;x/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO gLlt, @))( df kmf]xf]/kfgLsf] lj;h{g gbL÷kfgLdf ubf{ kfgLsf] u'0f:t/ ;+/If0f ug{ lgodg ug]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . %= :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%% :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%% / :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g lgodfjnL, @)%^, df clwsf/sf] lgIf]k0f, lhDd]jf/L / :yfgLo txx?nfO{ ;|f]tx? lbg] cfwf/ to ug'{sf] ;fy} vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf ;]jfx?sf] nflu ;d]t ljs]lGb|s[t tl/sfaf6 :yfgLo ljsf; k|lqmofsf] g]t[Tj ug]{ k|fjwfg /x]sf] 5 . o; P]gn] k|fs[lts ;|f]tx? :yfgLo tx ;DklQ x'g] / k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] pkof]udf s/ nufO{ :yfgLo txsf] ;zlQms/0fsf] kl/sNkgf u/]sf] 5 . :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gdf ;/;kmfO ;DjlGw k|fjwfgx? o; k|sf/ /x]sf 5g M– :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gsf] bkmf %^ df :yflgo txn] ;/;kmfO, 9n lgsf; ;]jf z'Ns nufpg ;Sg] Joj:yf 5 . gu/kflnsfsf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/ M bkmf (^ -!_ -u_ hn;|f]t, jftfj/0f / ;/;kmfO{ ;DjlGw -^_ df gu/kflnsf If]qleq ;/;kmfOsf sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{ / -&_ df kmf]xf]/ d}nf ;+sng, 9'jfgL tyf tx nufpg] ;DjlGw sfdsf] ;+rfng / Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/fpg] Joj:yf 5 . ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/ M bkmf @* -r_ -$_ a;f]af; If]qdf cfaZos 9n lgsf;sf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/fpg] Joj:yf 5 . ^= /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/ ;+lxtf, @)^) /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/ ;+lxtfn] 3/leq vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf k|fjwfgdf 3/af6 lg:sg] kmf]xf]/kfgL, jiff{tsf] kfgLsf] ;Íng tyf lj;h{g / rkL{ lgdf{0f / cGo ;/;kmfOsf ;'ljwfx? ;d]tsf] dfgsx? tof/ u/L dfu{bz{g k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . of] cfrf/ ;+lxtf 7"nf ;x/x?sf] nflu w]/} ;fGble{s 5 tyf ;fgf ;x/ / ;x/f]Gd'v ahf/x?sf] nflu o;sf] ;fGble{stf sd /x]sf] 5 . o;sf dfgs / dfu{bz{gx? cg'udg, ko{j]If0f, / cg'kfng ug{ r'gf}tLsf ?kdf /x]sf 5g . &= vfg]kfgL Joj:yfkg af]8{ P]g, @)^# Vffg]kfgL Joj:yfkg af]8{sf] sfo{If]q leq gu/kflnsfx? kb{5g . o; P]gn] ;x/L If]qx?sf vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO ;]jfx?df :yfgLo tx / vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;+:yfx?sf] ;xeflutfdf hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . ;fy} o; P]gn] vfg]kfgLsf] ;DklQx?sf] :jfldTj, vfg]kfgLsf] Joj:yf / ;/;kmfOsf] ;]jfx? pknAw u/fpg :jfoQ / :jtGq vfg]kfgL Joj:yfkg af]8{ :yfkgf ug]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . o; P]gn] ;]jf k|bfos -;fj{hlgs jf lghL_ nfO{ nfO;]G; lbg], k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yfkg, ;~rfng tyf dd{t ;+ef/ / ;DklQx? lnhdf lbg ;lsg] klg Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . *= ;x/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO gLlt, @)^^ zx/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;]jfn] k'¥ofpg] ;]jfsf] If]q cfwf/e"t dfgljo cfjZostf k'/f ug]{ :t/ ;Dd dfq l;ldt 5}g eGg] dfGotf /fv]sf] 5 . o; lgltn] pkef]QmfnfO{ ;'ne d"nodf ;'/lIft, ljZjf;gLo, kof{Kt / yk ;]jf pknAw u/fO{ hLjg:t/ ;'wf/ ug]{ nIo lnPsf] 5 . oL pb]ZoxnfO{ bLug] ?kd xfl;n ug{sf nflu ;'xfFpbf] k"jf{wf/,
  • 8. 6 pko'Qm ;+:yfut ;+/rgf, cf}lrTok"0f{ nfut c;'nL Joj:yf, pko'Qm ljQLo jftfj/0f, yk hg;xeflutf / lg0f{o k|lqmofdf pkef]Qmx?sf] ;+nUgtf, gLlh If]q;Fu pko'Qm ;fem]bf/Lsf] Joj:yfx? cToGt} dxTjk"0f{ tTjsf ?kdf /x]sf 5g . o;sf cltltQm o; gLltn] jftfj/0f ;+/If0fsf pkfox? cjnDag ug'{sf ;fy} vfg]kfgLsf] dfu / k|of]u kZrft pT;h{g Joj:yfkgsf pkfox?sf] dfWodaf6 hn;|f]]tsf cGo pkef]ux?;Fu ;Gt'ng sfod ug]{ pb]Zo /x]sf] 5 . (= /fli6«o ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgf, @)^* / k"0f{ ;/;kmfO dfu{bz{g, @)&# g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;g @)^* df /fli6«o ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgf sfof{Gjog u/L :yfgLo txsf] g]t[Tj, jx';/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;fem]bf/L / ;d'bfosf] :jfldTjdf tn lbOPsf] dfu{bz{g l;4fGtnfO{ cg';/0f ub}{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] PsLs[t k|of;, ;~rfngdf ;dfGh:otf, v'nf lb;fd'Qm cj:yfsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg / k"0f{ ;/;kmfO cleofg ;~rfng u/]sf] 5 . ufpFkflnsf / gu/kflnsf :t/df k"0f{ ;/;kmfOsf] gtLhf k|fKt ug{ u'? of]hgfsf k|fjwfgx?nfO{ lj:tf/ u/L k"0f{ ;/;kmfO dfu{bz{g, @)&# vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ dGqfnoaf6 :jLs[t ePsf] 5 . dfu{bz{s l;4fGtx?, /fli6«o ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgf !!= 7f]; kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkg P]g, @)!@ of] P]gsf] d'Vo p2]Zo 7f]; kmf]xf]/d}nfsf] sf/0fn] hg:jf:Yo / jftfj/0f kg]{ k|lts"n k|efjnfO{ Go"gLs/0f !)= ;x/L jftjf/0f Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsf, @)^* o; lgb]{lzsfn] k|zf]wg kZrft kmf]xf]/kfgLsf] dfgs / 7f]; kmf]xf]/d}nfnfO{ kmf]xf]/sf] ?kdf lj;h{g ug'{eGbf klxnf sfod ug'{kg]{ cfjZos Go"gtd dfgsx?nfO{ lglZrt u/]sf] 5 . of] lgb]{lzsfsf] p2]Zox?df :j:y ;x/ lgdf{0fsf] nflu jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0f Go"gLs/0f ug{] tyf lagf k|zf]wg kfgL÷gbLx?df 9nsf] lj;h{g ug{ aGb]h nufPsf] 5 . o;n] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ug{ lghL If]qnfO{ k|f]T;flxt u/]sf] 5 . r]tgfsf] cefj tyf k|fyldstfdf tn k/]sf] sf/0fn] of] lgb]{lzsfnfO{ sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg r'gf}tLk"0f{ /x]sf] 5 . !!= g]kfn ;/sf/ sfo{ ljefhg lgodfjnL, @)^( vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ dGqfno g]kfn ;/sf/sf] sfo{ljefhg lgodfjnL cg';f/ :oflg6/L 9n Joj:yfkgsf] lhDdf vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefusf] x'g]5 egL Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . !@= ;x/L ljsf; /0fgLlt, @)&# /fli6«o ;x/L ljsf; gLlt, kZrft ;x/L ljsf; dGqfnosf] /fli6«o ;x/L ljsf; /0fgLlt, @)&# n] ;x/L ljsf; If]q;+u ;DalGwt dxTjk"0f{ d'2fx? h:t} k|0ffnL, k"jf{wf/, jftfj/0f / cfly{s d'2fx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ ;xof]u  v'nf lb;fd'Qm cj:yf, ;/;kmfO sfo{qmdsf] Go"gtd sfo{qmd x'g'kg]{ 5 .  vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO cfof]hgfx?df zt k|ltzt ;/;kmfO ;'ljwfsf] ;'lglZrtf x'g'kg]{ .  3/fo;L rkL{sf] nflu ;d'bfon] k|ljlwut 5gf}6sf] Joj:yf x'g'kg]{ .  :yfgLo txn] ;/;kmfO lqmofsnfkx?sf] g]t[Tj ug'{kg]{ .  uf=lj=;= jf gu/kflnsf, ;a} ;/;kmfO sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug]{ Go"gtd OsfO x'g'kg]{ .  :yfgLo ?kdf Joj:yfkg ul/g] cfly{s ;xof]u ;+oGqsf] k|j4{g ug]{ . ;+:yfx?df ;/;kmfOsf ;'ljwfx? clgjfo{ x'g'kg]{ k|fjwfg .  gofF lgdf{0f x'g] ejgdf clgjfo{ zf}rfno x'g'kg]{ k|fjwfg .  :jR5 afgLJojxf/ k|j4{gsf] nflu lgoldt ;fa'g kfgLn] xft w'g] Jojxf/ .
  • 9. 7 k'¥ofPsf] 5 . ;x/L ;/;kmfOdf hxfF ;+efjgf 5 ToxfF 9n k|0ffnL, :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx? / sfnf] kq] ;8ssf ;fy jiff{tsf] kfgL lj;h{g ug{ gfnfsf] Joj:yfkg ug{ s]lGb|t /x]sf] 5 . xfn;fn} ;/sf/n] æ;kmf ;x/Æ sfo{qmd z'?jft u/]sf] 5 h;df kfFr j6f cjojx? kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkg, kfgL / kmf]xf]/kfgL Joj:yfkg, xl/ofnL k|j4{g, k|b"if0f lgoGq0f / ;x/L ;f}Gbo{tf ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 . !#= /fli6«o vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf If]qut ljsf; of]hgf -d:of}bf_, @)&# vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] /fli6«o vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tfIf]qut ljsf; of]hgf th'{df ul//x]sf] 5 . o; of]hgfn] ;femf b[li6sf]0f tyf /fli6«o k|fyldstf–d}qL /0fgLlt clVtof/ ub}{ k|To]s gful/sn] hxfF / hlxn] klg :ki6 ;+of]hg, ;dGjo, ;fd~h:oLs/0f Pjd P]Soa4tf dfkm{t ;a}sf nflu ;'/lIft vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO ;'ljwf k'¥ofpg] tkm{ sfo{qmlds vfsf k|:t't ub{} ;/f]sf/jfnfx? nfO{ lbzf lgb]{zg u/]sf] 5 .
  • 10. 8 kl/R5]b–# ;+:yfut tyf lgofds vfsfsf] p2]Zox? / sfo{If]q dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ rqmsf] ;kmntfk"j{s sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;+:yfut tyf lgofds vfsfn] ;xof]u k"¥ofpg] 5 . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ rqmdf :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx?af6 dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] ;'/lIft ;Íng, 9'jfgL / k|zf]wg tyf lj;h{g÷k'gMk|of]u kb{5g . of] ;]jf rqm k|efjsf/L Joj:yfkgdf e/ kb{5 . vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO gLlt tyf /0fgLltx? / sfo{ k4ltnfO{ ;]jf rqmdf k|To]s ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx?nfO{ lgodg nfu" ug]{ ;Gbe{df :ki6 kl/eflift ug{ cfjZos 5 . ;+:yfut ;+be{sf] ljleGg tx ;lxtsf] lj:t[t sfo{ k4ltsf] nflu cNksfnLg, dWosfnLg, tyf bL3{sfnLg :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnL ;lxt vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;Da4 gLlt Pj+ lgb]{lzsf k|lt ;/sf/sf] bx|f] klta4tf bzf{pFb5 . :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx?n] dfgj dnd'qLo / kmf]xf]/kfgLnfO{ ;Íng, ;dfj]z tyf cf+lzs k|zf]wg ub{5g . oL k|0ffnLx?df hDdf ePsf] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ nfO{ ;+°ng u/L k|zf]wg kZrft lj;h{g ul/g] 5 . o; dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg vfsfsf] p2]Zo dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg rqmdf k|efjsf/L of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog, cg'udg / lgodg ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ /x]sf] 5 . csf]{ cy{df o;n] ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] ;Íng, 9'jfgL, k|zf]wg, lj;h{g / clGtd pkof]u ug{] 5 . d'Vo p2]Zox?df M  dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] k|efjsf/L Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ;d¢ ;+:yfx?sf] e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/L kl/eflift ug'{, /  ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkgsf] k|efjsf/L of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog / cg'udgsf] nflu dfu{ k|z:t ug'{ /x]sf] 5 . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqm o; ;+:yfut tyf lgofds vfsfn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] k|efjsf/L Joj:yfkg sf] nflu ;Da4 lhDd]jf/ ;+:yfx?sf] Ifdtf clej[l4, ;~rfng dfu{bz{gsf] ljsf; ug{ klg ;xof]u ub{5 .
  • 11. 9 o:tf k|0ffnLx?sf] ?kdf ;]jf lbg] :ynut ;/;kmfO / If]qx? dfq o; vfsfsf] If]qleq kg]{5g . :yfgLo tx jf o;sf] s'g} efudf kmf]xf]/kfgLsf] Joj:yfkg z'4Ls/0f ;+oGq ;lxtsf] 9n k|0ffnLsf] dfWodaf6 ePdf ;f] If]qdf of] vfsf nfu" x'g] 5}g .
  • 12. 10 kl/R5]b–$ ;+:yfut e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx? o; vfsfleq kl/eflift ul/Psf ;/;kmfO ;]jfdf ;+nUg ;+:yfx?sf] ;+:yfut e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx? g]kfnsf] ;+lawfgdf Joj:yf ePsf k|fjwfgx?af6 oxfF /flvPsf] 5 . vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf gLlt, P]g, / If]qut ljsf; of]hgf -d:of}bf_, k"0f{ ;/;kmfO dfu{bz{g, @)&#, /fli6«o ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgf, @)^* / :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g,@)%% oL ;j}n] ;fd'lxs ?kdf gu/kflnsfx?, ufpFkflnsfx?sf] ;/;kmfO ;]jfx?sf] Joj:yfkgdf dfu{bz{g / lgodg ug]{ ub{5g . oL sfg'gL / gLltut k|fjwfgx?af6 ;/;kmfO, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] Joj:yfkg ;d]tsf] of]hgf th'{df / Joj:yfkgsf] nflu d'Vo lhDd]jf/L cf–cfˆgf] sfo{ If]qleq :yfgLo tx -gu/kflnsf / ufpFkflnsf_ sf] ePsf] b]lvG5 . /fli6«o ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tf u'? of]hgfdf ;/;kmfO sfof{Gjogsf nflu gu/kflnsf / ufpF ljsf; ;ldltx?nfO{ sfof{Gjogsf tNnf] OsfO{ ?kdf kl/eflift u/]sf] 5 . o;vfsfdf lbOPsf] e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lsf] cfwf/df gu/kflnsf / ufpFkflnsfx?n] :yfgLo kl/k|]Iodf cfjZos k/]df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] Joj:yfkgsf nflu ljz]if ljlgodsf] th'{df ug{ ;lsg] 5g . To; k|sf/sf] ljz]if ljlgodsf] th'{df ug]{ k|fjwfg :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gsf] bkmf &^ df Joj:yf ul/Psf]] 5 . tflnsf # M ;/sf]sf/jfnfx?sf] e"ldsf ;/f]sf/jfnfx? gLlt tyf dfu{bz{gx? ;dGjo k|fljlws ;xof]u ;Íng tyf 9'jfgL k|zf]wg lj;h{g ÷ clGtd pkof]u lgodg Ifdtf clej[l4 cg'udg vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno / ;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno      खानेपानी तथा ढल ननकास विभाग      hg;+Vof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno      gu/kflnsf÷ ufpFkflnsf÷ ;]jfk|bfos          vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf ;+:yf      lghL If]q÷pBdLx?     cg';Gwfg÷z}lIf s k|lti7fg    ljsf; ;fem]bf/÷ /fli6«o jf cGt/f{li6«o u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?   
  • 13. 11 $=! dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ;du| lhDd]jf/L != dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu :yfgLo txaf6 cfˆgf] sfo{ If]qleq of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog, cg'udg / ;]jf k|jfxsf ;fy} Joj;flos gd'gfsf] ljsf; tyf k|of]usf] nflu lhDd]jf/ x'g] 5g . @= :yfgLo txn] M  vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnoaf6 k|fljlws tyf Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL ;xof]u lng ;Sg]5g .  :yfgLo ljsf; tyf ;+3Lo dfldnf dGqfnoaf6 :yfgLo ;'zf;g ;DaGwL ;xof]u lng ;Sg]5g .  :yfgLo txsf] ;+:yfut / Joj:yfkg Ifdtf gx'Fbf;Dd dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqmsf] ;~rfng / Joj:yfkgsf] nflu vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO pkef]Qmf ;ldltnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg ;lsg] 5 .  :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gsf] bkmf !!^ sf] cfwf/df dfgj dnd'lqo kmf]x/sf] Joj:yfkgdf ;+nUg lghL Joj;foLnfO{ dfgj dnd'lqo kmf]x/sf] ;Íng, 9'jfgL, k|zf]wg / clGtd pkofusf nflu nfO;]G; lbg ;Sg]5g . #= cfˆgf] ;+/rgf cg';f/ :yfgLo txx?n] hg:jf:Yo tyf jftfj/0f zfvf jf dxf–zfvfsf] :yfkgf ug'{ kg]{5 . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf ;]jfx? ;DaGwL lqmofsnfkx?sf] of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog / lgl/If0f ug]{ sfo{ ;f] zfvf jf dxfzfvfn] g} ug]{ 5 . cfjZostfsf] cfwf/df o;n] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jfx?sf] k|efjsf/L of]hgf th'{df, Joj:yfkg / lgodgsf nflu Ps ;ldlt÷;d"x u7g ug{ ;Sg]5 . $= :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] ;dfj]zL of]hgf th'{df / sfof{Gjogsf] ;+of]hg gu/kflnsf÷ufpFkflnsf vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;dGjo ;ldltx?sf] dfWodaf6 ug{ ;Sg] 5 . gu/kflnsf÷ufpFkflnsfx?n] vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;dGjo ;ldltx?sf] dfWodaf6 cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx? tyf dflyNnf] lgsfox? aLrdf ;~rf/ / ;dfGh:otf, ;xnufgLsf] cj;/ ;'b[9 / cg'udg tyf cg'kfng ug{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg] 5 . olb cf–cfˆgf] If]qdf vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;dGjo ;ldltx? u7g ePsf 5}gg eg] :yfgLo txx?n] tL ;ldltx?sf] u7g ug{ ;lqmotf b]vfpg' kg]{5 . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ;+:yfut vfsf cg';"rL ! df lbOPsf] 5 . $=@ e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx? d'Vo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ljz]if e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx? lgDg adf]lhd /xg]5 . != vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno tyf vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGqsf] l8hfOg, kl/of]hgf k|ltj]bg, ;+:yfut tyf lgofds vfsf, ;~rfng lgb]{lzsf÷dfu{bz{gsf] ljsf; / k|rf/–k|;f/ ug]{ . dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] k|efjsf/L of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjogsf nflu :yfgLo txnfO{ ;Ifd agfpg dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg rqm ;DaGwL ;"rgf, lzIff / ;~rf/ ;fdfu|Lx?sf] ljsf; / k|rf/–k|;f/ ug]{ . v_ ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;+u ;dGjo a}7s cfof]hgf ug]{ . u_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGq lgdf{0fsf] nflu nfut ;fem]bf/L ug]{ / ;+emf}tf cg';f/ nfut ;fem]bf/L u/] gu/]sf] cg'udg ug]{ .
  • 14. 12 3_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqmsf] nflu :yfgLo txnfO{ k|efjsf/L sfo{qmd, Joj:yfkg / cg'udg ug]{ sfo{df k|fljlws ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] . ª_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug{ :yfgLo tx / cGo k|zf;lgs ;+oGqx?sf] ;+:yfut Ifdtf ;anLs/0f ug]{ / Ifdtf n]vfhf]vfsf] cfwf/df /fli6«o vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO tflnd s]Gb| tyf cg';Gwfg ;+:yfx?sf] dfWodaf6 Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ . r_ of] vfsfnfO{ ;+:yfut ug{ :yfgLo txnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ / o;nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{ pko'Qm x'g] lsl;dsf :yfg ljz]ifsf] 5gf}6 nufot cGo sfuhftx? tof/ ug{ ;3fpg] . 5_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu bIf hgzlQm pTkfbg / k|rf/–k|;f/ ug{, cg'udg tyf cg'kfngsf] nflu hg;+Vof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno;+u ;xsfo{ ug]{ . h_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf /0fgLlt / k4ltx?sf ljz]iftfx?, PsLs[t vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf gLlt, sfg'g, If]qut ljsf; of]hgfdf ;x/L ;/;kmfO dfu{bz{g /fVg tyf cfjZostf cg';f/ ;+zf]wg ug]{ ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . ´_ ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] cg'ejsf] cfwf/df vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf gLlt / ;/;kmfO dfu{bzgdf ;+:yfut ;'wf/sf nflu o;sf] /0fgLltx?nfO{ ;do ;dodf kl/dfh{g ug]{ . `_ lj:t[t cfof]hgf k|ltj]bg -l8hfO{g tyf nfut cg'dfg tof/L_, k|fljlws tyf ljlQo ;xof]u . 6_ cWoog, cg';Gwfg tyf ljsf; . @= ;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] Joj:yfkg ;x/L ;/;kmfOsf] PsLs[t cjojsf] ?kdf :yfgLo txnfO{ of]hgf th'{df / sfof{Gjogdf gLltut lgb]{zg lbg] . v_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] Joj:yfkgdf k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog / cg'udgsf] nflu :yfgLo txnfO{ pko'Qm hgzlQm / ah]6 pknAw u/fpg] . u_ :yfg ljz]if cg';f/ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg ug{ ljlgod tof/ ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ / :yflgo ;efaf6 :jLs[t ug{ ;xhLs/0f ug]{ . 3_ vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno;+u dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg / /0fgLltx?df ;+:yfut ;'wf/sf] nflu gLltut 5nkmn / ;~hfn tof/ ug]{ . #= hg;+Vof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno s_ ;x/L jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsf, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg , kmf]xf]/kfgL pT;h{g dfkb08 / ;"rsx? vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno dfkm{t :yfgLo txx?df k|rf/–k|;f/ ug]{ . v_ ;x/L jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsfdf kl/eflift u/] cg';f/ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ , kmf]xf]/kfgL pT;h{g / pTkflbt j:t'sf] cg'kfngsf] ;'lglZrtf eP gePsf] cg'udg ug]{ . $= s[lif ljefu, s[lif dGqfno s_ vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno, vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefusf] dfWodaf6 :yfgLo txnfO{ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ;+oGqaf6 pTkflbt k|fËfl/s dnsf] ;'/lIft k|of]u / ahf/Ls/0f ug{ dfu{bz{g / ;xof]u k|bfg ug]{ .
  • 15. 13 %= :yfgLo tx s_ cfˆgf] sfo{ If]qleq dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] of]hgf / lgodgsf] nflu ;du|?kdf lhDd]jf/L jxg ug]{. v_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg k|zf]wg s]Gb|sf] nflu hdLg / af6f] -cfjZos ePdf_ pknAw u/fpg] . u_ cfˆgf] sfo{ If]qleq dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;ldlt÷;d"x u7g u/L lg/LIf0f ug]{ . 3_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg k|zf]wg ;+oGqsf] l8hfOg, ;+:yfut tyf lgofds vfsf, Joj;flos of]hgf, / ;~rfng lgb]{lzsf÷dfu{bz{gsf] tof/L, :jLs[lt / hfgsf/L lbg] . ª_ :yfgLo txsf] ;+:yfut / Joj:yfkg Ifdtf gx'Fbf;Dd dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;~rfng / dd{t ;+ef/ ug]{ lhDd]jf/L pkef]Qmf ;+:yfnfO{ lbg ;Sg] . r_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] ;Íng, 9'jfgL, / ljlzi6s[t dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGqdf lj;h{g÷k'Mg k|of]usf] nflu lghL Jofkf/LnfO{ nfO;]G; lbg] . 5_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] Joj;flos of]hgf cg';f/ pkef]Qmfn] ;]jf z'Nsaf6 ;~rfng ubf{ lbuf] ;~rfng geP;Dd ;~rfng / dd{t ;+ef/sf] nflu kof{Kt ;|f]tx? pknAw u/fpg]] . h_ k|zf]wg ;+oGqdf dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ lj;h{g ug{ ;Defjgf eP;Dd glhssf] :yfgLo tx;+u ;dGjo ug]{ . em_ ;/;kmfO k|j4{gdf vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;ldltx?;+u ;dGjo / ;DaGw a9fpg] . `_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ;+oGq pkof]usf] nflu JolQmut / ;fj{hlgs rkL{x? lgdf{0fsf nflu dfkb08 cg';f/sf] ;]lK6s 6ofÍ / zf]slk6sf] l8hfOgsf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . 6_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgnfO{ k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog, lgodg cg'kfng / ;+:yfut ;'wf/sf] ;'lglZrtf sfod ug{ ;xlhs/0f ug]{ . ^= vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldltx? s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGqsf] nflu :yfgLo tx sf] ;xof]udf hUuf / af6f]sf] ;'lglZrt ug]{ . v_ ;]jf z'Nsaf6 lbuf] ;~rfng gx'Fbf;Dd :yfgLo txaf6 ;~rfng / dd{t ;+ef/ sf]ifsf] ;'lglZrtf ug]{ . u_ Joj;flos of]hgfsf] ljsf; / sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;xof]u k|bfg ug]{ . 3_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] ;Íng, 9'jfgL, k|zf]wg / lj;h{g÷clGtd k|of]usf] nflu :yfgLo tx, gful/s, lghL Jofkf/Lx?sf] aLrdf ;fem]bf/Lsf] nflu ;xhLs/0f ug]{ . ª_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGqsf] ;~rfngsf] nflu ;dlk{t dfgj ;|f]tsf] Joj:yf ug]{ . r_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgdf ;~rfng–Joj:yfkg cg'ejsf] cfwf/df s'g} ;d:of cfPdf :yfgLo tx, vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefuaf6 ;xof]u lng ;lsg] 5 . 5_ :yfgLo txnfO{ k|efsf/L lgodg / ;+:yfut ;'wf/df ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] . h_ ;fdflhs, cfly{s / ;f+:s[lts kIfnfO{ Wofg lb+b} pTkflbt - k|fËf/Ls dn / k|zf]lwt t/n kbfy{_ j:t'sf] ahf/ k|j4{gdf j[l4 ug]{ . em_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqmsf] sfo{;DkfbgnfO{ k[i7kf]if0f k|bfg ug]{ . &= lghL Joj;foL s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jfsf] k|efjsf/L ;~rfngdf :yfgLo tx / vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;+:yf;+u ;fem]bf/L ug]{ . v_ ;+emf}tfdf ePsf] k|fjwfg cg';f/ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ ;Íng / 9'jfgL, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ug]{ ;+oGqsf] Joj:yfkg tyf pTkfbg ePsf] a:t'sf] clGtd pkof]u ug]{ . u_ pTkflbt j:t'sf] u'0f:t/ ;'lgZrLt u/L ahf/Ls/0f ug]{ .
  • 16. 14 3_ pkef]QmfnfO{ ;]jf lbg] . ª_ ;+emf}tf–kq cg';f/ ;]jf z'Ns ;Íng ug]{ . r_ ;+emf}tf–kqsf] k'0f{ kl/kfngfsf] ;'lglZrtf ug{] . *= cGt/fli6«o÷/fli6«o u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf s_ hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ v_ Ifdtf ljsf;, 1fg k|j4{g ug{] u_ Joj;flos of]hgf ljsf; ug{] 3_ pTkflbt j:t'sf] ahf/ k|j4{g ug{] (= ljsf; ;fem]bf/x? s_ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu :yfgLo / /fli6«o :t/df ;+:yfut / Joj:yfkg Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug]{ tyf dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf nflu k|fljlws ;xof]u ug]{ . v_ gd'gf k|zf]wg ;+oqsf] lgdf{0f / ljsf;sf] nflu sf]ifsf] Joj:yf ub]{ gd'gf sfo{s|d ;+rfng ug]{ . $=# :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnL / lj;h{gsf] l8hfOg / lgdf{0f s_ gofF lgdf{0f != ;]lK6s 6ofÍ / zf]slk6sf] l8hfOg hfFrsf] nflu /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/ ;+lxtf / dfu{bz{g -of] vfsfsf] efusf] ?kdf /xg]_ df ePsf] k|fjwfgnfO{ cg';/0f ul/g] 5 . gofF 3/x?sf] l8hfOg :jLs[t ubf{ :yfgLo txn] :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLsf] l8hfOg -rkL{, ;]lK6s 6ofÍ, zf]slk6_ / ;lhn} dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ lj;h{g ug]{ :yfgsf] hfFr ug]{ 5 . @= of] sfo{sf] nflu :yfgLo txn] lghL If]qnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg ;Sg]5 . v_ df}h'bf ;+/rgf != /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/ ;+lxtf / dfu{bz{gdf ePsf] k|fjwfg cg';f/ xfn eO{/x]sf 3/ / ejgsf] lg/LIf0f ubf{ :yfgLo txn] :jLs[t l8hfOg cg';f/ ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLsf] lgdf{0f ePsf] 5, 5}g egL hfFr ug'{kg]{ 5 . kfngf gePdf :yfgLo txn] lgdf{0fstf{nfO{ :jLs[t l8hfOg cg';f/ k'gMlgdf{0f ug{ lgb]{zg lbg]5 . @= :yfgLo txn] :ynut ;/;kmfO jf ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx? cg'ko'Qm :yfgdf lgdf{0f u/]sf] eP 3/wgLnfO{ ;/;kmfOsf k|0ffnLx? pko'Qm :yfgdf Joj:yf ug{ ;"rgf lbg ;Sg]5 . #= o; sfo{sf] nflu :yfgLo txn] cjl:yt 3/÷ejgsf] :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx?sf] n]vfhf]vfsf] nflu lg/LIf0f ug{ lghL If]qnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg ;Sg]5 . u_ 9n÷kmf]xf]/kfgLsf] lj;h{g != :yfgLo txn] 3/fo;L / cf}Bflus 9n÷kmf]xf]/kfgL ;'/lIft If]qdf jf jiff{tsf] kfgLsf] gfnLdf jf l;+rfO{sf] gx/df lj;h{g u/] gu/]sf] lg/LIf0f ug{ ;Sg]5 .
  • 17. 15 @= a'Fbf ! sf] kfngf gePdf :yfgLo txn] :jLs[t lgod cg';f/ b08 ug{ ;Sg]5 . :yfgLo txn] 3/wgLnfO{ lgod ldrL dfkb0f8 ljkl/t lgdf{0f ul/Psf] ;]lK6s 6ofÍdf 3/fo;L 9n÷kmf]xf]/kfgL k7fpg] u/]sf] ePdf :kli6s/0f ;f]Wg ;Sg]5 . #= :yfgLo txn] 9n÷kmf]xf]/kfgL lj;h{gsf nflu k|of]u eO{/x]sf ljlwsf] klxrfg ug{ lghL If]qnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg ;Sg]5 . $= :yfgLo txn] l/on :6]6, pBf]ux?, c:ktfnx?af6 lg:sg] 9n÷kmf]xf]/kfgLnfO{ aflx/L jftfj/0fdf lj;h{g ug'{eGbf klxn] cfˆg} xftfleq k|zf]wg u/L lj;h{g u/fpg vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno / hg;+Vof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno -:yfgLo zfvfx?_ ;+u ldn]/ sfd ug'{ kg]{ 5 . $=$ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ ;Íng / 9'jfgL != :yfgLo txn] k|ToIf ?kdf c;'/lIft tl/sf k|of]u u/L dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ kmfNg] sfo{ lj?4 lgod tof/ u/L qmdfut ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug'{ kg]{5 . @= :yfgLo txn] ;'/lIft ;ÍnLt, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ uf8Ldf 9'jfgL ug{sf nflu cg'dlt kq / dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ vfnL ug{] / 9'jfgL ug]{x?sf] nflu pko'Qm :jf:Yo / ;'/Iff ;DaGwL tflnd ;DaGwL dfgsx? / dfu{bz{gx? Tof/ Aug'{ kg] {5. :yfgLo txn] cfjlws ?kdf 9'jfgL ug]{ uf8Lx?n] ;'/lIft tl/sfn] 9'jfgL u/] gu/]sf] lg/LIf0fsf] cwf/df 9'jfgL ug]{ uf8Lx? sf] cg'dltkq gjLs/0f ug'{ kg]{5 . #= :yfgLo txn] ;Íng / 9'jfgL ubf{ :jLs[t dfgs cg';f/ ;'/lIft / :jR5 tl/sfn] ;+rfng u/fpg] JolQmsf] :jf:Yo / ;'/Iffdf, hg:jf:Yo / jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj gkg]{ u/L oL sfo{x? ePsf 5g 5}gg elg ;'lglZrttf ug{ lg/LIf0f ug]{5 . $= ;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug]{ ;]jfdf æ;Ílnt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wgsf] nflu tf]lsPsf] :yfgdf 9'jfgL u/L lj;h{g ug]{ sfo{{Æ ;dfj]z ul/Psf] x'g]5 . :yfgLo txn] ;Ílnt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ tf]lsPsf] :yfgdf dfq lj;h{g ul/sf] 5 / cGoq v'nf 7fpF÷kfgL÷gfnL÷9ndf lj;h{g ul/Psf] 5}g eGg] s'/f ;'lglZrt ug]{ 5 . %= ;Ílnt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ hyfefjL ?kdf cglws[t lj;h{g u/]df :yfgLo txn] cfˆgf] :jLs[t lgod adf]lhd bl08t ug]{5 . ^= dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/sf] Joj:yfkgsf] nflu cf–cfˆgf] ;+:yfn] :jLs[t u/]sf] Joj;flos of]hgfsf] cfwf/df :yfgLo txn] :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx?af6 ;Íng / 9'jfgLsf] nflu dx;'n lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg]5 . olb dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ug]{ k|0ffnLx? klxnf g} ;+rfngdf 5g / k|zf]wgsf] nflu ;Ílnt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ 9'jfgL ul/G5 eg] :yfgLo txn] ;]jf rqm -;Íngb]lv k|zf]wg;Dd_ nfO{ ljrf/ ug{ ;Sg]5 / ;f]xL cg';f/ ;]jfsf] dx;'n lgwf{/0f ug]{5 . &= ;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug]{ sfo{ ;'lglZrt ug{ :yfgLo txn] cfˆgf] sfo{If]qleq 3/w'/L / ;+:yfx?sf] tYofÍfs ;+sng u/L @–% jif{df Psk6s lgoldt ?kdf ;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug]{ of]hgf agfO{ ;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug{ ;Sg] 5g. Ps k6s dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqm sfo{Gjogdf cfO;s]kl5 ;j} :ynut ;/;kmfO k|0ffnLx?sf] ;]lK6s 6ofÍ vfnL ug]{ ;dosf] nflu tYofÍ k|of]u ul/g]5 .
  • 18. 16 $=% dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg, lj;h{g / clGtd pkof]u != vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldltsf] ;xof]udf :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ;+oGqsf] :yfg ;'lglZrt ubf{ cg';"rL @ df pNn]lvt Go"gtd cfjZstfdf cfwfl/t x'g'kg]{ 5 . hdLgsf] :jfldTj :yfgLo txsf] jf ;fj{hlgs x'g'kg]{ 5 . ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug'{eGbf klxn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] k|ltj]bg Pp6f :jtGq t]>f] kIfaf6 tof/ / :jLs[t ul/g'kg]{5 . @= :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg, lj;h{g / clGtd pkof]u ug]{ sfo{x? ubf{ ;x/L jftfj/0fLo Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsfn] kl/eflift u/]sf] dfgsx? cg'kfng eP gePsf], t/n pT;h{g, ;fj{hlgs :jf:Yo / jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj ljgf lj;h{g eP gePsf] lg/LIf0f ug]{ 5 . k|zf]lwt kfgLsf dfgsx? cg';"rL # df lbOPsf] 5g . #= dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf dfgsx? dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;~rfng dfu{bz{gdf kl/eflift eP cg';f/ cg';/0f ug'{kg]{ 5 . :yfgLo txn] vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu jf ;DalGwt ;+:yfx?af6 dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg k|0ffnlx?sf] l8hfOg, ;~rfng / dd{t ;+ef/ ;DaGwL k|fljlws / Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL ;xof]u lng ;Sg]5 . $= :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;+oGqsf] bIftf, ;+oGq ;~rfngsf] ;dLIff / dd{t ;+ef/sf] k|ltj]bg / cfjZos k/]df ;+:yfut ;'wf/sf pkfox?sf] cfjlws lg/LIf0f ug{ ;Sg]5 . %= :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gsf] bkmf !!^ cg';f/ :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] k|zf]wg ug{ lghL If]q jf vfg]kfgL pkef]Qm tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldltnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg ;Sg]5 / pTkflbt j:t'sf] pkof]u÷ahf/Ls/0f afXo ;]jf ;+emf}tf cg';f/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . ^= ;]jf ;+emf}tfdf ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] e"ldsf / ;]jf z'Nssf] af/]df :ki6?kdf kl/eflift ul/g] 5 . :ygLo tx÷vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldltn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wgsf] nflu ;Íng / 9'jfgL ;d]tsf] ;]jf z'Ns of] vfsf adf]lhd lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg]5 . &= :yfgLo txn] ;x/L jftjf/0f Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsfdf kl/eflift dfgs cg';f/ kmf]xf]/kfgL pT;h{g / pTkflbt j:t'sf] cg'kfngsf] ;'lglZrtf ug{ hg;+Vof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno÷ljefusf] ;xof]u lng ;Sg]5 . *= :yfgLo txn] dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg k|0ffnLaf6 pTkflbt k|fËfl/s dnsf] ahf/Ls/0f ug{ / o;sf] ;'/lIft k|of]usf] nflu s[lif dGqfno÷ljefusf] ;xof]u lng ;Sg]5 . (= :yfgLo txn] k|fËfl/s dnsf] k'gMk|of]udf / pTkflbt j:t'x?sf] ahf/ ljsf;sf] nflu hgr]tgf l;h{gf ug{ lghL If]q, u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf, cg';Gwfgug{] ;+:yf;+u ;xsfo{ ug{ ;Sg] 5 . $=^ jftjf/0fLo cg'udg / cg'kfng != vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] ;x/L jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg lgb]{lzsfdf kl/eflift u/] cg';f/ jf cGo dfu{bz{g ljz]if u/]/ k|zf]lwt dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ / clGtd pkof]usf] nflu kmf]xf]/kfgL / pT;h{g dfgsx?sf] cg'kfngdf :yfgLo txnfO{ ;Ifd agfpg] / kmf]xf]/kfgLsf] dfgsx?sf] k|rf/ k|;f/ ug{ hg;+Vof tyf jftfj/0f dGqnfo;+u ;xsfo{ ug{ ;Sg]5. @= vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon], lj;h{h ug]{ kmf]xf]/ kfgLsf] b08 hl/jfgf ug{ ;Sg]5 .
  • 19. 17 $=& hgr]tgf clej[l4, Ifdtf ljsf;, tflnd / cg';Gwfg != vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] k|of]ustf{–d}qL dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;~rfng dfu{bz{gsf] ljsf; ug]{ 5 . Tof] dfu{bz{gn] vfnL ug]{, 9'jfgL, / dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] k|zf]wg, ;~rfng tyf dd{t ;+ef/, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ug]{ ;+oGq, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg ;+oGqaf6 pT;h{g, lj;h{g, u'0f:t/ lgoGq0f tyf pTkflbt j:t'sf] k|of]u, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg k|0ffnLaf6 pTkflbt k|fËfl/s dnsf] ahf/Ls/0f÷k|of]usf] nflu nfO;]G; ;DaGwL k4lt / dfgsx? ;dfj]z ug]{ 5 . @= :yfgLo txn] vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldlt÷;+:yf, gful/s ;dfh ;+:yf, cg';Gwfg / tflnd ;~rfng ug]{ ;+:yfx?;+u ldn]/ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ sf] Joj:yfkg af/] hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{5 . #= :yfgLo txsf] Ifdtfdf /x]sf sdL sdhf]/Lx?sf] pko'Qm ?kdf lgwf{/0fsf] cfwf/df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg sfo{sf] :yfgLo txsf] k|efjsf/L of]hgf, ;]jf k|jfx tyf cg'udg ug{ :jf:Yo / jftfj/0f dxfzfvf÷zfvfsf] ;+:yfut / Joj:yfksLo Ifdtfsf] ;'b[9Ls/0f x]t' vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] ;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno;+u ;xsfo{ ug]{5 . $= vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] 1fg tyf Ifdtfsf] sdL, dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jf rqmdf k|lqmof / pTkfbgsf] u'0f:t/ sfod ug]{ h:tf ljifo ;dfwfgsf] nflu cg';Gwfg / tflnd ;~rfng ug]{ ;+:yf -h:t}, /fli6«o vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO tflnd s]Gb|_, ljsf; ;fem]bf/, cGt/f{li6«o u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf nufot cGo ;+u ;+nUg eO{ sfo{ ug]{ 5. %= vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfnon] ljsf; ;fem]bf/, cGt/f{li6«o u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] ;xof]udf Ifdtf ljsf; ug{ / dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgdf 1fg / gjLgtfsf] af/]df ;xhLs/0f u/L k|rf/–k|;f/ ug]{5g . $=* gLltut ;dGjo, k|fljlws ;xof]u / ah]6 Joj:yfkg != g]kfn ;/sf/n] k|zf]wg ;+oGq lgdf{0fsf] nflu hUuf k|fKt ug{ :yfgLo tx÷vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldlt÷;+:yfnfO{ cfjZos ;xof]u k|bfg ug]{ 5 . @= vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno / ;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnon] vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf gLlt, P]gdf ;x/L ;/;kmfO of]hgf th'{dfsf nflu dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgnfO{ PsLs[t cjojsf] ?kdf ;dfof]lht ug'{kg]{ 5 / If]qut ljsf; of]hgfdf ;fgf ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf;sf] nflu pko'Qm of]hgf / ah]6sf] Joj:yf ug'{kg]{ 5 . #= /fli6«o vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO / :jR5tf ;dGjo ;ldltn] cGt/–dGqfno;+u ;DaGwsf nflu ;dGjo ug]{ 5 / hg;+Vof tyf jftjf/0f dGqfno tyf s[lif dGqfnoaf6 ;dGjo ;ldltsf] ;+/rgfdf k|ltlglwsf] Joj:yf u/L k|zf]lwt pTkfbg÷;xpTkfbgsf] ahf/Ls/0f ug{ ;xlhs/0f ug]{5 . $= ax'kIfLo, l4kIfLo ljsf; ;fem]bf/n] ;x/x?df dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;]jfx?nfO{ kl/df0ffTds j[l4sf] nflu k|fljlws ;xof]u / nufgLsf] ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] 5g .
  • 20. 18 cg';"rL ! vfnL ug]{ gu/ jf; ;=;= ufpFkflnsf jf; ;=;= 3/fo;L :ynut ;/;kmfO 9'jfgL k|zf]wg -lg=Jo= jf vf=kf=p=;=;= clGtd k|of]u jf pkof]u Vff=kf=;=d= vf=kf=9=lg=lj= ;+:yfut vfsf ;+= df= :yf=lj=d= :yfgLo tx -gu/kflnsf ufpFkflnsf_ Vf=kf=;=l8=sf= /f=jf=;=tf=s]/f=jf=;=;=;= lb=n]=Jo=;ldlt OsfO • :yfgLo tx O{=l~h= • vf=kf=p=;=;= k|ltlglw • vf=kf=;=l8=sf= jf cfJOsf k|ltlglw • lghL Joj;foL Vf=kf=p=;=;= nfO;]G; k|fKt lghL Joj;foL :yfgLo tx, vf=kf=p=;=;= / ;xof]uL tx aLrdf ;embf/ –kq_ Vf=kf=p=;=;= / lghL Joj;foL aLrdf ;]jf :t/sf] ;+emf}tf k'gZr M vf=kf=;=d vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO dGqfno ;+=df=:yf=lj=d= ;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno /f=jf;=;=;= /fli6«o vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO ;dGjo ;ldlt vf=kf=9=lg=lj= vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefu /f=jf;=tf=s]= /fli6«o vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO tflnd s]Gb| vf=kf=;=l8=sf vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO l8lehg sfof{no gu/ jf; ;=;= gu/ vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO ;dGjo ;ldlt vf=kf=p=;= vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldlt÷;+:yf lg=Jo= lghL Joj;foL jf; vfg]kfgL ;/;kmfO{ tyf :jR5tf
  • 21. 19 cg';"rL @ dfgj dnd'qLo kmf]xf]/ k|zf]wg :yn 5gf}6sf] nflu dfkb08  hdLgsf] 5gf}6 hdLg pkof]u of]hgf jf hUuf k|flKt P]gsf] @)#$ dfWod4f/f jf :yfgLo tx tyf cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;dGjodf ul/g] 5 .  k|zf]wg ;+oGqaf6 lg:sg] uGwsf] ;d:of jf cGo sf/0fn] s[lif of]Uo hdLg, gbL÷kfgL ePsf] If]q, c:ktfn jf ljBfnoaf6 cfpg] ;fdflhs Jojwfgaf6 hf]lug k|zf]wg :yn 3gf a:tLeGbf 6f9f lgdf{0f÷:yfkgf ug'{kg]{ 5 .  k|zf]wg–:yn ;fd'bflos ag jf jg If]qleq agfpg ;lsg] 5 t/ ;+/lIft If]qleq gk/]sf] x'g'kg]{ 5 .  k|zf]wg :yn a:tLaf6 slDtdf klg #)) ld6/ 6f9f, vfg]kfgLsf] ;|f]teGbf #) ld6/ tn, ;+/lIft wfld{s If]qleq gkg]{, ;dy/ hdLg jf *Ü eGbf sd le/fnf] ePsf] hdLg x'g'kg]{ 5 .  ;fj{hlgs jf vfg]kfgL pkef]Qmf tyf ;/;kmfO ;ldltsf] :jfldTjdf hdLgsf] nfnk"hf{ ePsf] / lgdf{0fsf] nflu ;fdflhs / jftfj/0fLo k|lts"n k|efj gkg]{ :yfg x'g'kg]{ 5 .  k|zf]wg s]Gb| lgdf{0fsf] nflu 7f]; kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkg ug]{ / kmf]xf]/kfgL k|zf]wg s]Gb|leq jf oL ;'ljwfx? ePsf :yfgx?nfO{ pko'Qm :ynsf] ?kdf lnOg] 5 . tL k|0ffnLx? lgdf{0f ug]{ of]hgf ePdf of] k|zf]wg s]Gb|nfO{ klg To; k|0ffnLdf g} PsLs[t ug'{kg]{ 5 .
  • 22. 20
  • 23. 21
  • 24. 22