cf]/]s g]kfn

jflif{s k|ltj] bg
@)&)

cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)

i
cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg @)&)
;Dkfbg

M 8f= ljgfos / fhe08f/ L

tof/ kfg] {

M kfj{tL a:g] t

n] –cfp6

M /d]z e08f/...
b'O{ zAb
dfgj clwsf/sf] ;Dj4{g / ;fdflhs Gofodf cfwfl/t lbuf] ;fd'bflos ljsf; ug'{ dlxnf k'g:yf{kgf
s]Gb| -cf]/]s g]kfn_ s...
ljifo;"rL
-s_

;+:yfsf] kl/ro

-v_
dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] cleofg
-v_ ! dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] cleofg
-v_ @ dlxnf ;zQmLs/0...
tflnsf ;"rL
tflnsf g+= ! Ifdtf clej[l¢sf] nflu ;DkGg tflndx¿sf] ljifoj:t' / ;xefuL ;+Vof

8

tflnsf g+= @ cf]/]sn] ;dGjo /...
-s_

;+:yfsf] kl/ro

cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)

1
;+:yfsf] kl/ro
dlxnf k'gM:yfkgf s]Gb| -cf]/]s_ g]kfn dlxnf clwsf/k|lt
;dlk{t Pjd ;fdflhs Gofosf lglDt ;ª3if{/t Ps
/fli6«o ...
cf]/]ssf] sfo{If]q
cf]/]s g]kfnn] k|ToIf ¿kdf !@ lhNnfdf cleofg tyf sfo{qmdx¿nfO{ k|efjsf/L 9+Ën] sfof{Gjog ub}{ cfO/x]sf]...
-v_

4

cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)

dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf]
cleofg
dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] cleofg
dlxnf ;zlQms/0f

dlxnf dfgj clwsf/
/Ifsx¿sf] cleofg

dfgj a]rljvg tyf
cf];f/k;f/ lj?4sf]
cleofg...
;+3if{n] dlxnfsf] Gofo vf]Hg] IfdtfnfO{ ;Lldt / s'l07t
agfOlbPsf] 5 . To;sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k s'g} ljsNk ljgf
kLl8t dlxnfx¿ k'g...
* lx+;f kLl8t tyf k|efljtx¿sf] nflu ;xof]uL ;+oGqsf]
ljsf; -;'/Iffjf;, dgf]ljdz{, sfg'gL ;xof]u,
:jf:Yo ;]jf_

:s"n lzIff ...
@= Ifdtf clea[l4sf nflu ul/Psf tflndx¿
n}+lËs lx+;f, dfgj clwsf/, dlxnf clwsf/ / k|hgg
:jf:Yo clwsf/k|lt ;Dj]bgzLn agfO{ J...
lhNnf

tflnd ljj/0f

;+Vof

;xefuL ;+Vof
dlxnf

k'?if

hDdf

wg'iff

n}+lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f tyf dgf]ljdz{;DaGwL o'jf...
Goflos tyf cw{Goflos lgsfosf k|ltlglwx¿;Fu
cGt/lqmof
lx+;f kLl8t tyf k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] Goflos k|lqmofdf
kx'Fr a9fpg / kLl...
@)&)÷!÷$ ut] ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf @)^(
j}zfvb]lv r}q @)^( ;Dddf cf]/]sn] clen]vg u/]sf
dlxnflx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ ...
sfg'g agfpg bjfj k'¥ofpg] p2]Zon] @)&) ;fn h]7
# ut] s}nfnL lhNnfsf] wgu9Ldf 5nkmn sfo{qmdsf]
cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . ljz...
sfo{qmddf c:6«]lnog PDa];Lsf dxfdlxd Un]g xjfO{6n]
k':tssf]] cgfj/0f ub}{ 3/]n' lx+;f Ps cGt/f{li6«o d'2fsf]
¿kdf /x]sf] /...
s]; o'lg6 ;'b[9Ls/0f, 36gfsf] cg'udg, kmnf]ck /
cfjZos ;xof]u / cfjZostf cg';f/ cGh{]G6 clkn,
k]|; lj1KtL, Wofgfsif{0f kq ...
p2]Zon] cfof]lht o; sfo{qmddf !# hgf lx+;f kLl8t
dlxnfx¿n] cfˆgf] ;d:of /fv]sf lyP . !# hgfdWo] !!
hgf dlxnfx¿n] bfO{hf]sf...
u/fpFb} kl/jt{gsf ;Djfxsx¿sf] cg'ej ;f6f;f6 /
clen]lvs[t ug'{, k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] lglDt /fHosf
tkm{af6 ;+:yfut ¿kdf ePsf k...
/fi6«;ª3sf ljz]if k|ltj]bs;Fu cfˆgf ;d:ofx¿sf]
af/]df 5nkmn u/]sf lyP . of] sfo{qmddf p7]sf
;jfnnfO{ lnP/ ljz]if k|ltj]bsn...
k|ltlglw, :jf:Yo dGqfnosf k|ltlglw, dlxnf clwsf/
tyf dfgjclwsf/sf] If]qsf lqmofzLn u}=;=;x¿sf
k|ltlglwx¿ u/L $@ hgfsf] ;xe...
k|wfgdGqLnfO{ a'´fPsf lyP . ;f] bjfj sfo{qmdnfO{
lg/Gt/tf lb+b} b]ze/ dlxnf lx+;f cGTo u/, kLl8tnfO{
Gofo b]p eGg] dfu;lxt...
^= lx+;f kLl8t÷k|efljtx¿sf] nflu ;xof]uL
;+oGqsf] ljsf; tyf cfjZos ;xof]u
dlxnfdfly x'g] ljleGg vfn] lx+;fx¿sf]lj?4df cfjf...
:yfgLo :t/df ;xof]uL ;+oGqsf] ljsf;
sf]if :yfkgf M lg/Gt/ ¿kdf 36]sf dlxnf lx+;fsf
36gfx¿n] ubf{ dlxnf lx+;fsf] r/d cj:yf,...
clwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] lgjf{x u/]sf] e"ldsfsf af/]df ;a}nfO{
hfgsf/L u/fpFb} pgLx¿sf] klxrfg / ;'/Iffsf nflu
k}/jL ug]{ p2]Zo to ...
* ablnbf] kl/l:yltdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/
/Ifsx¿sf] cj:yf / ;'/Iff ;+oGq ljifos k/fdz{
uf]i7L
* cfktsflng cj:yfdf dfgjclwsf/sf...
-v_ !

24

cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)

dlxnf dfgj clwsf/
/Ifsx¿sf] cleofg
dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] cleofg
ædlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] cleofgÆ dlxnf
clwsf/sdL{sf] ;fd"lxs cfjfh xf] . of] dlxnf c...
dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿nfO{ cled'vLs/0f
dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifs ;~hfnsf ;b:ox¿nfO{
dfgj clwsf/ / dlxnf clwsf/sf] af/]df c´...
nflu k}/jL ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm sfo{qmddf !*& hgfsf]
;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] .

dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu :yfgLo :t/df dlxnf
df...
dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿nfO{ n}lËs lae]bdf
cfwfl/t lx+;f;DaGwL # tflnd
dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿df n}lËs lae]bdf cfwfl/t
lx+;...
-v_ @

dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f
sfo{qmd

cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)

29
dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f sfo{qmd
dlxnfx¿nfO{ cfˆgf] clwsf/ k|flKtsf] nflu tyf cfkm"lj?4
x'g] lx+;f cGTosf] nflu ;ªul7t tyf kl/rfng ...
*
*
*

;d"x ;~hfn lj:tf/ tyf ;'b[9Ls/0fsf] nflu
;xhLs/0f
tflndx¿
;+:yfsf] /0fg}lts of]hgf, jflif{s of]hgf tof/ ug{
;xhLs/0...
-u_

32

cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)

cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf
;f+:s[lts clwsf/
cleofg
cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ cleofg

;+o'Qm / fi6« ;ª3åf/ f dfgj clwsf/ sf] ljZjJofkL
3f] if0ffkqdf s] lGb|t x'Fb}...
-u_ !

34

cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)

lbuf] hLljsf]kfh{gsf]
nflu lbuf] s[lif
tyf k|fs[lts ;|f]t
Joj:yfkg sf...
lbuf] hLljsf]kfh{gsf] nflu lbuf] s[lif tyf k|fs[lts ;|ft Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd
]
hldg g] kfnsf] cfly{s zlQm s] Gb|sf] ¿kdf / xF...
a9bf] dfusf] k"lt{ ug{ lbuf] s[lif k|0ffnL / l;+rfO{sf]
ljsf; ug{ cfjZos x'G5 . xfd|f] b] zdf a9L pTkfbg
lngsf] nflu ljb] ...
Rofp v] tL, 3/ ] n' ljiffbL] , hnjfo' kl/ jt{g, kz' :jf:Yo
nufotsf ljifodf hfgsf/ L lbO{ ;';"lrt u/ fpg] p2] Zon]
o; jif{d...
s[ifs ;d"x ;~hfnsf] ;'b[9Ls/0f tyf Joj:yfkg
cf] / ] sn] s[ifs clwsf/ sf] nflu uf=lj=;= :t/ Lo /
lhNnf :t/ Lo ;~hfnx¿ agfpg...
s[ifsx¿n] cfkm"n] pAhfPsf] cGg afnL, t/ sf/ L afnL,
kmnkm"n tyf gub] afnLx¿ klg k|bz{gLdf / fv] sf lyP .
k|bz{gLdf hDdf !*...
bfËdf uf=lj=;= :t/ df cGt/ lqmof tyf 5nkmn sfo{qmd
/ flvPsf] lyof] .
* ;"rgf d]nf
pbok'/ lhNnfdf gu/ kflnsf / ;fgf pBf] u ...
gofF s[ifsx¿nfO{ ;3g h} ljs v] tL lt/ nfUg pTk|] / Lt
ug] { p2] Zon] pbok'/ df !* hgf ls;fgx¿nfO{ ;Ddfg
sfo{qmd ;DkGg ul/ ...
@)&) h] 7 % ut] b] lv & ut] ;Dd pbok'/ df # lbg]
tflnd ;~rfng ul/ Psf] lyof] .
kof{j/0fLo clwsf/ (Ecological right) ;DaGwL...
cfO/ x] sf] 5 . gd'gf kmfd{sf] nflu h} ljs ljiffbL agfpg
s[ifsx¿nfO{ k|f] T;fxg:j¿k 8«d klg ljt/ 0f ul/ Psf]
lyof] .

;kf]...
;d:ofsf] ;fwf/ 0f hfFr / cf} iflw ljt/ 0f ul/ Psf] lyof] .
d] nfdf e] 8f afv|fdf nfUg] lk=lk=cf/ , a+u'/ df nfUg] x} hf
/ ...
pknAw ;|f] t / ;Dkbfsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg ub{5g / hxfF
pgLx¿sf ;fdflhs, efjgfTds, cfTdut, ef} lts /
cfly{s cfjZostfx¿ cgGt sf...
k|ljlwx¿sf] af/ ] df hfgsf/ L u/ fpg] , s[ifsx¿n] pTkfbg
u/ ] sf] afnL tyf t/ sf/ Lsf] / ] s8{ Jojl:yt ug{ Ifdtf
clej[l4 u...
ufFp l;/ xfdf $), pbok'/ df #) j6f afv|f ljt/ 0f
ul/ Psf] lyof] eg] bfª, l;/ xf / pbok'/ df u/ L &@ j6f
a+u'/ / v/ fof] kl...
-u_ @

48

cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)

;'/lIft :yfgfudg
sfo{qmd
;'/lIft :yfgfudg sfo{qmd
:yfgfudg ug{ kfpg' x /]s JolQmsf] g};lu{s clwsf /
xf] . ljZjJofkL ¿kdf x]bf{ @ ca{ !$ s /f]8 cGt ...
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
Annual Report 2070 Nepali
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Annual Report 2070 Nepali

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Annual Report WOREC Nepal Year 2070

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Annual Report 2070 Nepali

  1. 1. cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg @)&) cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) i
  2. 2. cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg @)&) ;Dkfbg M 8f= ljgfos / fhe08f/ L tof/ kfg] { M kfj{tL a:g] t n] –cfp6 M /d]z e08f/L sDKo'6/ ;xof]uL M lbndfof e08f/L k|sfzg jif{ M @)&) k|sfzsM cf] / ] s g] kfn afns'df/L, nlntk'/ kf] =a=g+= M !#@##, sf7df8f}+ kmf] g M )!–%))^#&#, ˆofS;M (&&–)!–%))^@&! O{d]n M ics@worecnepal.org j]j M www.worecnepal.org ii cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)
  3. 3. b'O{ zAb dfgj clwsf/sf] ;Dj4{g / ;fdflhs Gofodf cfwfl/t lbuf] ;fd'bflos ljsf; ug'{ dlxnf k'g:yf{kgf s]Gb| -cf]/]s g]kfn_ sf] kl/nIo /x]sf] 5 . cf]/]sn] ljut @@ jif{b]lv dlxnf clwsf/ / ;fdflhs Gofosf nflu sfd ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . cf]/]s g]kfnn] dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] cleofg / ;fdflhs, cfly{s / ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ cleofgnfO{ /fi6«AofkL ¿kdf ;~rfng ub} dlxnfx¿sf] ;zQmLs/0f / Ifdtf clej[l¢sf] nflu ;xhLs/0f tyf ;fd'bflos ;+:yf tyf ;~hfnx¿sf] ;jnLs/0f, ;+:yfut ljsf;sf ;fy} ljleGg ;jfndf gLlt kl/dfh{g, lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjogsf nflu k}/jL ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . ;fdflhs, /fhg}lts tyf cfly{s ¿kdf k5fl8 kfl/Psf l;dfGs[t, blnt, ckfËtf ePsf, t];|f] lnËL / lx+;f kLl8t÷k|efljt tyf clwsf/ xgg ePsf dlxnfx¿sf] clwsf/ ;+/If0f / k|j4{gsf nflu cf]/]s g]kfnn] sfd ub} cfO/x]sf] 5 . cf]/]s g]kfnn] …dlxnf lx+;flj?4 z"Go ;xgzLntfÚ sf] nIo /fVb}} dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;flj?4sf] cleofgnfO{ lg/Gt/ ;d'bfo, /fli6«ob]lv cGt/fli6«o :t/;Dd ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ;fy} ;dfh, ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfo tyf /fHo kIfnfO{ hjfkmb]xL / lhDd]jf/ agfpg k}/jL / Ifdtf clea[l4sf sfdx¿ ub}{ dlxnf lx+;f cGTo, ;fdflhs Gofo tyf ;zQmLs/0fsf] kf6f]nfO{ yk alnof] agfpFb} nu]sf] 5 . dlxnf clwsf/, ;fd'bflos ;zQmLs/0f, ;fdflhs kl/rfng, lbuf] hLljsf]kfh{g, lbuf] s[lif / k|fs[lts ;|f]t Joj:yfkgsf ljwfdf cf]/]s g]kfnn] ;+ufn]sf] cg'ejnfO{ of] jflif{s k|ltj]bgn] v'n:t kfg]{ 5 eGg] xfd|f] ljZjf; 5 . o;} qmddf cf]/]s g]kfnåf/f ;~rflnt cleofgdf ;xsfo{ u/L n}lËs e]befjlj?4, cGofo / zf]if0flj?4, ;fdflhs Gofo :yfkgfsf nflu xfdL k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf ¿kdf ;xof]u ub} cfPsf ljleGg /fli6«o, cGt/f{li6«o, ;/sf/L tyf u}/–;/sf/L ;ª3–;+:yf / ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ cf]/]s g]kfnsf] tkm{af6 xflb{s wGojfb lbg rfxG5' . afa' /fd uf}td sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) iii
  4. 4. ljifo;"rL -s_ ;+:yfsf] kl/ro -v_ dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] cleofg -v_ ! dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] cleofg -v_ @ dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f sfo{qmd -u_ -u_ ! cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ cleofg lbuf] hLljsf]kfh{gsf] nflu lbuf] s[lif tyf k|fs[lts ;|f]t Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd -u_ @ ;'/lIft :yfgfudg sfo{qmd -u_ # dlxnf :jf:Yo clwsf/ sfo{qmd -u_ $ afn ljsf; tyf afn clwsf/ sfo{qmd -u_ % dlxnf :jf:Yo k/fdz{ s]Gb| …5xf/LÚ 1 4 24 29 32 34 48 59 74 81 -3_ lbuf] zflGtsf nflu ;xh cleofg 83 -ª_ clen]vfno tyf tYofÍ Joj:yfkg k|0ffnL 97 -r_ cg';Gwfg tyf k|sfzg 102 -5_ cfly{s jif{ @)^(÷&) sf] cfo Joo ljj/0f 105 kl/lzi6M cf]/]ssf] sfo{sf/L ;ldlt tyf ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldlt 111 iv cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)
  5. 5. tflnsf ;"rL tflnsf g+= ! Ifdtf clej[l¢sf] nflu ;DkGg tflndx¿sf] ljifoj:t' / ;xefuL ;+Vof 8 tflnsf g+= @ cf]/]sn] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ u/]sf lhNnf :t/Lo ;d"x tyf ;~hfnx¿ 30 tflnsf g+= # bfË, l;/xf/ pbok'/df ;~rflnt dlxnf :jf:Yo lzlj/af6 ;]jf lng] dlxnfx¿sf] ;+Vof 70 tflnsf g+= $ lzlj/df :jf:Yo hfFr ubf{ :yfgLo dlxnfx¿df b]lvPsf ;d:ofx¿ 70 tflnsf g+= % dlxnf :jf:Yo k/fdz{ s]Gbdf ;]jf lng cfpg] dlxnfx¿df b]lvPsf d=:jf=;d:ofx¿ 72 tflnsf g+= ^ Ifdtf clea[l4sf] nflu tflndx¿ 92 tflnsf g+= & cf=a ^(–&) sf] dlxnf k'g:yf{kgf s]G›sf] cfo Joo ljj/0f tflnsf g+= * cf=a=^(–&) df ePsf] s"n vr{ dWo] sfo{qmd ;xof]u, k|zf;lgs, kfl/>lds tyf tflnd Joj:yfkgdf ePsf] vr{ ljj/0f 106 106 lrqx¿sf] ;"rL lrq g+= != cf]/]s g]kfnåf/f k|sflzt dfl;s k|ltj]bg cg';f/ dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ 13 lrq g+= @= ;'/Iffjf;, sfg'gL ;xof]u tyf dgf]ljdz{ ;]jf 20 lrq g=+ #= dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf] nflu ljleGg dfWod 30 lrq g+= $= ;"rgf s]Gb|af6 ;'/lIft j}b]lzs /f]huf/;DaGwL ;"rgf lng]x¿sf] ;+Vof 50 lrq g=+ %= dlxnf :jf:Yo lzlj/af6 ;]jf lng] dlxnfx¿sf] ;+Vof 69 lrq g+= ^= dgf]ljdz{ s]Gb|af6 ;]jf kfpg]sf] ;+Vof 93 lrq g+= &= cf]/]s clen]vfnodf pknAw k':tsx¿sf] k|ltzt ljj/0f 98 lrq g+ * = cf=a=^(–&) df ePsf] s"n vr{ dWo] sfo{qmd ;xof]u, k|zf;lgs, kfl/>lds tyf tflnd Joj:yfkgdf ePsf] vr{ ljj/0f 106 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) v
  6. 6. -s_ ;+:yfsf] kl/ro cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 1
  7. 7. ;+:yfsf] kl/ro dlxnf k'gM:yfkgf s]Gb| -cf]/]s_ g]kfn dlxnf clwsf/k|lt ;dlk{t Pjd ;fdflhs Gofosf lglDt ;ª3if{/t Ps /fli6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf xf] . @)$& r}q !( df :yflkt of] ;+:yfn] cfˆgf] :yfkgfsfnb]lv g} ;fdflhs Gofo / dlxnf clwsf/ :yfkgfsf] nflu cleofg ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . cf]/]sn] dlxnf–lx+;flj?4sf] cleofg / cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/sf] cleofgnfO{ cufl8 a9fO/x]sf] 5 . dlxnf–lx+;flj?4sf] cleofg cGtu{t dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifssf] klxrfg tyf ;'/Iff, dfgj a]rlavg÷cf];f/k;f/lj¿4sf] lqmofsnfk / dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f sfo{qmd ;~rfng u/]sf] 5 eg] cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/sf] cleofg cGt{ut vfB clwsf/, :jf:Yo clwsf/, hLljsf]kfh{gsf] clwsf/ / ;'/lIft :yfgfudgsf] clwsf/sf nflu jsfnt / ljljw sfo{qmdx¿ ul//x]sf] 5 . pk/f]Qm lqmofsnfkx¿ ;~rfng ug]{ qmddf cf]/]sn] ;fd'bflos ;ª3÷;+:yfx¿sf] ;jnLs/0f / ;'b[9Ls/0f ub}{ ;fdflhs Gofo :yflkt ug{ u|fdL0f :t/b]lv /fli6«o :t/;Dd ljleGg sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . lzIff, :jf:Yo, kf]if0f nufot cGo If]qdf dlxnf / afnaflnsfdfly ul/g] e]befj / dfgj a]rlavg÷cf];f/k;f/ dlxnfx¿sf] cfwf/e"t dfgj clwsf/sf] xgg ePsfn] To;sf] cGTo ug{sf nflu dlxnfx¿sf ljlzi6 clwsf/x¿ ;'lglZrt ul/g' kb{5 eGg] dfGotf o; ;+:yfsf] /x]sf] 5 . kl/sNkgf ;fdflhs Gofodf cfwfl/t dlxnf clwsf/ ;'lglZrttf;lxtsf] ;dfh cf]/]s g]kfnsf] kl/sNkgf xf] . kl/nIo cf]/]s g]kfn dfgj clwsf/sf] ;Dj4{g / ;fdflhs Gofodf cfwfl/t lbuf] ;fd'bflos ljsf;sf nflu cleofg/t /xg]5 . 2 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) nIo dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf] dfWodaf6 cfly{s, ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts clwsf/nfO{ ;'lglZrt ub}{ dlxnflj?4 x'g] lx+;fsf] Go"gLs/0f ug'{ cf]/]s g]kfnsf] nIo x'g]5 . /0fg}lts p2]Zox¿ * dlxnfx¿nfO{ cfˆgf] clwsf/ k|flKtsf] nflu tyf cfkm"lj?4 x'g] lx+;fsf] cGTosf] nflu ;ªul7t tyf kl/rfng ug]{, * dlxnf clwsf/ k|flKtsf nflu dlxnf clwsf/sdL{ tyf nlIft ;d"xsf] Ifdtf clea[l4 ug]{, * dlxnf clwsf/ tyf ;fdflhs Gofosf nflu jsfnt tyf cleofgx¿ ;~rfng ug]{, * lkt[;QfTds d"No, dfGotfdf cfwfl/t ;+:s[ltnfO{ n}ªlus ;dfgtfdf cfwfl/t ;+:s[ltdf kl/jt{g ug{sf nflu cfd;r]tLs/0f ug]{ / * ;dfg p2]Zo ePsf :yfgLob]lv cGt/f{li6«o :t/;Ddsf ;+:yfx¿ tyf hg;ªu7gx¿;Fu ;xsfo{ ug]{ . ;+:yfut /0fg}lts d'2fx¿ * * * * ;fd"lxs dlxnf g]t[Tj ljsf; dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] cGTo dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] klxrfg / ;'/Iff k|fs[lts ;|f]t ;fwgsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg / hLljsf]kfh{g * ;fdflhs, cfly{s clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttf / lbuf] zflGt * gofF ;+ljwfgleq ;LdfGts[t tyf k5fl8 kfl/Psf ;d'bfosf] clwsf/sf] ;+j}wflgs ;'lglZrttf * ;+:yfnfO{ l;Sg] / l;sfpg] ynf]sf] ¿kdf ljsf;
  8. 8. cf]/]ssf] sfo{If]q cf]/]s g]kfnn] k|ToIf ¿kdf !@ lhNnfdf cleofg tyf sfo{qmdx¿nfO{ k|efjsf/L 9+Ën] sfof{Gjog ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 eg] ^# lhNnfx¿df dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] /fli6«o tyf lhNnf ;~hfn;Fusf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] cleofgnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5 . cf]/]såf/f ;~rflnt cleofgx¿ cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 3
  9. 9. -v_ 4 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] cleofg
  10. 10. dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] cleofg dlxnf ;zlQms/0f dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] cleofg dfgj a]rljvg tyf cf];f/k;f/ lj?4sf] cleofg b]zdf a9b} uO/x]sf] dlxnf lx+;flj?4df gful/s ;dfh, cleoGtf, clwsf/sdL{, o'jfx¿ nufot ;a} ;r]t gful/saf6 lg/Gt/ ¿kdf ;/sf/ / /fhgLlts kfl6{sf g]tfx¿nfO{ lhDd]jf/ / hjfkmb]xL agfpg ul/Psf ljleGg sfo{qmdx¿k|lt pgLx¿sf] z'Go hjfkmb]lxtfn] dlxnf clwsf/ ;'lglZrttfsf If]qdf yk r'gf}tLx¿ b]vf k/]sf 5g . of] l:yltn] dlxnfx¿sf] clwsf/ pkef]u ug{ kfpg] clwsf/nfO{ k|ToIf ¿kdf k|efj kf/]sf] 5 . csf]{lt/ dlxnfsf] dfgj clwsf/ ;'lglZrttfsf] nflu lg/Gt/ ¿kdf jsfnt ug]{ clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf nflu klg r'gf}tLx¿ c´ ylkPsf 5g . 5 . csf]{lt/ ;lbof}+b]lv g]kfnL dlxnfx¿ lkt[;QfTds ;fdflhs ;+/rgf / ;f]rsf sf/0f lje]lbt eO{ / lx+;fsf] ;fdgf ub}{ afFRg afWo 5g . oL ;fdflhs tyf kfl/jfl/s d"No / dfGotfx¿n] dlxnfnfO{ lx+;f tyf b'Jo{jxf/lj?4 cfjfh p7fpFg / To;sf] pkrf/ vf]Hg cToGt sl7g agfPsf] 5 . h;n] ubf{ lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx¿ bf]xf]/f] df/df kg'{ kg]{ afWotf 5 . Psflt/ pgLx¿ cfkm"dfly lx+;f ug]{ kl/jf/sf ;b:o jf cfkmGtsf]] lj?4 n8g' kl//x]sf] 5 eg] csf{lt/ lx+;fnfO{ dnhn ug]{ r'gf}ltk"0f{ ;fdflhs d"NodfGotfsflj?4 klg ;+3if{ ug'{ k/]sf] 5 . o; k|sf/sf] :yfgLo, /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o:t/df dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf af/]df rrf{ kl/rrf{ / ax; ug{ yfn]sf] w]/} nfdf] ;do ePtf klg dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf 36gfdf eg] sdL cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . o;sfnflu ;/sf/ cGt/ f{li6«o:t/df k|lta4 b]lvP klg b]zdf tL k|lta4tfx¿nfO{ Jojxf/df ptfg{ c´} lhDd]jf/ aGg ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . b]zdf nDab} uPsf] /fhgLlts cl:y/tfsf sf/0f a9b} uPsf] b08lxgtfn] dlxnf lx+;fnfO{ yk an k'u]sf] cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 5
  11. 11. ;+3if{n] dlxnfsf] Gofo vf]Hg] IfdtfnfO{ ;Lldt / s'l07t agfOlbPsf] 5 . To;sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k s'g} ljsNk ljgf kLl8t dlxnfx¿ k'gM lx+;fu|:t / b'Jo{jxf/k"0f{ kl/jf/ / ;dfhdf kms{g jf afFRg afWo eO/x]sf 5g . To;n] pgLx¿sf] hLjg yk r'gf}ltk"0f{ ag]sf] 5 . b]z / ;dfhdf ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts / cfly{s ¿kfGt/0f ePdf dfq dlxnf clwsf/ ;'lglZrt x'G5 eGg] dfGotfsf ;fy cf]/]s g]kfnn] …dlxnf lx+;flj?4 z'Go ;xgzLntfÚ sf] nIo /fVb} dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;flj?4sf] cleofg lg/Gt/ ¿kdf ;d'bfob]lv /fli6«o :t/;Dd ;~rfng ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . kl/jlt{t ;do / ;Gbe{ cg';f/ sfd ub}{ cufl8 a9g] qmddf cf]/]sn] dlxnfx¿nfO{ cfˆgf] clwsf/ k|flKtsf] nflu tyf cfkm"lj¿4 x'g] lx+;fsf] cGTosf] nflu ;ªul7t tyf kl/rfng ug]{, dlxnf clwsf/ k|flKtsf nflu dlxnf clwsf/sdL{ tyf nlIft ;d"xsf] Ifdtf clea[l4 ug]{, dlxnf clwsf/ tyf ;fdflhs Gofosf nflu jsfnt ug]{ / lkt[;QfTds d"No, dfGotfdf cfwfl/t ;+:s[ltnfO{ n}ª lus ;dfgtfdf cfwfl/t ;+:s[ltdf kl/jt{g ug{sf nflu cfd;r]tLs/0f ug{ ;dfg p2]Zo ePsf :yfgLob]lv cGt/f{li6«o :t/;Ddsf ;+:yfx¿ tyf hg;ªu7gx¿;Fu ;xsfo{ u/L sfd ug]{ dxŒjk"0f{ /0fg}lts p2]Zox¿ @)) ( b]lv @)!# ;Ddsf] nflu to u/L ;f] cg';f/ cfjZos sfo{qmdx¿ ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] cleofg cGtu{t cf]/]sn] :yfgLo :t/b]lv /fli6«o :t/;Ddsf ;jfnx¿nfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fv]/ sfd ug]{ l;nl;nfdf lgDg cg';f/ # jif{sf] /0fg}lts d'2f / p2]Zox¿ lgwf{/0f u/L cufl8 a9]sf] 5 . /0fg}lts d'2f * dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] ;'/lIft;Fu sfd ug{ kfpg] jftfjf/0f;lxtsf] dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f Go"gLs/0f ePsf] cj:yf . k}/jLsf d'2fx¿ * dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] klxrfg / ;'/Iff * dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;flj?4 ;/sf/sf] hjfkmb]lxtf 6 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) d'Vo p2]Zox¿ != dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;flj?4 sfo{/t dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] klxrfgsf ;fy} ;d'bfo :t/b]lv /fli6«o :t/;Dd ;'/lIft tl/sfn] sfd ug{ kfpg] jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ k}/jL ug{] . @= dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] ;fdflhs / dfgl;s ¿kdf :j:Yf /xg kfpg] clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttf ug{ ;xof]uL ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug{] . #= dlxnf / dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ Ifdtf clea[l4sf] nflu ;xhLs/0f ug{] . $= dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿dfly ePsf] lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ clen]vLs/0f Joj:yfkg / ljZn]if0f u/L gLlt lgdf{0f / cfjZos sf/jfxLsf] nflu k}/jL ug{] . lglb{i6 p2]Zox¿ != dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f Go"gLs/0fsf nflu dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿, dlxnf, o'jf tyf ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] Ifdtf clea[l4 ug]{ . @= dlxnf lx+;f /f]syfd tyf :yfgLo :t/b]lv /fli6«o :t/;Dd lx+;f kLl8t÷k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] nflu cfjZos ;xof]uL ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ lhDd]jf/ agfpg k}/jL ug]{ . #= dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] ;'/Iff gLlt Nofpg k}/jL ug{] . $= dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf 36gfsf] /fli6«o ¿kdf tYofÍ Joj:yfkgsf nflu k}/jL ug{] . %= n}lËs d}qL ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf nflu jsfnt ug]{ . sfo{gLltx¿ * cfd ;r]tLs/0f / ;zQmLs/0fdf hf]8 . * Ifdtf clea[l4 . * ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ . * gLltut Joj:yfsf nflu k}/jL . * tYodf cfwfl/t k}/jLsf] nflu Jojl:yt ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; -clen]vLs/0f, cg';Gwfg, k|sfzg_ ub}{ nfg] .
  12. 12. * lx+;f kLl8t tyf k|efljtx¿sf] nflu ;xof]uL ;+oGqsf] ljsf; -;'/Iffjf;, dgf]ljdz{, sfg'gL ;xof]u, :jf:Yo ;]jf_ :s"n lzIff M ljßfnox¿df ljleGg ljifodf !^% j6f :s"n lZfIffsf sIffx¿ ;~rfng ul/Psf] lyof] . :s"n lzIffdf @*@# hgf 5fq / ##^* hgf 5fqfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . ;DkGg ultljlwx¿ ;8s gf6s, krf{, kf]i6/ -;"rgf ;fdu|L_ ljt/0f != cfd;r]tLs/0fsf nflu ul/Psf ultljlwx¿ lkt[;QfTds d"No, dfGotfdf cfwfl/t ;+:s[ltnfO{ n}lËs ;dfgtfdf cfwfl/t ;+:s[ltdf kl/jt{g ug{ cfd;r]tLs/0fsf] dfWodaf6 cf]/]sn] :yfgLo :t/b]lv /fli6«o :t/;Dd x/]s tx / tKsfdf /x]sf dlxnf, k'?if, o'jf, k];fsdL{, gful/s ;dfh, /fhgLltssdL{, lzIfs tyf ;]jf k|bfosx¿nfO{ ljleGg ultljlwdfkm{t ;"rgf k|jfx u/L ;jfndf ;';"lrt ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . ljleGg ;jfndf ufpFb]lv zx/ ahf/;Dd ;/n / ;xh tl/sfaf6 ;"rgf k|jfx ug{sf nflu ;8s gf6s, lel8of] k|bz{g, krf{ l:6s/, ljt/0f ug'{sf ;fy} kf]i6/sf] dfWodaf6 ;"rgf tyf hfgsf/L lbg] sfd lg/Gt/ ¿kdf ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . cled'vLs/0f tyf 5nkmn M ljleGg ljifodf cled'vLs/0f tyf 5nkmnsf] dfWodaf6 ;"rgf k|jfx u/L r]tgf clea[l4 / wf/0ffut ¿kdf :ki6tf Nofpg o; jif{ ljleGg lhNnfdf $!! j6f ultljlw ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . To;df *^%# hgf dlxnf / #!*) k'?ifsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . * /]l8of] sfo{qmd M ;fd'bflos /]l8of] pbok'/ -!)@ yf]Knf] $ d]ufxh{_ af6 x/]s xKtf æGofosf] vf]hLÆ sfo{qmd k|;f/0f eO/x]sf] 5 . xfd|f] ;dfh k'/fg} k/Dk/f, ;f]raf6 d'Qm x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . kl/jt{gsf] s'/f hlt u/]klg ;dfhdf dlxnfk|lt ul/g] Jojxf/df kl/jt{g cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . To;sf/0f ;dfhsf x/]s JolQmnfO{ dlxnf clwsf/k|lt ;Dj]bgzLn agfpg of] sfo{qmd k|;f/0f ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 7
  13. 13. @= Ifdtf clea[l4sf nflu ul/Psf tflndx¿ n}+lËs lx+;f, dfgj clwsf/, dlxnf clwsf/ / k|hgg :jf:Yo clwsf/k|lt ;Dj]bgzLn agfO{ Jojxf/df kl/jt{g Nofpg d2t k'¥ofpg] p2]Zon] nlIft ;d"xsf] Ifdtf clea[l4 ug]{ /0fgLlt cg'¿k o; ;+:yfn] ljleGg ;d"x tyf ;~hfnsf ;b:ox¿, k'?if, ;]jf k|bfos, dfgj clwsf/ tyf dlxnf clwsf/sdL{, o'jf, gful/s ;dfhsf k|ltlglw, lzIfs, kqsf/, nufotsf ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] Ifdtf clea[l4sf nflu ljleGg ;jfndf tflnd, uf]i7Lx¿ ;~rfng ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . o; jif{ hDdf !( j6f tflnd ;DkGg ul/Psf] 5 . h;df dlxnf #)$ hgf / k'?if !*& hgf u/L hDdf $(! hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . tflnsf != Ifdtf clej[l¢sf] nflu ;DkGg tflndx¿sf] ljifoj:t' / ;xefuL ;+Vof lhNnf tflnd ljj/0f ;+Vof ;xefuL ;+Vof dlxnf – @@ – @^ @^ @$ % @( n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f / dfgj clwsf/;DaGwL o'jfx¿nfO{ # lbg] tflnd @ #( !( %* aflnsf / lszf]/Ldfly x'g] of}g lx+;f / o;sf] lgoGq0fsf] nflu lzIfsx¿sf] e"ldsf ljifos @ lbg] cled'vLs/0f÷tflnd ! & !* @% n}+lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f / k|hgg :jf:Yo clwsf/;DaGwL # lbg] tflnd @ $$ !# %& k}/jL tflnd # lbg] ! @@ – @@ k}/jL tflnd # lbg] ! @# – @# n}+lËs lx+;flj?4 k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd l;/xf @@ Dflxnf lx+;fsf 36gfsf] ph'/L k|lqmof / k}/jL ;Lk;DaGwL tflnd ! s}nfnL hDdf n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f / dfgj clwsf/;DaGwL k'?ifx¿nfO{ ! # lbg] tflnd bfË k'?if ! @$ – @$ – !* !* n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f;DaGwL k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd % lbg] ! n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f / dfgj clwsf/;DaGwL o'jfx¿nfO{ ! # lbg] tflnd 8 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)
  14. 14. lhNnf tflnd ljj/0f ;+Vof ;xefuL ;+Vof dlxnf k'?if hDdf wg'iff n}+lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f tyf dgf]ljdz{;DaGwL o'jfx¿nfO{ # ! lbg] tflnd !@ @$ #^ pbok'/ n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f ljifos # lbg] tflnd ! @) * @* n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f;DaGwL k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd % lbg] @ %! !) ^! n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f / dfgj clwsf/;DaGwL k'?ifx¿nfO{ # # lbg] tflnd – ^$ ^$ n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f;DaGwL k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tfnLd % lbg] ! @# hDdf @) #!! df]/Ë ÷;'g;/L #= ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ ;Dj]bgzLn / hjfkmb]xL agfpgsf nflu ul/Psf ultljlwx¿ dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] cleofg cGtu{t k|d'v d'2f ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ ;Dj]bgzLn / hjfkmb]xL agfpg' /x]sfn] /fHosf gLlt lgdf{0f txdf /x]sf JolQmx¿ / sfof{Gjog ug]{ u/fpg] txdf /xg] JolQmx¿nfO{ nlIft u/L :yfgLo txb]lv /fli6«o tx;Dd ljleGg r/0fdf lgDg ultljlwx¿ ;DkGg ul/Psf] 5 . @# @)% %!^ k'?if cled'vLs/0f n}lËs lx+;flj?4sf] cleofgdf k'?ifx¿ tyf o'jfx¿ ;Fusf] ;xsfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfO{ pgLx¿nfO{ of] d'2fdf ;Dj]bgzLn / hjfkmb]xL aGg clek|]l/t ug]{ p2]Zon] ;d'bfo tyf lhNnf :t/df k'?if tyf o'jfx¿;Fu !)& j6f ax; tyf cGt/ ;Djfb sfo{qmd ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . To;df @()& hgf o'jf tyf k'?ifx¿sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu :yfgLo :t/b]lv /fli6«o :t/;Dd ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ ;Dj]bgzLn / hjfkmb]xL agfpFb} pgLx¿sf] e"ldsf a9fpg] p2]Zon] lhNnf tyf s]Gb|Lo :t/df ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿ -n}+lËs lx+;flj?4sf] ;dGjo ;ldlt, dfgj a]rlavg tyf cf];f/k;f/lj?4sf] ;ldlt, ljleGg /fhg}lts bnsf k|ltlglw, ;/sf/L lgsfosf k|ltlglw, ;ª3÷;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx¿, dfgj clwsf/ / dlxnf clwsf/sdL{x¿;Fusf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df sfo{qmdx¿ ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 9
  15. 15. Goflos tyf cw{Goflos lgsfosf k|ltlglwx¿;Fu cGt/lqmof lx+;f kLl8t tyf k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] Goflos k|lqmofdf kx'Fr a9fpg / kLl8tn] Gofo kfPsf] cg'e"lt ug]{ jftfj/0fsf] l;h{gf ug{sf nflu s] ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] af/]df cfjZos 5nkmn u/L ;xof]uL ;+oGqnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg Goflos / cw{Goflos If]qsf ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu df]/Ë, ;'g;/L, pbok'/, l;/xf, wg'iff, bfË / s}nfnL lhNnfdf u/L hDdf & j6f cGt/ lqmof ul/Psf] lyof] . To;df @$^ hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . o; sfo{qmddf ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿af6 ;xof]u kfPsf 36gfx¿df kLl8t tyf k|efljtn] Gofo kfPsf] / ;xh ¿kdf ;xof]u gkfPsf 36gfx¿df lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿n] Gofo kfpg g;s]sf] 36gfx¿df 5nkmn ub}{ cfufdL lbgdf kLl8t÷k|efljtn] ;xh tl/sfn] Gofo kfpg] jftfj/0f s;/L tof/ ug{ ;lsG5, k|x/L sfof{nodf cfpg] x/]s 36gfx¿sf] btf{ k|lqmof / cg';Gwfg k|lqmofnfO{ c´ s;/L n}+lËs ;Dj]bgzLn agfpg ;lsG5 eGg] af/]df 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmdsf] cGtdf ljz]ifu/L k|x/L, k|zf;g, ;/sf/L jlsn, lhNnf af/ / sfg'gL ;]jf s]Gb| a9L ;Dj]bgzLn eP/ sfd ug'{kg]{df hf]8 lbOPsf] lyof] . g]kfn k|x/Lsf sd{rf/Lx¿;Fu n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f, dlxnf clwsf/ / lx+;f kLl8t÷k|efljt;Fu ug'{kg]{ Jojxf/sf] ;jfndf ! lbg] uf]i7L n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f, lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿;Fu ug'{kg]{ Jojxf/ / dlxnf clwsf/sf] ;jfndf ;Dj]bgzLn / hjfkmb]xL agfpg] ;fy} lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfsf] Gofodf 10 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) kx'Fr a9fpg k|x/Lsf] e"ldsf cem a9L k|efjsf/L agfpg / x/]s k|x/L sfof{nodf n}lËsd}qL jftfj/0f agfpg kxn ug]{ p2]Zo /fvL g]kfn k|x/Lsf sd{rf/Lx¿;Fu df]/Ë, pbok'/, l;/xf, wg'iff, bfË / s}nfnLdf hDdf ( j6f ! lbg] uf]i7Lsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] To;df @#$ hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . dlxnf lx+;fsf] cj:yf / ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] e"ldsf ljifos lhNnf :t/Lo uf]i7L dlxnf clwsf/sf] If]qdf sfd ug{] ;ª3÷;:yfx¿, n}+lËs lx+;flj?4 lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt, dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿aLr a9bf] dlxnf lx+;fsf] 36gfx¿sf] cj:yf / o;sf] sf/0fsf] af/]df 5nkmn u/L lx+;f Go"gLs/0f / lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfn] Goflos pkrf/sf] nflu ;xh ¿kdf l/kf]l6{Ë ug{ ;Sg] jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ cufdL lbgdf s;/L sfd ug]{ eGg] af/]df ;a} ax'kIfLo ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿aLr a[xt ¿kdf 5nkmn ug'{sf ;fy} PsLs[t ¿kdf of]hgf klg tof/ ul/Psf] lyof] . dlxnf clwsf/sf] If]qdf sfo{/t ;+:yfx¿n] lbg] ;]jfsf] dfkg u/L l/km/n ;+oGqnfO{ k|efjsf/L ¿kdf sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|ltj4tf JoSt u/]sf lyP . sf7df08f}+, nlntk'/, sfe|], df]/Ë, ;'g;/L, pbok'/, bfË, s}nfnL nufotsf @# lhNnfdf of] sfo{qmd ul/Psf] lyof] . h;df *%! hgfsf] pkl:ylt /x]sf] lyof] . lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx¿sf] Gofosf] nflu Goflos cw{Goflos lgsfosf k|d'v tyf k|ltlglwx¿;Fu cGt/lqmof dlxnf lx+;flj?4df k|ToIf tyf ck|ToIf ¿kdf sfd ug]{ ljleGg ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;ª3÷;+:yfsfaLrdf Ps lbg] cGt/lqmofTds sfo{qmd l;/xfsf] nxfgdf
  16. 16. @)&)÷!÷$ ut] ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf @)^( j}zfvb]lv r}q @)^( ;Dddf cf]/]sn] clen]vg u/]sf dlxnflx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ cf]/]sn] l;/xf lhNnfsf] dlxnf lx+;fsf] cj:yf ´Nsfpg] cfwf/kq k|:t't u/]sf] lyof] . o; cjlwdf 36]sf jf l/kf]l6{Ë ePsf hDdf !*( j6f 36gf clen]vg ul/Psf] lyof] . tL 36gfdf kLl8t dlxnfx¿sf] Gofodf kxF'rsf] cj:yfnfO{ x]bf{ hDdf !) hgf dlxnfsf 36gf klg Goflos lgsfo;Dd k'Ug g;s]sf] tYofÍn] b]vfPsf] lyof] . l;/xf lhNnfdf dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ lbgk|ltlbg a9b} uO{/x]sf] / kLl8tsf] Gofodf kx'Fr gePsf] l:yltnfO{ ljZn]if0f ub}{ kLl8tsf] Gofodflysf] kx'Fr a9fpg ;/f]sf/jfnf ;Dj]bgzLn / lhDd]jf/ x'gkg]{ s'/fnfO{ dgg ub}{ lhNnfdf lx+;fdf k/]sf dlxnfx¿sf] Gofodf kx'Fr a9fpg ;xof]usf nflu dlxnf tyf afnaflnsf sfof{no l;/xfsf] ;+of]hsTjdf & ;b:oLo -Quick Response Team_ u7g ul/Psf] lyof] . of] l6dn] cfufdL lbgdf lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfsf] cfjZostf cg';f/ Goflos k|lqmofnfO{ cufl8 a9fpg t'?Gt ;xhLs/0f / kxn ug]{, 36gfsf] ;To tYo kQf nufpg cg'udg ug]{ k|lta4tf l6dsf ;+of]hs dlxnf tyf afnaflnsf clws[t ;f}of{ ;fxn] AoQm ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . k|ToIf tyf ck|TIf ¿kdf dlxnflx+;flj?4 sfo{/t ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;ª3;+:yfx¿n] o; ljifonfO{ uDeL/ ¿kdf lnO{ ;a}sf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df dlxnfsf] Gofodflysf] kxF'r a9fpg sfd ug]{ jftfj/0f tof/ ug]{ p2]Zon] cfof]lht pQm sfo{qmddf n}+lËs lx+;flj?4sf] lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltsf ;b:ox¿ / u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfsf k|ltlglw, kqsf/, clwsf/sdL{x¿ u/L ^) hgf eGbf a9Lsf] pkl:ytL /x]sf] lyof] . o;}u/L wg'iff, df]/Ë, ;'g;/L / bfË lhNnfdf klg o; ljifodf cGt/lqmof ul/Psf] lyof] To;df !&@ hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . Dflxnf lx+;f Go"gLs/0fdf /fhgLlts bnsf] e"ldsf ljifos cGt/lqmof /fhgLlts cl:y/tfn] a9b} uPsf] b08xLgtfn] lx+;f ug]{x¿nfO{;d]t an k'¥ofPsf] 5 . kLl8t cem kLl8t aGg k'u]sf 5g . lx+;fsf :j¿kx¿ ablnb} 5g . To;}n] of] ;d:ofnfO{ c´ yk hl6n aGg glbg, ck/fw ug]{x¿nfO{ lg?T;flxt u/L lx+;f kLl8t k|efljt dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;Ddflgt hLjg lhpg] jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ ;dodf g} /fhgLlts bnx¿ ;Dj]bgzLn / lhDd]jf/ x'g kg]{ cfjZostf 5 . oxL ;jfndf s]lGb|t eO{ /fhgLlts bnx¿nfO{ lhDd]jf/ / hjfkmb]xL agfpg ljleGg lhNnf tyf s]Gb|df /fhgLlts bnsf g]tf tyf k|ltlglwx¿;Fu Ps lbg] cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd -!(_ j6f ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] To;df ^*$ hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . dlxnf lx+;f / kqsf/x¿sf] e"ldsf ljifos cGt/lqmof dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f lbg k|ltlbg a9b} / ablnb} uO/x]sf] kl/jlt{t cj:yfdf ;~rf/ dfWodx¿sf] klg 36gfnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fvL l/kf]l6{Ë ug]{ sfo{ klg a9b} uPsf] 5 . l/kf]6{ ug]{ qmddf lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfsf] ;'/Iff / Gofosf] nflu w]/} g} ;Dj]bgzLn x'g cfjZos 5 . t/ slxn]sfxL ;~rf/ dfWodn] lx+;fsf 36gfsf] ;To tYo g} kQf gnufO{ ;dfrf/sf] ¿kdf dfq k|sfzg / k|;f/0f ul/lb+bf lx+;f kLl8t dlxnf c´ a9L lx+;fdf kg'{kg]{ l:ylt cfO/x]sf] 5 . To;sf/0f kLl8tsf] uf]kgLotfsf] clwsf/nfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ kLl8tsf] Gofosf] nflu ;jfnsf] p7fg ug{ ljZn]if0ffTds ;dfrf/, n]v, /rgfx¿dfkm{t ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ ;Dj]bgzLn / hjfkmb]xL agfpg dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ k}/jL ug]{ p2]Zon] ;~rf/sdL{x¿;Fu s]Gb| tyf lhNnfx¿df !* j6f cGt/lqmof ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . of}ghGo lx;f+;DaGwL ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu 5nkmn sfo{qmd a9b} uPsf] of}ghGo lx;f+, o;sf] sf/0f / xfn ePsf] sfg'gL Joj:yf;DaGwL ;/f]sf/jfnfaLr 5nkmn u/L gofF cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 11
  17. 17. sfg'g agfpg bjfj k'¥ofpg] p2]Zon] @)&) ;fn h]7 # ut] s}nfnL lhNnfsf] wgu9Ldf 5nkmn sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . ljz]if u/L anfTsf/sf] 36gfdf dlxnfn] Gofo gkfO{ /x]sf] / kL8snfO{ s8f sfg'gL ;hfo gePsf sf/0f ;dfhdf x/]s lbg 36gfx¿ a9b} uPsf 5g . cf]/]sn] clen]vg u/]sf 36gfnfO{ ljZn]if0f ubf{ @%^ j6f anfTsf/sf 36gf l/kf]l6{Ë ePsf 5g eg] !)& j6f of}g lx+;fsf 36gf /x]sf 5g . To;sf/0f lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfsf] Gofodf kxF'r a9fpg / dlxnfn] ;xh tl/sfn] Gofo kfpg gofF sfg'gsf] lgdf{0f x'g cfjZos 5 eGg] ;jfndf 5nkmn ePsf] lyof] . ;fy} anfTsf/;DaGwL gofF sfg'g lgdf{0f x'gkg]{ / o:tf ljz]if k|s[ltsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] x/]s lbg ;'g'jfO{ x'g'kg]{df hf]8 lbOPsf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf dlxnf tyf afnaflnsf ljsf; sfof{no, lhNnf k|x/L sfof{no, ;z:q k|x/L sfof{no, lhNnf af/ Pzf]l;o;g, ;/sf/L jlsn sfof{no, zflGt ;ldlt, /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]u tyf ljleGg u};;sf k|ltlglwx¿, clwjQmf, kqsf/x¿, dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿ u/L $# hgfsf] pkl:ylt /x]sf] lyof] . k}/jL ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . cf]/]ssf] ljleGg cg';Gwfgn] dlxnf lx+;f ;a}eGbf a9L cfˆg} 3/leq / kl/jf/sf ;b:ox¿af6 x'g] k|ltj]bg k|fKt ePsf]n] cf]/]s g]kfnn] 3/]n' lx+;fn] dlxnfsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/df kf/]sf] k|efj tyf /fHosf] bfloTjsf] ljifodf cg';Gwfg ug{ nfluPsf] 5 . o; cg';GwfgnfO{ 3/]n' lx+;f ljifos dfgj clwsf/ lgwf{/0f ;+oGq -8f]ef_ sf] k|of]u u/L ul/Psf] 5 . of] 8f]ef ;fdu|Lsf] ljsf;sf] qmddf cf]/]s g]kfn nufot o'/f]k, Nofl6g cd]l/sf, clkm|sfsf ;xefuLx¿sf] ;+o'St k|of;df Pd km/ xo'dg /fO{6; gfds g]b/Nof08sf] ;+:yfsf] ;+of]hsTjdf lgdf{0f ul/Psf] xf] . o; cg';Gwfgdf dfgj clwsf/ lgwf{/0f ;+oGqsf] k|of]u u/L cf]/]s g]kfn tyf cGo ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿ qmdzM d'lSt g]kfn, n'd g]kfn, ;xofqL ;dfh g]kfn, dlxnfsf] lglDt dlxnf d~r, dlxnf Pstf ;dfh tyf g]kfn ckfË dlxnf ;ª3sf] ;+o'St k|of;df 3/]n' lx+;fn] dlxnfsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/df kf/]sf] k|efj tyf o;df /fHosf] bfloTjx¿sf]] tYout k|df0fsf cfwf/df ljZn]z0f ub}{ tof/ kfl/Psf] k|ltj]bgsf] cfwf/df /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o :t/df k}/jL ug]{ of]hgf /x]sf] 5 . k':ts cgfj/0f sfo{qmd g]kfndf klxnf] k6s 3/]n' lx+;fdf dfgj clwsf/ lgwf{/0f ;+oGq -8f]ef_ sf] k|of]u u/L cg';Gwfg ul/g] ePsf] x'bf o; ;+oGqsf] cg';Gwfg k':tssf] cgfj/0f sfo{qmd @)&) h]7 @) ut] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . 3/]n' lx+;f ljifos dfgj clwsf/ lgwf{/0f ;+oGq -8f]ef_ sf] cg';Gwfg cf]/]s g]kfnn] cfˆgf] :yfkgf sfnb]lv g} dlxnf lx+;fsf] cGTo tyf dlxnf clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttfsf] nflu sfo{/t ;+:yf xf] . o;n] dlxnf clwsf/ ;'lglZrttfsf] nflu sfg'gx¿sf] ;xL ¿kdf sfof{Gjog tyf ;do ;fk]If sfg'g tyf gLltx¿sf] lgdf{0fsf] nflu ljleGg :t/df 12 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)
  18. 18. sfo{qmddf c:6«]lnog PDa];Lsf dxfdlxd Un]g xjfO{6n] k':tssf]] cgfj/0f ub}{ 3/]n' lx+;f Ps cGt/f{li6«o d'2fsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] / ;do ;fk]If ¿kdf of] s'g} /fi6«df sd / st} a9L /x]sf] ljifodf k|sfz kfg'{ ePsf] lyof] . ljleGg ;ª3 ;+:yfsf k|ltlglw, kqsf/, clwsf/sdL{ nufot ^) hgfeGbf a9Lsf] sfo{qmddf pkl:ylt /x]sf] lyof] . $= clen]vLs/0f tyf Joj:yfkg tYodf cfwfl/t k}/jLsf] nflu Jojl:yt ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; -clen]vLs/0f, cg';Gwfg, k|sfzg_ ub}{ nfg] cf]/]ssf] sfo{gLlt cg'¿k dlxnf clwsf/ xggsf] cj:yfnfO{ ;a}sf] cufl8 h:tfsf] t:t} /fv]/ ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ ;Dj]bgzLn / hjfkmb]xL agfpg, gLlt lgdf{0f, kl/dfh{g tyf k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu cf]/]s g]kfnn] cfˆgf] :yfkgfsfnb]lv g} clen]vgnfO{ k|fyldstf lbO{ lg/Gt/ ¿kdf sfd ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . o;} l;nl;nfdf ;do / cfjZostf cg';f/ clen]vgnfO{ Jojl:yt / kl/dflh{t ub}{ cufl8 a9fO/x]sf] 5 . dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gf clen]vg tyf ljZn]if0f k|ltj]bg dfl;s k|ltj]bg M cf]/]sdf clen]vg ul/Psf 36gf tyf ldl8of cg'udgsf] cfwf/df dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfsf] ljZn]if0f u/]/ lgsflng] dfl;s k|ltj]bg cg';f/ o; jif{df !&(@ j6f 36gf l/kf]l6{Ë ePsf] b]lvG5 . h;df ;aeGbf a9L 3/]n' lx+;fsf 36gf *&& 5g . anfTsf/sf #@% j6f 5g eg] xTofsf 36gf !^^ l/kf]l6{Ë ePsf] tYofÍn] b]vfPsf] 5 . clen]vgstf{ tof/ dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;f tyf dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿dfly ePsf lx+;fsf] clen]vg tyf ;ªsngsf nflu cf]/]s / dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] /fli6«o ;~hfnsf] ;xsfo{df &% lhNnfdf clen]vgstf{x¿ tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . clen]vgstf{x¿;Fu ;dLIff a}7s, lg/Gt/ kmnf]ck ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . clen]vgstf{x¿sf] Ifdtf clea[l4 dlxnfjfbL b[li6sf]0faf6, JolQmsf] uf]kgLotfnfO{ ;Dj]bgzLntfsf ;fy lnO{ 36gfnfO{ clen]vg ug{sf nflu cfjZos ;Lk tyf Ifdtf clea[l4 ug]{ sfd lg/Gt/ ¿kdf ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . o;} l;nl;nfdf o; jif{ cf]/]sn] la/f6gu/, sfe|] / bfËdf u/L kfFrj6} ljsf; If]qsf &! hgf clen]vgstf{x¿nfO{ @ lbg] k'gM tfhuL tflnd ;DkGg u/]sf] 5 . o;}u/L cf]/]sn] k|ToIf ¿kdf sfd ug]{ lhNnfx¿df dlxnf ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx¿sf ;b:ox¿ / o'jfx¿sf] klg 36gf clen]vg;DaGwL Ifdtf tyf ;Lk ljsf; ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . lrq ! M cf]/]s g]kfnåf/f k|sflzt dfl;s k|ltj]bg cg';f/ dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ q}dfl;s k|ltj]bg tof/ cf]/]sn] clen]vg u/]sf dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gf / /fli6«o kq klqsfdf cfPsf 36gfx¿nfO{ ljZn]if0f u/L x/]s # dlxgfdf ;DalGwt lhNnf jf b]ze/ g} dlxnf lx+;fsf] cj:yf s:tf] 5, s:tf k|s[ltsf 36gf 36], ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] s:tf] e"ldsf /xof] / kLl8t k|efljtsf] ;'/Iff / Gofosf] nflu s] ug{ cfjZos 5 / kLl8tsf] Gofosf] nflu ;a}nfO{ hjfkmb]xL agfpg] p2]Zon] k|ltj]bg ;]ol/Ë / 5nkmn ug{] ul/Psf] 5 . 36gf clen]vg M ljut @)!@ h'nfO{b]lv @)!# h'g;Dddf dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf !&)# j6f 36gf / dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿dfly ePsf] lx+;fsf !! j6f 36gfx¿sf] clen]vg ul/Psf] 5 . cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 13
  19. 19. s]; o'lg6 ;'b[9Ls/0f, 36gfsf] cg'udg, kmnf]ck / cfjZos ;xof]u / cfjZostf cg';f/ cGh{]G6 clkn, k]|; lj1KtL, Wofgfsif{0f kq a'´fpg] sfd lg/Gt/ ¿kdf eO/x]sf] 5 . %= gLlt lgdf{0f tyf k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu k}/jL ;+o'St /fi6« ;ª3sf] %& cf}+ sfo{qmddf ;xeflutf cd]l/sf l:ylt ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª3sf] d'Vofno Go"of]s{df $ b]lv !% dfr{, @)!# ;Dd ;DkGg ePsf] Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) sf] %& cf}+ ;];gdf cf]]/]s g]kfnaf6 ;+:yfks cWoIf 8f= /]0f' /fhe08f/L / ;lrj ljgf kf]v/]nn] ;xeflutf hgfpg' ePsf] lyof] . ljleGg d'n'saf6 ;xefuL ePsf dlxnf jf ;+:yfn] ;~rfng u/]sf sfo{zfnf uf]i7Lx¿df dlxnf lx+;fsf ljifodf ljleGg d'2fx¿ p7]sf lyP . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf ;d:ofsf jt{dfg r'gf}tLx¿, :j¿kx¿ tyf To;sf] ;dfwgsf laifodf ;d]t 5nkmn ePsf] lyof] . CSW sf] %& cf}+ ;];g "Elimination and prevention of all forms of violence against women and girls" df s]lGb|t /x]sf] lyof] . & dfr{ @)!# df CSW ;Fu} cf]/]s g]kfn, /fO6; km/ r]Gh, Masimanyane n] ;+o'Qm ¿kdf Making our Domestic Violence laws work in practice sfo{zfnf uf]i7Lsf] cfof]hgf u/]sf lyP . sl/a ^) hgf ;xefuLx¿ 14 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) /x]sf] pQm sfo{zfnfdf 8f]ef (DOVA) pks/0f tyf 3/]n' lx+;fsf ;DaGwdf 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3Lo cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs sfplG;n (ECOSOC) cGtu{tsf] CSW nfO{ n}lËs ;dfgtf tyf dlxnfsf] ;zQmLs/0fsf nflu gLlt lgdf{0f ug]{ O{sfOsf] ¿kdf lnOG5 . x/]s jif{ ;b:o /fi6«sf k|ltlglwx¿n] n}lËs ;dfgtfdf eO/x]sf] k|ultsf] ;ldIff, r'gf}tL klxrfg, ljZjJofkL dfGotf :yfkgfsf nflu kxn, ljZjJofkL ¿kdf n}lËs ;dfgtfsf] k|aw{g / dlxnfsf] ;zQmLs/0f ug{sf nflu of] sfo{qmddf efu lng] ub{5g . dlxnflx+;f tyf Gofodf kx'Fr ljifos Ps lbg] cGt/lqmof cf]/]s g]kfn / dlxnf tyf afnaflnsf sfof{no l;/xfsf] ;+o'Qm cfof]hgfdf ldlt @)&) Ho]i7 !$ ut]sf lbg l;/xfdf dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] lhNnf :t/Lo ;dGjo ;ldltsf ;b:ox¿ / cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sfaLrdf cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . sfo{qmddf k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/L, ;z:q k|x/L pkl/Ifs O{Gb|/fh sfsL{, g]kfn k|x/Lsf l8 P; kL /d]z s'df/ tfdfË, lhNnf GofolwjQmf uf]kL rGb| e6/fO{ nufot ljleGg /fhg}lts bnsf k|ltlglw, clwsf/sdL{, kqsf/x¿ u/L %% hgf eGbf a9Lsf] pkl:ylt /x]sf] lyof] . l;/xf lhNnfdf dlxnflx+;fsf] cj:yfsf] af/]df ljifodf 5nkmn ub}{ lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx¿sf] lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt;Fu ;xh tl/sfn] kx'Fr a9fpg] / lhNnf ;ldltnfO{ lhDd]jf/ / hjfkmb]xL agfpg k}/jL ug]{
  20. 20. p2]Zon] cfof]lht o; sfo{qmddf !# hgf lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx¿n] cfˆgf] ;d:of /fv]sf lyP . !# hgfdWo] !! hgf dlxnfx¿n] bfO{hf]sf] sf/0f lx+;fdf k/]sf] atfPsf lyP . lx+;faf6 k|efljt dlxnfx¿ e/v{/ cfTdljZjf;sf ;fy aflx/ cfP/ l/kf]l6{Ë ug{ ;Sg] jftfj/0f aGb} uPsf] t/ ;DalGwt lgsfodf hfFbf cfjZos ;xof]u gkfP/ ´g b'Mv kfpg' kbf{ Gofo kfpg'sf] ;f6f] c´ a9L lx+;fdf k/]sf] cg'e"lt ePsf] s'/f JoQm u/]sf lyP . sfo{qmddf /fhg}lts bnsf JolQmx¿n] klg bjfj lbO{ ldnfkq ug{ afWo kfg]{ u/]sf] / kL8s kIfsf] arfpsf] nflu kLl8tnfO{ g} pN6f] ldNg / l/kf]6{ gug{ bjfj lbg] ePsf sf/0fn] kL8sn] pGd'lQm kfO{ lx+;f ug{ pS;fPsf]n] s'/f ljleGg gful/s ;dfhsf JoflQmx¿n] JoQm u/]sf lyP . /fhg}lts bnx¿n] t/fO{ ;d'bfodf bfO{hf]sf] sf/0fn] dlxnflx+;fsf 36gfx¿df j[l4 ePsf] sf/0fn] cfufdL lbgdf bfO{hf] k|yfnfO{ lg?T;flxt ug{sf nflu ;a}n] ;ªul7t ¿kdf ;fdflhs e"ldsf lgjf{x ug'{kg]{df hf]8 lbPsf lyP . g]kfn k|x/Lsf l8 P; kLn] dlxnfx¿sf] Gofosf] nflu cfufdL lbgdf c´ a9L ;Dj]bgzLn eP/ sfd ug]{ k|ltj4tf hfx]/ u/]sf lyP . k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/Ln] dlxnfx¿n] d'2f aflx/ NofPs} sf/0f pgLx¿dfly ;dfhdf wDsL lbg] JolQmx¿sf] klxrfg u/L sf/jfxL k|lqmof cufl8 a9fpg] / lx+;f kLl8tsf] Gofosf] nflu ;ldlt / k|zf;gn] sfd ug]{ k|ltj4tf JoQm u/]sf lyP . ;fy} l;/xfdf bx]hsf sf/0f dlxnfx¿dfly w]/} lx+;f eO/x]sfn] bx]hlj¿¢ klg sd ug'{kg]{df ;a}sf] ;'´fj /x]sf] lyof] . ……dlxnf clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu PsLs[t pkfo Gofo tyf clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttf M kLl8tb]lv kl/jt{gsf ;Djfxs;DdÚÚ ljifos dlxnf lx+;flj?4 /fli6«o ;Dd]ng dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;flj?4 tyf dlxnf clwsf/nfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fVg g]kfn ;/sf/n]] sfg'g, gLlt, lgod tyf ljljw sfo{qmdsf dfWodaf6 dlxnf lx+;flj?4 /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo ;xof]uL ;+oGq / ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f tyf ;'b[9Ls/0fsf] nflu pNn]vgLo cEof; u/] klg lx+;f kLl8tx¿sf clwsf/nfO{ ;Djf]wg ug{ / kLl8td'vL Gofo k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ug{ ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . To;sf/0f klg dlxnfsf] Gofo dflysf] kx'Fr Go"g /x]sf] 5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f ;Djf]wgsf nflu /fHo / gful/ssf] ;xeflutfsf] cfjZostfsf ;fy} ;Dk"0f{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ klg ;xefuL u/fpg cfjZos 5 . jt{dfg ultljlwsf] nflu ;+:yfut txaf6 ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿aLr 5nkmn x'g'kg]{ tyf cg'ejx¿ cfbfgk|bfg u/L Psh'6sf] k|of; ug'{kg]{ cfjZostfnfO{ dxz'; u/L k|wfgdGqL tyf dGqL kl/ifbsf] sfof{no, /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]u, cf]/]s / dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] /fli6«o ;~hfnsf] ;+o'Qm cfof]hgfdf @)^( kf}if @@–@# ut] x]6f}+8fdf ædlxnf clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu PsLs[t pkfo Gofo tyf clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttf M kLl8tb]lv kl/jt{gsf ;Djfxs;DdÆ ljifos dlxnf lx+;flj?4 /fli6«o ;Dd]ngsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] jt{dfg cj:yfk|lt hfgsf/L cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 15
  21. 21. u/fpFb} kl/jt{gsf ;Djfxsx¿sf] cg'ej ;f6f;f6 / clen]lvs[t ug'{, k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] lglDt /fHosf tkm{af6 ;+:yfut ¿kdf ePsf k|of;x¿ -gLlt lgodsf]_ d'Nofªsg ug'{, gful/s ;dfh, dlxnf clws/sdL{x¿ tyf gLlt lgdf{tfx¿aLrsf] ;dGojdf b]lvPsf] vf8nsf] d'Nofªsg u/L, dfgj clwsf/ / dlxnf clwsf/sf If]qdf lqmofzLn ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿aLrsf] sfd u/fO{df Ps¿ktfsf] ljsf; u/fpg] p2]Zon] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] ;f] ;Dd]ngdf ljleGg ;jfndf * j6f Kofgn 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm sfo{qmddf b]zsf &% lhNnfaf6 @@% hgfeGbf a9L ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . o; ;Dd]ngn] ljZjsf ljleGg d'n'sx¿sf l;sfO{sf] cfbfgk|bfg ub}{ dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf cleofgstf{x¿aLr Pstf Nofpg] hdsf]{ u/]sf] lyof] . dlxnflj?4 lx+;fsf] ;dLIff / dlxnf clwsf/sf] lglDt ePsf k|of;x¿, pknlAw tyf lqmofsnfkx¿sf] ;dLIff / efjL lbgsf nflu ul/g'kg]{ k|of;x¿sf] af/]df 5nkmn u/L ;/sf/L lgsfo, ;ª3 ;+:yfx¿sf lglDt ;fGble{s pkfox¿ l;kmfl/; ug'{sf ;fy} gLlt, sfo{qmd tyf ;+:yfut ;'wf/dfkm{t dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf cleofgstf{x¿sf] cfwf/e"t dfgj clwsf/ / Gofosf] ;'lglZrttfsf lglDt cfjfh p7fpg ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] lyof] . ;Dd]ngsf] ;Dk"0f{ pknlAwx¿nfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ dlxnf lx+;f lj/f]wL 36gfx¿df tbf¿stfsf ;fy sf/afxL cufl8 a9fpgsf] nflu ;/sf/L nufot l;+uf] gful/s ;dfh g} cu|;/ x'g'kg]{ cfjZostf /x]sf] lgisif{ lgsfNb} !( a'Fb] 3f]if0ffkq hf/L u/]sf] lyof] . 16 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) National Consultation on Women's Right in Nepal: Rhetoric and Reality"Challenges to Human Rights, Peace and Democracy and Development" dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] cGt/f{li6«o dfgj clwsf/sf ;+oGqx¿sf] af/]df hfgsf/L kfO{ cfˆgf] clwsf/sf] bfjL / pkef]u ug{ d2t ldNng]5, dlxnf lx+;f / dlxnfsf] dfgj clwsf/sf] cj:yf, g]kfnsf] sfg'g / o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] af/]df k|ToIf ¿kdf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª3sf ljz]if k|ltj]bs;Fu 5nkmn u/L ef]lnsf] lbgdf g]kfn ;/sf/n] dlxnfsf] dfgj clwsf/ ;+/If0f / ;+j4{gdf Wofg lbgsf] nflu ljz]if k|ltj]bsaf6 l;kmfl/; x'g]5 eGg] dfGotfn] of] sfo{qmd cGt/f{li6«o ljZj zflGt lbj;sf] ;Gbe{df ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifs, dfgj clwsf/sdL{ nufot ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿ u/L !)) hgfeGbf a9Lsf] pkl:yltdf ;DkGg o; sfo{qmddf dlxnf clwsf/ /Ifsx¿ / lx+;f kLl8t÷k|efljt dlxnfx¿n] k|ToIf ¿kdf ;+o'Qm
  22. 22. /fi6«;ª3sf ljz]if k|ltj]bs;Fu cfˆgf ;d:ofx¿sf] af/]df 5nkmn u/]sf lyP . of] sfo{qmddf p7]sf ;jfnnfO{ lnP/ ljz]if k|ltj]bsn] g]kfn ;/sf/sf k|d'v tyf k|ltlglwx¿;Fu ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu Wofg lbg'kg]{ If]qsf] af/]df 5nkmn klg ug'{ePsf] lyof] . ……kmf:6 6«fs sf]6{ÚÚ sf] cfjZostf, ;DefJotf / r'gf}tLx¿ ljifos cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd ;/sf/L, u}/ ;/sf/L / gful/s;dfhaf6 dlxnf lx+:ff cGTo x'g}k5{ egL lg/Gt/ ¿kdf k}/jL ul//x]sf 5g t/ klg g t dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f 36]sf] 5 gt dlxnfsf] Gofodf kx'Fr g} a9]sf] b]lvG5 . o;sf w]/} sf/0fx¿ eP klg b]zdf ljBdfg lje]bsf/L Pjd lkmtnf] sfg'g, sfg'gx¿sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] cefj / ´geml6nf] k|lqmofn] ubf{ kLl8t ´g kLl8t / kL8sn] pGd'lQm kfpg] jftfj/0f aGb} uPsf] 5 . dlxnfn] ;fx; u/]/ cfkm"dfly ePsf] lx+;fsflj?4df af]n]/ Gofo kfpg w]/} ;do nfUb5 . anfTsf/, a]rljvg, cf];f/k;f/ h:tf d'2fx¿ lsgf/f nfUg aiff}{+ nfUg] u/]sf] 5 . o; l:yltdf d'2f aflx/ NofPs} sf/0f dlxnfn] yk kL8f vKg' kb{5 . h;sf] sf/0f w]/} dlxnfx¿n] d'2f aLrd} 5f8g], aofg km]g]{ sfdx¿;d]t ug{ afWo x'g' k/]sf] oyfy{ xfd|f] ;fd' 5 . t;y{ dlxnf lx+;f cGTo ug{ / kLl8tn] ;/n / rfF8f]eGbf rfF8f] Gofo kfpg …kmfi6 6«fs sf]6Ú{ sf] Joj:yf x'g cfjZos eGg] ;jfnnfO{ lbP/ cf]/]sn] @)^^ b]lv g} k}/jL ub}{ cfO/xsf] 5 . o;} qmddf @)^( ;fn kmfu'g !* ut] ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿aLr 5nkmn u/L o;sf] cj;/, ;DefJotf clg u7gsf nflu ljBdfg ;d:of / r'gf}tLx¿ af/] hfgsf/L lng], lbg] clek|fon] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifs ;~hfn, /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]u / cf]/]s g]kfnsf] ;+o'Qm cfof]hgfdf cGtlq{mof sfo{qmd ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnosf k|ltlglw, /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]usf cWoIf tyf ;b:ox¿, sfg'g dGqfnosf k|ltlglw, sfg'g Joj;foLx¿, kqsf/, dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿ tyf cGo ;/f]sf/jfnf ;ª3 ;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx¿ u/L %& hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmdsf] cGTodf o;sf] ;+/rgf s:tf] x'g] eGg] af/]df Pp6f ;ldlt u7g u/L To;n] cjwf/0ff tof/ ug]{ lg0f{o ul/Psf] lyof] h; cg';f/ g]kfn af/ P;f]lzP;gsf dxf;lrjsf] ;+of]hsTjdf ;ldlt u7g eO{ @ r/0fdf 5nkmn ePsf] 5. n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;flj?4 sfo{ ;~rfng sfo{ljlw, @)^& ;DaGwL @ lbg] /fli6«o uf]i7L n}lËs lje]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;flj?4sf sfo{qmdx¿df ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] ;xeflutf tyf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f u/L k|efjsf/L ¿kdf sfof{Gjog ug{, n}lËs lx+;faf6 kLl8t÷k|efljtsf] cfjZos uf]kgLotf sfod u/L cfjZos :jf:Yo pkrf/, dgf]ljdz{, sfg'gL ;Nnfx / ;'/Iff tyf ;xfotf;d]tsf If]qdf ;xof]u tyf ;xhLs/0f u/L pgLx¿sf] clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrt x'g] jftfj/0fsf] l;h{gf ug{ tyf o; If]qdf sfo{/t ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L If]qaLr ;dGjo / ;xof]uaf6 n}lËs lx+;flj?4sf sfo{qmdx¿ dfgj clwsf/sf] dfGotf tyf kLl8td'vL cjwf/0ffdf s]lGb|t u/L k|efjsf/L ¿kdf sfof{Gjog ug{sf] nflu n}+lËs lx+;flj?4 sfo{ ;~rfng sfo{ljlw g]kfn ;/sf/n] nfu";d]t ul/;s]sf] cj:yf 5 . of] sfo{ ;~rfng sfo{ljlwnfO{ :yfgLo :t/b]lv /fli6«o :t/;Dd sfof{Gjogdf gNoffP;Dd ;f]r]sf] h:tf] pknlAw xfl;n ug{ g;lsg] x'bfF ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ ;Dj]bgzLn / pQ/bfoL agfpg g]kfn ;/sf/ k|wfg dGqL tyf dGqL kl/ifbsf] sfof{no, cf]/]s g]kfn / o" Pg Pkm lkPsf] ;+o'Qm cfof]hgfdf @ lbg] sfo{zfnf uf]i7L sf7df08f}df ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf !* lhNnfsf k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/L, dlxnf afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnosf k|ltlglw, u[x dGqfnosf cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 17
  23. 23. k|ltlglw, :jf:Yo dGqfnosf k|ltlglw, dlxnf clwsf/ tyf dfgjclwsf/sf] If]qsf lqmofzLn u}=;=;x¿sf k|ltlglwx¿ u/L $@ hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . of] sfo{qmdsf] cGTodf ;xefuLx¿n] ;a} lhNnfdf g} o; ljifodf ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu lhNnf :t/df 5nkmn ug]{ of]hgf agfP cg';f/ !* lhNnfdf g} 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f ljz]if u/L anfTsf/sf 36gf / lrlsT;sLo sfg'gL kl/If0f xfnsf] cj:yf ;DaGwL @ lbg] /fli6«o sfo{zfnf dlxndfly x'g] anfTsf/sf 36gfx¿df w]/} lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx¿n] k|df0f h'6fpg g;s]s} sf/0f pgLx¿n] Gofo gkfPsf] cj:yf /x]sf] 5 . x'gt g]kfnsf] sfg'gn] anfTsf/sf 36gfdf kLl8tnfO{ Gofo / kL8snfO{ b08 ;hfo ug]{ sfg'gL Joj:yf u/]sf] ePtfklg anfTsf/sf] 36gfdf ljleGg sf/0fn] ubf{ kLl8tn] Gofo kfpg g;ls/x]sf] cj:yf 5 . jt{dfg sfg'gL Joj:yf cg';f/ anfTsf/sf] 36gf xf] jf xf]Og eg]/ k|dfl0ft ug]{ k|d'v lhDd]jf/L :jf:YosdL{x¿nfO{ lbOPsf] 5 . k|df0f nf]k x'g glbgsf] nflu @$ 306fleq :jf:Yo hfFr ug'kg]{ Joj:yf, ;a} lhNnfx¿df ;j{;'ne ¿kdf ;]jf pknAw gx'Fbf lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfn] ;dodf g} :jf:Yo hfFr u/fpg g;s]sf] l:ylt 5 . csf]{ k'?if 8fS6/ ePs} sf/0f pgLx¿nfO{ ;a} s'/f dlxnfx¿n] eGg ;Sb}g . ;fy} g]kfndf :jf:YosdL{x¿nfO{ Medico-legal sf] af/]df k|lzIf0f klg sd 5 . oL ;a} sf/0fx¿n] ubf{ dlxnfx¿n] 18 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) Gofo gkfPsf] cj:yf 5 . o;} l:yltnfO{ Wofgdf /fVb} cf]/]s g]kfn, g]kfn d]l8sn P;f];Lo;g s]lGb|o sfof{no / o" Pg Pkm lkPsf] ;+o'Qm cfof]hgfdf sf7df08f}df ædlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f ljz]if u/L anfTsf/sf 36gf / Medico-legal examination xfnsf] cj:yfÆ ljifos @ lbg] /fli6«o sfo{zfnf uf]i7Lsf] cfof]hgf u/]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf !$ j6f lhNnfsf -d]l8sn P;f];Lo;sf] zfvf sfof{no ePsf_ lhNnf c:ktfndf sfo{/t 8fS6/x¿, sf7df08f}sf ;/sf/L c:ktfnx¿df sfo{/t 8fS6/x¿ u/L hDdf %^ hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . g]kfndf Medicolegal examination sf] xfnsf] cj:yfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg cfjZos s'/fx¿df 5nkmn u/L cfPsf] lgisif{ tyf ;'´fjx¿nfO{ sfof{Gjogsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/ :jf:Yo tyf hg;+Vof dGqfnosf ;lrjHo"nfO{ x:tfGt/0f ul/Psf] lyof] . wgf{ “ca clt ef]” dlxnf lx+;f cGTo u/, bf]ifLdfly s8f eGbf s8f sf/jfxL / ca km]l/ o:tf 36gf g36g] vfnsf] jftfj/0f lgdf{0f u/ eGg] gf/f;lxt ;/sf/sf] Wofgfsif{0f u/fO{ hjfkmb]xL agfpg] p2]Zon] @)^( k'if !@ ut] dlxnf clwsf/sdL{x¿sf] ;+of]hgdf gful/s ;dfhn] l;+xb/af/sf] blIf0f u]6df b]zdf dlxnf lx+;f r/d ¿kdf k'u]sf] eGb} wgf{ lbPsf lyP . pQm sfo{qmddf !) a'Fb]dfu;lxtsf] Wofgfsif{0fkq dlxnf clwsf/sdL{x¿n]
  24. 24. k|wfgdGqLnfO{ a'´fPsf lyP . ;f] bjfj sfo{qmdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lb+b} b]ze/ dlxnf lx+;f cGTo u/, kLl8tnfO{ Gofo b]p eGg] dfu;lxt of] cleofgnfO{ cufl8 a9fOPsf] lyof] . sf7df08f}+df :jtGq gful/sx¿åf/f ;~rflnt cs'kfO{ afn'jf6f/ cleofg # dlxgf;Dd lg/Gt/ ¿kdf cufl8 a9]sf] lyof] . o;}u/L dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f lg/Gt/ ¿kdf a9bf] / o;k|lt ;/sf/sf] z'Go hjfkmb]xLtf /x]sf sf/0f dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu ;/sf/nfO{ lhDd]jf/ / hjfkmb]xL agfpg clwsf/sdL{, gful/s ;dfh / cleoGtfx¿af6 dlxnf lx+;fdf t'?Gt} Gofosf nflu kxn ug{ cljnDa Fast Track Court sf] Joj:yf u/L Gofo ;Dkfbg k|lqmofsf] t'?Gt yfngL u/L clxn];Dd 36]sf 36gfx¿sf] ^ dlxgfleqdf km};nf x'gkg]{, dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f cg';Gwfg, sf/jfxLsf] l;kmfl/; tyf sfg'g sfof{Gjog eP÷gePsf] cg'udg ug{ dlxnf clwsf/sdL{;lxt cljnDa s]Gb|b]lv :yfgLo :t/;Dd ;+oGq lgdf{0f ul/g'kg]{, lx+;f kLl8t÷k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] nflu ;fdflhs ;'/Iff, ;'/Iffjf;, lgz'Ns sfg'gL ;xof]u, kL8s w/f}6Ldf l/xf x'g] Joj:yfsf] vf/]hL, uf]kgLotfsf] ;+/If0f, ;fIfL ;'/Iffsf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ gLltsf] Joj:yf x'gkg]{, anfTsf/;DaGwL /x]sf] xfnsf] sfg'g t'?Gt vf/]h u/L gofF sfg'gsf] Joj:yf ul/g'kg]{ / n}lËs lx+;fsf] s;'/df s'g} klg kmf}hbf/L d'2f cleof]udf ;+nUg 7xl/Psf JolQm / lx+;f ug]{ JolQmnfO{ ;+/If0f lbg] /fhgLlts sfo{stf{x¿nfO{ lgjf{rgdf pDd]bjf/ x'g gkfpg] Joj:yf lgjf{rg;DaGwL cWofb]zdf Joj:yf ug'{kg]{ dfu /fvL sf7df08f}+ / cGo lhNnfdf @)&) a}zfv !^ utb]lv -x/]s xKtfsf] ;f]djf/ !@ ah]b]lv ! ah];Dd_ nuftf/ $ dlxgf;Dd wgf{ lbPsf lyP . wgf{;Fu} cleoGtfx¿n] k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/Ldfkm{t k|wfgdGqL tyf dGqLkl/ifbsf cWoIf / /fhgLlts kfl6{sf g]tfx¿nfO{ Wofgfsif{0f kq;d]t a'´fPsf lyP . ;fy} lhNnfdf klg dlxnf cleoGtfx¿n] k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/L / /fhlglts kfl6{x¿nfO{ a'´fPsf lyP . cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 19
  25. 25. ^= lx+;f kLl8t÷k|efljtx¿sf] nflu ;xof]uL ;+oGqsf] ljsf; tyf cfjZos ;xof]u dlxnfdfly x'g] ljleGg vfn] lx+;fx¿sf]lj?4df cfjfh p7fpgsf] nflu xf]; jf p7fO;s] kl5sf] cj:yfdf xf]; kLl8t tyf k|efljt dlxnfx¿ cem a9L hf]lvd tyf c;'/lIft cj:yfdf x'g] oyfy{tf xfdL ;a}nfO{ yfx 5 . of] ;dodf dlxnfnfO{ ;fdflhs dgf]ljdz{dfkm{t dfgl;s ;d:ofsf] lg/fs/0f ug'{sf ;fy} ;zQm agfpg] ;xof]uL jftfj/0fsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . oxL cfjZostfnfO{ dWogh/ u/L cf]/]s g]kfnn] @$ 306] x6nfOg ;]jf, % ljsf; If]qnfO{ dWogh/ u/L & j6f ;'/Iffaf; ;~rfng ub}{ cfO{/x]sf] 5 . ;'/Iffaf;df ;fdflhs dgf]ljdz{, k|fylds :jf:Yo pkrf/ / sfg'gL k/fdz{ tyf ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} ;Lk / Ifdtf clea[l4sf nflu tflndx¿, hLljsf]kfh{gsf nflu Jofj;flos ;Lk ljsf; / cfly{s ;xof]u, aflnsfx¿sf] nflu k9g ;xof]u ul/Psf] 5 . ;'/Iffjf;, sfg'gL ;xof]u tyf dgf]ljdz{ ;]jf o; jif{df #$# hgfnfO{ ;'/Iffjf;, !#@ hgfnfO{ :jf:Yo pkrf/, #&( hgfnfO{ dgf]ljdz{ ug'{sf ;fy} @$% hgfnfO{ sfg'gL ;xof]u ul/Psf] 5 . o; jif{df k9gsf] nflu -JTA tyf CLA nufot_ ^ hgfnfO{ ;xof]u ul/Psf] 5 . o;}u/L kfl/jfl/s dgf]ljdz{ !&@, kfl/jfl/s k'g{ldng @)# hgfnfO{ ul/Psf] 5 eg] !@) hgfsf] kmnf]ck ul/Psf] 5 . &# j6f 36gf cGo ;+:yfdf l/km/ ul/Psf] 5 . dlxnf x6nfO{g ;]jf lx+;f kLl8t tyf k|efljt dlxnfx¿nfO{ tTsfn ;xof]usf nflu ;xh xf]; eGg] p2]Zon] cf]/]s g]kfnn] @$ 306] dlxnf x6nfOg ;]jf ;~rfng ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . ljleGg :yfgaf6 k|efljt kLl8t dlxnfx¿n] cfjZos k/]df tTsfn ;xof]usf] nflu kmf]g ug]{, k/fdz{ lng] u/]sf 5g . o; jif{df sf7df08f}+df #* hgf df]/Ë !*# hgf, s}nfnLdf #$ hgf / bfËdf &) hgfn] u/L hDdf #@% j6f s]; x6nfOgdf l/kf]l6{Ë ePsf] 5 . l/kf]l6{ª ePsf s];df 3/]n' lx+;fsf s]; a9L /x]sf 5g . lrq @M ;'/Iffjf;, sfg'gL ;xof]u tyf dgf]ljdz{ ;]jf 20 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)
  26. 26. :yfgLo :t/df ;xof]uL ;+oGqsf] ljsf; sf]if :yfkgf M lg/Gt/ ¿kdf 36]sf dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿n] ubf{ dlxnf lx+;fsf] r/d cj:yf, ;dfhdf a9bf] cfk/flws k|j[lQ / /fHon] dlxnfsf] ;'/Iff / ;xof]usf] nflu u|fdL0f :t/;Dd ;xof]uL ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug{ g;ls/x]sf] ;dodf dlxnfx¿ cfkm}+ ;zQm ¿kdf cufl8 cfP/ lx+;f kLl8t÷k|efljt dlxnfx¿nfO{ cfjZos ;xof]u ug{ sf]if :yfkgf, ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;'/Iffjf; / l/km/n ;+oGqnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpFb} sfd ul//x]sf 5g . eP/ cufl8 hfg'kg]{df 5nkmn u/L z'l;nf rf}w/Lsf] ;+of]hsTjdf ( ;b:oLo ;f´f ;jfnsf nflu dlxnf Pstf d~r, l;/xf u7g ePsf] 5 . o;}u/L bfËdf lx+;f kLl8t÷k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] ;~hfn klxnf g} u7g eO{ ;+:yfut ¿kdf sfd ub}{ cfO/x]sf 5g eg] pbok'/, df]/Ë, ;'g;/Ldf ev{/ u7g ePsf 5g . cf]/]sn] ;~hfn u7g tyf ;'b[9Ls/0f / ;~hfnsf ;b:ox¿sf] Ifdtf clea[l4 ug{ ;xhLs/0f ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5. dlxnf lx+;flj?4 !^ lbg] cleofg M lx+;f k|efljtx¿sf] ;~hfn lgdf{0f M l;/xf lhNnfdf lx+;f kLl8t÷k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] Goflos k|lqmofdf kxF'r / :yfgLo :t/df pgLx¿sf] nflu ;xof]uL ;+oGq s:tf] 5 eGg] af/]df 5nkmn ub}{ l;/xf lhNnfsf @) uflj;af6 #) hgf lx+;f kLl8t tyf k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] pkl:yltdf cfˆgf] clwsf/sf nflu lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿ ;ªul7t ;d'bfo :t/b]lv /fli6«o :t/;Dd ;ªul7t ¿kdf dlxnf lx+;flj?4 cfjfh p7fpg tyf dlxnf lx+;flj?4 …z"Go ;xgzLntfÚ sfod ug{sf] nflu dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] !^ lbg] cleofgn] Ps O§f yk ug]{ sfd ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . x/]s jif{ dgfOg] of] cleofgn] g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df åGåsfn / zflGt lgdf{0f k|lqmofdf;d]t dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf] l:ylt / clxn]sf] b]zsf] kl/l:yltnfO{ s]lGb|t ub}{ dlxnf lx+;f cGTo ug]{ jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ clkn u/]sf] 5 . æljZjzflGtsf] ;'?jft 3/af6 M ;}GojfbnfO{ r'gf}tL lb+b} dlxnf lx+;f cGTo u/f}+Æ eGg] cGt/f{li6«o gf/fk|lt P]Soj4tf hgfpFb} cf]/]s g]kfnn] @)!@ df “dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu b]zdf zflGt M b]zdf zflGtsf nflu ;+ljwfg, ;+ljwfgsf nflu /fhgLlts kfl6{x¿nfO{ lhDd]jf/ agfpg xfd|f] ;xsfo{ ÛÛÚÆ eGg] gf/fsf ;fy dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu jf~5gLo /fhgLlts k|ltj4tfsf lgldQ bjfj l;h{gf ug]{, dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu cfd gful/sdf ;r]tgf clej[l4 ug]{, jif{e/L dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] æcGj]ifLÆ k|ltj]bgdfkm{t ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;dIf lx+;fsf] cj:yf phfu/ ug]{ / lx+;f cGTosf nflu ;/sf/, /fhgLlts kfl6{, gful/s ;dfh nufot ;anfO{ lhDd]jf/ agfpg], dlxnf dfgj cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 21
  27. 27. clwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] lgjf{x u/]sf] e"ldsfsf af/]df ;a}nfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpFb} pgLx¿sf] klxrfg / ;'/Iffsf nflu k}/jL ug]{ p2]Zo to u/L ljleGg ultljlwx¿ lhNnf / s]Gb|df ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . ;DkGg ePsf d'Vo sfo{qmdx¿ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * kqsf/ ;Dd]ng dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;flj?4 æ¥ofnL tyf sf]0f;efÆ ;"rgf ;fdu|L k|bz{gL dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] jflif{s k':ts, æcGj]ifLÆ sf] ljdf]rg / xfn;Dd dlxnf lx+;flj?4 ePsf sfo{qmdx¿sf] k|bz{gL dlxnf lx+;f / sfg'g sfof{Gjogsf] cj:yf ljifos cGt/lqmof zflGt lgdf{0f k|lqmofdf dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf ljifos cGt/lqmofÆ lszf]/Lx¿sf] of}g tyf k|hgg :jf:Yo clwsf/ M of}g lx+;fsf] k|efj, c;/x¿ tyf r'gf}tL ljifos /fli6«o ax; . dlxnfdfly x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf e]befj pGd"ng ug]{ dxf;lGw -l;8_ / dfgjclwsf/sf] ljZjJofkL cfjlws ;dLIff -o"lkcf/_ sf] pknlAwsf] af/]df 5nkmn Uf|fdL0f dlxnf lbj;sf] cj;/df ;Ddflgt u|fdL0f dlxnf clwsf/ /Ifsx¿nfO{ ;Ddfg sfo{qmd ;~rf/ dfWod / ;~rf/sdL{x¿nfO{ ;Ddfg sfo{qmd dlxnf zlxbx¿sf] tl:j/df bLk k|Hjng dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu /fhgLltsdL{ tyf ;~rf/sdL{ nufot ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu uf]i7L dlxnf dfjg clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] ;'/Iffsf nflu cfjZos ;+oGq ljsf;sf nflu cfjZos ;j]{If0f tyf 5nkmn dlxnfjfbL Ifdtf clej[l4 tflnd lnPsf ;xefuLx¿;Fu ;dLIff / cg'ej cfbfg k|bfg dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿nfO{ 36gf clen]vLs/0f;DaGwL k'gtf{hfuL tflnd 22 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)
  28. 28. * ablnbf] kl/l:yltdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] cj:yf / ;'/Iff ;+oGq ljifos k/fdz{ uf]i7L * cfktsflng cj:yfdf dfgjclwsf/sf] k|j4{g tyf ;+/If0f ljifos @ lbg] tflnd cGt/f{li6«o >lds dlxnf lbj; cGt/f{li6«o >lds dlxnf lbj; ljZjdf ePsf >lds dlxnfx¿sf] clwsf/sf] nflu ul/Psf 7"nf7"nf cfGbf]ngx¿sf] ;Demgf / ;Ddfgdf yfngL ePsf] xf] . !)# cf}+ cGt/fli6«o >lds dlxnf lbj; -*_ dfr{ o; jif{ ædlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu dlxnfsf] sfdsf] d"NofÍg / cfly{s clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttfÆ eGg] cGt/ f{li6«o gf/fsf;fy g]kfndf ……s'/f xf]O{g sfd u/f}+ dlxnf lx+;f cGTo u/f}+ ÚÚ eGg] gf/fsf;fy s]Gb| tyf lhNnfdf tn lbOPsf ljljw sfo{qmdx¿ u/L dgfOPsf] lyof] . * ¥ofnL, sf]0f;ef * ;8s gf6s, * cled'vLs/0f, cGt/lqmof, ax; * tflnd, uf]i7L * ;f+:s[lts sfo{qmd !)# cf}+ cGt/f{li6«o lbj;sf] cj;/df pbok'/n] dlxnfx¿sf] sfdsf] d"NofÍg, cfly{s clwsf/ ;'lglZrttf / dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf] nflu pbok'/ 3f]if0ff kq hf/L u/]sf] lyof] . dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf] nflu hf/L ul/Psf] pbok'/ 3f]if0ff kqdf $ j6f /fhgLlts bnsf k|ltlglwx¿n] x:tfIf/ u/L k|ltj4tf hgfPsf lyP . cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 23
  29. 29. -v_ ! 24 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] cleofg
  30. 30. dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] cleofg ædlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] cleofgÆ dlxnf clwsf/sdL{sf] ;fd"lxs cfjfh xf] . of] dlxnf clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] ;ª3if{ / k|ltj4tfsf] ;ªul7t sfo{tflnsf jf sfo{of]hgf klg xf] . of] ;ªu7g geP/ zlQm xf], k|lqmof geP/ kl/0ffddf k'Ug] dfu{lrq xf] . of] cleofg cGTf/f{li6«o :t/df ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ub}{ /fli6«o ¿kdf ;zQm ¿kdf cufl8 al9/x]sf] 5 . ;b[9Ls/0f, ;~hfnsf ;b:ox¿sf] Ifdtf clea[l4, dlxnf dfgj clwsf//Ifsx¿sf] ;'/Iff / klxrfgsf] ;jfndf k}/jL ug]{ sfo{ ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . ;'?sf jif{x¿df cf]/]sn] ;xhLs/0f u/]tf klg xfn cfP/ cf]/]s / dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] /fli6«o ;~hfnsf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df of] cleofgnfO{ cufl8 a9fOPsf] 5 . ;~hfnsf] ;+:yfut ljsf; / ;'b[9Ls/0f cleofgsf] cj:yf ædlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] cleofgÆ dlxnfclwsf/ sdL{sf] ;fd"lxs cfjfhsf] ¿kdf /fli6«o :t/b]lv lhNnf uflj;:t/;Dd ;dGjo / ;xsfo{sf] jftfj/0f tof/ ub}{ /fli6«o:t/df / lhNNff:t/df /x]/ sfd ug]{ clwsf/sdL{x¿sf] ;+:yfut ;+/rgfsf] ¿kdf /fli6«o ;~hfn, lhNnf ;~hfn lj:tf/ / ;'b[9Ls/0f ub}{ cufl8 al9/x]sf] 5 . of] cleofgn] xfn &% lhNnfdf lhNnf:t/Lo ;~hfn, ljsf; If]qLo / /fli6«o ;~hfnsf] ;+/rgfx¿ tof/ u/L ;~hfnsf] ;:yfut ljsf; tyf dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] /fli6«o ;~hfn / lhNnf :t/Lo ;~hfnx¿sf] ;+:yfut ljsf; / ;'b[9Ls/0fsf nflu lg/Gt/ ¿kdf a}7s a:g], 5nkmn ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . ;~hfnn] of]hgf th'{df sfd ug]{ / k|ult ;dLIffsf] sfdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lb+b} cfO/x]sf] 5 . /fli6«o ;~hfnsf] /0fg}lts of]hgf th'{dfsf] cfwf/df lhNnf ;~hfnx¿n] klg /0fgLlt tof/ ul//x]sf] 5g . ;~hfnnfO{ c´ ;+:yfut ug{ x/]s jif{df ;fwf/0f;ef ug]{ / # jif{df gofF g]t[Tj rog ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 25
  31. 31. dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿nfO{ cled'vLs/0f dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifs ;~hfnsf ;b:ox¿nfO{ dfgj clwsf/ / dlxnf clwsf/sf] af/]df c´ a9L hfgsf/L lng] lbg] p2]Zon] /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o sfg'g tyf ;+oGqx¿sf] af/]df &$ lhNnfdf cled'vLs/0f ul/Psf] 5 . cled'vLs/0fdf hDdf @@($ hgf dlxnf clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ cled'vLs/0f o;}u/L lhNnfsf k|d'v ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿ k|x/L, jlsn / ;~rf/sdL{x¿nfO{ dlxnf clwsf/ / dfgj clwsf/ / kLl8t k|efljt;Fu ug'{kg]{ Jojxf/sf] af/]df @) lhNnfdf cled'vLs/0f ul/Psf] lyof] . h;df ^$) hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . ;Dj]bgzLn eP/ nfUg' kg]{df bjfa lbg] p2]Zon] @) lhNnfdf cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd ul/Psf] lyof] h;df ^@) hgfsf] pkl:ylt /x]sf] lyof] . g]t[Tjdf /x]sf dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf kl/jf/sf ;b:ox¿nfO{ n}lËs lae]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f / dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] e"ldsfsf] af/]df 5nkmn dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] ub}{ cfO/x]sf] dxŒjk"0f{ lqmofsnfkx¿ / of]ubfgsf] af/]df pgLx¿sf kl/jf/sf ;b:ox¿;Fu 5nkmn u/L kl/jf/sf ;b:ox¿n] clwsf/ /Ifs dlxnfx¿n] ub}{ cfPsf] sfdsf] ;/fxgf ub}{ pgLx¿nfO{ ;xof]u u?g eGg] p2]Zon] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] kl/jf/sf ;b:ox¿ tyf >Ldfgx¿;Fu of] sfo{qmd wgs'6f / cf]vn9'+ufdf ul/Psf] lyof] . h;df *$ hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . lhNnfdf dlxnf dfgclwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] cj:yf ;d:of / r'gf}tL laifos ! lbg] 5nkmn tyf ;dLIff sfo{qmd ;/f]sf/jfnf;Fu ;dGj a}7s ^% lhNnfx¿df dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] sfd ubf{ ´]Ng' k/]sf ;d:of tyf r'gf}tLx¿ / o;sf] ;dfwfgsf] nflu ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu 5nkmn u/L ;xof]uL jftfj/0f tof/ ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmof dlxnf lx+;flj?4 g]kfn ;/sf/sf] /fli6«o of]hgf, dfgj clwsf/sf] of]hgf nufot xfn eO/x]sf] sfg'g, gLlt lgodx¿sf] sfof{Gjogsf] cj:yfnfO{ lnP/ dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] lhNnf tyf /fli6«o ;~hfnn] ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu of]hgf gLlt, lgodx¿sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog / lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfsf] Gofosf] nflu ;a} 26 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f /f]syfdsf] nflu ;+o'Qm ¿kdf sfd ug]{ / dlxnf clwsf/sf] nflu sfo{/t dlxnf clwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] :yfgLo :t/df ;'/Iff ;+oGqsf] ljsf;sf] nflu 5nkmn ug]{ p2]Zon] @^ lhNnfdf dlxnf lx+;fsf s]; p7fg ubf{ clwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] v]Kg'k/]sf] r'gf}tLsf af/]df ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpFb} ;'/Iff ;+oGq ljsf;sf nflu k/fdz{ u/]sf lyP . ;d:of / r'gf}tLx¿nfO{ ljZn]if0f u/] kZrft ;'/Iff ;+oGq alnof] / ;xof]uL jftfj/0f gePdf dlxnf clwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] dlxnf lx+;flj?4 sfd ug{ ;Sg] jftfj/0f klg gx'g] ePsfn] pgLx¿sf] ;'/Iff / lx+;flj?4sf] ;xsfo{df P]Soj4tfsf nflu ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿ ;Dj]bgzLn /xg'sf ;fy} k|ltj4 /xg] lgisif{ lgsflnPsf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf (!) hgfsf] pkl:ylt /x]sf] lyof] . o;} u/L lhNnf :t/af6 cfPsf] ;'´fj / lgisif{nfO{ s]lGb|o :t/df ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sfaLr 5nkmn u/L dlxnf clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] ;'/Iffsf] ;+oGq lgdf{0fsf
  32. 32. nflu k}/jL ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm sfo{qmddf !*& hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu :yfgLo :t/df dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] ckgfPsf pkfox¿ ljifos sfof{zfnf uf]i7L dlxnf clwsf/ ;'lglZrttf, dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f cGTo / cfˆgf] ;'/Iffsf nflu dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] lg/Gt/ ¿kdf k}/jL ul//x]sf 5g . pgLx¿n] dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu :yfgLo :t/df g} ;xsfo{ / ;dGo lj:tf/ u/L lx+;f kLl8t tyf k|efljt dlxnfx¿nfO{ cfjZostf cg';f/ ;xof]u ub}{ cfPsf 5g . of] sfo{nfO{ cem k|efjsf/L agfpg :yfgLo :t/df cEof; ul/Psf ;+oGqx¿sf] af/]df cg'ej cfbfg–k|bfg ug]{ / s:tf pkfox¿ cjnDag ubf{ dlxnf lx+;f cGTo x'g ;S5g eg] ljifodf 5nkmn ug{], 5nkmnaf6 cfPsf] lgisif{sf] cfwf/df ;'/Iff ;+oGqsf nflu /0fgLlt to ug{], dlxnf lx+;flj?4 sfo{/t ;a} tx / tKsfdf /x]sf dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifs / dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿aLrsf] P]Soa4tf ;'b[9 ug]{ p2]Zo /fvL ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu ædlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu :yfgLo :t/df dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] ckgfPsf pkfox¿Æ ljifos sfof{zfnf uf]i7L gf]e]Da/ @^ / @& df sf7df08f}+df cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . !@% hgf eGbf a9Lsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] pQm sfo{qmddf %) lhNnfx¿af6 dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] pkl:ylt /x]sf] lyof] . k|x/L k|d'vx¿;Fu cGt/lqmof a9b} uPsf] dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] /f]syfdsf / kLl8tsf] Gofosf] nflu k|x/Ln] pQm 36gfsf] 5fgljg ug{ k|efjsf/L / b|'t cg';Gwfg k|lqmofnfO{ cufl8 a9fpg'kg]{ ;fy} lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx¿ k|x/L sfof{nodf hfFbf n}+lËs ;Dj]bgzLn Jojxf/ ul/g'kg]{ / 36gf btf{ x'g'kg]{ ;jfnx¿nfO{ lnP/ g]kfn k|x/Lsf k|x/L k|d'vx¿ /fh axfb'/ lai6, b'uf{ l;+x, s[i0f uf}td nufotsf clws[tx¿;Fu sf7df08f}+df cGt/lqmof ul/Psf] lyof] . Ifdtf clea[l4sf] nflu tflnd dfgj clwsf/ ;+/If0f tyf k|j4{gsf nflu ag]sf /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o b:tfj]hx¿sf ljifodf dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿nfO{ !) lbg] k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd dlxnfdfgjclwsf/ clwsf/ /Ifsx¿nfO{ !) lbg] k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd @)^( r}q @! b]lv #) ut];Dd sfe|]knf~rf]s lhNnfsf] kfTn]v]t uflj;df ;DkGg ePsf] lyof]. klZrdf~rn, dWoklZrdf~rn / ;'b"/ klZrdf~rn ljsf; If]qsf !$ lhNnfsf @# hgf dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] pQm tflnddf dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf] /fli6«o ;~hfnsf cWoIf 8f=/]0f' /fhe08f/L, 8f= g]q ltlD;gf, clwjQmf OGb' t'nfw/, ;l/tf bxfn, /rgf >]i7, nIdL Gof}kfg] / ;'wf sfkmn]n] ;xhLs/0f ug'{ePsf] lyof] . tflndsf] cGTodf ;xefuLx¿n] cfkm"n] l;s]sf s'/fx¿nfO{ cf— cfˆgf] lhNnfdf sfof{Gjog ug]{ p2]Zon] of]hgf tof/ u/]sf lyP . cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 27
  33. 33. dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿nfO{ n}lËs lae]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f;DaGwL # tflnd dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿df n}lËs lae]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f / dflxnf clwsf/;DaGwL wf/0ffut :k:6tf u/fpg] p2]Zon] vf]6fË lhNnfdf lhNnf ;~hfnsf ;b:ox¿nfO{ n}lËs lae]bdf cfwfl/t lx+;f;DaGwL # lbg] tflnd ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . h;df #@ hgf dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . sfo{lalw sfg'g;DaGwL cled'vLs/0f ÷ tflnd @ lbg] dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifs lhNnf ;~hfnsf ;b:ox¿nfO{ dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿df sfg'gL k|lqmofdf cufl8 a9bf s;/L hfg' kb{5 / xfn dlxnfsf ;DaGwdf ag]sf sfg'gx¿ s] s] 5g eGg] af/]df Jojxfl/s hfgsf/L u/fpg] p2]Zon] ef]hk'/, vf]6fË, t]x|y'd / cf]vn9'+ufdf lhNnf af/;Fusf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df @ lbg] cled'vLs/0f tflnd ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . h;df !$@ hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . 36gf clen]lvs/0f;DaGwL % lbg] tflnd dfgjclwsf/ xgg tyf dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ dlxnfd'vL b[li6sf]0faf6 laZn]if0f u/L clen]vLs/0f ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug]{ / clen]lvs/0f ul/Psf 36gfx¿nfO{ Gofo k|flKt ug{ k}/jLsf] nflu ;fdu|Lsf] ¿kdf k|of]u ug{ cfwf/ tof/ ug]{ p2]Zon] )&) h]7 @& ut]b]lv #! ut];Dd dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿sf nflu dlxnfd'vL b[li6sf]0faf6 dfgj clwsf/ xggsf 36gf clen]vLs/0f laifos wf/0ffut :ki6tf tflnd % lbg] bfËsf] ;fd'bflos tflnd s]Gb|df ;DkGg ul/Psf] 5 . k"jf{~rn, klZrdf~rn / dWo klZdf~rn lasf; If]qsf !) lhNnfsf dlxnf dfgj clwsf/sdL{x¿ @$ hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] o; tflnddf cf]/]ssf kfj{tL a:g]t, ?kf >]i7 / dfgj clwsf/ cfof]usf If]qLo ;+of]u s[i0fd'/f/L v/]nn] ;xhLs/0f ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿nfO{ 36gf clen]vLs/0f;DaGwL @ lbg] k'gtf{huL Tfflnd 36gf clen]vLs/0fnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfO{ dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] cGTosf nflu tYodf cfwfl/t k}/jL ug{sf nflu cf]/]s g]kfnn] nfdf] ;dob]lv dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] 36gfx¿sf] clen]lvs/0f ub{} cfPsf] 5 . cf]/]s g]kfnn] ;d'bfodf lqmofzLn dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿ tyf ;d'bfodf lqmofzLn dlxnf tyf o'jfx¿nfO{ 36gf clen]vLs/0fsf] tflnd lbO{ a]nfa]nfdf k'gtf{huL tflnd klg ;~rfng ub{} cfPsf] 5 . cf]/]s g]kfnn] xfn ;lqmo ¿kdf clen]vg u/L ;xof]u ug{] clen]vgstf{x¿nfO{ !^ lbg] cleofgsf] cj;/df @^–@& l8;]Da/, @)!@ df sf7df8f}+sf] ;fkm kmfNrfdf 36gf clen]vLs/0f k'gtf{huL tflnd ;DkGg u/]s]f 5 . clen]vLs/0f ubf{ cfO{kg{] ;d:of tyf r'gf}tLx¿sf] af/]df 5nkmn u/L To;sf] ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿sf] vf]hL ug{] / clen]vLs/0fsf nflu clen]vgstf{nfO{ yk 1fg tyf ;Lksf] af/]df hfgsf/L lbg] d'Vo p2]Zosf ;fy o; k'g/tf{huL tflndsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . 36gf clen]vLs/0f k'gtf{huL tflnddf ljz]ifu/L 36gf clen]vLs/0fsf pknAwLx¿, r'gf}tLx¿, cfjZos ;xof]ux¿ / ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿sf af/]df, s]z p7fg ubf{ cfO{kg{] sfg'gL Jojwfgx¿ / ;'/Iffsf ;jfndf s]lGb|t /x]/ pQm tflnd ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . 28 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)
  34. 34. -v_ @ dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f sfo{qmd cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 29
  35. 35. dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f sfo{qmd dlxnfx¿nfO{ cfˆgf] clwsf/ k|flKtsf] nflu tyf cfkm"lj?4 x'g] lx+;f cGTosf] nflu ;ªul7t tyf kl/rfng ug]{ / ;dfg p2]Zo ePsf :yfgLob]lv cGt/f{li6«o :t/;Ddsf ;+:yfx¿ tyf ;~hfnx¿;Fu ;xsfo{ ug]{ /0fgLlt cg'?k dlxnfsf] clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu cf]/]sn] dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] cleofg / cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ cleofg cGtu{t ;~rfng ul/g] ultljlwx¿ dlxnfsf] ;fdflhs, /fhg}lts / cfly{s ;zQmLs/0fsf] nflu s]lGb|t ul/Psf 5g . ljsf;sf nflu ;xhLs/0f / Ifdtf clea[l4sf] If]qdf sfd ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . xfn cf]/]sn] tn pNn]lvt ;d"x tyf ;~hfnx¿;Fusf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] cleofgnfO{ cufl8 a9fpFb} cfO/x]sf] 5 . tflnsf g= @ cf]/]sn] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ u/]sf lhNnf :t/Lo ;d"x tyf ;~hfnx¿ lhNnf j8f :t/Lo ;d"x ;b:o ;+Vof df]/Ë @*& %@%@ ;'g;/L pbok'/ l;/xf wg'iff bfË hDdf !*) @** $@ !^@ *$ !)$# $!)! $$(^ &@^ @%(& !$#! !*^)# p2]Zox¿ ;d'bfosf dlxnfx¿sf]] ;fd"lxs g]t[Tj ljsf; ub}{ ;+:yfut ljsf;sf nflu ;xhLs/0f ug]{ . ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx¿sf] :yfgLo tyf /fli6«o ;|f]tsf] ;+:yfut ¿kdf Joj:yfkg tyf k"0f{ kl/rfng ug{ Ifdtf clea[l4sf nflu ;xhLs/0f ug]{ . ;~hfn la:tf/, ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ug{ ;xhLs/0f ug]{ . dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf] nflu cf]/]s g]kfnn] dfly pNn]v u/] h:t} ljleGg dfWodaf6 sfd ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . ;fy} ;d"x, ;ªu7gx¿sf] lgdf{0f, ;'b[9Ls/0f / ;+:yfut lrq #M dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf] nflu ljleGg dfWod 30 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) uf=lj=; ;b:o :t/Lo dlxnf ;+Vof ;fd'bflos ;+:yf @( %%( !* !) * !^ % *^ #$# (% !*% @($ &! !%$& * j8f :t/Lo dlxnf tyf lszf]/L ;d"x M !)$# * uf=lj=; :t/Lo dlxnf ;fd'bflos ;+:yf M *^ j6f * lhNnf :t/Lo dlxnf ;fd'bflos ;+:yf M @ j6f cf]/]sn] ;d'bfo :t/b]lv g} ;fd"lxs dlxnf g]t[Tj ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff cg'¿k dlxnf tyf lszf]/Lx¿sf] Ifdtf clej[l4sf] nflu ;xhLs/0f ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . cf]/]sn] ljleGg ;~hfn / ;d"xdf cfj4 em08}+ @)!%) eGbf a9L dlxnf / lszf]/Lx¿;Fusf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df :yfgLo :t/b]lv s]Gb|;Dd ljleGg ultljlwx¿ ;~rfng ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . o;}u/L dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx¿, dfgj clwsf/sdL{x¿;Fusf] ;xsfo{ / ;dGjodf dlxnfsf] dfgj clwsf/sf] ;Dj4{g / k|j4{gsf nflu sfd ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 .
  36. 36. * * * ;d"x ;~hfn lj:tf/ tyf ;'b[9Ls/0fsf] nflu ;xhLs/0f tflndx¿ ;+:yfsf] /0fg}lts of]hgf, jflif{s of]hgf tof/ ug{ ;xhLs/0f ;fd'bflos ;+:yf tyf ;~hfnx¿sf] cj:yf cf]/]sn] ljutsf jif{b]lv lg/Gt/ ¿kdf pbok'/df !) j6f dlxnf ;fd'bflos ;+:yf;Fu ;f´]bf/L ¿kdf ljleGg sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ub}{ cfO/x]sf] l:ylt lyof] . cf]/]ssf] cfˆgf] /0fgLlt cg';f/ xfn cfP/ ;a} sfo{qmd / :yfgLo ;+/rgfx¿ ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx¿nfO{ x:tfGt/0f ul/;s]sf] 5 . k|d'v ¿kdf cf]/]sn] ;fd'bflos ;+:yfsf] cg'bfg h'6fpg], ;+:yfut ;'b[9Ls/0f / ;DalGwt ;+:yfgx¿;Fusf] ;Dks{ a9fpg, ;+:yfsf ;b:ox¿sf] Ifdtf clea[l4sf] nflu ;xhLs/0f ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 eg] cGo lhNnfx¿df ;+:yfsf ;b:ox¿sf] Ifdtf clea[l4 / ;DalGwt ;+:yfx¿;Fusf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ a9fpg a9L ;xhLs/0f ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . ;|f]tsf] ;d'lrt kl/rfng / Joj:yfkg ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtf clea[l4sf] nflu klg ;xhLs/0f ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . ;du|df ljleGg lhNnfdf u7g ePsf dlxnf ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx¿sf] sfd ug]{ Ifdtf, g]t[Tj / ;+:yfut klxrfg km/s km/s /x]sf] 5 eg] Pp6} lhNnfdf klg ;+:yfx¿ km/s km/s :t/sf 5g . ;+:yfx¿n] dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] cleofgnfO{ cfTd;ft u/L :j:km"t{ ¿kdf :yfgLo :t/df r]tgf clea[l4, lx+;fsf 36gfdf lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfsf] nflu cfjZos ;xof]uL ;+oGqsf] ljsf; / cfjZos ;xof]u ug'{sf ;fy} bjfjd"ns sfo{x¿ ub}{ cfO/x]sf 5g . :yfgLo ;|f]tsf] klxrfg u/L kl/rfng ug{ ;Ifd ePsf 5g . ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx¿ lhNnf :t/;Ddsf] g]t[Tj lnO{ sfo{qmd ug{ k|of; ul//x]sf 5g . pgLx¿ cfˆgf] clwsf/ k|flKtsf] nflu tyf cfkm"lj?4 x'g] lx+;fsf] lj?4df ;ªul7t eO{ cfjfh p7fpg ;Ifd ePsf 5g . ;sf/fTds kIfx¿ * * * * * dlxnfx¿sf] ;fd'lxs g]t[Tjsf] ljsf; x'g'sf ;fy} g]t[Tjtxdf ;xeflutf a9]sf] 5 . s]Gb|b]lv lhNnf :t/df ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿n] pgLx¿sf] ;fdflhs / /fhgLlts g]t[TjnfO{ kTofPsf]÷l:jsf/]sf] cj:yf . :yfgLo ;|f]t ;fwgdf dlxnf ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx¿sf] kxF'r / lgoGq0f a9b} uO/x]sf] 5 / :yfgLo :t/sf ljleGg ;d"x ;ldltdf ;dfj]lztfsf] cfwf/df dlxnf ;xeflutf klg a[l4 ePsf] 5 . uf=lj=;= ;Fusf] ;f´]bf/LnfO{ lg/Gt/ ¿kdf cufl8 a9fpg ;Ifd ePsf 5g . ;jfnnfO{ cfTd;ft u/L d'2fdf ;ªul7t ¿kdf sfd ub}{ cfO/x]sf 5g . lhNnfb]lv s]Gb|Lo :t/;Dddf ljleGg ;~hfnx¿;Fu ;dGjo a9fpFb} cfˆgf d'2fx¿sf] p7fg ug{ lqmofzLn /x]sf 5g . cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 31
  37. 37. -u_ 32 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ cleofg
  38. 38. cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ cleofg ;+o'Qm / fi6« ;ª3åf/ f dfgj clwsf/ sf] ljZjJofkL 3f] if0ffkqdf s] lGb|t x'Fb} tof/ ePsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ ;DaGwL k|lt1fkq !(^^ cg'df] bgsf] nflu NofOof] / sfg'gL :j¿k lbOof] . To;nfO{{ g] kfn ;/ sf/ n] klg cg'df] bg ul/ ;s] sf] ] 5 . x/ ] s gful/ sn] :jtGqtfk"j{s cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, gful/ s / / fhgLlts clwsf/ x¿sf] pkef] u ug{ kfPsf] cj:yfdf dfq dfgj clwsf/ sf] k|Tofe"lt x'g ;Sb5 . gful/ ssf] hLljsf] kfh{g;Fu ;DalGwt clwsf/ x¿ cfly{s clwsf/ x'g . ;dfhsf] ;b:osf] x} l;otn] x/ ] s JolQmn] kfpg'kg] { clwsf/ x¿ ;fdflhs clwsf/ x'g eg] JolQmn] hLljsf] kfh{gsf] qmddf xfl;n u/ ] sf] 1fg, snf / cg'ej;Fu ;DalGwt clwsf/ x¿ ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ x'g . dfgj clwsf/ sf] ljZjJofkL 3f] if0ffkqsf] wf/ f @% df k|To] s JolQmnfO{ p;sf] / p;sf] kl/ jf/ sf] vfgf, sk8f, 3/ tyf cf} ifwf] krf/ sf ;'ljwfx¿ / cfjZostf cg';f/ sf] ;fdflhs ;] jfx¿;lxt :t/ o'Qm hLjgofkg ug{] clwsf/ 5 eGg] s'/ f pNn] v ul/ Psf] 5 . oL clwsf/ x¿sf] cefjdf gful/ s / / fhg} lts clwsf/ k"0f{ x'g ;Sb} g eGg] dfGotfn] cf] / ] sn] cfly{{s, ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ cleofg ;~rfng ub} { cfO/ x] sf] 5 . o; cleofg cGtu{t ljz] ifu/ L dlxnfsf] :jf:Yo clwsf/ , vfB clwsf/ / ;'/ lIft :yfgfudsf] clwsf/ nfO{ s] lGb|t u/ L ljleGg sfo{qmdx¿ :yfgLo :t/ b] lv g} ;~rfng ul/ / x] sf] 5 . oL clwsf/ x¿ ;'lglZrt ePdf dfq dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f sd x'G5 eGg] cf] / ] ssf] dfGotf / x] sf] 5 . cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 33
  39. 39. -u_ ! 34 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) lbuf] hLljsf]kfh{gsf] nflu lbuf] s[lif tyf k|fs[lts ;|f]t Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd
  40. 40. lbuf] hLljsf]kfh{gsf] nflu lbuf] s[lif tyf k|fs[lts ;|ft Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd ] hldg g] kfnsf] cfly{s zlQm s] Gb|sf] ¿kdf / xFb} cfPsf] 5 . hldg nufot hn, h+un h:tf k|fs[lts ;|f] tsf] c;dfg ljt/ 0fsf sf/ 0f JolQm JolQmaLr ;fdflhs, cfly{s / / fhg} lts c;dfgtf a9b} uPsf] kfOG5 . g] kfnsf] 7"nf] hg;+Vof of] ;|f] taf6 6f9f / x] sf] 5 eg] ;fgf] ;d"xsf] dfq} o;dfly lgoGq0f / x] sf] 5 . To;} n] oxL ;fgf] ;d"x cfly{s, ;fdflhs / / fhg} lts zlQm s] Gb|sf] ¿kdf :yflkt eO/ x] sf] cj:yf 5 . o;af6 g] kfnsf ax';Vos ;fgf ls;fg, dlxnf, blnt + / l;dfGts[t ;d"xx¿ k|fs[lts ;|f] tx¿sf] pkef] u / lg0f{o ug] { clwsf/ af6 al~rt x'Fb} cfO/ x] sf 5g . ls;fgx¿ Psflt/ k/ Dk/ fut s[lif k|0ffnL / cfsfz] v] tLdf e/ kg'{ kg] { / csf] {lt/ hldgdfly clwsf+z s[ifsx¿sf] :jfldTj gePsf sf/ 0f hLljsf] kfh{gnfO{{ ;xh / lbuf] agfpg sl7gfO{ eO/ x] sf] 5 . k|To] s JolQmnfO{ cfjZostf cg';f/ kf] if0fo'Qm vfBj:t'sf] cfk"lt{ g} vfB ;'/ Iff xf] . :jR5 hLjg tyf dfgj ljsf;sf] nflu vfB ;'/ Iff clgjfo{ zt{ xf] . o; sf/ 0f vfB;'/ IffnfO{ dfgj clwsf/ sf] cleGg cËsf] ¿kdf lnOG5 . o;} sf/ 0fn] vfBsf] clwsf/ sf] ljifo ;|f] t ljlxg afnaflnsf, dlxnf tyf lk5l8Psf / ;LdfGts[t ;d'bfosf clwsf/ sf] ljifo;Fu ;+w} hf] l8P/ cfpg] ljifo xf] . ;+o'Qm / fi6« ;ª3sf] vfB tyf s[lif ;ªu7gsf] egfO{ cg';f/ clxn] klg ljZjdf ! c/a eGbf a9L dflg;x¿ ef] sd/ L tyf s'kf] if0fsf] lzsf/ x'g] u/ ] sf 5g . logdf klg ul/ a tyf ljkGg ju{sf JolQmx¿ g} o;sf] lzsf/ x'g] s'/ f pQm ;ªu7gn] :ki6 kf/ ] sf] 5 . hg;+Vofsf] rfk;Fu} vfBfGgsf] dfu klg a9bf] 5 . cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 35
  41. 41. a9bf] dfusf] k"lt{ ug{ lbuf] s[lif k|0ffnL / l;+rfO{sf] ljsf; ug{ cfjZos x'G5 . xfd|f] b] zdf a9L pTkfbg lngsf] nflu ljb] zL ljsf;] aLp, cToflws / f;folgs ljifflb / / f;folgs dnsf] k|of] u eO/ x] sf] kfOG5 . o;n] Psflt/ df6f] sf] pj{/ f zlQmdf x|f; NofO/ x] sf] 5 eg] csf] {lt/ h} ljs ljljwtf gi6 x'Fb} uO/ x] sf] 5 . ;fy} o;n] ubf{ dflg;sf] :j:y jftfj/ 0fdf afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ / :j:y vfgf vfg kfpg] clwsf/ sf] ;d] t xgg eO/ x] sf] 5 . log} s'/ fx¿nfO{{ dWogh/ u/ L cf] / ] sn] cfly{s, ;fdflhs clwsf/ cleofgleq lbuf] hLljsf] kfh{gsf nflu s[lif, ;|f] t ljsf; tyf Joj:yfkg sfo{qmdd ;~rfng ub} { cfO/ x] sf] 5 . of] sfo{qmd cGtu{t s[lif k|ljlwaf6 jftfj/ 0f, dfgj :jf:Yo / df6f] sf] pj{/ f zlQmdf k|lts"n c;/ kg{ glbO{ nlIft uflj;sf ls;fgx¿sf] hLljsf] kfh{gnfO{{ ;xh / lbuf] agfpg yk 6] jf k'¥ofpg] p2] Zon] pbok'/ , l;/ xf / bfªdf ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLnfO{{ k|a4{g ug] { sfd ub} { cfPsf] 5 . lglb{i6 p2]Zox¿ /0fg}lts d'2f ;DkGg ultljlwx¿ dlxnfsf] vfB ;+k|e"tf / dlxnfsf] e"lddflysf] clwsf/ . d'Vo p2]Zox¿ h} ljs ljljwtfsf] ;+/ If0f / k|j4{g ug] { . k|fs[lts ;|f] tdfly e"ldxLgx¿sf] clwsf/ nfO{ ;'lglZrt ug{ k} / jL ug] { . e"ldsf] pTkfbsTjdf a[l4 ug] { . blnt tyf ;LdfGts[t ;d'bfosf] ;fd'bflos ;zQmLs/ 0f / ;fd"lxs g] t[Tj ljsf; ug{ ;xhLs/ 0f ug] { . ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLdf cfwfl/ t kof{j/ 0fLo ufFp -Osf] len] h_ x¿sf] lgdf{0fdf ;xhLs/ 0f tyf ;xof] u k'¥ofpg] . 36 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLdfkm{t lhljsf] kfh{gsf] ;'lglZrttfsf] nflu k} / jL ug] { . Dflxnfsf] vfB clwsf/ ;'lglZrttfsf] nflu k} / jL ug] { . :yfgLo ;|f] t, aLp lahg, h} ljs ljljwtf, df} lns 1fg / k|ljlwsf] ;+/ If0f ug{ ;xhLs/ 0f tyf k} / jL ug] { . e"ldxLg dlxnf, blnt / k5fl8 kfl/ Psf] ;d'bfosf] hLljsf] kfh{gsf] nflu cfjZos ;|f] tsf] vf] hL] / To;df pgLx¿sf] kx'FrnfO{ ;'lglZrt ug{ ;xhLs/ 0f tyf k} / jL] ug] { . s[ifs clwsf/ sf] ;'lglZrttfsf] nflu ;~hfn lj:tf/ tyf Ifdtf clea[l4 ug{ ;xhLs/ 0f ug] { . gd'gf kof{j/ 0fLo ufFp tof/ ug{ ;xhLs/ 0f ug] { . cled'vLs/0f s[ifsx¿nfO{ s[ifs clwsf/ , vfB clwsf/ , s/ ] ;faf/ L, a] df} ;dL t/ sf/ L pTkfbg, ;3g h} ljs v] tL, / f] u ls/ f klxrfg / To;sf] Joj:yfkg, :yfgLo aLp lahgsf] ;+/ If0f, h} ljs ljljwtf, jftfj/ 0f / :jf:Yo clwsf/ , cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ , sDkf] i6 dn,
  42. 42. Rofp v] tL, 3/ ] n' ljiffbL] , hnjfo' kl/ jt{g, kz' :jf:Yo nufotsf ljifodf hfgsf/ L lbO{ ;';"lrt u/ fpg] p2] Zon] o; jif{df pbok'/ , l;/ fxf, wg'iff, df] / Ë, ;'g;/ L / bfË lhNnfdf @!* j6f cled'vLs/ 0f ;DkGg ul/ Psf] 5 . h;df dlxnf $#@! hgf / k'?if !$$& hgf u/ L hDdf %&^* hgfsf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . ul/ Psf] lyof] . ls;fgx¿nfO{ ahf/ Joj:yfkg, t/ sf/ L v] tLdf k|j4{g ug{ tyf hnjfo' kl/ jt{g / o;sf] c;/ ;fy} ljiffbLo'Qm vfg] s'/ f / :jf:Yo ;d:of nufotsf ;jfndf lj:t[t ¿kdf hfgsf/ L tyf cg'ej cfbfg k|bfg ug'{sf ;fy} cfufdL lbgdf ax'kIfLo ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx¿aLr ;xsfo{nfO{ a9fpg ul/ Psf] 5nkmndf !(% k'?if / #(! dlxnf u/ L hDdf %*^ hgfsf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . s[ifs kf7zfnf ;~rfng s[ifsx¿nfO{ s[lif k|ljlwsf] af/ ] df hfgsf/ L u/ fpg] , pTkfbg u/ ] sf] afnL tyf t/ sf/ Lsf] / ] s8{ Jojl:yt ug] { / s[lif ;d:ofnfO{ ;'Nemfpg s[ifsx¿nfO{ PsLs[t zq'hLj Joj:yfkg k|ljlwaf6 hfgsf/ L lbg] p2] Zon] o;jif{df df] / Ëdf ! :yfg, l;/ xfdf @ :yfgdf u/ L # :yfgdf s[ifs kf7zfnf ;~rfng ul/ Psf] lyof] . ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmof e"ldxLg dlxnf, blnt / k5fl8 kfl/ Psf] ;d'bfosf] hLljsf] kfh{gsf] nflu cfjZos ;|f] t / To;df pgLx¿sf] kx'Fr tyf lgoGq0f, :yfgLo ;|f] t, aLp lahg, h} ljs ljljwtfsf] ;+/ If0f, Joj;flos t/ sf/ L v] tL, 3/ ] n' ljiffbL tof/ L / o;sf] k|of] u, ;3g h} jLs v] tL k|0ffnLsf] dxŒj, Jofj;flos df5fkfng, ahf/ Joj:yfkg ;DaGwdf uf=lj=;= tyf lhNnf :t/ df ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx¿;Fu #^ j6f cGt/ lqmof tyf 5nkmn cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 37
  43. 43. s[ifs ;d"x ;~hfnsf] ;'b[9Ls/0f tyf Joj:yfkg cf] / ] sn] s[ifs clwsf/ sf] nflu uf=lj=;= :t/ Lo / lhNnf :t/ Lo ;~hfnx¿ agfpg ;xhLs/ 0f ug'{sf ;fy} ;~hfnsf] ;'b[9Ls/ 0f, ;b:ox¿sf] Ifdtf clea[l4sf nflu ;xhLs/ 0f / cfjZos k|fljlws ;xof] u ub} { cfO/ x] sf] 5 . s[ifs ;d"x, g] 6js{ / ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx¿sf] aLrdf ;DaGw la:tf/ , ;~hfn tyf ;d"xx¿sf] ;do ;dodf a} 7s a;L cfjZostf cg';f/ 5nkmn, of] hgf lgdf{0f tyf / 0fgLltx¿ to ug] { / ;a} sf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df sfof{Gjog ug] { ul/ Psf] 5 . ul/ Psf] lyof] . xfn gd'gf k|bz{gL kmfd{ tyf cGo t/ sf/ L v] tLsf] nflu klg ls;fgx¿n] 3/ ] n' ljiffbL agfP/ k|of] u ub} { cfO/ x] sf 5g . dn agfpg gd'gf k|b{zgL kmfd{sf cu'jf s[ifsx¿nfO{ k|f] T;fxg :j¿k 8«d / :k|] o/ klg ljt/ 0f ul/ Psf] lyof] . /]l8of] sfo{qmd / ] l8of] pbok'/ !)@=$ d] ufxh{;Fusf] ;xsfo{df lbuf] s[lif k|0ffnL / To;sf] dxŒjaf/ ] ;d'bfo :t/ df ;"rgf k|jfx u/ L hgr] tgf km} nfpg] p2] Zon] ;fKtflxs ¿kdf / ] l8of] sfo{qmd v] tLkftL nfO{ lg/ Gt/ ¿kdf ;~rfng ul/ Psf] 5 . sfo{qmddf ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf] k|j4{g, Dflxnfsf] vfB clwsf/ , :yfgLo ;|f] t, aLp lahg, h} ljs ljljwtf, df} lns 1fg / k|ljlwsf] ;+/ If0f, e"ldxLg dlxnf, blnt / k5fl8 kfl/ Psf] ;d'bfosf] hLljsf] kfh{gsf] nflu cfjZos ;|f] tsf] vf] hL] / To;df pgLx¿sf] kx'Fr tyf lgoGq0f, ls;fgsf cg'ej, nufot g] kfn ;/ sf/ sf] s[lif gLlt / of] hgf ;fy} s[ifsx¿sf] clwsf/ sf] af/ ] df ls;fgx¿nfO{ lj:t[t hfgsf/ L lbg] u/ L o; jif{df ## j6f sfo{qmd k|zf/ 0f ul/ Psf] lyof] . 3/]n' ljiffbL agfpg] k|of]ufTds cEof; cf] / ] sn] k|ToIf ¿kdf sfd ug] { pbok'/ , l;/ xf, bfË, df] / Ë / ;'g;/ L lhNnfsf s] xL uf=lj=;= / gd'gf ufFpx¿df s[ifs ;d"xx¿ u7g u/ L pgLx¿nfO{ ;3g h} ljs v] tL lt/ k|f] T;fxg ug{ lg/ Gt/ ¿kdf k|of; ul/ / x] sf] 5 . o;} qmddf s[ifsx¿nfO{ cfO{=lk=Pd= tyf k|fËufl/ s tl/ sfaf6 / f] u sL/ fx¿sf] k|efjsf/ L ¿kdf Joj:yfkg ug{ 3/ ] n' ljiffbL jf lutL dn agfpg k|of] ufTds cEof; u/ fOPsf] lyof] . :yfgLo :t/ df pknAw x'g] ljleGg emf/ kftx¿, uf] a/ , n;'g, Kofh, ;okqL, uf} pt nufotsf ;fdu|Lx¿ hDdf u/ L ljlwk"j{s Jojl:yt tl/ sfn] lutL dn jf 3/ ] n' ljiffbL agfpg cEof; 38 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) ;3g h}ljs v]tL k|0ffnL ckgfO{ /x]sf k'/fgf s[ifsx¿ / gofF s[ifsx¿aLr cg'ej cfbfg k|bfg ldlt @)&) a} zfv @% ut] ] l;/ xfdf ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL;DaGwL wf/ 0ffut / Jofjxfl/ s kIfsf af/ ] df :ki6tf Nofpg] / gofF s[ifsx¿nfO{ ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL lt/ k|f] T;fxg ug{] p2] Zon] ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL ckgfO{ / x] sf k'/ fgf s[ifsx¿ / gofF s[ifsx¿aLr cg'ej cfbfg k|bfg sfo{qmd / flvPsf] lyof] . ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf] kmfObf / o;sf] cfjZostf tyf cK7] / fx¿sf] af/ ] df @# hgf s[ifsx¿aLr gd'gf kmfd{df g} uP/ Jofjxfl/ s ¿kdf 5nkmn ul/ Psf] lyof] . s[lif d]nf k|b{zgL @)^(÷!!÷)& ut] l;/ xfsf] a:tLk'/ uf=lj=;=df ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL lt/ s[ifsx¿nfO{ k|f] T;fxg ug{, :yfgLo pTkfbgnfO{ k|f] T;fxg ug{, ls;fgnfO{ k|fyfldstfsf ;fy ;xefuL u/ fO{ pgLx¿sf] xf} ;nf a9fpg] / s[ifsx¿sf] aLrdf cg'ej cfbfg k|bfg ug] { p2] Zon] s[lif d] nf k|bz{gLsf] cfof] hgf ul/ Psf] lyof] .
  44. 44. s[ifsx¿n] cfkm"n] pAhfPsf] cGg afnL, t/ sf/ L afnL, kmnkm"n tyf gub] afnLx¿ klg k|bz{gLdf / fv] sf lyP . k|bz{gLdf hDdf !*! hgf s[ifsx¿sf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . !*! hgf dWo] ;a} eGbf pTs[i6 / lg/ f] uL afnLx¿ k|bz{gL ug] { !) hgf dlxnf / !^ hgf k'?if u/ L hDdf @^ hgf s[ifsx¿nfO{ k|f] T;fxg:j¿k gub k'/ :sf/ tyf k|df0fkq ljt/ 0f ul/ Psf] lyof] . d] nfn] s[ifsx¿nfO{ yk Joj;fodf nfUg pT;flxt kf/ ] sf] , :yfgLo pTkfbgnfO{ ;+/ If0f / ;Da4{g ug] { jftfj/ 0f tof/ ePsf] , s[lifsf] If] qdf sfo{/ t ;ª3 ;+:yfx¿;Fu ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ a9fpg] jftfj/ 0f tof/ ePsf] ] lyof] . e"ld clwsf/ If]qLo ;ef sfo{qmd @)^( d+l;/ @# ut] l;/ xf lhNnfsf] nxfgdf / fli6«o e"ld clwsf/ d~r g] kfn l;/ xf, ;Kt/ L / pbok'/ sf] cfof] hgf tyf cf] / ] s g] kfn nufot / ljleGg ;ª3 ;:yfx¿sf] ;xsfo{df blnt, ;'s'Djf;L / e"ldxLgx¿sf] e"lddfly kxF'r / lgoGq0f a9fpg bjfj k'¥ofpg] p2] Zon] j[xt ;efsf] cfof] hgf ul/ Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmdsf] ;'?jftdf ¥ofnLn] ahf/ kl/ qmdf u/ L ;efdf kl/ 0ft ePsf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf ;a} kfl6{sf g] tfx¿n] blnt tyf ;'s'djf;Lx¿sf] e"ld clwsf/ ha;Dd ;'lglZrt x'g ;Sb} g ta;Dd g] kfnL blnt tyf ;'s'Djf;Lx¿sf] cfwf/ e"t cfjZostf k"lt{ x'g g;Sg] s'/ f JoQm ub} { cfˆgf] kfl6{n] ;w} blnt, e"ldlxg tyf ;'s'Djf;Lsf] lxtsf nflu sfo{ ub} { cfPsf] / eljZodf klg ug] { k|ltj4tf JoQm u/ ] sf lyP . ;'s'Djf;L cfof] usf k|d'v, ljleGg kfl6{x¿sf k|ltlglwx¿, clwsf/ sdL{x¿, kqsf/ nufot ;ª3 ;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx¿ u/ L nueu b'O{ xhf/ hgfeGbf a9Lsf] pkl:ylt / x] sf] lyof] . o;} u/ L klxnf] a[xt ;efdf blnt, ;'s'Djf;L / e"ldlxgx¿sf] clwsf/ sf] nflu ul/ Psf k|ltj4tfx¿nfO{ sfof{Gjog :t/ df klg n} hfg k} / jL ug] { p2] Zon] k'gM @)^( ;fn r} q dlxgfsf] @# ut] l;/ xfdf cfde] nf ul/ Psf] lyof] . vfB clwsf/sf nflu lbuf] s[lif sfo{qmd ljifos ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu a[xt 5nkmn vfB clwsf/ ;'lglZrtfsf] nflu s[lif sfo{qmdnfO{ lbuf] ¿kdf ljsf; ug{ cfjZos 5 . *) k|ltzt eGbf a9L g] kfnLx¿ s[lif If] qdf lge{/ / x] sfn] ;/ sf/ n] of] If] qnfO{ a9L eGbf a9L Wofg lbg cfjZos / x] sf] 5 . s[lif cg'bfg, l;+rfO{nfO{ la:tf/ ug'{kg] { / s[lif;Fu ;DalGwt k|fljlws ;Lk tyf 1fg ls;fgx¿nfO{ lbg' klg plQs} h¿/ L / x] sf] 5 . s[lifdf Jofj;flos ¿kn] nfUg] ;fgf ls;fgx¿nfO{ k|f] T;fxg:j¿k lhNnf s[lif ljsf; sfof{non] lhNnfsf] ;|f] t ;fwg / ls;fgx¿sf] cfjZostfnfO{ Wofg lbO{ of] hgf agfpg klg cfjZos / x] sf] 5 . :yfgLo :t/ sf s[ifsx¿df k|f] T;fxg a9fpg] , lhNnf s[lif sfof{nosf] of] hgfsf] af/ ] df ;a} ls;fgx¿nfO{ hfgsf/ L lbg] / vfB clwsf/ / lbuf] s[lif ljsf;sf] ;jfnsf] ;DaGwdf 5nkmn u/ L s[lifdf ;'wf/ Nofpg] jftfj/ 0f tof/ ug{ lhNnfdf ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx¿aLr a[xt 5nkmn sfo{qmdsf] cfof] hgf ul/ Psf] lyof] . ;'g;/ L, pbok'/ , l;/ xf / bfËdf ;DkGg sfo{qmddf !#@ hgfsf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . vfB clwsf/ lbj; vfB clwsf/ lbj;sf] cj;/ df lhNnf tyf s] Gb|Lo :t/ df s[ifs g] 6js{, vfB g] 6js{ tyf s[lifsf] If] qdf sfo{/ t ljleGg ;ª3 ;+:yfx¿;Fusf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df ljleGg ultljlwx¿sf] cfof] hgf u/ L dgfOPsf] lyof] . pbok'/ df lhNnf s[lif sfof{no;Fusf] ;xsfo{df xfd|f] s[lif Jofj;fo lxhf] , cfh / ef] nL eGg] ljifodf lhNnf :t/ Lo ax; sfo{qmd ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof] h;df $! hgfsf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . df] / Ë, ;'g;/ L, l;/ xf / cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 39
  45. 45. bfËdf uf=lj=;= :t/ df cGt/ lqmof tyf 5nkmn sfo{qmd / flvPsf] lyof] . * ;"rgf d]nf pbok'/ lhNnfdf gu/ kflnsf / ;fgf pBf] u Jofj;foL ;ª3sf] cfof] hgfdf ufO{3f6df ;DkGg # lbg] d] nfdf cf] / ] sn] ;3g h} ljs v] tL, gd'gf ufFp, hnjfo' kl/ jt{g / o;sf] c;/ nufot vfB clwsf/ sf] af/ ] df nueu #%)) hgf eGbf a9LnfO{ lj:t[t ¿kdf ;"rgf k|jfx ug] { sfd u/ ] sf] lyof] . s'/ f p7] sf] lyof] . s[lif;DaGwL tflnd, qmo ;'lawf, pTkfbg tyf ljt/ 0fsf k|lqmofdf dlxnfx¿nfO{ ljz] if k|fyldstf lbg'kg] {, vfBfGg ljt/ 0f ubf{ kl/ jf/ sf dlxnf ;b:osf gfddf lbg] , ;/ sf/ n] agfPsf y'k|} Ph] 08f ;/ x s[lif / vfB ;'/ Iffsf r'gf} ltnfO{ cGo Ph] G8fdf h:t} gLlt lgod agfO{ To;sf] plrt sfof{Gjog ug] { . o; gLltdf pNn] lvt Ph] 08fn] ul/ a / hf] lvddf k/ ] sf JolQmx¿nfO{ ;'/ Iffsf] ;'lglZrttf u/ fpg'kg] {, / fli6«o vfB ;'/ Iff k|0ffnLsf] lj:tf/ ug'{sf ;fy} h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLnfO{ k|f] T;fxg ub} { :yfgLo ;|f] t / ;fwgsf] k|of] u u/ L s[lif k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug{‘kg] { / fHosf] bfloTj / x] sf] wf/ 0ff ;a} af6 cfPsf] lyof] . To; 5nkmn sfo{qmddf %!( hgfsf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . s[ifsx¿nfO{ ;Ddfg sfo{sd vfB ;'/Iffsf nflu gLltut Joj:yf;DaGwL s[ifsx¿;Fu 5nkmn vfB ;'/ Iffsf nflu s[lif;DaGwL ag] sf gLltx¿sf af/ ] df s[ifs / cGo ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx¿sf] aLrdf 5nkmn u/ L hfgsf/ L lng] lbg] p2] Zon] pbok'/ , l;/ xf, bfª, df] / ª, ;'g;/ L lhNnfdf uf=lj=;= :t/ df !% j6f sfo{qmd ul/ Psf] lyof] . 5nkmndf s[lif If] q, vfB ;'/ Iff / dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f s;/ L Ps cfk;df cGt/ lglxt 5 eGg] ljifonfO{ klg 5nkmndf p7fOPsf] lyof] . sfo{qmdsf ;xefuLx¿n] cf–cfˆgf ef] ufO{, s[lif;DaGwL gLlt / of] hgfsf af/ ] df 5nkmn u/ ] sf lyP . s[lif / vfB ;'/ Iffsf] ljifo / dlxnfx¿sf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ sf af/ ] df ;a} n] ;r] t x'g / dlxnfx¿sf] cj:yf ;'wf/ ug{ g] kfndf k|d'v s[lif If] q g} dxŒjk"0f{ ePsf] s'/ f 5nkmndf cfPsf] lyof] . o'jfx¿ ljb] z knfogsf sf/ 0f dlxnfx¿df sfo{ef/ ylkg' / s[lif If] q dlxnfdf g} cfl>t ePsf] n] gLlt, gofF of] hgf tyf sfo{qmd agfpFbf dgg ug{‘kg] { cfjZostf / x] sf] 40 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) $)cf} + ljZj jftfj/ 0f lbj;sf] cj;/ df ;3g h} ljs v] tLn] jftfj/ 0f ;+/ If0f, dflg;sf] :jf:o / df6f] sf] pj{/ f zlQmnfO{ sfod / fVg s;/ L ;xof] u ug{ ;S5 eGg] af/ ] df 5nkmn ub} { ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLnfO{ ckgfP/ sfd ul/ / x] sf] s[ifsx¿nfO{ yk k|f] T;fxg /
  46. 46. gofF s[ifsx¿nfO{ ;3g h} ljs v] tL lt/ nfUg pTk|] / Lt ug] { p2] Zon] pbok'/ df !* hgf ls;fgx¿nfO{ ;Ddfg sfo{qmd ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf jftfj/ 0f ;+/ If0fsf nflu af] 6 la?jfsf] ;+/ If0f ug{ klg plQs} h¿/ L ePsf] 5nkmn ub} { Ps JolQmn] Ps jif{df % j6f la?jf nufpg'kg] { cfjZostf / x] sf] af/ ] df 5nkmn ul/ Psf] lyof] . Ifdtf clea[l4sf] nflu tflnd ;3g h}ljs v]tLk|0ffnL ;DaGwL wf/0ffut :ki6tf / Jofjxfl/s kIfaf/] % lbg] tflnd ;3g h} ljs k|ljlwsf] af/ ] df cjwf/ 0ffut :ki6tf Nofpg] , a9bf] / f;folgs laiffbLnfO{ sd ub} { zq'hLjx¿sf] Joj:yfkgdf ;xof] u k'¥ofpg] , cfO{=lk=Pdsf] dxŒjsf] af/ ] df hfgsf/ L u/ fpFb} / f;folgs ljiffbLsf] xflgsf/ s kIf / k|of] u ubf{ ckgfpg'kg{] ;fjwfgLx¿sf] af/ ] df hfgsf/ L u/ fpg] p2] Zon] ;3g h} ljs v] tL;DaGwL / gd'gf k|bz{gL kmd{ Joj:yfkg;DaGwL % lbg] tflnd @)^(÷!@÷@ b] lv ^ ;Dd bfªdf ;Nofg lhNnfsf ;f´] bf/ ;+:yfsf sd{rf/ L tyf cf] / ] ssf s[lif k|fljlwsx¿ u/ L @! hgfnfO{ lbOPsf] lyof] . o;} u/ L ;wg h} ljs v] tL;DaGwL # lbg] Jofjxfl/ s tyf wf/ 0fut :ki6tf tflnd l;/ xfdf @ j6f ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof] h;df !* hgf dlxnf / ## hgf k'?if u/ L %! hgfsf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . pbok'/ df klg @ j6f # lbg] ;3g h} ljs v] tL;DaGwL Jofjxfl/ s tyf wf/ 0fut :ki6tf tflnd ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof] h;df %^ hgfsf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . kz' :jf:Yo / kf]if0f Joj:yfkg;DaGwL @ lbg] tflnd @)&) h] 7 % / ^ ut] bfªdf s[ifsx¿nfO{ kz'df nfUg] ljleGg / f] ux¿ / o;sf] pkrf/ sf] af/ ] df hfgsf/ L lbg] , kz'x¿sf] nflu kf] if0f Joj:yfkg;DaGwL hfgsf/ L u/ fpg] / lhNnf kz' :jf:Yo;Fusf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ a9fpg ;xhLs/ 0f ug] { p2] Zon] kz' :jf:Yo / kf] if0f Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL @ lbg] tflnd ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof] h;df @) hgf s[ifsx¿sf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . gd"gf kmfd{ Joj:yfkg / s[ifskf7zfnf;DaGwL @ lbg] tflnd gd"gf kmfd{ Joj:yfkg / s[ifs kf7zfnf;DaGwL cu'jf s[ifsx¿sf] k|fljlws 1fg tyf ;Lk ljsf; ug{ ;xhLs/ 0f ug] { p2] Zon] @ lbg] tflnd @)!@ gf] e] Da/ @^ / @& tf/ Lsdf bfªdf ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof] . tflnddf ( hgf k'?if / !$ hgf dlxnf u/ L hDdf @# hgfsf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . PsLs[t zq'hLj Joj:yfkg s[ifs kf7zfnf ;~rfng ;Lk ljsf;;DaGwL # lbg] tflnd cf] / ] sn] PsLs[t zq'hLj Joj:yfkg s[ifs kf7zfnf ;~rfng ug{ ;Lk ljsf; ug{] p2] Zon] bfª, l;/ xf, df] / ª / pbok'/ sf !@ hgf h] l6P sd{rf/ Lx¿nfO{ cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 41
  47. 47. @)&) h] 7 % ut] b] lv & ut] ;Dd pbok'/ df # lbg] tflnd ;~rfng ul/ Psf] lyof] . kof{j/0fLo clwsf/ (Ecological right) ;DaGwL % lbg] tflnd ;Nofg lhNnfsf ;f´] bf/ ;+:yfsf kl/ rfnsx¿, o'jf Snj / afn Snjsf k|ltlglwx¿nfO{ cjwf/ 0ffut ¿kdf :ki6 u/ fpg] p2] Zon] ldlt @)&) h] 7 !@ utb] lv !^ ut] ;Dd bfªdf kof{j/ 0fLo clwsf/ ;DaGwL % lbg] tflnd ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof] . pQm tflnddf !% hgfsf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . kz' :jf:Yo tyf s]/;faf/L Joj:yfkg;DaGwL % lbg] tflnd cf] / ] s lj/ f6gu/ df ;z:q åGådf j] kQf kl/ jf/ sf ;b:ox¿sf] cfly{s / hLljsf] kfh{gdf s] xL xb;Dd ;xof] u tyf 6] jf k'¥ofpg] p2] Zon] % lbg] kz' :jf:Yo tyf s] / ;faf/ L Joj:yfkg;DaGwL # j6f tflnd ;DkGg ul/ Psf] 5 . kz'kfngsf] dxŒj tyf kz'df b] lvg] / f] u tyf ;d:ofx¿ / ltgsf] Joj:yfkg, uf] 7 ;'wf/ , 3fF;kft tyf s/ ] ;faf/ Lsf] ] dxŒj, Joj:yfkg, df6f] sf] pkrf/ / ljleGg / f] u, sL/ fx¿sf] af/ ] df hfgsf/ L / 3/ ] n' laiffbLsf] af/ ] df ;d] t hfgsf/ L lbOPsf] lyof] . tflnddf &* hgf dlxnf / @( hgf k'?if u/ L hDdf !)& hgfsf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . s[ifs e|d0f l;/ xfdf gd'gf ufFp la:tf/ tyf Joj:yfkg ug] { qmddf gd'gf ufFp cjnf] sg / s[ifsx¿aLr cg'ej cfbfg 42 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) k|bfgsf nflu l;/ xfaf6 !) hgf s[ifsx¿nfO{ pbok'/ sf] j} / ] gL / rf} sLaf/ L gd'gf ufFpdf nluPsf] lyof] . gd'gf ufFpsf] k|j4{g, k|f] T;fxg / Joj:yfkg;DaGwL 5nkmn ug] { p2] Zon] l;/ xfsf] -wgu8L j8f g=+ # g} gk'/ , j:tLk'/ j8f g=+ $ 3n] 6f] n / j:tLk'/ j8f g+= % ug] zk'/ _ # j6} gd'gf ufFpaf6 s] xL cu'jf ls;fg / ;ldltsf ;+of] hsx¿n] gd'gf ufFp cjnf] sg ug] { qmddf gd'gf ufFpsf] ;|f] t gS;f, pQm 7fFpdf / x] sf :yfgLo ;|f] t tyf ;fwgsf] klxrfg, s[ifsx¿n] kfn] sf s'v'/ f, kz' / ;'wfl/ Psf] uf] 7, t/ sf/ L v] tL, / f] u sL/ f Joj:yfkg;DaGwL s[ifsx¿;Fu la:t[t ¿kdf hfgsf/ L lnPsf lyP . uf] j/ UofF;sf] cjnf] sg;Fu} vfgf agfpg tyf aQL afNg uf] j/ sf] OGwg k|of] u x'g] / uf] j/ UofF;af6 lg:s] sf] n] bf] af6 dn agfpg] tl/ sfaf/ ] klg hfgsf/ L kfPsf lyP . o;} qmddf ;f] nf/ sf] klg cjnf] sg u/ ] sf lyP . o;/ L gd'gf ufFpsf] cjnf] sgkZrft cf] / ] s zfvf sfo{no pbok'/ sf sfo{qmd clws[t ;/ f] h kf] v/ ] nn] sl/ a Ps 306f gd'gf ufFpsf] cjwf/ 0ff, dxŒjsf af/ ] df cled'vLs/ 0f ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . gd'gf k|bz{gL kmd{ Joj:yfkg cf] / ] sn] cfˆgf] sfo{If] qdf s[ifsx¿nfO{ ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL cg';f/ gd'gf k|bz{gL kmfd{ k|j4{g / Joj:yfkg ug{ l;/ xfdf !$, df] / ª÷;'g;/ Ldf *, bfªdf ( / pbok'/ df !& hgf cu'jf s[ifsx¿nfO{ 5gf] 6 u/ L cfjZos k|fljlws ;xof] u tyf ;xhLs/ 0f ub} {
  48. 48. cfO/ x] sf] 5 . gd'gf kmfd{sf] nflu h} ljs ljiffbL agfpg s[ifsx¿nfO{ k|f] T;fxg:j¿k 8«d klg ljt/ 0f ul/ Psf] lyof] . ;kf]6{ sfo{qmd :yfgLo :t/ df blnt, l;dfGts[t / lx+;f kLl8t tyf k|efljt dlxnfx¿nfO{ ljz] if ¿kdf s] lGb|t u/ L pgLx¿sf] hLljsf] kfh{gnfO{ ;xh agfpg pgLx¿s} of] hgf / cfjZostf cg';f/ aLp lahg, k|fljlws ;xof] u, l;+rfO{, t/ sf/ L v] tL, df5fkfng, afv|f, a+u'/ , aLp af] sf ;xof] u ug'{sf ;fy} km] o/ Jofkf/ sf nflu aLpk"FhL klg pknAw u/ fpFb} ;xof] u ub} { cfO/ x] sf] 5 . kz' :jf:Yo pkrf/ s]G› -e]6]/Lg/L Nofj_ ;fw/ 0f kz' k/ LIf0f / :jf:Yo pkrf/ , vf] k, kz' aGWofs/ 0f, uf] a/ hFfr, cf} iflw las|L / kz'kfng;DaGwL ljleGg hfgsf/ L tyf k/ fdz{ ;] jf lbg] p2] Zon] cf] / ] sn] laut nfdf] ;dob] lv pbok'/ sf] / fhfjf; / bfªsf] k89fdf kz' :jf:Yo pkrf/ s] Gb| :yfkgf u/ L ;] jf pknAw u/ fpFb} cfO/ x] sf] 5 . o; jif{df pbok'/ af6 *@) / bfªdf !(&# j6f afv|f e] 8f, s'v'/ f, xfF; tyf cGo kz'nfO{ ;] jf lbOPsf] 5 . kz' :jf:Yo lzlj/ :yfgLo s[ifsx¿nfO{ kz'x¿sf] hfFr tyf pkrf/ :yfgLo :t/ df g} ug{ ;xof] u k'¥ofpg] , s[ifsx¿nfO{ kz' ;d:ofk|lt ;r] t agfpg] p2] Zon] cf] / ] s, lhNnf kz' sfof{no / :yfgLo ;+:yfx¿sf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df pbok'/ sf] r'xf8] / sfnLvf] nf bfªdf x] s'nL / dfgk'/ / ;Nofgsf] afurf} / df kz' :jf:Yo lzlj/ ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof] . lzlj/ df lk=lk=cf/ = vf] k, Eofu't] / rr{/ ] lj?åsf] vf] k, kz' aGWofs/ 0f, uf] j/ hFfr, h'sf gfDn] nufotsf cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 43
  49. 49. ;d:ofsf] ;fwf/ 0f hfFr / cf} iflw ljt/ 0f ul/ Psf] lyof] . d] nfdf e] 8f afv|fdf nfUg] lk=lk=cf/ , a+u'/ df nfUg] x} hf / gfDn] df6] h:tf kz' ;d:ofsf] af/ ] df hfgsf/ L u/ fpg] p2] Zon] krf{ lat/ 0f / k/ fdz{ klg ul/ Psf] lyof] . bfªdf (($, pbok'/ df !*%& / ;Nofgdf %!&* kz'nfO{ ;] jf lbOPsf] lyof] . h]=l6=P= sIff ;~rfng -kfFrf}+ Aofh_ ;LdfGts[t, blnt tyf k5fl8 kfl/ Psf] ;d'bfosf lszf] / lszf] / Lx¿nfO{ nlIft u/ L k|fljlws lzIff ;xh tl/ sfn] lng ;Sg] jftfj/ 0f tof/ ug{ cf] / ] sn] pbok'/ df !% dlxg] s[lif h] =l6=P= tflnd ljut $ jif{b] lv ;~rfng ub} { cfO/ x] sf] 5 . o;} qmddf o; jif{df a9L gd'gf ufFpdf :yfgLo o'jfx¿nfO{ k|fljlws ;Lk tyf 1fg lbO{ :yfgLo :t/ df g} s[lif k|fljlwsx¿ tof/ u/ L s[lif k|0ffnLnfO{ k|fljwLs/ 0f ug{ ;xhLs/ 0f ug] { / o'jfx¿nfO{ :j/ f] huf/ / :jfanDaL aGg k|f] T;fxg ug] { p2] Zon] of] tflnd ;~rfng ul/ Psf] lyof] . s} nfnL, ;Nofg, bfª, l;/ xf / pbok'/ af6 of] jif{ hDdf @$ hgf 5fq 5fqfx¿ cWoogsf] nflu cfPsf lyP . oL dWo] !% hgfnfO{ cf] / ] sn] 5fqj[lQdf k9g ;xof] u u/ ] sf] lyof] . # dlxg] l;=Pn=P= sIff ;~rfng ;d'bfodf kz'kfng Joj:yfkg, kz'kf] if0f kz'cfxf/ ;DaGwL hfgsf/ L clea[l4 u/ fpg] , kz'kfng Joj:yfkgdf ;xof] u k'¥ofpg] , kz' :jf:Yo;DaGwL k|ljlw tyf ;Lksf] ljsf; u/ fO{ :yfgLo :t/ df g} kz'sf] pkrf/ ug] { jftfj/ 0f tof/ ug{] ;fy} pgLx¿nfO{ lbuf] lhljsf] kfh{gdf ;d] t ;xof] u k'¥ofpg] p2] Zon] ] cf] / ] s tLg dlxg] kz' :jf:Yo tflnd ;~rfngnfO{ lg/ Gt/ tf lb+b} cfO/ x] sf] 5 . ;xefuLx¿nfO{ kz'kfng Joj:yfkg, kz'kf] if0f, kz'cfxf/ ;DaGwL 1fg tyf ;Lk clea[l4 u/ L kz'kfngnfO{ Jofj;flos ¿kdf cufl8 a9fpg pTk|] / 0ff lbg] ;fy} Joj:yfkgdf ;xof] u k'¥ofpg] / :yfgLo :t/ df kz';] jfnfO{ ;xh agfpg] p2] Zon] o; jif{ @ r/ 0fdf tflnd ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof] . tflnddf pbok'/ , ;Nofg nufot cGo lhNnfaf6 klg cWoogsf] nflu o'jfx¿ 44 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) cfPsf lyP . hDdf @* hgf ;xefuLdWo] !! hgfnfO{ cf] / ] sn] lgz'Ns ¿kdf tflnd pknAw u/ fPsf] lyof] . Osf] len]h Joj:yfkg;DaGwL s]xL k|d'v ultljlwx¿ Osf] len]h Osf] len] hnfO{ To:tf] ufFp jf dfgj a:tL dfGg ;lsG5 hxfFsf afl;Gbfx¿ k|s[lt tyf kof{j/ 0fd} qL Jojxf/ / k|lalwsf] k|of] u ;fd"lxs lg0f{osf cfwf/ df u/ L dfkb08x¿ dlxnfdfly x'g] u/]sf ;a} k|sf/sf lx+;fsf] cGTo ePsf] cj:yf afnaflnsfx¿dfly x'g] u/]sf ;a} k|sf/sf lje]bsf] cGTo ePsf] cj:yf lzIffdf ;a}sf] ;dfg kx'Fr ;'lglZrt ePsf] cj:yf k|fylds :jf:Yodf ;a}sf] ;dfg kx'Fr ;'lglZrt / s'kf]if0f/lxt ;dfhsf] l;h{gf ePsf] cj:yf dlxnfsf ljz]if :jf:Yo cfjZostfx¿ ;Daf]wg ePsf] cj:yf k|fs[lts ;|f]t tyf åGå Joj:yfkgdf ;d'bfosf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf ePsf] cj:yf gjLs/0fLo phf{sf] clwstd pkof]u ePsf] cj:yf ;3g h}ljs v]tL k|0ffnLsf] k|j4{g / Jofj;flos ¿k lnPsf] cj:yf ;d'bfosf ;f+:s[lts klxrfg :yflkt / ;+/lIft ePsf] cj:yf /}yfg] 1fg / k/Dk/fut k|ljlwsf] ljsf; ;+/If0f / k|j4{g ePsf] cj:yf ;fd"lxs g]t[Tj ljsf; tyf Gofok"0f{ ;dfhsf] l;h{gftkm{ cu|;/ ePsf] cj:yfnfO{ hnjfo' kl/jt{g ljifdtfx¿nfO{ ;fd"lxs ¿kdf ;Daf]wg ug{ ;d'bfo ;lqmotfk"j{s nfluk/]sf] cj:yf .
  50. 50. pknAw ;|f] t / ;Dkbfsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg ub{5g / hxfF pgLx¿sf ;fdflhs, efjgfTds, cfTdut, ef} lts / cfly{s cfjZostfx¿ cgGt sfn;Dd lbuf] ¿kdf k"/ f ePsf x'G5g . cf] / ] sn] k/ Dk/ fut ufFpnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug] { of] cjwf/ 0ff PsLs[t dfgjclwsf/ jfbL ;f] r / lbuf] ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf] cjwf/ 0ff / sfo{z} nLdf cfwfl/ t 5 . g] kfnL kl/ k|] If cg'¿k cf] / ] sn] Osf] len] hsf cfwf/ e"t dfkb08x¿nfO{ df] 6fdf] 6L ¿kdf to u/ L ;f] cg';f/ pbok'/ , l;/ xf, bfª / ;Nofgdf sfd ub} { cfO/ x] sf] 5 . dfgjclwsf/ x¿sf] ;'lglZrttf;lxtsf] a} slNks lbuf] s[lif -;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL_, gjLs/ 0fLo phf{, kmf] x/ d} nfsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg, ;fdflhs ;zQmLs/ 0f tyf dfgj / kof{j/ 0faLr :j:y cGt/ ;DaGwsf] k|j4{g ug'{ Osf] len] hsf d"ne"t kIfx¿ x'g . 3/w'/L ;j]{If0f M Osf] len] hsf] k|j4{g / lj:tf/ sf] qmddf cf] / ] sn] ;j{k|yd 3/ w'/ L ;j] {If0f ug] { u/ ] sf] 5 . o;qmddf of] jif{ pbok'/ df !@( 3/ w'/ L, l;/ xf @(( 3/ w'/ L, ;Nofgdf @&* 3/ w'/ L / bfªdf 3/ w'/ L ;j] {If0f ul/ Psf] lyof] . cled'vLs/0f M Osf] len] hsf afnaflnsf, lszf] / ÷lszf] / L, o'jf, dlxnf tyf k'?ifx¿nfO{ ljleGg ;jfndf ;';"lrt agfpg] / Osf] len] hsf] dfkb08nfO{ k"/ f ug{ Jofjxfl/ s ¿kdf n} +lËs lje] bdf cfwfl/ t lx+;fsf] Go"gLs/ 0f, afnaflnsfx¿sf] :jf:Yo, lzIff nufotsf clwsf/ x¿sf] ;+/ If0f tyf k|j4{g, k|fs[lts ;|f] t Joj:yfkgdf ;d'bfosf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf a9fpg / ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf] k|j4{g / Jofj;flosLs/ 0ftkm{ s[ifsx¿nfO{ k|f] T;fxg ug{] p2] Zon] ljleGg ljifodf @!& k6s cled'vLs/ 0f ul/ Psf] 5 . h;df $!(# hgfsf] ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof] . gd'gf ufFp Joj:yfkg ;ldlt u7g tyf 5nkmn M gd'gf ufFp la:tf/ ug] { qmddf gofF gd'gf ufFpx¿nfO{ Jojl:yt / ;'rf¿ ¿kdf cufl8 a9fpg] p2] Zon] gd'gf ufFp Joj:yfkg ;ldlt u7g u/ L cfjZostf cg';f/ 5nkmn ug] { ul/ Psf] 5 . Osf] SNa u7g M afnaflnsf tyf lszf] / lszf] / Lx¿sf] ;xeflutfdf j[lå u/ fO{ pgLx¿sf] rf} tkmL{ ljsf;sf] nflu afnd} qL / o'jfd} qL jftfj/ 0fsf] k|jå{g / ljsf;sf] nflu afnaflnsfx¿sf] Sna tyf lszf] / lszf] / Lx¿sf] sNa u7g ul/ Psf] 5 . ljleGg sfo{qmdsf] of] hgf tyf sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogdf pgLx¿sf] ;xeflutf / ;xsfo{df e"ldsf a9fpg] p2] Zon] Osf] Snasf ;b:ox¿nfO{ ljleGg ljifodf ;';"lrt u/ fpg] , pgLx¿sf] Ifdtf clea[l4df ;xhLs/ 0f ug] { ul/ Psf] 5 . ;fd'bflos ejg lgdf{0f M Osf] len] hdf ;fd'bflos ejg lgdf{0f sfo{sf] nflu :yfgLo >dbfg / cf] / ] s nufot cGo ;ª3 ;+:yfx¿sf] ;xof] uaf6 lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ lg/ Gt/ tf lbOPsf] 5 . ejg ljleGg sfo{qmd, 5nkmn / a} 7s ubf{ ;xh x'g] / :yfgLo bg'jf/ ;+:s[ltsf] ;+/ If0fsf nflu klg pQm ejgsf] k|of] u ul/ g] 5 . ejg lgdf{0f ubf{ cf] / ] saf6 cfly{s ;xof] u ul/ Psf] lyof] ;d'bfosf] >dbfg / cfˆgf] d] xgtn] ejg lgdf{0f u/ ] sf 5g . s[ifs kf7zfnf ;~rfng M Osf] len] hleqsf s[ifsx¿nfO{ PsLs[t zq'hLj Joj:yfkg k|ljlwaf6 ljleGg s[lif cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 45
  51. 51. k|ljlwx¿sf] af/ ] df hfgsf/ L u/ fpg] , s[ifsx¿n] pTkfbg u/ ] sf] afnL tyf t/ sf/ Lsf] / ] s8{ Jojl:yt ug{ Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{] , j} 1flgs k|ljlwaf6 afnLgfnLsf] lgl/ If0f tyf cg'udg ug] { ;Lk ljsf; ug] { / s[lif ;d:ofnfO{ ;'Nemfpg] p2] Zon] Osf] len] h l;/ xfdf @ :yfgdf, pbok'/ df # :yfgdf, bfªdf # :yfgdf / ;Nofgdf % :yfgdf u/ L hDdf !# :yfgdf km/ s km/ s afnLdf s[ifs kf7zfnf ;~rfng ul/ Psf] lyof] . sfof{nosf] ;+o'Qm ;xsfo{df ;Nofg lhNnfsf] Yff/ df/ ] , DffFemsf8f / lzj/ y uf=lj=;=df :yfgLo :t/ df / x] sf kfgLsf d"nx¿sf] ;+/ If0f u/ L lkpg] kfgL tyf l;+rfO{sf] nflu sfd ul/ Psf] 5 . o;af6 &$ 3/ w'/ L nfeflGjt ePsf 5g . o;} u/ L bfª, l;/ xf / pbok'/ df klg l;+rfO{ / lkpg] kfgLsf] nflu sfd ePsf] 5 . aLp lahg ;xof]u M s[ifsx¿nfO{ df} ;dL tyf a] df} ;dL t/ sf/ L v] tLsf] nflu cfjZos aLplahgx¿ cf] / ] saf6 pknAw u/ fpg] ul/ Psf] 5 . ls;fgx¿n] :yfgLo :t/ df cfkm} +n] klg aLp pTkfbg ug'{sf ;fy} / :yfgLo aLp ;+/ If0f lt/ ug{ yfn] sf 5g . pgLx¿n] pTkfbg u/ ] sf] aLpnfO{ cf] / ] sn] lsg] / cGo ls;fgx¿nfO{ ljt/ 0f klg ug] { u/ ] sf] 5 . aLp af]sf, afv|f tyf a+u'/ ;kf]{6M gd'gf ufFpdf gZn ;'wf/ sf nflu aLp af] sf pbok'/ , l;/ xf / bfªdf x/ ] s gd'gf ufpFdf !÷! j6f ;xof] u ul/ Psf] 5 eg] gd'gf lkpg] kfgL tyf l;+rfO{ M Osf] len] hleq t/ sf/ L tyf cGo afnL nufpg l;+rfO{sf] cfjZostf ePsf sf/ 0f ;Nofg / bfªdf xfn eO/ x] sf l;+rfO{sf k"jf{wf/ x¿sf] dd{t ;+Def/ ug{ cf] / ] s g] kfn, :yfgLo ;f´] bf/ ;+:yfx¿ -kf; g] kfn, zf/ bf ;Nofg_ / lhNnf s[lif ljsf; 46 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&)
  52. 52. ufFp l;/ xfdf $), pbok'/ df #) j6f afv|f ljt/ 0f ul/ Psf] lyof] eg] bfª, l;/ xf / pbok'/ df u/ L &@ j6f a+u'/ / v/ fof] klg ljt/ 0f ul/ Psf] lyof] . s[ifsx¿nfO{ km]/f]dg kf;f] ;kf]{6 M cf] / ] s g] kfnåf/ f gd'gf ufFpsf cu'jf s[ifsx¿nfO{ t/ sf/ L tyf kmnkm"ndf nfUg] / f] usL/ f lgoGq0fsf nflu km] / f] d] g6«ofksf] k|of] u ug{ km] / f] dg kf;f] ;kf] {6 ug'{sf ;fy} cfjZos k|fljlws ;xof] u ul/ Psf] 5 . ufFp3/ lSnlgs ;~rfng M afnaflnsfx¿sf] :jf:Yo hfFrsf] nflu dfl;s ¿kdf gd'gf ufFpdf ;~rfng ug] { ul/ Psf] 5 . dlxnf :jf:Yo k/fdz{ s]G› tyf :jf:Yo 3'DtL lzlj/ M dlxnfx¿sf] k|hgg :jf:Yo;DaGwL ePsf ;d:of / f] syfd tyf ;'wf/ sf] nflu dlxnfx¿nfO{ hfFr, :jf:Yo k/ fdz{, h8La'6Laf6 pkrf/ ljlw, cg'udg nufot cGo cfjZos s'/ fx¿df hfgsf/ L u/ fpg] / cfˆgf] clwsf/ k|lt ;';"lrt x'g] jftfj/ 0f tof/ ug] { p2] Zon] dlxnf :jf:Yo k/ fdz{ s] G› ;~rfng tyf cfjZostf cg';f/ :jf:Yo 3'DtL lzlj/ ;~rfng ug] { ul/ Psf] 5 . kz' :jf:Yo 3'DtL lzlj/ M Osf] len] hx¿df kz':jf:Yo ;] jfnfO{ ;xh agfpg ;do ;dodf 3'DtL lzlj/ ;DkGg ug] { ul/ Psf] 5 . ;do ;dodf kz'x¿df b] vf kg] { ljleGg ;d:ofnfO{ ;dodf g} lgoGq0f ug{ ;"rgf k|jfx ug'{sf ;fy} kz'x¿sf] pkrf/ ug{ ;xof] u ug] { ul/ Psf] 5 . kz'sf] hfFr, EofS;Lg tyf cfjZostf cg';f/ cf} iflw pknAw / lzkmfl/ ; ug] { ul/ Psf] 5 . uf]7 tyf rlk{ lgdf{0fsf] nflu ;xof]u tyf ;xhLs/0f M Osf] len] hleq ;a} 3/ kl/ jf/ df rlk{sf] cfjZostf, k|of] u / dxŒjsf] af/ ] df 5nkmn, kz'kfng / Joj:yfkgsf] nflu Jojl:yt uf] 7sf] cfjZostf / dxŒjsf] af/ ] df 5nkmn u/ L ;d'bfonfO{ o;sf] cfjZostf klxrfg u/ fO{ cfjZos k"jf{wf/ x¿ agfpg / k|of] u ug] { jftfj/ 0f tof/ ug{ k/ fdz{, cled'vLs/ 0f, cfly{s ;xof] u / ;xhLs/ 0f ug] { ul/ Psf] 5 . ;fdflhs tyf ;|f]t gS;f tof/ M ;d'bfosf ;b:ox¿sf] k"0f{;xeflutfdf Osf] len] hdf pknAw / x] sf k"jf{wf/ x¿ / k|fs[lts ;|f] tx¿sf] klxrfg u/ L :yfgLo :t/ df g} ;fwg, ;|f] t / k/ Dk/ fut 1fg / ;Lksf] clwstd k|of] udf Nofpgsf] nflu ;a} gd'gf ufFpsf] ;fdflhs tyf ;|f] t gS;f tof/ ePsf] 5 . ;fdflhs gS;f tof/ u/ L xf] l8{Ëaf] 8{df / flvPsf] 5 . ax' p2]ZoLo g;{/L ljsf;sf nflu ;xof]u M ;Nofg, bfª, l;/ xf / pbok'/ df x/ ] s gd'gf ufFpdf Ps hgf cu'jf s[ifsnfO{ 5gf] 6 u/ L kmnkm"n, t/ sf/ L / cGo h8La'l6sf] klg Jofj;flos tl/ sfn] g;{/ L Joj:yfkg ug{ cfly{s tyf cfjZos k|fljlws ;xof] u ul/ Psf] 5 . kmnkm"nsf] la?jfx¿ ljt/0f M s[ifsx¿nfO{ Jofj;flos kmnkm"n v] tLtkm{ cfslif{t ug{nfO{ lhNnf e"— ;+/ If0f sfof{no ;Nofg, kf; g] kfn / cf] / ] ssf] ;xsfo{df s[ifsx¿nfO{ ljleGg kmnkm"nsf la?jfx¿ #&@# j6f ljt/ 0f ul/ Psf] lyof] . cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 47
  53. 53. -u_ @ 48 cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) ;'/lIft :yfgfudg sfo{qmd
  54. 54. ;'/lIft :yfgfudg sfo{qmd :yfgfudg ug{ kfpg' x /]s JolQmsf] g};lu{s clwsf / xf] . ljZjJofkL ¿kdf x]bf{ @ ca{ !$ s /f]8 cGt /f{li6«o cfk|jf;L sfdbf /x¿dWo] !) b]lv !% k|ltzt cn]vj4 sfdbf /x¿ /x]sf] cg'dfg ul /Psf] 5 . lbg g;Sbf x /]s lbg o'jfx¿ lab]lzg] qmd a9] / uPsf] 5 . o; /L /fd|f] cj; /sf] vf]hLdf j}b]lzs /f]huf /Ldf hfg] g]kfnL cfk|jf;L sfdbf /x¿sf ;d:of tyf r'gf}tLx¿ klg plQs} /x]sf 5g . g]kfnLx¿ !( cf}+ ztfAbLsf] aLrlt /af6 /f]huf /Lx¿sf] nflu bfh{lnËsf] lrof aufg, cf;fd / ;g !(&) sf] bzsb]lv t]nsf] vfgL ePsf vf8L d'n'sx¿df uPsf] kfOG5 . ljutsf s]xL jif{ otf j}b]lzs /f]huf /Lsf nflu :yfgfudg ug]{x¿sf] ;+Vof lbg k|ltlbg a9b} uO /x]sf] 5 . cfhsf] ;do;Dd cfO{k'Ubf j}b]lzs /f]huf /sf] sfdsf] k|s[lt / ;+Vof dfq a9g uPsf] b]lvG5 . t / sf /0f / d'Vo p2]Zodf eg] vf;} kl /jt{g ePsf] kfOb}g . ; /sf /L / u} / ; /sf /L tj /af6 s]xL k|of;x¿ eO /x]sf 5g t / klg ;d:ofx¿ p:t} 5g . x /]s lbg h:t} ;~rf / dfWoddf cfO /xg] j}b]lzs /f]huf /L;Fu hf]l8Psf lx+;f, a]rlavg tyf cf];f /k;f /, 7uL nufot p2f / ug'{kg]{ ;d:of tyf ;jfnx¿nfO{ dWogh / ub}{ cf] /]s g]kfnn] :yfgfudgsf] k|lqmofnfO{ ;' /lIft agfpg cfˆgf] 7fFpaf6 ;"rgf ;+k|]if0f, Ifdtf clea[l4, cWoog, cg';Gwfg, cfjZostfdf cfwfl /t ;xof]u / gLlt lgdf{0f tyf sfof{Gjogsf nflu k} /jL ub}{ cfO /x]sf] 5 . j}b]lzs /f]huf / ljefusf] tYofÍ cg';f / )^*÷^( df k'?if #$$#)) hgf / dlxnf !)$!* hgf u /L hDdf #%$&!* hgf j}b]lzs /f]huf /Lsf] nflu :yfgfudg ePsf 5g eg] cfly{s jif{ )^(÷)&) df k'?if $@%*#) / dlxnf @&&!# hgf u /L hDdf $%#%$# hgf g]kfnLx¿ j}b]lzs /f]huf / ljefuaf6 >d :jLs[lt lnP / j}b]lzs /f]huf /Lsf nflu t];|f] d'n'sdf uPsf 5g . j}b]lzs /f]huf / ljefusf] tYofÍ cg';f / xfn b}lgs ; /b / !&)) sf] xf /fxf /Ldf g]kfnLx¿ -o; tYofËsn] ef /tdf / ef /tsf] af6f] eP / hfg]x¿sf] tYofÍsnfO{ ;d]6]sf] 5}g_ /f]huf /Lsf nflu ljleGg d'n'sx¿df hfg] u /]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . l5d]sL /fi6« ef /tdf sfd ug{ uPsf sfdbf /x¿sf] olsg tYofÍ eg] pknAw 5}g . t / klg nueu $) nfv g]kfnLx¿ Eff /tdf dfq sfd ul / /x]sf] cg'dfg ul /Psf] 5 . To:t} u /L >d :jLs[lt glnP / hfg] g]kfnL sfdbf /x¿sf] ;+Vof :jLs[lt lnP / hfg]sf] xf /fxf /Ldf g} 5 eGg] cg'dfg ul /Psf] 5 . b]zdf ePsf] cfGtl /s åGå, v'Nnf cy{gLlt, ljsf;sf /0fgLlt, ;:tf] >dsf] dfu a9]sf sf /0fn] klg of] k|lqmofnfO{ tLa| agfPsf] 5 . cfˆgf] b]zn] o'jf a] /f]huf /LnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ kof{Kt ljsNkx¿ ;dodf g} /0fg}lts d'2f -;jfnx¿_ ;' /lIft :yfgfudgsf] clwsf /sf] ;''lglZrttf . ;' /lIft :yfgfudgnfO{ dfgj clwsf /sf ¿kdf cfTd;ft u /]sf] cj:yf dlxnfsf] :yfgfudgnfO{ ;' /lIft agfpg ;Sg] jftfj /0f . d'Vo p2]Zo :yfgfudgnfO{ dlxnfd''vL ;f]raf6 dfgj clwsf /sf] ¿kdf :yflkt ug'{ . lglb{i6 p2]Zox¿ j}b]lzs /f]huf /df hfg] sfdbf /x¿sf] :yfgfudgnfO{ ;' /lIft agfpgsf nflu ;"rgf k|jfx ug]{ . j}b]lzs /f]huf /sf nflu hfg] JolQmx¿ / pgLx¿sf] kl /jf /sf] clwsf /nfO{ ;'lglZrt ug{sf nflu k} /jL ug]{ . cfk|jf;L sfdbf /x¿sf] clwsf /sf] cfGbf]ngnfO{ alnof] agfpg ljleGg ; /f]sf /jfnf lgsfox¿sf] Ifdtf clea[l4 ug]{ . sfdsf] nflu cfk|jf;gsf] qmddf a]rljvgdf jf cf]/]s g]kfn jflif{s k|ltj] bg jif{ @)&) 49

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