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jif{–#       c+s–(              d+l;/ @)^(      ? ;Dkfblso                                           !
        /fli6«o ckf·u dxf;+3 g]kfn
k"jf{~rn If]lqo sfof{no lj/f6gu/ 4f/f k|sflzt   ? gofF g]lqTj rog ub}{If]lqo clwj]zg
           jif{ #, c+s ( d+l;/ @)^(             ? ;xof]u klg ;lhn}df
              ;Nnfxsf/
                                                ? tYofs+df ckfu+tf
               ;'b{zg ;'j]bL
            /fd axfb'/ sfsL{                    ? b}ljk|sf]k Aoj:yfkgdf ckfu+tf ;jfn
             ;ltz rGb| emf                      ? g]kfndf ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ca:yf
           vu]Gb| axfb'/ e§/fO{                 ? gj k|ltefsf wlg ljqmd ;fDkfu+

            ;Dkfbs d08n                         ? olb ;j}6+s uf}td / /fhg kf}8]n e}lbP=====
            lji0f' k|;fb a/fn                   ? ;d'bfodf cfwf/Lt k'g{:yfkg,ljsf;qmd====
             od axfb'/ a:g]t                    ? lxljn lro/ k|of]ustf{nfO{;xof}u ug]{tl/sf
             pQd lzjfsf]6L
                                                ? ci6faqm km/s Ifdtfsf] klxnf] kf}/f0fLs====
              bfdf]b/ l/hfn
               /fh]Gb| bfxfn                    ? clwsf/sf] cleofg
                                                ? l;=la=cf/ sfo{qmd af6 df]/ª lhNnfsf]====
         Aoj:yfkg÷ljt/0f
                                                ? wgs'6f lhNnfsf] ckfËtf ultljwL
      /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfn
 k'jf{~rn If]lqo sfof{no lj/f6gu/               ? xfd|f] wd{df ckf+ux?sf] :yfg
                                                ? ;dfa]lz tyf clje]b kl/of]hgf
               k|sfzs                           ? af}l4s ckf+utfd}qL jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf====
     /fli6«o ckf+u dxf;+3 g]kfn
                                                ? cl6Hd Ps kl/ro
      k'jf{~rn If]lqo sfof{no
   lj/f6gu/–!% hgky6f]n df]/+u                  ? zflGt k|s[of / ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?
      kmf]g g+ M )@!–$&!)**                     ? b[li6 ;DalGw ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?sf=====
    O{d]n Mnfdnero@gmail.com                    ? /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfn ;+u cfj4====
            k|sfzg ;xof]u
   Knfg g]kfn, df]/Ë sfo{qmd OsfO{
    tyf g]b/Nof08 n]k|f];L l/nLkm,
              lj/f6gu/

         sDKo'6/ l8hfO P08 ;]l6ª
          ljj]s ofbj, lj/f6gu/–!%
              df]= (*)&#!)^*^
                     D'fb|0f
              c/lgsf] 5fkfvfgf
           lj/f6gu/–!%, hgky6f]n
             kmf]g g+= )@!%@^)&*

                                                      !                                ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
;DkfbsLo
          ckfu+ t fsf] ;jfnnfO{ jt{ d fg                   csf]{tkm{o; ju{sf nflu lgltut
kl/b[liodf r'gf}lt / ;Defjgfsf b'j} sf]0faf6       ?kdf w]/}ljifox? ;Djf]wg eP klg,
ljZn]if0f ug'{ ;fGble{s x'G5 . ;dosf]              dxf;lwsf] cg'df]bg eP klg ;f]sf]
ultlzntf, ckfu+tf If]qdf s[oflzn                   sfo{Gjogdf b]lvPsf] ;':ttf / pbfl;kgn]
;:yfx?sf] ;s[otf / bjfj d'ns k]}/jLsf              cfk kfs]/ klg vfg gkfPsf] cj:yf
sf/0f o; ;jfnnfO{ xfnsf s]lx jif{x¿af6             rf}tlkm{b]lvPsf] 5 . ckfu+tf cleofg ckfu+tf
;sf/fTds x]/fO{ / Go'g¿kdf eP klg                  ePsf AolQmx?sf] dfq rf;f}sf] ljifo jGg]
;+jf]wgsf] k|of; x'g yfn]sf] 5 . /fHoaf6           lj8Djgfn] ubf{ klg o; ;jfnn] ;xh?kdf
ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] nflu lzIff,                ;dflhs ;dfwfg kfpg ;ls/x]sf] 5}g .
:jf:Yo, /f]huf/ / kx'Frsf nflu lgltut              ckfu+tf ljsf;sf] d'4f / of] ;d:of ;dflhs
Joj:yfx? x'Fb}cfPsf] 5 / ;j} eGbf dxTjk"0f{        ;d:of ePsf] x'bf ;Dk'0f{;r]t gful/sx?sf]
ljifo t ckfu+tf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ cGo               nflu of] ;jfn ;femf ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo jGg'
gful/s ;x/ clwsf/sf] pkef]u ug]{                   k5{. ljsf; k|s[ofsf x/]s r/0fdf ckfu+tf
jftfj/0fsf] ;[hgf u/fpg afWo kfg]{ ckfËtf          ;jfn nfO{ ; Djf] w g ug{ ; lsPg eg]
ePsf AolQmx?sf] clwsf/ ;DjlGw                      hg;Vofsf] 7'nf] lx:;f lje]bdf kg{hfG5
cGt/fli6¿o dxf;lGw ;g @))^ nfO{                   h:sf] sf/0f ;d'Ggt ;dfh jgfpg] ;kgf
cg'df]bg ul/ g]kfn kIf /fi6| jlg ;s]sf]            ;fsf/ gx'g ;S5 To;}n] ckfu+tf ePsf
cj:yfn] xfld ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?sf]                AolQmx?sf] @! cf}cGt/fli6|o lbj;s}cj;/
elj:o w]/} xb ;Dd ;'/lIft x'g] lj:jf; lng          kf/]/ cj xfld ;j}n] k|0f u/f}ls ;j}lsl;dsf
;lsG5 . ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ;u+l7t             ljsf;sf k|s[ofx?df cljj]lb l;bfGtsf
cjfh qmdz bl/nf] x'b} hfbf ljj]bsf/L               cfwf/df ckfu+ t f ePsf AolQmx?
lgltx? tyf cj/f]wo'Qm jftfj/0f x? qmdz             nfO{;xeflutf u/fpb}gofF g]kfnsf] ofqf to
Go'lgs/0f x'g yfn]sf] 5 h'g Pp6f ckfu+tf           u/f}clg dfq ljsf; ;j}sf nflu,;dfh ;j}sf
clwsf/ cleofgsf] nflu ;sf/fTds kf6f]               nflu / /fi6| ;j}sf nflu eGg] gf/f ;fsf/
klg xf] .                                          x'G5 .

        ;dfh ;w}s;}sf] nflu gsf/fTds
x'b}g dfq p;nfO{ j'hfpg k|oTg hf/L /fVg'
k5{eGg] dfGotf :j?k ;r]tgfsf cleofgx?
Aofks ?kdf cufl8 j8]sf sf/0f ;d'bfo
:t/df klg ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx? xfd|f]
;jfn xfd|f] cu'jfO{eGb}jflx/ cfpg yfn]sf
5g / clwsf/sf] bflj ug{ yfn]sf 5g h'g
xfnsf jif{df x?df ckfu+tf ;jfnn] xfl;n
u/]sf ;'Gb/ kIfx? x'g .


                                               @                            ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
@! cf}“ ckf·utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] cGt/f{li6«o
                        lbj;sf] ;Gbe{ M
        ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?sf] gf/ul/s tyf /fhg}lts, cfly{s, ;fdfhLs tyf ;f:s[lts
clwsf/sf] dfu ub}{ ckfËtfsf] If]qdf lqmoflzn ;+3 ;+:yfx?sf] lg/Gt/ bjfjsf] kmn:j?k ;+o'Qm /fi6«
;+3n] ;g !(*! df ckfËtf ;DjlGw ljZjAofkL sfo{of]hgf tof/ u/L kf/Lt ul/Psf] lbg # l8;]Dj/
nfO{cGt/fli6«o ?kd} ckfËutf ePsf AolQmx?sf] lbj;sf] ?kdf dgfpg] k|rng /lx cfPsf] 5 . pQm lbg
kf/Lt u/LPsf] ;f] b:tfj]h sfof{Gjogsf nfuL !(*! nfO{ cGt/fli6«o ckfË jif{, !(*@ b]vL !((! ;Dd
cGt/fli6« ckfË bzs / !((@ b]vL lgoldt ?kdf ckfËtf lbj; ;+;f/e/ Pp6} gf/fsf;fy ljleGg
sfo{qmdx?sf] cfof]hgf ub}{ eAotfsf ;fy dgfOG5 . of] lbj;df Psflt/ ckfËutf If]qdf k|fKt ePsf
;kmntfx? tyf ckfËtf If]qdf cfufdL lbgdf ug'{kg]{ ljleGg cleofg tyf dfux?nfO{ p7fg ug]{,
ljleGg If]qdf ;kmntf k|fKt u/]sf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ ;Ddfg ub}{ cGo ckfËtf ePsf
JolQmx?df xf};nf / pT;fx k|bfg ug]{, ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?n] ljleGg dgf]/~hgsf sfo{qmdx? ub}{
Pscfk;df v'l; ;f6f ;f6 ub}{ of] lbj; dgfOb} cfPsf] 5 . o;} cleofgnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg]qmd ;+u} ljZj
sfo{ of]hgfaf6 z'? ePsf] of]hgfj4 ljsf;nfO{ Aojl:yt ug{, ljBdfg ;jfnx? p7fg u/L ;dfwfgdf
;/f]sf/jfnfx/sf] Wofgfsif{0f ug{ u/fpg tyf ;kmn ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?nfO{ ;Ddfg ub} cGo
JolQmx?df xf};nf / pTk|]/0ff k|bfg ug{sf nfuL of] jif{klg ljljw sfo{qmd ;lxt of] lbj; dgfpg] nIo
to u/LPsf] 5 .

ljut !% jif{sf cGt/f{i6«o ckfËtf lbj;sf gf/fx?n] u/]sf k|ltj4tfx? M
1998 – Art Culture and Independent Living -snf ;+:s[lt / :jfjnDjg hLjgk4lt_
1999 – Accessibility for all new millennium -gofF ;x;|fJbLdf ;j}sf] kx'Fr_
2000 – Making information technologies work for all -;"rgf k|ljlwnfO{;j}sf]nflu pkof]uL jgfpF_
2001 – Full participation and equality: the call for new ap-proaches to assess progress and evaluate
outcome -k"0f{ ;xefuLtf / ;dfgtf M k|ult / kl/0ffdnfO{ d'Nof+sg ug]{ gofF cjwf/0ffsf] nflu cfXjfg _
2002 – Independent Living and Sustainable livelihoods -:jfjnDjg hLjgk4lt / lbuf] hLjgofkg_
2003 – A voice of our own -xfd|f] nflu xfd|} cfjfh_
2004 – Nothing about us without us -xfd|f] nflu xfd|} ;xeflutf_
2005 – Rights of persons with disability: Action in Develop-ment -ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ M
ljsf;df ;dfj]zLs/0f_
2006 – E-Accessibility -ljB'tLo ;"rgf k|ljlwdf kx'Fr_
2007 – Decent Work for persons with disabilities -ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] nflu ;Ddfgk"0f{sfd_
2008 – Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities: Dignity and justice for all of us -ckf+utf
ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ ;DjGwL dxf;+wL M ;j}sf] nflu cfTd;Ddfg / Gofo _
2009 – Making the MDGs inclusive: Empowerment of persons with disabilities and their
communities around the world -;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIfdf ;dfj]zLs/0f M ckf+utf ePsf JolQm tyf ltgsf
;d"bfosf] ljZjJofkL z;lQms/0f_
2010 – Keeping the promise: Mainstreaming Disability in the Millennium Development Goals
towards 2015 and beyond -k|ltj4tfsf] ;Ddfg M ;g @)!% ;Dd / kZrft ;x;|fAbL ljsf;
nIfdf ckf+utfsf] d"n k|jflxs/0f _
2011 - æ ;'gf}nf] ljZjsf] nflu ;j}sf] ;DnUgtf M ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQmx? ;d]tsf] ljsf;df ;xeflutfÆ
2012 - "Removing barriers to create an inclusive and accessible society for all"
Æ cj/f]wx? x6fpb};j}sf nflu ;dfj]lz tyf kx'ro'Qm ;dfhsf] l;h{gf u/f}Æ
                                        @                          ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
gof“ g]lqTj rog ub}{ If]lqo clwj]zg
                                                                                bfdf]b/ l/hfn
                                                                         ;b:o, /f=c=d=k"=If]=sf

         /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfn ;du| ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?sf] clwsf/nfO{ :yflkt ug{
ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?4f/f ;+rflnt ;+:yfx? ldln lj=;+ @)%) ;fndf :yflkt 5ftf ;ªu7g
xf] . cfˆgf] :yfkgf sfn b]lv g} dxf;+3 ;Dk"0f{ ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ufF;, af;, skf;,
lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/ / ;'/Iffsf] k"0f{k|Tofe'tL sf nfuL lg/Gt/ ;+3if{l;n 5 . o; qmddf
dxf;+3sf % j6f If]lqo sfof{nox? / &$ lhNnfdf @%) j6f ;b:o ;+:yfx? sf] kl/rfng ul/
cfkmgf] clwsf/d'vL cleofg ;+rfng ul//]sf] 5 . dxf;+3n] lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt /
uf=lj=;=:tl/o ;dGjo ;ldltx? :yfkgf ub}{cfkmgf] ;GhfnLs/0f cleofg / sfo{If]qnfO{
ljs]lGb|s[t ?kdf lj:tf/ ub}{cuf8L a9]sf] 5 .
          /fli6«o ckfË dxfF;+3 g]kfnsf] ldlt @)^* ;fn kmfNu'g ^,& / *df lj/f6gu/df
;DkGg 5}6f}+ /li6«o dxflwj]zg k:rft cfkmgf % j6}If]lqo ;ldltsf clwj]zgx? klg ;DkGg
e};s]sf 5g .
        k|hftflGqs cEof;af6 g]lqTj rog ug]{ / ;+:yfdf nf]stGqsf] k"0f{ cEof; ug]{ qmddf
/fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfn k"jf{rn If]lqo sfof{no la/f6tu/n] cfkmgf] 5}6f}+ aflif{s ;fwf/0f
;ef tyf t];|f] If]lqo clwj]zg ut @)^( cfiff9 % / ^ ut] pbok'/ lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfd
ufO3f6dff ;DkGg u/]sf] 5 f /fli6«o ckfË dxfF;+3 g]kfnsf] s]lGb|o dxflbj]zg la/f6gu/df
;DkGg eP kZrft k"=If]=sf= n] o; aif{;DkGg u/]sf] bf];|f] 7"nf] sfo{S|mk klg xf] of] clwj]zg .
          k"j{~rn ljsf; If]q cGt/ut /x]sf !^ j6} lhNnf df sfo{/t cfkmgf $( j6f ;b:o
;+:yfsf !)) hgf k|ltlgwL x? / @) hgf ko{AoIfsx? pkl:yt /xsf] pQm sfo{qmd @ lbg
;Dd rn]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf ;+:yfut k|ult k|ltj]bg tyf eflj sfo{of]hgf ;lrj lji0f' a/fn
af6 k|:t't ul/Psf] lyof] eg] ;+:yfut cfly{s k|ult k|ltj]bg tyf eflj sfo{qmdsf] cg'dflgt
nfut ljj/0f sf]iffWoIf kfj{tf >]i6 af6 k|:t't ul/Psf] lyof] .
        pQm clwj]zgn] ;lt; rGb| emf sf] g]lqTjdf /x]sf] dxf;+3sf] If]lqo sfo{ ;ldltnfO{
ljbfO ub}{ /fd axfb'/ sfsL{sf] cWoIftfdf !# ;bl;o If]lqo sfo{ ;ldltsf] ;d]t rot u/]sf]
lyof] .




                                             #                            ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
/fli6«o ckf· dxfF;+3 g]kfnsf] at{dfg k"jf{rn If]lqo so{ ;ldlt ljj/0f




                                 $                     ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
b[li6sf]0f
                            ;xof]u klg ;lhn}df
           lbg k|ltlbg ;'wf/ ePem} nfU5 . df]/ª,
6+sL l;g'jf/Lsf j'4nfn uR5bf/ cf7 jif{sf]                                        /fhg kf}8]n
5f]/f] sfFvdf /fv]/ lgxfn]/ x]b}{ eG5g .
oxfF;Dd Nofpg / n}hfg g} cK7of/f] k5{ .                  kfrF dlxgf eof] s]Gb| ;'? u/]sf] .
g ;fOsndf x'G5 g df]6/;fOsndf . l/S;fdf          s]6fs]l6x? clncln d:s'/fpg yfn]sf 5g .
NofpFbf ;o ?k}ofF ef8f nfU5 . To;}n] 6+sL        olx g} dxTjk"0f{ kl/jt{g xf] . xf]d lelh6 eGbf
rf}saf6 gf}jh] j; r95' . ljh'nL clkm;           s]Gb|}l7s . 5f]§}cjlw b]lvPsf] k|ultdf bªu
5]pdf cf]ln{5' clg af]s]/ NofpF5' . 5f8]/ hfpF   l5g lutf vjf; . dw'/ ;+lutsf] w'g alh/xG5 .
km]l/ a]n'sf rf/ jh] lng cfpg' k5{ . lbgel/      w'g;Fu}sf]lx kfn}kfnf] u/]/ v'§f prnL lbG5g .
olx a:5' . cfly{s cj:yf sdhf]/ ePsf d            sf]lx xft ;dft]/ p7fpg] sf]lz; u5{g .
h:tfnfO{ 6]Sg' g ;dfpg'' < ;Gtfgsf] dfof /       6fpFsf] l;wf jgfpg 3fF6Lsf] k5fl8 d;fh s'g}
;f; x'Gh]n cfzf x'g] g} eof] . la=P= k9bf k9b} emsf]{ kmsf]{ 5}g . k|To]s kf]lh;gdf cfxf Û
hlGdPsf] lyof] o;sf] x]/rfx / pkrf/s} nflu       s:tf] /fd|f] u/]sf] . km]l/ u/f} x}F < knkndf
k9fOg} 5f8g'                                                                      xf};nfo'Qm
k/] s f] ljut                                                                      gd| af]nL /
sf] 6  o fp5g .                                                                  d f o f n '
ckfªtfsf]                                                                          jftfj/0f .
If]qdf sfd ug]{                                                                    3'8fFsf] ;dfh
;+3–;+:yf t w]/}                                                                   ub} { lutfn]
5g t/ otf kl§                                                                     elgg o;sf]
Wofg lbPsf                                                                         v' § } rNb} g
5} g g pgsf]                                                                      lyP . ;+dftL
ljrf/df .                                                                          lbof] eg] cln
g]qlxg, alx/f,                                                                     cln lx8 g
z f l / l / s                                    yfn]sf] 5 . l5§} lx8f]; eGg] t nfU5 t/ eg]
ckfªnfO{ klg ;xof]u rflxG5 . t/ Tof] eGbf        h:tf] x'b}ggL Û lj:tf/} cg'xf/df b]lvPsf] v'zL
cem ;xof]u o:tfnfO{ h?/L k5{ . v}s] ug'{ <       clg o:t} /f]lu emds lwld/]sf] ;kmntfn]
;xof]u klg ;lhn}df hfg] /x]5 . o;}sf] nflu       xfdLnfO{ xf};nf lbPsf] atfpl5g . d':s'/fPsf]
kl/jf/sf Pshgfn] k'/} ;do lbg'k5{ . d]/f]        a]nfdf c?;Fu v]Ng ?rfpg], af]Ng vf]Hg]
h:tf] sxfgL c?sf] klg plx xf] . of] t n's]sf]    glhlsg] s|d al9 g} x'G5 . s]Gb|sf] /fd|f] kIf g}
cfkt xf]gL Û pgn] yk] . sd;]sd s]Gb|;Dd          olx xf] . lj/f6gu/ dft[sf dfu{df cjl:yt
Nofpg] / n}hfg] ;fwg eP w]/} /fxt x'g]lyof] .    s]Gb|df k|To]s lbg b'O{hgf cleefjsx? kfnf]
kfnf]df cfpg' jfx]s c? lbgt sfd ug{              u/]/ cfpg' x'G5 . lkmlhof]y]/fkL, vfhf
kfO{GYof] . ;]/]j|n kN;L -l;=lk_ lzz' :ofxf/     v'jfpg / v]nfpg] ug'{ x'G5 :jod ;]jssf]
cyf{t jfn dl:tis kIff3ft ePsf                    ?kdf . oxfF l;s]sf] 3/df sfd nfU5 . dfl;s
afnaflnsf :ofxf/ s]Gb|df e]l6Psf pgsf]           ltg ;o / 5f]/f5f]/L Nofpg] / n}hfg]
egfO dfld{s 5 .                                  cleefjsn] g} ug'{k5{ .
                                               %                             ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
b[li6sf]0f
                                                s'g} lsl;dsf] ljs[tL x'g' . jx' ckfªtf Tof]
        dl:tis kIff3ft :jfjnDjg ;d"x /          klg j|]g;+u ;DalGwt s]z t hl6n x'G5 pgsf]
/f]6/L 6fpg lj/f6gu/sf] ;xof]udf ;Grfng         ljrf/df . l;lk ePsfsf] pkrf/ / k'gM:yfkgf
eO/x]sf] s]Gb|df k'jf{~rns} klxnf] xf] .        t ug}{k5{ . Tof;} o;af6 ;'/lIft x'g]
dl:tis, kIf3ft ePsf P3f/ hgf                    pkfox?df klg hf]8 lbg' k5{. d"Vo ?kdf
afnaflnsf 5g . pgLx? gu/kflnsf /               ue{jtL cj:yfdf kf}li6s vfgf vfg', cjwL
cf;kf;sf uflj;sf x'g .                         k'ludfq csf]{ ue{ x'g' . lgoldt :jf:Yo kl/If0f
                                                u/fpg' ue{j:yfdf 8fS6/sf] ;nnfxdf dfq
        uef{j:yfdf jf kl5 slnnf] dl:tisdf       cf}ifwL vfg' , ;?jf /f]uaf6 aRg' / cko"Qm
clS;hgsf] sld x'gfn] jfn dl:tis kIff3ft         :jf:y ;+:yfdf ;'ts]/L u/fpg' k5{ .
x'G5 . :qL /f]u ljz]if1 ddtf jdf{elG5gj|]g /
jl8sf] sg]S;g gePkl5 rfn / hLpsf]                           dl:tis kIff3ft afnaflnsfsf
l:ytLdf sl7gfO{ x'G5 . pgL elG5g dl:tis        cfdfafj'nfO{ dfgl;s, cfly{s tyf ;fdlhs
kIff3ft x'g'sf d'Vo ltg sf/0fx? 5g . klxnf]    ?kdf ck7of/f] k/]sf] x'G5 . t;y{o:tf]
aRrf hGdg' cl3sf sf/0fx?df ue{jtL               afnaflnsfsf] plrt x]/rfx pkrf/ /
cj:yfdf kf]i6Ls cfxf/df sdL, dw'd]x, pRr        cleefjs b'j}nfO{ ;xof]u rflxG5 . t;y{
/Qmrfk / bfb'/f cfpg' x'g . bf];|f] aRrf       ckfªtfsf] nflu sfd ug]{ ;/sf/L / u}/
hGdbfsf sf/0fx? gjhft lzz'nfO{                  ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?n] otfkl6 Wofg lbg' h?/L 5 .
clS;hgsf] sld eP/ hGdgf ;fy g?g' jf             ;txL ;xof]u, t?Gt glthf b]lvg] sfddf /
;f; km]g{ l9nf] x'g' . k|;j j]bgf nfdf] jf      cfkm" cg's"n sfd ug]{ k2lt abn]/ of] If]qnfO{
si6k|b x'g' . dlxgf gk'Ub} aRrf hGdg' /         ;d] 6  g ' k 5{ . tYofÍ cg' ; f/ o:tf
aRrfsf] tf}n sd x'g' . To:t} t];|f] aRrf hGd    afnaflnsfsf] ;+Vof g]kfndf && xhf/
kl5sf sf/0fx?df d] l gghfO{ l 6;,               k"jf{~rndf ;ft ;o, df]/ªdf ltg ;o krf; /
OG;]kmnfO{l6;n] dl:tisdf ;+s|d0f ug'{, 5f/]     lj/f6gu/df %% hgf 5g .
/f]u nfUg', 6fpsf]df rf]6 nfUg' / dl:tisdf      rajan-paudel@hotmail.com




                                            ^                              ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
;jfn

                  tYofªsdf ckf·tf Ps hfgsf/L
                                                                        If]lqo sfo{no

g]kfndf ckfËutfsf] l:ytL M
         g]kfn Ps ljs6, u/Lj / ljslf]Gd'v d'n's xf] . oxf+sf dflg;x? n}l‹s, hflto tyf
cfly{s ?kn] jlu{s[t 5g . b]zsf] ef}uf]nLs ljefhg, ln+u, ;fdfhLs, cfly{s cj:yf, ckf+utf
cfbL ljrsf] ljle]b pNn]vlgo /x]sf] 5 . u/Llj / ckf+utf ljr glhssf] ;DjGw /x]sf]
tYof+snfO{ljleGg /fli6«o tyf cGt/fli6«o ;+:yfx?n] k'li6 u/L;s]sf 5g. t;y{u/Llj /
clzIffs} sf/0fn] g]kfndf ckf+ukg lbgfg'lbg jl9/x]sf] 5 eGbf cltzof]QmL gxf]nf . csf]{lt/
b]zdf ljBdfg /fhg}lts c;Gt'ngn] ckf+utfsf] Aoj:yfkgnfO{k|efljt ;d]t kf/L/x]sf] 5 .
s'kf]if0f, b'3{6gf, x]/rfxsf] sdL, c1fgtf / 4G4nfO{ g]kfndf ckf+utfsf] d'Vo sf/0f dfGg
;lsG5 .
         xfn ;Dd g]kfndf ckfËutf ePsf AolQmx?sf] e/kbf]{tYof+s gePtf klg ljleGg
;/sf/L tyf u}/ ;/sf/L lgsfox?n] u/]sf] gd'gf ;j]{If0fsf cfwf/df ckf+utfsf]
cj:yfnfO{tYof+sut ?kdf lgDg cg';f/ x]g{;lsG5 .

xfn ;Dd ePsf cWooog / lgisif{ -s'n hg;+Vofsf]_ M
   ?   s]lGb|o tYof+s ljefusf] u0fgf, ;g @))!                    !=%)Ü
   ?   ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7gsf] ljZjAoflk ;e]{If0f cg'dfg, ;g !(&^   !)=)) Ü
   ?   ckf+ux? jf/] gd'gf /fli6«o ;e]{If0f, ;g !(*)              #=)) Ü
   ?   /fli6«o hgu0fgf, ;g !(*!                                  )=%) Ü
   ?   CERIDSEUBDEPDANIDA, ;Gf !((% -cf7 lhNnfdf u/]sf] cWoog_ $=%% Ü
   ?   APPROSE , ;GF !(*!                                         #=$! Ü
   ?   /Fli6«o hgu0FGFf, ;GF @))!                                  )=$% Ü
   ?   /fli6«o of][hgf cfof]usf] ;e]{If0f, ;g @))!                 !=^# Ü
   ?   >f]tM s]lGb|o tYof+s ljefu, UNICEF-NPC, 2001_

        oL /fli6«o :t/sf ljleGg tYofªssf cfwf/df ljleGg lhNnfdf ljleGg ;+:yfx?n]
u/]sf ;j]{If0f tyf cWoog ;d]tn] ckfËtfsf] ;+Vof / k|ltztnfO{ km/s–km/s ?kdf k|:t't
u/]sf] 5 . ckfËtfsf] kl/efiff / jlu{s/0f cg'?k u0fsx?n] ;lx ?kdf tYof+s lng g;Sg',
kl/jf/ tyf ;dfhn] ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?nfO{ b]vfpg grfxg', ckfËtfnfO{ x]g]{ ;dfhsf]
km/s cjwf/0f cflbn] ubf{ tYofªsdf km/skgf cfPsf] ckfËutf ;jfndf sfo{ ug]{
clwsf/sdL{x?sf] bfjL /lx cfPsf] 5 . tyfkL klg ckfËutf ;jfndf sfd ug]{ ljsf; ;+:yfx?
/ clwsf/sdL{x?n] s'n hg;+Vofsf] !) k|ltzt eGbf jl9 ckfËutfsf] ;+Vof /x]sf bfjL ug{
eg] 5f]8]sf 5}gg . o;} k[i7e"dLdf o;;Fu ;DjlGwt lgsfon] k'jf{~rnsf s]xL lhnnfx?df
u/]sf] ;j]{If0f tyf cWoogsf cfwf/df kfOPsf s]xL tYofªsx?nfO{ lgDg cg';f/ k|;t't
u/LPsf] 5 M
? lh=lj=;= ;'g;/L / j8{lehg g]kfn @))^ / @))& -;'g;/L lhNnf_                M $=*&
? l;=lj=cf/ lj/f6gu/ @))&                         -df]/+u lhNnf_            M !=^#
                                          &                        ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
b[li6sf]0f
              b}ljs k|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf ckf·tf ;jfn
                                                                            dgf]h uf]lxjf/
                                                                          sfo{qmd ;+of]hs
                                                              /f=c=d=g]kfn, s]lGb|o sfo{no
         b}ljk|sf]ksf] a]nf h'g;'s} ;d'bfo klg plQs} hf]lvddf ePtf klg pgLx?n] Joxf]g]{
hf]lvdsf] uflDeo{tf pgLx?sf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs cj:yf, p¢f/ ;fdfu|L, k|sf]k ;DaGwL r]tgf
tyf JolQmut udglzntfdf e/kg]{ x'G5 . hxfF;Dd ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;jfn
b}ljk|sf]k;Fu hfl8G5, pgLx?sf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs cj:yf, JolQmut udglzntf, k|sf]k
;DaGwL r]tgf h:tf s'/fx? c? ju{ ;d'bfosf] t'ngfdf Go"g x'G5 . h;sf] kl/0ffd:j?k
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx? Emergency sf] a]nfdf ul/g] Evacuation / To;kl5 ckgfOg] /fxt
ljt/0f k|s[ofdf ;w}F kl5 kfl/g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . k|sf]ksf] a]nfdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{
p4f/ ug]{ JolQm ;d]t hf]lvddf kg]{ ;Defjgf ePsfn] cfˆg}kl/jf/sf ;b:o klg pgLx?nfO{
p4f/ ug{ tfTko{ xF'b}gg .
        blIf0f Plzofsf] b]zx? dWo] g]kfn klg b}ljk|sf]ksf] b[li6sf]0fn] hf]lvd w/ftnsf] ?kdf
/x]sf] 5 . e"sDk, k}/f], af9L, cfunflu h:tf 36gfx? ljleGg ;dodf 3l6t x'Fb} cfPsf] oyfy{
cjut} 5 . lo b'3{6gfx?sf] k|efj Go"lgs/0f ug{ s]Gb| b]lv :yfgLo:t/;Dd ljleGg ;+oGqx?
;+rfngdf /x]sf] 5 . t/ clxn] ;Ddsf] s'g} klg b}ljk|sf]k Go"lgs/0f cleofg÷sfo{÷tflnddf
ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;Djf]wg ul/Psf] kfO{b}g .
         clxn] g]kfnsf] /fHo k'g{;+/rgf tyf gofF ;+ljwfg n]vg k|s[of cuf8L a9fOPsf] 5 /
cGt/fli6«o :t/df g]kfn ;/sf/n] ckfËtf clwsf/ ;DaGwL dxf;lGw (CRPD) sf] ;d]t
cg'df]bg ul/;s]sf] 5 . o; kl/k|]Iodf g]kfndf klg lzIff, :jf:Yo, zflGt k|s[of nufotsf
kIfx?df ck]lIft ?kdf gePklg s]lxxb;Dd ckfËtfsf ;jfn k|ltlalDat ePsf] kfOP klg
b}ljk|sf]k ;DalGw l:yltdf Wofg gk'/ofOg' cfkm}df v]bk"0f{5 . o;sf k5fl8 ljleGg sf/s
tTjx? x'g ;S5 t/ cfhsf] kl/j]zdf ckfËtfsf ;jfn b}ljk|sf]ksf] x/]s k|s[ofut of]hgfdf
k|ltlglwTj x'g'kb{5 . t;y{ Disability nfO{ b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf lgDg lsl;dn] ;dfof]hg
ug'{k5{ .
ckfËtf ;jfnnfO{ b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf ;dfj]z ul/g'kg]{sf cfwf/x?M
        ;}4flGts tyf Jojxfl/s cfwf/M b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf k/Dk/fut cjwf/0ff cg';f/
s'g} klg k|sf]k 3l6t eO;s]kl5 jf 3l6/x]sf] a]nfdf bIf k|ljlw 6f]lnn] p4f/sf] sfd ug]{ / To;
kl5 k|sf]k k|efljt ;d'bfonfO{ cfly{s, ;fdflhs k'g:yf{kgfsf] sfd ug]{ /x]sf] lyof] t/ of]
cjwf/0ff / o;sf] cEof;n] k|efjsf/L kl/0ffd lbg g;s]sf]n] b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf tLg j6f
r/0fx?sf] klxrfg ul/of] .


                                            *                                 ¿kfGt/0f
b[li6sf]0f
!=      b}ljk|sf]k k"j{ul/g] tof/L
@=      b}ljk|sf]k 3l6/x]sf] cj:yfdf To;sf] k|efjnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug]{ lqmofsnfkx? .
#=      k|sf]k kl5 ul/g] ;fdflhs, cfly{s k'g{:yfkgf Pj+ ef}lts k'g/;+/rgf ;DaGwL
        lsofsnfkx?
       k/Dk/fut cjwf/0ff kl5 ljsl;t of] gofF cjwf/0ffn] k|sf]k hf]lvd If]qsf
;d'bfonfO{g}b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf kl/rfng u/L, cgfofz}36g] ;Defljt k|sf]ksf] c;/
Go"gLs/0f ug{nufpg' k5{eg] dfGotf :yflkt u/]sf] kfO{G5 . o;} cjwf/0ff cg';f/ k|sf]k
;Defljt If]qx?sf] klxrfg u/L pQm If]qdf /x]sf] hf]lvdk"0f{;d'bfonfO{k|ToIf ;xeflu u/fO{
Early Warning System (Symbols), Emergency Plan, Services having Universal design,
Training h:tf ultljwLx? ;~rfng ul/g' k5{eg] dfGotf /x]sf] 5 .
sfg'gL cwf/
         ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw dxf;lGwsf] wf/f !! cg';f/ kIf /fi6«x?n]
cGt/fli6«o sfg'g, cGt/fli6«o dfgjLo sfg'g / cGt/fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ sfg'gn] Joj:yf
u/]sf] bfloTjsf] cwf/df x/]s k|sf/sf cfktsflng kl/l:ylt, ;Zf:q 4Gb, dfgjLo ;s+6 /
b}ljk|sf]ksf] cj:yfdf ;a}k|sf/sf cfjZos pkfo tyf ;fwgx?sf] k|of]u ul/ ckfËtf ePsf
JolQmx?sf] ;+/If0f / ;'/Iff ug{' kb{5 .
b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ s;/L ;dflxt ug]{
(How to Integrate Disability)?

 ? s'g} klg b}ljk|sf]k ;+efljt If]qdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] tYofÍ lhNnf b}ljk|sf]k
     ;ldltn] lng' kg]{ .
 ? Emergency Planning ubf{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?¢f/f ;~rflnt ;+:yf (DPOs) x? ;Fu
     ;dGjo ul/ ckfËtfsf] k|fs[lt, pgLx?nfO{ p¢f/ ubf{rflxg] ;fdfu|L, ;xof]usf] af/]df
     lhNnf b}ljk|sf]k ;ldltn] hfgsf/L lng' kb{5 .
 ?    b}ljk|sf]k k"j{;fjwfgL ckgfpgsf nflu ;+rf/ ul/g] ;'rgfsf] dfWod, ckfËtf d}lq x'g'
     kb{5 .
 ?    cfktsflng 4f/ jf dfu{x? ljleGg k|s[ltsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] nflu ;xh /
     kx'Fr of]Uo x'g' kb{5 .
 ?    b}ljk|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"lgs/0fsf nflu ;+rfng ul/g] tflnd, tof/ kfl/g] k|rf/ k;f/
     ;fdfu|L, ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;Nnfx / plgx?sf] k|ToIf ;xeflutfdf ug{' kb{5 .
 ?    lhNnf b}ljk|sf]k Go"lgsf/0f ;ldlt, ;d'bflos b}ljk|sf]k Go"lgs/0f ;ldltdf plgx?sf]
     k|ToIf ;xeflutf u/fpg' kb{ 5 .




                                          (                               ¿kfGt/0f
;kmntfsf] syf

                g]kfndf ckf·tf ePsf JolQmx?sf] cj:yf

                                                                            ;ltz rGb| emf
                                                                              s]lGb|o ;b:o
        g]kfndf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf]          s8f sfd gu/L b}lgs vfg]s'/fsf] Joj:yf
cj:yfnfO{ x]g{] xf] eg] of] cToGt} b'MvbfoL /   ug{g;Sg] cj:yf ePsf] / cfkmgf] kl/jf/df
;d:of u|:t dfq xf]Og dfgj clwsf/sf]             ePsf] ckf+u ;b:on] pQm sfo{df ;xof]u
pkof]u ;Ddflgt hLjg / ljsf;sf] d'n              ug{g;Sg] jf Psbd}sd dfq ;xof]u ug{;Sg]
wf/faf6 w]/} 6f9f ePsf] k|ToIf cg'ej ug{        ePsfn] k|fo kl/jf/n] cfkmgf] ckf+utf ePsf]
;lsG5 . g]kfnL ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx? cem}        ;GtfgnfO{kl/jf/sf] Pp6f af]emsf] ?kdf
klg k/Dk/fjfbL / ?9LjfbL ;fdflhs ;f]rsf         dx;'; ug{] u5{g .
lzsf/ ePsf 5g . h;n] ckf+utfnfO{
dflg;sf] Pp6f vf; :jf:Yo l:ytL gdfg]/                  k|hftGqsf] k'g:yf{kgf kl5 ckfËtf
k'j{hGdsf] kfksf] kmn dfGg] ul/G5 . of]         ePsf JolQmx?åf/f g} cfkm'k|lt ul/g]
;f]rfO{sf] sf/0fn] Psflt/ ckf+utf ePsf          e]befjsf] lj?4 cfGbf]lnt ug{] / cfkmgf]
JolQmx?n] Pp6f dfgjLo hLjg eGbf cnUu}           clwsf/sf] :yfkgfsf] nfuL cfkm}n8g] pB]Zo
l5 l5 / b'/b'/sf] hLjg latfO/xg' k/]sf] 5 eg]   lnP/ w]/} ;+:yfx?sf] :yfkgf eof] t/ g]t[Tj /
csf{]lt/ pgLx?sf] kl/jf/n] ;d]t ;dfhaf6         Joj:yfksLo Ifdtf, hgjsfnt tyf :yflgo
ckx]lnt x'g' k/]sf] 5 h;sf] kl/0ffd :j?k        ;fwg >f]tsf] kl/rfng ug{] Ifdtf / b]zJofkL
o;tf kl/jf/x? klg e]l6G5gh;n] cfkmgf          ?kdf Pp6f alnof] P]Soa4tfsf] cefjdf
ckfËtf ePsf] kl/jf/sf] ;b:onfO{ ;dfhaf6         ltgLx?åf/f p7fOPsf cfjfhx? :yflgo
n'sfP/ /fVg] k|of; u5{g .                      :t/df ckfËx?sf clwsf/ :yflkt ug{ hlt
                                                k|efjsf/L x'g'kg{] xf] Tolt x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g .
         w]/} h;f] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx? ul/a
kl/jf/af6 x'g] ePsfn] ul/aLsf] sf/0fn]                  w]/}h;f] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx? cfkm}
b]vfkg{] kl/0ffdx?sf] yk efuLbf/ x'g'kb{5 .     tyf pgLx?sf cleefjsx? ckf+utfsf vf;
pgLx? k|lt ;dfhsf] gfsf/fTds ;f]r,              sf/0fx? ckfËtf ePkl5 x'g'kg{] pkrf/ tyf
cj/f]wo'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f, cleefjsx?sf]        k'g:yf{kgfsf pkfox? ckf+utfsf /f]uyfdsf
cfkmgf ckfËtf ;Gtfgk|ltsf] pbfl;gtf,           pkfox? ;/sf/L ;'ljwfx? sfg'gL Joj:yfx?
sdhf]/ cfly{s cj:yf OTofbL s'/fx?n]             nufot u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?sf k|of;x?
ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ lzIff, :jf:Yo,         af/]sf hfgsf/Laf6 w]/} g} 6f9f 5g .
;~rf/, ;xfos ;fdfu|L, /f]huf/, dfgj
clwsf/ / ljleGg ;fdflhs lqmofsnfkx?af6
w]/}6f9f /x]sf 5g.
         g]kfn Pp6f ;'kl/j]li7t / *%% eGbf
a9L hgtf k/Dk/fut s'/fdf cfl>t d'n's xf]
h;sf] w]/}h;f] u|fld0f If]q cljsl;t / ul/a
hgtfn] cf]u6]sf] 5 . u|fld0f hgtf v]tdf uP/
                                            !)                                   ¿kfGt/0f
;kmntfsf] syf

              ckf·tfsf] ;afndf ljBdfg sfg'gL k|fjwfgx?
       ckf+utf ;DjlGwt sfg'gsf] s'/fx?                                      anb]j d08n
s]nfpbf cGt/fli6«o ;Gbe{nfO{la;{g ldNb}g .
ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/x?sf]
clwsf/sf] s'/f ubf{klxnf] cGt/fli6«o sfg'gL sNof0fsf/L efjgfn] NofO{Psf] x'bf o;sf]
b:tfa]hsf] ?kdf dfgj clwsf/ ;DjlGw          vf; sfg'gL x}l;ot dflgb}g . /fHon] :j]R5fsf]
ljZjAofkL 3f]if0ffkq !($* nfO{{lng ;lsG5 .  cfwf/df o;nfO{nfu' ug{] elg 5f]l8Psf]n]
o;}sf cfwf/df tof/ ePsf gful/s,             o;sf] sfg'gL kIf cToGt} lkmtnf] x'g uPsf] xf]
/fhg}lts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts        . of] P]g ag]sf] !@ aif{kl5 lgodfanL aGg' /
clwsf/ ;DjlGw k|lt1f kq, af}l4s ckf+u       csf{] !# aif{kl5 To;sf] sfo{of]hgf aGg'n]
JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ ;DjlGw 3f]if0ffkq !(&!,   ckf+u JolQmnfO{bofdfofsf] kfqsf] ?kdf
ckf+u JolQmsf] clwsf/ ;DjlGw 3f]if0ffkq     :yflkt ug{vf]h]sf] eP klg of] b:tfa]h w]/}g}
!(&%, ckf+u JolQm ;DjlGw ljZj sfo{of]hgf    ck'/f] / cw'/f] dflgG5 . o;sf cnfjf
!(*@, afnclwsf/ ;DjlGw dxf;lGw !(*(,        ckf+ux?sf] lzIffsf] plrt Joj:yfsf nfuL
;a}sf] nfuL lzIff ljZj ;Dd]ng, yfO{Nof8     lzIff P]g @)@*, lgodfanL @)%(, laif]z
hf]dl6g !((), ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf]       lzIff gLlt @)%# df s]lx Joj:yfx? ul/Psf]
cj;/ ;df0fLs/0f ;DjlGw k|dfl0fs lgodx?      kfO{G5 . o;}ul/ :yflgo :jfoQ zf;g P]g
!(($, ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/        @)%% n] ckf+ux?sf] tYof+s :yflgo :t/df
;DjlGw cGt/fli6«o dxf;lGw @))^ h:tf         cWofjlws ug'{kg{], pgLx?sf nfuL cfjZos
b:tfa]hx? cGt/fli6«o ?kd} dxTjk'0f{         sfo{qmdx? agfO{sfof{Gjog ul/g' kg{] :yflgo
dflgG5g.                                   lgsfox?n] ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] cfly{s
       g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df x]bf{g]kfnsf] cGtl/dtyf ;fdflhs ljsf;df ;xof]u k'/ofpgsf
;+ljwfg @)^# sf] wf/f ## -3_ df /fHosf]     nfuL :yflgo :t/df k|fKt x'g] cg'bfg /sdsf]
lgb{]zs l;4fGtsf ?kdf d'n'ssf] /fHo         ! b]lv % k|ltzt /sd ;Ddsf] sfo{qmd
;+/rgfsf] ;a}c+ux?df ckf+utf ePsf           agfO{sfof{Gjog ul/g' kg{], :yflgo :t/df
JolQmx?nfO{;dfg'kflts ;dfa]zLsf] cfwf/df    u7g x'g] ljleGg ;ldlt tyf pk;ldltx?df
;xefuL u/fpg] s'/f pNn]v 5 . To:t} cGtl/d   ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;xfelutf
;+lawfgsf] wf/f #%-!$_ df ;fsf/fTds         ;'lglZrt ul/g' kg{] gLlt cjnDjg u/]sf] 5 .
lje]bsf cfwf/df ljz]if Joj:yf ug{] pNn]v    o;}u/L uflj; cg'bfg sfo{qmd ;~rfng
ul/Psf] 5 . ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] lzIff,  sfo{ljlw–@)^# n] dfgljo ;+zfwg sfo{qmd
:jf:Yo, /f]huf/L, tflnd, k'g:yf{kgf, ckf+utfcGtu{t ljlgof]lht u/]sf] Ps nfv krf;
kl/ro kq, ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf]           xhf/ dWo] af6 ;d]t sfo{qmd agfO{sfof{Gjog
;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf] lglDt dfl;s a[QL k|bfg    ul/g' kg{] Joj:yfx? u/]sf] kfO{G5 . xfn}g]kfn
ul/g' kg{] nufotsf ;]jf ;'ljwf tyf clwsf/   ;/sf/sf tkm{af6 kfl/t ckf+utf ;DjlGw
;'/lIft ug{] u/L @)#( ;fndf ckf+u ;+/If0f   /fli6«o gLlt tyf sfo{of]hgf @)^# n] ;d]t
tyf sNof0f P]g hf/L ePsf] 5 . ckf+utfsf]    ljleGg P] g lgodfanL tyf gLlt
If]qdf ;a}eGbf dxTjk'0f{ sfg'gL b:tfa]hsf]  lgb{]lzsfx?df ;dfa]z ePsf k|fjwfgx?
?kdf dflgPsf] of] P]g blIf0f Plzofd}klxnf]  ;lxt !& j6f a'¤bfdf lj:t[t sfo{of]hgf tof/
P]g dflgG5 . o; P]gdf ePsf Joj:yfx?
                                           !!                               ¿kfGt/0f
:yfg kl/ro
u/]sf] 5 . sfg'gL ?kdf o;sf] Tolt x}l;ot ? ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] :ki6 tYof+s
gePtf klg o; If]qdf sfd ug{;DjlGwt          tyf cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f x'g g;Sg' .
;a}nfO{dfu{bz{g eg] k|z:t u/]sf] kfO{G5 . ? o; If]qdf sfd ug{] ljleGg ;+3 ;+:yf tyf
                                            JolQmx?sf] lardf ;dGjo / ;~rf/sf]
sfof{Gjogsf d'Vo r'gf}tLx? ?                cefjn] k|>o kfO{/xg' .
                                          ? clwsf/sdL{ tyf k'g:yf{kgfsdL{x?sf]
    Jofks hgr]tgfsf] sdL .
                                            tflnd / ;+Vofdf sdL .
    ;dfh k'/ftgafbL ;f]r / ;/sf/af6 d'Qm ? >f]t tyf ;fwgx?sf] ckof{Kttf .
    x'g g;Sg' .                             ef}uf]lns ljs6tf .
? ljBdfg sfg'gL k|fjwfgx?sf] af/]df
                                          ? ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ ofjt
    ;/f]sf/afnfx? cgle1 /xg' .
                                            ;d:ofx?af6 sd u/fpgsf] nfuL /fHosf]
    /fHosf ljleGg c+ux? -Joj:yflksf,        d'nwf/df Nofpg'kg{] x'G5 / d'nwf/df
    sfo{klnsf, Gofokflnsf, of]hgf cfof]u    Nofpgsf] nfuL /fHosf tx / tksfdf
    cflb_ df ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf]        ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;xeflutf
    k|ltlglwTj x'g g;Sg' .                  clgjfo{?kdf u/fpg' k5{. ;fy} ljBdfg
    ePsf P]g sfg'gx? sNof0fsf/L             g]kfnsf /fhlglts kf6Lx?n] cfkmgf
    cjwf/0ffaf6 k|]l/t x'g' .               3f]if0ffkqdf ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf]
? kof{Kt, k|efjsf/L / afWosf/L P]g          clwsf/sf s'/fx? 3f]if0ff u/L ckf+utf
    sfg'gx? gePsf] .                        ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ ;dfa]zLs/0fsf]
? /fHodf nfdf] ;do;Dd /fhg}lts              cfwf/df ;xeflutf u/fpg' kg{] x'G5 /
    cl:y/tf /lx/xg' .                       g]kfndf sfo{/t /fli6«o tyf cGt/fli6«o
? ckfËux?sf] kl/efiff / auL{s/0f cem}       ;fdflhs ;+3 ;+:yfx?n] ckfËtf ePsf
    klg a}1flgs gx'g' .                     JolQmx?sf] ljsf; / clwsf/sf] lglDt
                                            dxTjk'0f{ e'ldsf lgjf{x ug{'kg{] x'G5 .




                                       !@                             ¿kfGt/0f
v]n ;dfrf/
                    gj k|ltefsf wlg ljqmd ;fDkf·
                                                                               bfdf]b/ l/hfn
                                                                       ;b:o, /f=c=df=k"=If]=sf
     dftf dËnLdfof ;fDkfË / lktf d5]g s'df/ ;fDkfË sf k'q/Tgsf] ?kdf lj= ;+ @)%# ;fn
a}zfv @* ut] a]n8fFuL–@ bds emkfdf hlGdPsf ljqmd ;fDkfË -;+of]u_ dl:t:s kIf3ft eO{
ckfËtf j/0f u/]sf AolQm x'g . xfn plg ;kl/jf/ cfkmgf] ;/0ffyL{ lhjg latfO/x]sf 5g
g]kfndf .
       d Pp6f ;fdfGo AolQmsf] geP/ Ps s';n ;|:6fsf] kl/ro lbO/x]sf] 5' . ;lxlTos
hutdf syf, sljtf, ?jfO{h:tf ljwfdf snd rnfpb}d]/f] n]vx? gfds ;flxlTos k':ts
k|sf;Lt ul/;s]sf 5g;|i7f ;+of]u n] .
      cfk'm ckfËtf ePsf] AolQm eP/ klg ;lxlTos cfsf;df Pp6f rlDsnf] tf/f aGg
sDd/ s;]sf :f|i7f ;+of]u nfO{;'esfdgf .
d]/f] n]vx? af6 s]lx ;+of]u sf l;h{gfx? ;fef/ ul/Psf]

                                                                      ?jfO{
                ckfË                                 afFr]sf 5gdflg; 8n/sf] cfzdf oxfF
                                                    c?sf] sdfO eG5gp8fOlbG5gtf;df oxfF
    dfG5]n] u5{g ckfËnfO{ 3[0ff                     lzla/ lalu|of] h'jft;n] oxfF
                                                    ljBfyL{sf] eljio lalu|of] k'gaf{;n] oxfF .
    3[0ff ubf{plgx|?nfO{slt x'G5 lk8f
    s;n] aem5 plgx?sf] b'vsf] syf                  k"0fLdfdf /dfpg dg nfU5
                                                    h'gtf/f ;dfpg dg nfU5
    ckfËsf] lhjgdf x'G5 w]/} Aoyf .                 vf]O ;S5' of ;lSbg
                                                    sNkgfnfO{3'dfpg dg nfU5 .
    ;xG5g 3[0ff / lk8f vfb}ggxf/                   k"n;Fu gfrf}+ nfU5
    ckfËsf] klg x'G5 nIo u5{g kf/                   k"0fL{dfsf] h'g ;Fu afFrf}+ nfU5
                                                    c?;Fu l/;fpg' eGbf
    plgx? klg s]lx u5{gb]zsf] lglDt                cfkmGt ;Fu xfF;f}+ nfU5 .
    cGofo cTofrf/ gu/f}d]/f] 5 laGtL .
                                                    s:tf] b' vL lhjg latfO{/x]5'
                                                    cfk}m xf/]/ s;}nfO{lhtfO/x]5'
    ;fy lbp l;sfp plgx?nfO{xfdL                     s:tf] xf/ vfP lhjgdf
                                                    dfG5] glrgL dLt nfP5' .
    kl5 lj4fg eO{x'G5ggfdL
    plgx?sf] dgnfO{gagfp lvGg                       k"mn;Fu gfrf}+ nfU5
                                                    h"g;Fu xfF;' nfU5
    ckfË eO{kfpg' k5{lhpg .                         k|]ddf /dfp nfU5
                                                    k|]dLsfsf] xft ;dfp nfU5 .
                                           !#                                       ¿kfGt/0f
ljZn]if0f

  olb ;j} 6+s uf}td / /fhg kf}8]n e}lbP slt j]; x'g] lyof] xf]nf========
        cfh sfo{nodf k|j]z u/] b]lv g} d]/f]                              pQd lzjfsf]6L
dfg;k6ndf Pp6f km/s ;f]rfO{n] kl/qmdf                                       If]=;+of]hs
                                                                   uttam_siwakoti101@yahoo.com
ul//xof] / d]/f] cGt/cfTdfn] lsg xf] lsg
elg/x]sf] lyof} lsg ;a} lhDd]jf/ txsf dfG5]         Aojfxf/ ug]{tl/sf eGbf km/s 9u+n] ckfu+tf
6+s uf}td jGg ;St}gg lsg /fhg kf}8]n jGg            ljsf;sf] d'4fsf] ?kdf j'Hb}cfkm' ;u ePsf]
;St}gg . of] hl6n t/ lttf] oyf{ytfnfO{ d}n]         Ifdtf / ;[hglzntfn] lg/Gt/ c?nfO{ljrf/ /
aflx/ Nofpg}k5{ Tof] g} d]/f] wd{ xf] eGg] nfUof]   dfu{bz{g k|jfx ul//x]sf 5g .
clg ;'? u/] d}n] d]/f] ljZn]if0fnfO{ sfuhdf         lzIffsf] Hof]tLn] ckfu+tf ePsf jfn
uef{wf/0f u/fpg . sltnfO{ x'g ;S5 of] rrf{          jfnLsfx?sf] lhjg nfO{ s;/L k|sfzdo
;fGble{s gjGg klg ;Snf t/ AolQmsf]                  jgfpg] eGg] cleofgdf lhNnf lzIff sfo{no
lg:jfy{ k|oTgnfO{ ;b}j ;Ddfg ug]{ k/Dk/fsf]         df]/u+df sfo{/t ;dflxt lzIff ;fvf k|d'v pk
z'?jft xfldn] cf/De ug}{k5{ .                       ;lrj 6+s uf}tdsf] ;s[otf / lhDd]jf/Ljf]b
        xfdL ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf]                jflxl/ ?kdf jxfFsf] zfl/l/s prfO{eGbf
hLjgnfO{ ;Ddflgt jgfpg lhjgsf ;a}                   sof}u'0ff cUnf] 5 h:n] cfkgf] k|oTg nfO{;b}j
pmhf{ / k|oTg nufP/ cufl8 jl8/x]sf 5f}F .           ;j} c kfu+ t f ePsf jfn jfnLsfx?
cefj} cefjsf] hftf]df lkl;P/ klg slxn}              plgx?s}kf/Ljf/Ls dfof ddtfdf cfkgf
lxDdt gxfg'{kg]{, slxn} gyfSg' kg}{, slxn}          ;j}ljz]iftf ;lxt d}lqk'0f{jftfj/0fdf lzIffsf]
lg/f; gx'g' kg]{, xfdL klg olx ;dfhsf pkh           cj;/ k|fKt ug'{kfpg h;jf6 plgx?sf]
xf} eg]/ ;b}j jsfnt ug'{kg}{ xfd|f] lgoltdf         ;dflhs klxrfg klg sfod xf]; elg lg/Gt/
lgDtf lbP/ xf]O{g ,cg'/f}w u/]/ xf]Og,              ?kdf cfkm' eGbf pkNnf] txdf k}/jL / tNnf]
:j:km't{?kdf dfgjtf jf]b eP/ Pp6f ljj]s             txdf lgb}{zg / ljrf/sf] k|jfx ul//xg' ePsf]
lzn dgf]j[lQ jf6 ckfu+tf ;jfnnfO{ cfkm'             5 h'g Pp6f cfd k|zf;ssf] j'hfO{df cfkgf]
;u ePsf] lj1tfsf] pmhf{yKb}lg/Gt/ xfd|f]            klbo lhDd]jf/L tyf !) b]lv % jh] ;Ddsf]
klxrfgsf] ofqf nfO{ cufl8 j8fpg jn k|of]u           hflu/] ;:sf/ ePsfx?sf] nflu sfo{If]q tyf
ul//xg] jf}l4s hdft nfO{sb/ gu/]/ /fi6|sf           lhDd]jf/L eGbf jflx/sf] klg x'g ;S5 . t/
lhDd]jf/ txdf cf;g u|x0f ul/ jf]nLdf                oxfF k|Zg cfp5 s] 6+s uf}td / cGo
u'lnof] / sfddf lttf] ug]{jf}l4s hdft               k|zf;sx?df t'ngfTds ?kdf ;dflhs
nfO{s;/L sb/ ug]{k|Zg 5nkmnsf] ljifo jGnf           lhjg k|ltsf] cfTdf;Gt'li6 j/fj/ 5t <
;fob .                                              ljwfnosf] xft leq l5g{gkfO{cWof/f]df lhjg
        ckfËtfnfO{ ;Ifdtfsf] kl/efiff leq           Aoltt u/L/x]sf,cg]sf}si7sf ;fy ljwfno
/fVg ?rfpg] 6+s uf}td / /fhg kf}8]n                 k|j]z u/] klg ;b}j pk]lIft eP/ j:g' kg]{;of}
s'g}g]tf, snfsf/, j}1flgs, bfz{lgs jf zlQm          ckfu+tf ePsf jfn jfnLsfx?sf] lhjgdf
;DkGg AolQmTj xf]O{gg tkfO{ xfdL h:t} cfd          b]lvPsf] cWof/f] d]6g k|oTg lzn 6+s uf}td
g]kfnL gfu/Ls g} x'g h:n] cfkgf] klbo               nfO{lhDd]jf/ k|zf;s eGg] ls lj4jfgsf] kul/
lhDd]jf/L k'/f ub}{ cfkgf] ;dflhs lhDd]bf/L         nufP/ lhDd]jf/ kbdf cfl;g hflu/]
nfO{klg cfkgf] j'l4 / ljj]s n] cGo cfd              ;+:s[ltdf jflr/x]sf k|zfzs nfO{pQ/
dflg;x?n] ckfu+tf ;jfn nfO{x]g]{,j'Hg] /            cfkm}k|i6 5 ;fob . /fi6|sf lhDd]jf/ txdf
                                               !$                                  ¿kfGt/0f
ljZn]if0f
cfl;g k|zf;s olb ljj]slzn jGg] xf] eg]         ;dflhs bfloTj klg xf] h:n] xfd|f] gh/df
;dfhdf 5l/P/ /x]sf ;lbof}b]lv /fHosf]          /fhg kf}8]n nfO{ cGox?sf nflu ;fwf/0f
d'nwf/ jf6 cnUofO{Psf ckfu+tf ePsf             AolQm eP klg xfd|f nflu jxfF 7'nf] ;DklQm xf]
AolQmx?n] klg /fi6| lgdf0f{df of]ubfg lbg      eGg] nfU5 . Pp6f ;r]t snd lhljsf] cfvfFn]
;S5g t/ k|zfzs pbfl;g jlg/xg] xf] eg]          o:tf ;fjnx? b]Vg' k5{h'g ;frf] cy{df ;du|
sof} cfjfh ljlxgx?sf] cfjfh slxn] klg          ljsf; k|s[of jf6 cnUofO{Psf] xf];,cfwf/e't
jflx/ gcfpg] ul/ lgdf]l7g]5 . olb              cflwsf/x?jf6 jl~rt kfl/Psf AolQmx?sf]
;j}k|zf;s cfkgf nflu yf]/}c?sf nflu            xf]; clg dfq snd lhljsf] sndn] klg
w]/}jflrlbP ;dfh slt ;r]t / ;[hglzn jGg]       lhjgttf kfp5 . snd snd g}xf] To;n] /fd|f]
lyof] ;fob / xfd|f] rfxfgf klg Tolx 5 ;don]    klg n]V5 g/fd|f] klg,wlgsf jf/]df klg
w]/}6+s uf}td hGdfcf]; of] xfd|f] c;dfgtfsf]   ul/jsf jf/]df klg ,jlnofsf jf/]df klg
n8fO{;j}sf] ;+o'Qm jGg ;sf]; .                 lgj{lnofsf jf/]df klg t/ Tof] snd Tolt v]/
        To:t} j flx/L kq jf6 cfsng             ;fy{ s x' G 5 h:n] ul/ljsf] lk8f
ug{g;lsg] ;fwf/0f kfq x'g /fhg kf}8]n hf]      nfO{n]vf];,dfgj dfgj ljrsf] c;dfgtf
lglh{j cfjfhx? nfO{ljrf/sf sndn] k|f0f         nfO{n]vf]; h:jf6 ;j}n] ;j}sf jf/]df hfGg /
lbb}ckfu+tf leqsf] ;Dj]bgf nfO{kqsf/Ltfsf]     j'Hg kfpg,;j}df st{Aojf]wsf] ;[hgf xf]; /
dfWod jf6 o; ckfu+ t f ;jfn                    Ps csf{df ;xof]u,;xsfo{/ cflTdotfn] xfd|f]
nfO{gb]Vg],gj'Hg],g;'Gg] g]kfnL ?l9jflb        ;dfh ;j} c6fpg],;Ddfg kfpg],ljsl;t x'g]
;dflhs lrGtg nfO{ nuftf/ sof}jif{b]lv          ;femf km'njf/L jGg ;sf]; clg dfq sndsf]
df]km;n jf6 AoË k|fxf/ ul//x]sf 5g .           jf:tljs d'No k|fKt x'G5 / ;f]lx jf6f]df /fhg
ckfu+tf nfO{dfgj ljljwtfsf] ?kdf AofVof        kf}8]nsf sndx?n] ljut b]lvg};'Id ljZn]if0f
ub}{;dfhLs ;dfwfgsf] kxnsf nflu lglt           ;lxt ckfu+tf If]qsf sof}ljifox?sf] p7fg
lgdftf{b]lv cfd gful/s ;Dd ckfu+tf ;jfn        cfkgf b[li6sf]0f ;lxtsf k|sflzt kmf]6f]
k|lt ;b}j ;sf/fTds b[li6sf]0f jgf]; elg        ;fdu|Lx? k6s k6s sflGtk'/sf] sf]z]nL
cfkgf] bIftf nfO{ j]nf j]nfdf ;dlk{t           nufot cGo ;+rf/ dfWodx?df b]Vbf xfd|f
ug]{/fhg kf}8}n cGt/fli6|o u}=;=;=Knfg         cleofgdf o:sf sfof}/fhg kf}8]nx? n]
g]kfnsf] lhDd]jf/ kbdf cfl;g AoltTj eP         o;}ul/ snd rnfO{lbP cleofg slt cufl8
klg jxfFsf] of] ;s[otf klbo lhDd]jf/L eGbf     j8g] lyof] / of] k'/ftg ;dfh ckfu+tf ePsf
Pp6f leGg kf6f]sf] ?kdf pgn] lgefPsf]          AoLQmx?sf nflu klg d}lq jGg] lyof] xf]nf .




                                          !%                                  ¿kfGt/0f
;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g:yf{kgf (Community Based
          Rehabilitation – CBR), ljsf;qmd tyf P]ltxfl;s k[i7e'dL
                                                                                          gGbnfn jf:tf]nf
                                                                                          sfo{qmd ;+of]hs
           ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g:yf{kgf ;f/f+zdf                                g]b/Nof08; n]k|f];L l/lnkm
;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;dfj]zL ljsf; (Community              ?kdf dfq lnP/ ljleGg ;+3 ;+:yfx?;d]t olx
based inclusive developmet – CBID) sf                  gfdjf6 ;+rflnt ePsf] x'gfn] hgdfg;x?df
nflu k|of]ul;2, j}1flgs, cTofw'lgs / ;do ;fk]IF        y'k|}cGof}nsf] ;[hgf ePsf] 5 . of] :tDedf ;fdfGo
kl/jlt{t cjwf/0ff xf] . ljZj :jfYo ;+u7gn] u/]sf]      ?kdf ckf+utf Joj:yfkgsf ljljw kIF ;lxt of]
kl/efiff cg';f/ ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g:yf{kgf            cjwf/0ffsf] P]ltxfl;s k[i7e'dL / ljsf;qmdsf d'Vo
eg]sf] ;j}ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{k'g{:yfkgf,          c+zx?nfO{ ;d]6g] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 .
cj;/x?df ;dfgtf / ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f                            ckf+utf Joj:yfkgsf] ljsf;qmdnfO{ ;/n
ug]{;du| ;d'bfosf] ljsf; cGtu{tsf] Pp6f /0fgLlt        lsl;dn] pNn]v ug{kbf{tnsf % r/0fdf ljefhg
xf] . o;}ul/ WHO, ILO, UNESCO Joint                    ul/ ;+IF]kdf kl/ro lbg pko'Qm x'g]5,
position Paper 2004 n] u/]sf] kl/efiff nfO{ lng] xf]
eg], l; lj cf/ k'g{:yfkgf, cj;/x?sf] ;dfgtf,           != ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] Go'gLs/0fsf kxnx?
ul/jL Go'gLs/0f / ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0fsf nflu           z'?jftsf lbgx?df ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?n]
Ps lsl;dsf] jx'kIFLo /0fgLlt xf] .                     csfn d[To'sf] ;fdgf ug{k/]sf] cj:yf lyof] . ljleGg
           l; lj cf/ ;du| ;d'bfosf] ljsf;sf]           j}1fgLs k|ljlwx?sf] ljsf; ;+u}ue{df /x]sf] lzz'df
cjwf/0ffnfO{ cfTd;ft ub{5 t/ ljsf;sf] d'n              zf/Ll/s ?kdf s]xL hl6ntfx? b]lvPdf ue{ktg
k|jfxdf ;dfj]z x'g g;s]sf] kIf h:t} ckf+utfsf          ug]{kIf t Pp6f eof] t/ s]xL o'/f]lkog b]zx?df To;
;jfnx? cflb nfO{s]Gb| ljGb' jgfP/ ;dfj]zL ljsf;        lsl;dn] zfl//Ls sdhf]/L ePsf
;lxtsf] ;dfj]zL ;dfh g}of] /0fgLltsf] d'Vo nIo         jRrfx?nfO{hGd]sf] tLg lbg leq cleefjs /
xf] . l; lj cf/ sf] sfo{Gjog ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?      lrlsT;ssf] ;Nnfxdf dfg{ ;lsg] ;Ddsf k|:tfjx?
cfkm}, pgLx?sf kl/jf/sf ;b:ox?, ;d'bfo /               cfPsf] b]lvG5 . jfr]sfx?n] klg plrt :ofxf/
;+:yfx?, / :jf:Yo, lzIff, Jofj;flos, ;fdflhs           ;+ef/, ;Gt'lnt ef]hg, pkrf/ cflbsf] cefjdf
tyf cGo ;]jfx? k|bfg ug]{;/sf/L Pj+ u}x| ;/sf/L        csfnd}d[To'j/0f ug{k/]sf y'k|}pbfx/0fx? 5g . bf];|f]
;+:yfx?sf] ;+o'Qm kxnjf6 ul/G5 . lxhf] cfhsf]          ljZjo'4tfsf hd{gdf gfhLx?n] dfgl;s ckf+utf
kl/jlt{t kl/efiffsf] cf;onfO{ lnbf ;+o'Qm              ePsf JolQmx?sf] >[v+nfj4 xTof u/]sf] Oltxf;n]
/fi6«;+34f/f kfl/t e}ljZjsf ;j}h;f] b]zx?n]            k'li6 u/]sf] 5 . o'4 ckf/fwsf] gfddf d[To'b08 lbg]
x:tfIf/ tyf w]/}b]zx?4f/f cg'df]bg ;d]t e};s]sf]       qmddf lx6n/ / p;sf ;dy{sx?n] #)),))) hlt
ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ ;DjlGw                  ckf+utf ePsf / vf; u/L dfgl;s ckf+utf ePsf
dxf;GwL @))^ nfO{Jojxfl/s ?kdf nfu'                    dflg;x?sf] vf]hL vf]hL oftgfu[xdf NofO{ Hofg
ug]{b:tfj]hsf] ?kdf l; lj cf/ nfO{lng ;lsG5 /          lnPsf] Oltxf;df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .
o;/L x]bf{ of] dxf;GwL jfWosf/L sfg'gL b:tfj]h xf]
eg] l; lj cf/ dxf;GwLsf] Jojxf/Ls k|of]usf]                      k|l;4 j}1fgLs tyf hLj;f:qL 8flj{gn]
dfWod xf] eg]df cTo'lQm gxf]nf .                       k|ltkfbg u/]sf] l;4fGt jftfj/0fLo kl/jt{g
                                                       ;+u}kl/jt{g x'g ;Sg] / tGb'?:t dfq jfRg ;Sg]
         dflysf] kl/efiffn] cj of] :ki6 e};s]sf] 5     (Survival of the fittest) sf] unt JofVofn] klg of]
ls ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{;dfg cj;/, ;dfg             cj:yfnfO{cem j9fjf lbPsf] a'emg ;lsG5 . o;sf
clwsf/ / jftfj/0fLo cj/f]wsf] Go'gLs/0f ;lxt           nflu s]xL kf}/fl0fstfdf ljZjf; /fVg] JolQmx?n]
;;lQms/0f / ;dfj]zL ljsf; g}l; lj cf/ sf] Wo]o         ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{nf]k eO{;s]sf jf
xf] . t/ of] /0fg}lts cjwf/0ffnfO{Pp6f sfo{qmdsf]      nf]kf]Gd'v cj:yfsf hgfj/x?;+u bfHg] u/L kl/efiff

                                                  !%
ljrf/
u/]sf] b]lvG5 .
                                                                  ;dosf] kl/jt{g ;+u}gof+ k|ljlwx?sf] klg
@= cnUofpg]                                               ljsf; x'g yfNof] h:t};g !&*$ df b[li6ljlxgx?sf
         j[4, cgfy, j]/f]huf/, ljleGg lsl;dsf             nflu gof k4tL / ;g !*@$ df n'O; j|]nn]
ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, h]n d'Qm JolQm                        j|]nnLkLsf] cfljisf/ u/] kZrfb of] IF]qdf 7"nf]
cflbx?nfO{pgLx? ljleGg /f]ux?jf6 ;+qmldt x'g              /fxtsf] dx;'; ul/of] . klxn]sf lbgx?df sf]7f leq}
;Sg], /f]u ;fg{ ;Sg] h:tf cg'dfgn] ;d'bfo eGbf            y'lgP/ /xg] cj:yfjf6 j/k/, 5/l5d]s cflbdf
cnUu}/fVg] u/L ljleGg lsl;dsf cfjf;x?sf]                  lx88'n ug]{cj:yfsf] ;[hgf eof] t/ oL cfj;x?df
Joj:yf ul/of] t/ oL cfjf;x? dflg;x? j:g of]Uo             JolQmx?sf] cTolws ;+Vof j9g yfn] kl5
eg] lyPgg To;}n] oL cfjf;x?nfO{ul/j /                     wfGg}g;lsg] cj:yfx?sf] ;[hgf eof] . cnUofpg]
c;Qmx?sf nflu 3/ eGg] ul/GYof] .                          k|j[ltsf lj?2 cfjhx? p7g yfn] h;n]
                                                          ubf{ r nfsLk' 0 f{ 9+ u n] ckf+ u tf ePsf
         o;/L 5'§}sd;n lsl;dsf cfjf;sf                    JolQmx?nfO{zf/Ll/s ?kdf jGbL jgfpg eGbf
;Gbe{df y'k|}/f]rs sxfgLx? 5g . lj|6]gdf ;g !^)!          dfgl;s ?kdf b'j{n jgfpg] lsl;dsf kxnx?
sf] u/Ljsf nflu sfd sf] gLltut k|Fjwfg cg';f/             ul/P .
o:tf ejgx? lgdf{0fsf] lhDdf pgLx?nfO{lbOPsf]
lyof] . pgLx?nfO{;xh klxrfgsf] nflu s'g} /+usf]                   ckf+utf ePsf s]xL JolQmx?n] k|fKt
kf]zfs jf lrGx k|of]u ug{nufOGYof] t/ pgLx?n]             cj;/x?sf] pkof]u u/L ljleGg IF]qx?df cfÎgf
ljleGg ;fdflhs sfo{x? h:t}dtbfg cflbdf                    cl4tLo ;Lk / IFdtfx? k|bz{g u/] h;n] ubf{kl/jf/,
;xefuL x'gjf6 jGb]h ul/Psf] lyof] . lzlIft tyf            ;d'bfo, ;+3;+:yf Pj+ /fi6«n] ;d]t oL kIFx?sf] sb/
wgfWo JolQmx?n] ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{cfkm'             / pkof]u ug{ jfWo eof] h;sf] kl/0ffd hgdfg;df
j;]sf] ;d'bfojf6 x6fpg w]/}s/ ltg]{jf 5'§}cfly{s          ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf IFdtf k|lt ;sf/fTds
;xof]u ug]{h:tf k|j[lt t cem}klg slx st}b]Vg /            ;Gb] z uof] eg] kl/jf/ / ;d' b fon]
;'Gg kfOG5 . of] cj:yf eg]sf] /fxtd'vL ;Dd klg            pgLx?nfO{:jLsfg]{cj:yfsf] ;[hgf eof] . o;sf
lyPg t/ JolQmx?nfO eg] dfu]/ vfP klg lhjg                 ;fy}oL u[xx?df ePsf ljleGg lsl;dsf lx+;f Pj+
hLpg ;Sg] lsl;dsf cf+lzs cfwf/x? v8f ePsf                 ck/fwsf 36gfx? klg ;fj{hlgs x'g yfn] . o;}
lyP t;y{ jfRg] ;Dd clwsf/sf] ;'/IFf geP klg               qmddf ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfsf] ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] oL
lgz]wsf] cj:yf eGbf of] s]xL ;'wfl/Psf] cj:yf             u[xx?df ePsf lx+;f ck/fw Pj+ dfgljo bdg tyf
eGbf cGoyf gxf]nf .                                       clwsf/ pn+3gsf lj?4df km};nf u¥of] .

#= ;+:yfut ;+/If0f / k'g:yf{kgf -cnUu}/fv]/ lbOg]                  ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zx?df cem}klg o:tf
;]jfx?_                                                   ;+/rgfx?sf] ljuljuL g}5 . vf; u/L
          of] cj:yf eg]sf] dfly bf];|f] r/0fdf pNn]v      jfnjfnLsfx?nfO{lzIFf lbg] jf pkrf/ u/fpg]
ul/Psf] cnUu} /fVg] k|j[ltsf] clnslt ljsl;t ?k            gfddf tyf Joj;flos tfnLd / /f]huf/Lsf gfddf
dfq xf] h;df ljz]if eGg] ljz]if0f zJbsf] k|of]u u/L       o:tf s]Gb|x? ;+rflnt 5g eg] k'g:yf{kgf zJbsf]
k'g:yf{kgf eGg] jfSof+n] ;lh;hfj6 ug{dfq                  k|of]ujf6 clwsf+z ;DjlGwt lgsfox?n] o;sf] d'n
vf]hLPsf] xf] t/ cfzo eg] ckf+utf ePsf                    dd{a'emg sl7g ePsf] jf j'emkrfPsf] cj:yf 5 .
JolQmx?nfO{;fdfGo gful/s eGbf km/s lsl;dn]
x]g]{/ Jojxf/ ug]{k|j[lt g} xf] . of] cj:yfsf] km/s kIf   $= Plss[t of]hgfsf nflu kxnx?
eg]sf] cnUofpg] / /fxtd'vL cjwf/0ffsf] ldl>t                     ;+:yfut k'g:yf{kgsf] ljsNkdf Plss[t
:j?k xf] . j[4 l;kfxL / ckf+utf ePsf                      ;fdflhs cjwf/0ffsf] qmdz ljsf;sf nflu lgDg
JolQmx?nfO{/fVg] cfjf;sf] ?kdf ;j}eGbf klxn]              pNn]lvt cj:yfx?sf] d'Vo e'ldsf /x]sf] b]lvG5,
k|mfG;df Pp6f u[xsf] Joj:yf ePsf] lyof] h;df              ? pkrf/ k|0ffnLdf gof+ k2tL jf k|ljlwsf] ljsf;
&))) JolQmx? c6g ;Sg] Ifdtf lyof] . ljZjsf                ? cfzf ul/P cg'?k zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s cj:yfdf
cGo b]zx?df klg o; k4tLsf] cg's/0f x'b}uof] .
                                                     !^
;dfrf/ ljljw
      ;'wf/ x'g g;s]sf] jf To; lsl;dsf lj1x?sf] h:tf ljljw kIFx?sf] ljsf; ePjf6 Plss[t ;dfh
      cefj                                             ljsf;sf sfo{qmdx?n] ;kmntf k|FKt ug{ ;Dej
? cfly{s cefj                                          eof] .
? ?9LjfbL ;+:sf/, sf]nf]gL/ l8S6]6/ k|j[ltsf
      lj?4df nfvf}dflg;x?sf] lj/f]w                              o;};dodf lj1x?n] ;+:yfut j;fO{/
? ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx? Pj+ cleefjs Plss[t of]hgfx?sf] yfngL kl5 ckf+utf ePsf
      ;d'xx?sf] ;;Qm cfjfh                             JolQmx?sf] hLjg:t/df cfPsf] kl/jt{g ;DjlGw
                                                       cWoogx? u/] . cWoogn] s] b]vfof] eg] JolQmsf]
           bf];|f] ljZjo'4 kZrfb hj o'4sf] sf/0f 7"nf] ;jf{l¨0f ljsf;sf nflu of] ljsl;t kxn g}clt of]Uo
;+Vofdf JolQmx?n] ckf+utf j/0f u/], ;+rflnt /x]5 . h:t}pbfx/0fsf nflu s'g}jfnjfnLsfnfO{nfdf]
;+:yfx?n] of] ;+Vof wfGg ;s]gg / of] Jojxfl/s klg ;do;Dd af]l8{Ëdf /fv]/ ;f+s]lts efiff l;sfpg t
b]lvPg To;}n] pgLx?nfO{pgLx? /x]sf] ;d'bfodf g} ;lsG5 t/ o;n] p;nfO{efiffut ?kdf emg}sdhf]/
/fv]/ ;]jf pknJw u/fpg yflnof] . o;/L Plss[t agfpFb5 / p;n] c? JolQmx?;+u ;+jfb
;fdflhs cEof;sf] z'?jft t ul/of] t/ ug]{tl/sfdf emg}sdL Nofpb5 . kfl/jf/Ls ?kdf
JolQmx?sf] rfxgf / 5gf}6sf] Vofn}ul/Pg / cfly{s ldl>t j;fO, ;fyL efO{x?;+usf] x]nd]n cflb jf6
kIFnfO{dfq k|fyldstf lbOof] . kf}/fl0fs o; kIFdf cfd'n ;'wf/ Nofpg ;lsG5 . o;/L
cjwf/0ffnfO{cfTd;ft ug]{dflg;x?n] ;f]r] h:tf] Plss[t ;fdflhs of]hgx?sf] ;kmntfk'j{s
o;n] ;dfhdf g s'g} hl6ntf pTkGg eof] g t sfo{Gjogjf6 ;dfj]zL ;dfhsf] kl/sNkgf ;+ej
dflg;x?sf] hLjg:t/df g}s'g}km/s kf¥of] j? x'G5 .
ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{x]g]{;sf/fTds efjgsf]
ljsf; x'b}uof] .                                       %= :jfeLdfg / ;;lQms/0f
                                                                 :jfeLdfg eGgfn] ckf+ u tf ePsf
           cjsf] b;sdf kZlrd]nL d'n'sx?df ePsf] JolQmx?n] k'0f{?kdf ;fdflhs ;xeflutf ;lxt
cfly{s ljsf;n] ckf+utf d}qL ;+/rgfx? ;lxtsf cfÎgf cfjZostfx? cfkm}n] k'/f ug{;kmn eO{pRr
;+:yfx?sf] ljsf;n] cleefjsx?nfO{ckf+utf dgf]jn ;lxt cfTdlge{/ / k|ltli7t ;fdflhs
ePsf JolQmx?nfO{3/d}/fv]/ ;]jfx?sf] pkef]u hLjgofkg ug{;Sg] cj:yfnfO{pNn]v ub{5 . o;sf
ug]{Pj+ cfjthfjt ug{;Sg] cfwf/x? v8f ul/lbof] . nflu ;;lQms/0f cfjZos dfWod x'g ;Sb5 .
cfly{s ljsf; / d}qL ;+/rgfx?sf sf/0f ckf+utf k'g:yf{kgf / o; ;+u ;DjlGw ;j}sfo{qmdx?sf]
ePsf JolQmx?n] pRr lzIFf xfl;n ug{;d]t ;xh clGtd nIo klg olx g}xf] .
dx;'; ug{yfn] . y'k|}lbjf ;]jsf ;+:yfx? jf tfnLd
s]Gb|x? ;+rfngdf cfpg yfn] . ;g !(%) sf] bzs dflg;x?sf cfjZostfx? cgluGtL x'g ;Sb5g
kl5 dgf]j}1fgLs IF]qdf t cfd'n kl/jt{g g}u/fO t/ Ps hgf lj4fgsf cg';f/ tL cfjZostfx?nfO{
lbof], cf}ifwL pkrf/sf] gof+ k|of]usf sf/0f lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{;lsG5,
nfvf}dfgl;s ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?df ;'wf/ s= dgf];fdflhs cfjZostf ;lxt jfRgsf nflu
eO{pgLx? c:ktfnjf6 cfÎg}3/df kms]{/ Jojxfl/s                cfwf/x? h:t}vfgf, kfgL, cf/fd cflb
hLjg lgjf{x ug{ yfn] . ;g !(^) eGbf klxn] v= vt/fd'Qm cj:yf / ;'/IFfsf] cfjZostf
Ifof/f]usf sf/0fdfq 7'nf] ;+Vofdf ckf+utf ePsf u= ;fdflhs cfjZostfx? h:t}, dfof, :g]x,
JolQmx?sf] d[To' ePsf] kfOG5 eg] lj l; hL                  ;Ddfg
EoflS;gsf] k|of]u x'g yfn] kl5 of] ;+Vof sd eof] / 3= dgf]jnsf cfjZostfx? h:t}:j dgf]jn /
le8ef8 ePsf c:ktfndf jGbLsf] hLjg ljtfpg                   c?jf6 k|fKt, klxrfg
jfWo ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{lbjf ;]jf pknJw ª= :jfeLdfgsf cfjZostfx? h:t} cfkmgf
u/fpg] k|Fjwfg ;lxt pgLx?s}3/df kmsf{pg                    cfjZostfx? cfkm}n] k'/f ug{], Ifdtfsf] sb/
yflnof] . ;du|df cfly{s ljsf;, lbjf ;]jf                         cg'dfg t ug{;lsG5 ls rflxg] ;fdfgx?
s] G b| x ?sf] ljsf;, tfnLd, :jo+ x] / rfx klg k|FKt eP, k/+k/fut ?kdf k'g:yf{kgf ;]jfsf
lqmofsnfkx?sf] yfngL, 3/e]6 tyf k/fdz{;]jf ;j}cfwf/x? klg pknJw 5g t;y{ckf+utf ePsf
                                                 !&
;dfrf/ ljljw
JolQmx?n] pRr u'0f:t/Lo hLjg lgjf{x u/]sf dxf;GwL, ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf clwsf/
x'g]5g lsg ls ;j}cfjZostfx? k'/f eP . t/ ;DjlGw dxf;GwL nufot y'k|} b:tfj]hx?jf6 of]
JolQmut :jfeLdfgsf] sb/ ub}{ ;du| k|0ffnLsf] IF]qdf cfd'n kl/jt{g g}ePsf] 5 . lxhf] cfhsf lbgdf
ljsf; ;lxt JolQmut ljsf;sf cfwf/x?sf] ckf+utfnfO{JolQmsf] JolQmut ;d:of g e};fdflhs
klxrfg x'g g;s];Dd oL cg'dfg / k|of;x? lg/y{s ;d:of / ljsf;sf] ;jfnsf] ?kdf lng] ul/G5 h;n]
x'g]5g h'g s'/f ;+ejt ckf+utf Joj:yfkgsf ljljw ubf{jftfj/0fLo cj/f]wsf] Go'gLs/0f ;lxt ;dfj]zL
r/0fx? h'g of] :tDedf pNn]v ul/Psf 5g ljsf; ;lxtsf] ;dfj]zL ;dfh cfhsf] d'Vo nIo xf]
tLgLx?n] k'li7 ul/;s]sf 5g .                     h;sf nflu l; lj cf/ pk'Qm / j}1flgs /0fgLlt x'g
                                                 ;Sb5 . ;j}eGbf r'/f] s'/f eg]sf] dflg;x?sf]
                                                 ;f]rdf kl/jt{g xf] h;sf] cefjdf kl/jlt{t
;f/f+z                                           ckf+utf d}qL ;dfhsf] kl/sNk0ff ;Dej g}5}g .
ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{x]g{] b[li6sf]0f /
ckf+utfsf] kl/efiffdf qmdz j}1fgLs tYox?sf]
ljsf; x'b}cfPsf] ;j}n] a'emg ;lsG5 . k'j{hGdsf]
kfk, b}jL>fk h:tf kIFx?jf6 ePsf] z'?jft ^)sf]
b;s cl3;Dd of] JolQmsf] JolQmut ;d:ofsf]
?kdf kl/eflift lyof] t/ ^) b]lv &) ;Ddsf]
b;sfdf o; ljifodf y'k|}jx;x? eP . ;g !(&* df
;j}sf nflu :jf:Yo, cNdfcf6f jf6 l; lj cf/
cjwf/0ffsf] z'?jft eP kl5 o; ljifodf yk
ljsf; ePsf] kfOG5 . ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3sf] dfgj
clwsf/ ;DjlGw 3f]if0ff kq, jfn clwsf/ ;DjlGw




                                             !*
;fxl;s k|of;

           JxLnlro/ k|of]ustf{nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ tl/sf
JxLn lro/ k6ofpg] tl/sf
!= a|]sx? /fd|/L nufpg'xf]; .
@= v'§f /fVg] Ps tx dfly p7fpg'xf]; .
#= l;6nfO{b'j}xftn] ;dfpg'xf]; .
$= l;w}dfly tfGg'xf]; .
JxLn lro/ vf]Ng] tl/sf
!= l;6sf] 808L ;dfTg'xf]; yf]/} vf]Ng'xf]; .
@= l;6sf] b'j}lt/ xft /fVg'xf]; .
#= lj:tf/}vf]Nb}tnlt/ lyRg'xf];, Wofglbg'xf]; xft RofKg ;S5 .
JxLn lro/ k|of]u ug]{tl/sf
!= cuf8L p7fpg]
       rnfpg' eGbf cuf8L k|of]ustf{nfO{dflylt/ p7fpg nufpg] .
cuf8Lsf] ;fgf] rSsfn] dflylt/ p7fpg ;xof]u ub{5 . k5f8Lsf] 808Ln] ;fgf] rSsfnfO{ p7g
dåt u5{, o;nfO{ yf]/} ws]Ng] h;n] ubf{ Xof08n tflgG5 / ;Gt'ng sfod /fV5 . tn ePkl5
tn ug]{ eGg'xf]; .
@= cf]/fnf]df k|of]u ug]{tl/sf
s_ cf]/fnf] af6f]df k|of]u ubf{ Xof08nnfO{ lj:tf/} ;dfTg] / z/L/ clns glhs Nofpg] o; ubf{
   tfGg] dfG5] k5f8L 5f]l8b}g . psfnf] hfFbf Xof08n nfO{ b/f];+u ;dfTg] / z/L/nfO{ glhs
   /fVg] . o;f] ubf{ k|of]u ug]{ dfG5] k5f8L 5f]l8Gb}g .
v_ clncln cf]/fnf]df cuf8Lsf] efu df]l8g ;S5 / r]o/ tflgg ;S5 . o:tf] cf]/fnf]df
   g3r]l8sg u'8g ;S5 . To;}n] r9]sf] JolQm gem/f]; eg]/ ljz]if ;fjwfgL ckgfpg' kb{5 .
u_ 7f8f] cf]/fnf] -le/fnf]_ df r]o/ k5f8L kms{g ;S5 . To;n] z/L/ glhs NofP/ rnfbf lj:tf/}
   lj:tf/} r]o/ tn u'85 .
#= v/fj af6f]df k|of]u ug]{ tl/sf
   vfN6fv'N6Ldf hf]ufP/ u'8fpg] jf ;fgf] rSsfnfO{ p7fpg] / ;Gt'ngdf /fv]/ 7]Ng] .
$= l8ndf k|of]u ug]{tl/sf
lXjnlro/nfO{$%Ü sf] sf]0fdf p7fP/ hfg] jf ;fgf] rSsfnfO{ p7fP/ ;Gt'ng sfod /fVg] /
tfGg] .



                                           !(
b:tfj]h
%= v'6sLnf kf/ ubf{k|of]u ug]{tl/sf
%=! dfly hfFbf
k|of]ustf{ nfO{ædfly hfFpÆ eGg] . k5f8Lsf] v'§f /fVg] 808Ldf v'§f /fv]/ cuf8Lsf] ;fgf]
rSsfnfO{ prfNg] . cuf8Lsf] ;fgf] rSsfnfO{ v'6]sLnfdf /fVg] . z/L/nfO{ glhs NofP/ r]o/sf]
6fo/nfO{ uf]lnufF7fn] 5'g] .
o;n] ubf{ k5f8Lsf] 6fo/ dflylt/ hfg ;xof]u ub{5 .
%=@ tn hf“bf
        tn hfg' cuf8L k|of]ustf{nfO{ætn hfpÆ eGg] . k5f8Lsf] rSsfnfO{ 5'b} unlt/ emg]{ .
o;f] ubf{r]o/ k5f8L tflgG5, cuf8Lsf] ;fgf] rSsf p75 / v'§f k5f8Lsf] v'§f /fVg] 808Ldf
/fv]sf] x'g' kb{5 . o;n] cuf8Lsf] ;fgf] rSsfnfO{tn emg{dåt ub{5 .
^= v'6sLnfx?df k|of]u ug]{ tl/sf
-;fjwfgLM v'6sLnfdf r9bf lXjnlro/sf] l:ylt dfly / tn emfbf{k5f8L x'g' kb{5 ._

^=! ;xof]u ug]{dfG5] @ hgf ePdfM
rSsfnfO{a|]s nufpg] . lXjnlro/ k|of]ustf{n] b'a}xft ;xof]ustf{nfO{ sfFwdf /fVg] .
;xof]ustf{n] Xof08n / v'§f /fVg] 808LnfO{ ;dfTg] .
-;fjwfgM lXjnlro/ klxn]s} l:yltdf cfpg ;S5 ._ o;f] ubf{ lXjnlro/ k5f8L tflgG5 / tn
em5{ .
^=@ ;xof]ustf{# hgf ePdfM
rSsfnfO{a|]s nufpg] .
k5f8Lsf] ;xof]ustf{n] Pp6f Xof08n ;dfTg] .
cuf8L bfFof jfFof b'O{lt/sf ;xof]ustf{n] cfˆgf]lt/sf] Xof08n / v'§f /fVg] 808L ;dfTg] .
-;fjwfgM lXjnlro/ klxn]s}l:yltdf cfpg ;S5 ._
o;n] lXjnlro/ k5f8L tflgG5 / tnlt/ emfg{;xof]u ub{5 .
^=# ;xof]ustf{$ hgf ePdfM
rSsfnfO{a|]s nufpg] . k5f8L pleg] b'O{hgfn] cfˆgf] k§Lsf] bfFof jfFofsf] Xof08n ;dfTg] .
cuf8L bfFof jfFof pleg] ;xof]ustf{n] v'§f /fVg] 808L ;dfTg] . -;fjwfgM lXjnlro/
klxn]s}l:yltdf cfpg ;S5 ._ o;n] lXjn lro/nfO{ k5f8L tfG5 /tnlt/ emfg{ ;xof]u ub{5 .

                                                                                lbksnf /fO{
                                                                                   sf]iffWoIf
                                                                             /f=c=d=k'=If]=sf

                                            @)
b:tfj]h
          ckf·tf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/sf]
              ;Ddfg ub}{ ;jf]{Rr cbfnt
         ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;du| clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt ug{ ljleGg ;dodf s]xL eP klg
gLltut Joj:yfx? g]kfn ;/sf/af6 Joj:yf eP klg ;f] sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog x'g g;Sbf
ckfËtf If]qdf lqmoflzn ;+:yfx?sf] kxn sbdLaf6 gLltut n8fO{+ cufl8 a9fpg] qmddf
;Ddflgt ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] klxnf] P]g ckfË ;+/If0f tyf sNof0f
P]g @)#( nfO{ 6]Sb} b]ze/ /x]sf clt c;Qm ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf nflu ;fdflhs ;'/Iff
eQf / cfj;u[xsf] dfu u/L g]kfn ckfË dfgj clwsf/ s]Gb|, sflnsf–#, alb{of lgjf;L
clwjQmf ;'bz{g ;'j]bL / eQmk'/ Ogf rf}s lgjf;L cltczQm ckfËtf ePsf JolQm lbk]Gb| zfSo
/ lj=;+= @)^* ;fn efb| !* ut] g]kfn ;/sf/ lj?4 /L6 bfo/ u/]sf]df ;f] ljifonfO{ lnP/
;jf]{Rr cbfnt sf7df08f}Fåf/f dfggLo GofowLz tflx/ cnL cG;f/L / sdn gf/fo0f bf;sf]
;+o'Qm Ohnf;df @)^( >fj0f #) ut] d+unaf/ ckfËutf ePsf JolQmx?sf] kIfdf k}m;nf
;'g'jfO{ ul/Psf] 5 .
pQm k}m;nfsf] k/dfb]z cg';f/ ug'{kg]{ sfo{x? M
!= clxn];Dd klxrfg / u0fgf eO;s]sf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ ckfËutfsf] cj:yf x]/L
   a]/f]huf/ / cfo;|f]t gePsf / j[4 ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ Go"gtd dfl;s ?= %))
   b]lv ?=#))) ;Dd lgjf{x eQf lbg] lbnfpg] Joj:yf ug'{kg]{,
@= klxrfg eO{u0fgf eO;s]sf zf/Ll/s ?kn] lxF88'n ;d]t ug{g;Sg] k"0f{c;Qm jf k"0f{?kn]
   dfglzs ljlIfKtQfsf] cj:yfdf /x]sf] cltczQm ckfËtf ePsf JolQmnfO{ x]/rfx
   ug]{kl/jf/ gePsf jf ;f] ug{;Ifd kl/jf/ gePsfnfO{ x]/rfx ug]{ JolQm ;d]tsf] nflu
   Go"gtd lgjf{x eQfsf] ?kdf cj:yf cg';f/ ?=#))) b]lv ?= %))) dfl;s ljz]if eQf
   pknAw u/fpg],
#= ckfËutf ePsf JolQmx?sf] klxrfg, juL{s/0f / ltgLx?sf] ;du| xslxt ;d]t x]g{] u/L
   k|To]s lhNnfdf slDtdf ! hgf ;dfhsNof0f clws[tsf] lgo'QmL ug]{jf lghsf] sfd ug]{u/L
   g]kfn ;/sf/sf] s'g} clws[tnfO{ tf]Sg'kg]{,
$= pk/f]Qm bkmf ! / @ cg';f/sf] eQf / ljz]if eQf of] cfb]z k|fKt ePsf] ldltb]lv nfu"
   'x'g]u/L cfb]z k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] # dlxgfleq pknAw u/fpg'kg]{,
%= of] cfb]z k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] ^ dlxgfleq ;dfhsNof0f clws[t lgo'Qm u/L ;Sg'kg]{,
^= pk/f]Qm adf]lhdsf] sfo{x? ;DkGg u/L of] cfb]z k|fKt ePsf] ;tf}F dlxgfleq cfb]z
    sfof{Gjog ePsf] hfgsf/L o; cbfntnfO{ u/fpg'kg]{ .
lgb]{zfTds cfb]z hf/L ul/Psf] ljifo
!= ckfË ;+/If0f tyf sNof0f P]g @)#( sf] bkmf # sf] k|of]hgsf nflu lrlsT;f zf:qsf
   ;j{dfGo l;4fGt / cGt/f{li6ªo dfkb08 ;d]tsf] cfwf/df zf/Ll/s, dfglzs / af}l4s
   ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] u0fgf u/L ltgLx?sf] :t/ lgwf{/0f Pjd juL{s/0f oyflz3|
   ug]{jf u/fpg],
@= ckfËtfsf] nflu 3/ lgdf{0f Pjd ;~rfng ug]{ . o;sf] nflu cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv g}
   ckfËtfsf] ;+Vofsf] cfwf/df a9L ckfËtf ePsf] lhNnf of If]qdf of]hgfa4 9+un] k|To]s
   jif{! ckfË 3/sf] lgdf{0f / ;~rfng ub}{ hfg'kg]{,
                                             @!
b:tfj]h
#= P]g / lgodn] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] cfwf/e"t ;'ljwfsf] ;DaGwdf u/]sf]
   Joj:yfnfO{ k|efjsf/L 9+un] nfu" ub}{hfg],
$= ckfË sNof0f / ;'/Iff ;DalGw ;/sf/L / u|}x ;/sf/L :t/af6 ul/g] lqmofsnfk /
   ultljlwsf] k|efjsf/L cg'udg ug]{ u/fpg] p2]Zon] dGqL kl/ifb ;lrjfnodf / dlxnf
   afnaflnsf tyf ;dfhsNof0f dGqfnodf clws[t :t/sf] !–! cg'udg clwsf/L lgo'Qm
   ug]{ / ltgLx?sf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/ klg kl/dflh{t ckfË ;+/If0f tyf sNof0f P]gdf
   lgwf{/f0f ug]{,
%= g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] wf/f !# -#_ sf] k|ltaGwfTds v08 / ;+ljwfgsf]
   efu–$df /fHosf] bfloTj / /fHosf gLlt / pNn]v ul/P cg';f/ ckfËtf ePsf
   JolQmx?sf nflu ljz]if Joj:yf / sfo{qmdx?sf] th'{df ul/ nfu" ub}{hfg'kg]{5 .
^= ckfËtf clwsf/ / ckfË sNof0fsf] If]qdf sfo{/t ;/sf/L / u}|x ;/sf/L lgsfox?sf]
   sfd sfjf{jfxLdf cfjZostfcg';f/ ;dGjo / ;xof]usf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] .
&=   g]kfnn] ckfËtf ;DalGw dxf;lGw @))^ cg'df]bg ul/;s]sf] cj:yf ;d]tnfO{
     ljrf/u/L o; If]qsf lj1x? / ;/f]sf/jfnfx? ;d]t;Fu cjfZos k/fdz{ Pjd ;'emfj
     lnO{ ckfË ;+/If0f tyf sNof0f P]g @)#( / lgodfjnL @)%!df ;do cg's"n ;+zf]wg /
     kl/dfh{g ug]{ jf gofF PsLs[t P]g / ;f]xL cg'?ksf] PsLs[t lgodfjnL lgdf{0f ug'{kg]{ .




                                          @@
hfgsf/L


;dfj]zL lzIffnfO{ k|j4{g u/f}“ .




               @#
;dfrf/ ljljw

              ci6fjqmM km/s Ifdtfsf] klxnf] kf}/fl0fs
                        pb3f]ifs tyf k|jQmf
                                                                                  /lj/fh l/dfn
          ci6fjqm ;+;f/sf] klxnf] o:tf] JolQm x'g. h;n] ;TonfO{h;/L hfg] To;/L g}elglbP .
ci6fjqmsf] cfdfsf] gfd ;'hftf lyof] . pgsf] lktfsf]gfd sxf]8 lyof] . sxf]8 Clif p2fns
gfdsf Clifsf]lzio tyf j]b k9]sf k|sf+08 lj4fg lyP . /fHodf sxf]8 ClifnfO{zf:qfy{df s;}n]
klg lhTg ;Sb}gy] . elgG5, ci6fjqm ha cfdfsf] ue{df lyP . pgL cfkmgf] lktfaf6 zf:qfy{sf]
af/]df ;'Gby] . Ps lbgci6fjqmn] ue{leq}af6 afa'sf] zf:qfy{nfO{e'm6 eg]+ . …1fg zf:qx?df
xf]Og, cfkm+}leq x'G5 . ;To zf:qx?df xf]Og, cfkm+}leq xG'5 . zf:q t zJbsf] ;+u|xdfq xf]Ú eg]+ .
Tof] ;'g]/ pgsf] lktf qmf]lwt eP . pgsf] lktfdf cx+sf/ hfu]/ p7of] . hf] clxn] klg ue{df 5,
To;n] d]/f] 1fgdfyL k|ZglrGx nufO{lbof] eg]/ pgsf lktf ltnldnfP . cfˆg}k'qn] dnfO{pkb]z
lbO{/x]sf] 5, hf] clxn] hlGd;s]sf] 5}g . To;}n] pgsf] afa'n] >fk lbP ls hGdb}zl// cf7
7fpFdf 6]9f] xf]cf];. To;}n] ci6fjqm gfd /xg uof] .
      lktfsf] o:tf] >fksf] jfjh'b ci6fjqm lktfeQm lyP . ha pgL afX jif{sf lyP . /fHodf
/fhf hgsn] 7"nf] zf:qfy{;Dd]ng cfof]hgf u/]sf lyP . b]zsf ;a} k|sf08 ljåfgx?nfO{ ljz]if
cfdlGqt ul/Psf] lyof] . ci6fjqmsf] lktfnfO{klg ljz]if cfdGq0f ul/Psf] lyof] . /fhf hgsn]
;ef:yndf Ps xhf/ ufO{afFw]/ ufO{sf] l;ËnfO{;'gn] df]g{nufPsf lyP . ufO{sf] unfdf lx/f
hjfx/ftsf] dfnf nufO{Psf] lyof] / 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] lyof] ls– h;n] o; zf:qfy{df lhT5,
To;n] ;a}ufO{n}hfg kfpg] 5 .
         a]n'sf xFb}ubf{{va/ cfof] ls ci6fjqmsf] lktf zf:qfy{df xfl//x]sf 5g. z'?af6
;a}nfO{lhlt/x]sf lyP . t/ cGTodf j+bgL gfd u/]sf Ps hgf k+l8t;Fu eg]+ xfg]{ l:ytLdf
k'u]sf 5g. ci6fjqmsf] lktf clxn] xf?g jf kl5 xf?g t/ v]ndf ci6fjqmsf] lktfn] xfg]{ l:ytL
aGb} lyof] . o:tf] yfxf kfP/ afns ci6fjqm v]Ng 5f8]/ /fhb/jf/ k'u] . ci6fjqm ljåfgx?n]
el/Psf] ;efdf uP/ pleP . cf7 7fpFdf 6]8f]d]8f] zl// / cgf}7f] rfn b]v]/ ;efdf ePsf
ljåfgx? xfF:g yfn] . o:tf] b]v]/ ci6fjqm pkl:yt JolQmx? k|lt emghf]8n] xfF:g yfn] .
      /fhf hgsn] eg+] c? ;a}xfF;]sf] sf/0f dn} ae'm+] t/ afa' ltdL xf:g'sf] sf/0f s] xf] <
    ci6fjqmn] eg]+– of] rdf/x?sf] ;efdf ;Tosf] lg0fo{eO{/x]sf] 5 . dnfO{cfZro{nflu/x]sf] 5
sL lo rdf/x? oxfF s] ul//x]sf 5g<
         ci6fjqmsf] o:tf] s'/f ;'g]/ ;f/f ;ef cjfseof] . rf/}lt/ ;Ggf6f 5fof] . /fhf hgs
:jo+ klg ;Gg eP . pgn] ;f]w– ltd|f] dtna s] xf] <
                               ]
            ci6fjqmn] hjfkm lbP– l;wf s'/f logLx? df;' dfq b]V5g, dnfO{ b]Vb}gg . To;}n]
logLx? rdf/ dfq x'g. pgLx? dh:tf] l;wf;fbf dfG5] b]Vb}gg pgLx? d]/f] 6]8f]d]8f] zl// dfq
b]Vb5g. /fhgÛ s] dlGb/ 6]9f] x'b}df cfsfz 6]8f] x'G5 . 3}6f] k'm6b}df s] cfsfz k'm65 < cfsfz t
                                              @$
;dfrf/ ljljw
lglj{sf/ 5 . d]/f]] zl// 6]9f]d]9f] x'Fb}df d t 6]9f]d]9f] 5g}gLF . d]/f] leq h] 5, To;nfO{ b]Vg'k5{ d]/f]
zl//nfO{ b]v/, d]/f] xf8, 5fnf / df;'nfO{ x]// hf] xfF:5 Tof] rdf/ geP sf] xf] t < eg]/ k|Zg u/] .
            ]                                  ]
    jf:tjdf ci6fjqmn] /fhf hgssf] zf:qfy{;efdf cfk'm cf7 7fpFdf 6]9f]d]9f] z/L/ ePsf]
ci6fjqm -cfhsf] cfw'lgs cjwf/0ff cg';f/ zf/Ll/s ckfËtf ePsf] JolQm_ ePsf] / cfk"mleq
lglxt km/s IfdtfnfO{lrGg g;s]sf]df ljåfgx?sf] ;efnfO{ xf8, 5fnf / df;'sf] af/]df dfq
tf}ng], To;sf] af/]df dfq hfg]sf rdf/x?sf] ;ef eg]/ /fhf ;dIf cfˆgf] s'/f lgle{stfsf
;fy /fv] . o;/L ci6fjqmn] cfk"m leq lglxt km/s IfdtfnfO{pb3f]if u/] . ckfËtf ePsf
JolQmdf lglxt km/s IfdtfnfO {a‰g' kg{] g ls xf8, 5fnf, df;'nfO{dfq tf}n]/, x]/]/ ul/g]
cdfgjLo Jojxf/sf] af/]df /fhf hgsn] cfof]hgf u/]sf] ljåfgx?sf] ;efdf k|ltjfb u/] .
zfl:qo ljåfgx?sf] ljåtf dfyL k|Zg lrGx nufO{lbP . cfˆgf afa'nfO{zf:qfy{df lhtfpg
ci6fjqmn] dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u k'¥ofP . Tolt dfq xf]O{g ls pgn] /fhf hgssf] ;a}bfz{lgs
lh1f;fx?sf] ;dfwfg klg ul/lbP / /fhf hgssf] u'? aGg klg ;kmn eO{ci6fjqmn] cfk"m leq
/x]sf] Ifdtfsf] k'li6 ul/lbP . ci6fjqmn] /fhf hgssf] ;efdf cfˆgf] aflx/L z/L/ x]/]/ xFf:g,]
lvl;6ofO{ug{] slyt ljåfgx?sf] ljåtfnfO{k/flht dfq u/]ggls pgn] cfk'mleq cGt{lglxt
km/s Ifdtf ;d]t k|bz{g ul/ kl08t j+bgL;Fu ePsf] zf:qfy{dfk/fhosf] glhs k'lu/x]sf
cfˆgf] lktfnfO{zf:qfy{lhtfP . ci6fjqmn] cfk"mleq cyf{tcfkmgf] zf/Ll/s ckfËtf eGbf k/
/x]sf] km/s Ifdtfsf] kb|z{g ul/ jiff{}bl]vsf /fHodf sxlnPsf zfl:qo kl08tx?nfO{/fhf
hgssf] ;efdf g} nlHht agfO{lbP . h] u/] cfˆgf] Ifdtfsf] pb3f]if u/] / cfˆgf ] km/s
Ifdtfsf ] kb|z{g u/] .
              kf}/fl0fs syfdf cfpg] of] k|;Ë ckfËtf ePsf] JolQmdf lglxt km/s Ifdtfsf]
k|bz{gsf] Pp6f /fd|f] b[i6fGt xf] . of] ;To 36gfsf] ?kdf Clif ci6fjqm / syfsf] ?kdf o;sf]]
/rgf ug{] Clif b'a} ckfËtf ePsf JolQmsf] km/s Ifdtfsf hfgsf/ dxfg JolQmx? xg' . xfdL
k"jL{o wd{bz{g sf cg'ofoLx?n] o; k|lt uf}/j jf]w ub{} ckfËtf ePsf] JolQmsf] km/s Ifdtf
k|j4g{df tg, dg / jrgn] s[t;+slNkt eO{ lqmoflzn eO{/xg] c7f]6 / k|ltj4tf Jojxf/af6
k'li6 ug'{kb{5 . ci6fjqmg} ckfËtf ePsf JolQmsf] km/s Ifdtf klxrfg ul/ pb3f]if ug{] klxnf]
km/s Ifdtfsf pb3f]ifs tyf k|jQmf x'geGg] tYonfO{ xfdL ;a} k|s[ltsf ckfËtf ePsf
JolQmx?n] ckgTjaf]w / uf}/jjf]w u/f+}.
;dfrf/ ljljw

         l;=lj=cf/= sfo{qmdaf6 df]/Ë lhNnfsf] ckfËtf
                    Joj:yfkgdf 7'nf] km8sf]


                                                                                /fh]Gbbxfn
                                                                             lkmN8 ;+of]hs
                                                               /f=c=d=k"=If]=sf= la/f6gu/
        df]/Ë lhNnfsf] ^% j6} uflj;x?nfO{ nlIftu/L /f=c=d=g]=k"=If]=sf=lj/f6gu/n]
Pg=Pn=cf/= lj/f6gu/sf] ;fem]bfl/tfdf ;g@)!) af6 # aif]{ kfO{n6 kl/of]hgfsf] ?kdf ;'?
ul/Psf] ljz]if df]/Ë ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g{:yfkgf sfo{qmd n] b'O{ jif{s} cjlwdf $$ cf]6f
uflj;x?df kl/of]hgfsf] ;kmn sfof{Gjog ug{;ls df]/Ë lhnnfsf] ckfËtf Joj:yfkgdf
7'nf] km8sf] dfg{ ;kmn ePsf] 5 .
       cfh eGbf b'O{ jif{ cufl8sf] df]/Ë lhNnfsf] ckfËtfsf] cj:yfnfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] df]/Ë
lhNnfdf ( cf]6f lhNnf :tl/o l8lkcf]x? ePtf klg :yflgo :t/sf] ckfËtf d'4fnfO nlIft
u/L :ki6 sfo{qmdx? gePsf sf/0f ckfËtf ;DalGe r]tgfsf] :t/ sd ePsf] ;dfhdf
ckfËtfsf]                                                               cj:yfnfO{ ljleGg
cj}1flgs ts{ /                                                          cfIf]kx? nufOg]
ul/Gyof] . sltko                                                        dflg;n] ckfËtfsf]
cj:yf ePsf]                                                             dflg; k"0f{dfgj
xf]Og elg                                                               cdfgljo Jojxf/
ub{y] . ckfËtf                                                          ePsf JolQmx?sf]
s f / 0 f a f 6                                                         3/kl/jf/sf]
;fdflhs k|lti7f                                                         Ifo x'G5 eGg]
gs/fTds ;f] r                                                           lyof] . t;y{ M
k l / j f / s }                                                         ;b:ox?n] ckfËtf
ePsf JolQmx?nfO{                                                        3/leq} n' s fP/,
afw]/ jf cGo si7                                                        lbP/ /fv]sf
pbfx/0fx? k|z:t}                                                        e]l6Gy] . csf{lt/
/fHo nufot cGo lgsfox?n] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ gLltut ?kdf k|bfg ug'{kg]{ lzIff,
:jf:Yo, ljljsf]kfh{g, cfwf/e't dfgj clwsf/sf ;]jfx? tyf k'g{:yfkgfhGo ;]jf ;'ljwfx?sf]
ljt/0fdf tl/sf, 1fg / ;]jfk|bfosx? ljr tfnd]n gePsf sf/0f To:tf gLltut ;]jf /
;'lawfx?af6 6f9f g} a:g'kg]{ cj:yf lyof] . h'g s'/f Pg=Pn=cf/=lj/f6gu/n] df]/Ë lhNnfsf]
!^ cf]6f uflj;x?df u/]sf] gd'gf ;j]{If0fn] klg b]vfPsf] 5 . of] ;j]{If0fs} cfwf/df ljBdfg
ckfËtf d'4fx?nfO{ lrb}}{–# aif{leq} df]/udf ckfutf Joj:yfkg ug]{ pRr kl/sNkgfsf ;fy
;dfrf/ ljljw
kfOn6 kl/of]hgf lgdf{0f u/L /fli6o ckfu dxf;+3 lj/f6gu/ d'Vo sfof{Gjogstf{ /xg] u/L
;d'bfo :t/df ckfutf ;DalGw sfd ug]{ ;+:yfx? l;ljcf/ la/f6gu/ / g]kfn s'i7/f]u ;+utL
O{6x/L;Fu sf] kf6{g/;Lkdf of] kl/of]hgf ;+rfn eO{/x]sf] 5.df]/u+ lhNnfsf] ^% cf]6f uflj;x?
nfO{ tLg cf]6f kf6{g/x?ljr @@÷@@ cf]6f efudf kg]{ ul/ uflj;x?sf] efu aG8f u/L
sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug]{ /0fgLlt cg'?k sfo{qmdx? cuf8L a9fOPsf] ePtf klg /fli6o ckfu
dxf;+3 n] g}d'Vo e'ldsf lgjf{x u/L lhDd]jf/L cg'?k cuf8L al9/x]sf 5 .
        df]/Ë lhNnfdf k'g{:yfkgfhGo ;]jfx?sf] yfngL ul/ ax'klIfo dfWodaf6 o;sf] pkof]u
ug]{ ljif]z pb]Zosf ;fy of] kl/of]hgfsf] ;fdGo pb]Zox?df s=;fd'bflos lqmofsnfkx?df
ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] cGt{lqmofTds ;xeflutfsf] ;'lglZrt ug]{ , v=cGo gful/s ;/x
;d'bfodf ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{;dfg clwsf/sf] k|Tofe'lt u/fpg] /x]sf] lyof] .
kl/of]hgf ;+rfng eO{;s]sf uflj;x?df at{dfg ;dodf ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf]
;fdflhs kl/rfngdf Ifdtf a[l4 x'g', ;/sf/L gLlt lgodx?sf] lj:tf/}sfof{Gjog x'gyfNg',
lzIff, :jf:Yo / lhljsf]kh{g h:tf If]qx?df kx'r a[l4 x'g' cflb pknlAwx? k|fKt
x'gyfln;s]sf 5g .
ljz]if df]/Ë ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g{:yfkgf sfo{qmd dfkm{t :yflgo :t/sf] ckf+utf
Joj:yfkgsf If]qdf lgDg pknlAwx? k|fKt eO{;s]sf 5gM
!= $$ cf]6f uflj;x?df uflj; :tl/o ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;d'x -l8lkcf]_ u7g
       eO{$)) hlt ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx? ckf+utf ;jfndf ;r]t / lqmoflzn 5g.
@= #% hgf hlt ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx? uflj; :tl/o ljleGg ;ldlt / ;d'x?df cfa4
       eO{lqmoflzn /x]sf 5g.
#= #) cf]6f uflj;x?df s'i7 k|efljt ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?sf] :jodx]/rfx ;d'x
       u7geO{:jod x]/rfx ;DalGw ultljlw / s]lx AolQmx?n] lhljsf]kfh{g sf sfo{x?
       ;+rfng ul//x]sf 5g.
$= $) hgf eGbf w]/}ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?n] b}lgs cfocfh{gd'ns Joj;fo ul//x]sf
       5g.
%= kl/of]hgf nlIft uflj;x?df !)) k|ltztdf :yflgo :t/sf] jh]6 ljlgof]hg x'g
       yfn]sf] 5 .
^= df]/Ë lhNnfsf] hDdf ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx? dWo] ^) k|ltzt eGbf w]/}n] ckf+utf
       kl/ro kq kfO{;s]sf 5g.
&= $) k|ltzt hlt ckf+utf d'4f :ylgo :t/dfg}sfof{Gjog x'g yfn]sf 5g.
*= df]/Ë lhNnfsf] hDdf ;fd'bflos ljBfnox? dWo] %) k|ltzt eGbf w]/};fd'bflos
       ljbfnosf k|=c= x? ;dfj]zL lzIff df k|fljlws 1fg xfl;n u/L ckf+utf
       afnaflnsfx?sf] Ifdtf, cfjZostf / rfxgf cg'?ksf] lzIf0f k|0ffnL ljsf;
       ug{k|ltj4 ePsf 5g.
(= ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ;d'bfo :t/df xs clwsf/ / sfg'gL ;]jfx?sf]
       ;'lglZrttfsf nfuL !% cf]6f uflj; :tl/o l8lkcf]sf] k|ltlglwTj /xg] ul/ $ cf]6f
       Onfsf :tl/o ;+hfn u7g eO{q}dfl;s ?kdf ;d'bfo :t/df ckf+utf ;DalGw r]tgf
       d'ns 5nkmn uf]li7 / cfjZostf cg';f/ ckf+utf d'4fdf nljË, jsfnt / kxnsbld
;dfrf/ ljljw
       h:tf sfo{x? x'gyfn]sf]] 5 .
!)= clwsf+; uflj;x?sf cfd ;d'bfon] ckf+utf Joj:yfkgsfnfuL lrlsT;sLo
       cjwf/0fdf ;'wf/ u/L clwsf/df cfwf/Lt cjwf/0ff nfO{c+ufNg yfn]sf 5g.
!!= :yflgo :t/ b]lv lhNnf tx ;Ddsf ckf+utfsf d'4f, ultltlw / gLlt sfof{Gjog h:tf
       ckf+utf Aoj:yfkgsf If]qdf 5nkmn ug{sf nfuL df]/Ë lhNnfsf ;Dk'0f{;/sf/L
       sfof{no , ckf+utf If]qdf ;xof]u ug]{/fli6«o ÷cGt{/fli6«o bft[ lgsfox? / lhNnf :tl/o
       l8lkcf] x? ljrsf] lhNnf ckf+utf Jo:yfkg tyf ;dGjo ;ldlt u7g ul/ q}dfl;s
       ?kdf ldl6Ë tyf 5nkmn x'gyfn]sf] 5 .
!@=ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx? nfO{cfktsflng ;xof]u, zf}lIfs tyf ;xfos ;fdu|L ;xof]u sf
   nfuL Ps4f/ k|0ffnL 4f/f sf]if :yfkgf y/L lhnnf ckf+utf ;dGjo ;ldlt af6 ;+rfng
   eO{/x]sf] 5 .
       ljsf;nfO{ dfgj clwsf/;Fu hf]8]/ cuf8L a9fO{g' k5{ eGg] ljsf;sf] gljgtd
cjwf/0ffnfO{ ;fy{stf t'Nofpg ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g{:yfkgf h:tf sfo{qmdx?sf] 7'nf]
e'ldsf /xG5 . ljsf;sf] kx'r af6 ;a}eGbf 6f9f /x]sf] ju{ -ckf+utf_ nfO{ g} s]Gb|ljGb' agfO{
jftfj/0f dfyL k/]sf] k|efjx?nfO{ d'Nof+sg u/L clwstd dfqdf :yflgo >f]t / ;fwgx?sf]
kl/rfngaf6 ckf+utf Aoj:yfkgsf] ;fy;fy} ;fd'bflos ljsf;df 6]jf k'Ug] o; kl/of]hgfsf]
e'ldsf ;/xlgo 5 . o; kl/of]hgf af6 k|fKt x'g yfn]sf] pknlAwx?nfO{ Jojl:yt u/L
lg/Gt/tfsf nfuL ljsf;;Fu ;DalGwt ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L lgsfox? , gfu/Ls ;dfh tyf
;+rf/sdL{ / cfd ;d'bfosf] dxTjk'0f{e"ldsf /xg] ePsfn] pxfx?sf] ;xof]usf nfuL xfl4{s
clkn ub{5' .
        cGTodf ;fd'bflos ljsf;af6 dfq ckf+utf Joj:yfkg ;Dej 5 , / ckf+utf
Aoj:yfkgaf6 dfq ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ljsf; / dfgj clwsf/sf] k|Tofe'lt lbnfp
;lsg] ePsfn] ;fd'bflos ljsf;sfdf dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg k'/ofpg] o;vfnsf sfo{qmdx?df
;a}sf] ;xof]u / ;xsfo{ eO{ o:tf sfo{qmdx?n] lg/Gt/tf kfpg ;sf]; .
;dfrf/ ljljw

                  wgs'6f lhNnfsf] ckfËtf ultljwL
                                                                     ofd axfb'/ a:g]t
                                                                               cWoIf
                                                                 ckfË ;]jf ;+3 wgs'6f
           ckfË ;]jf ;+3sf] :yfkgf @)%& ;fndf ljlwjt ?kdf lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf btf{,
;dfhsNof0f kl/ifb, u}=;=;= dxf;+3 / /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfndf cfj4tf /x]sf] 5 .
lhNnfljsf; ;ldlt wgs'6f4f/f @)^$ ;fndf ul/Psf] 3/w'/L ;j{]If0f cg';f/ s'n hg;+Vof
!^**#@ /x]sf] kfOG5 . h;dWo] k'?ifsf] hg;+Vof*&(&@ / dlxnf hg;+Vof *)*^) /x]sf] 5 .
;f] hg;+VofdWo] ckfË ;]jf ;+3 wgs'6fn] @)^%df u/]sf] 3/w'/L ;j{]If0f cg';f/
ckfËtfePsfdlxnf !$)* / k'?if @)#&ul/ hDdf ckfËtf #$$% /x]sf] kfOG5 . h;df
zfl//Ls ckfËtf !@#), ;'=>= tyfalx/f !@@&, :j/jf]nfO{!%!, ;'=d= !@@, dfgl;s !!*, >j0f
b[li6ljlxg %, b[li6ljlxg ##^ / ax'ckfËtf @%^ /x]sf] 5 .
!= #%uf=lj=;=, ! g=kf= ;dGjo ;ldlt u7g
@= lhNnf kfZjlrq tof/ @)^%
      hDdf–#$$%,dlxnf–!$)*,k'?if–@)#&
#= tYofÍ cWofjlws af/Daf/
$= ckfËtf kl/rokq :yflgo :t/df 6f]nLuO{ljt/0f ul/Psf]
      xfn ;Dd @& j6f uf=lj=;= ;DkGg
      afFls * j6f uf=lj=;= -xfn rfn'df ;+rfng eO{/x]sf _
      xfnjg]sf] ;+=–!*)% hgf
%= ;fdflhs ;'/IffeQfsf] l:ylt -cf=j= )^*÷)^(_
      k'0f{czQm @$&hgf, cfFlzsczQm ^( hgf
      ckfËtf 5fqj[lQsf] ;+Vof #%^ hgf
^= o; lhNnfdf ckfËtf If]qdf lqmoflzn ;+:yfx?
      ckfË ;]jf ;+3 wgs'6f
      wgs'6f alx/f ;+3 wgs'6f
      g]qlxg ;+3 wgs'6f
      ckfËdlxnf ;+3 wgs'6f
      af}l4s ckfËtf cleefjs ;+3 wgs'6f
      l;=kL= ;]G6/ wgs'6f
&= ;DkGg d'Vod'Vo sfo{qmdx?M–
     ? l;kd'ns tyf cfocfh{g sfo{qmd -l;nfO{ s6fO{ tflnd, rslgdf{0f, xft]xf]lhxf/L, ;'O/
         a'gfO{, a]tafF; tflnd d}galQ lgdf{0f tflnd_
     ? tflndx?M– -g]t[Tjljsf;, k|:tfjgf n]vg, ;d'x Ifdtf clej[l4tflnd, e]6g/L ;DaGwL_
     ? bIfk|fljlws pTkfbgM– -lkmlhof] y]/fkL tflnd, bf]efif] tflnd_
     ? ;xfos ;fdu|L ljt/0f -wheel chair, j}zfvL, v'§f, Soflnk/ cfbL_
     ? 3'DtL sf]if nufgL
;dfrf/ ljljw
*= xfn ;Dd ;+rflntsfo{qmdx?M–                       ? ufFp ;dGjo ;ldltk'g{u7g
   ? k/fdz{;]jf                                     ? ;fdflhs kl/rfns kl/rfng
   ? :jf:Yo kl/If0f lzlj/                           ? ckfËtf lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt u7g
   ? lkmlhof]y]/fkL ;]jf                            ? ;f+s]lts efiff tflnd ;+rfng
   ? ;Nolqmof ;+rfng                                ? d}galQ tflnd
   ? ;xfos ;fdu|Lljt/0f                             ? Onfsf :tl/o ;dGjo ;ldlt u7g
   ? ;f+s]ltsefifftflnd                         !)= ;d:of tyf r'gf}ltx?M–
(= ;Defljt sfo{qmdx?M–                             ? ef}uf]lns ljs6tf
   ? sfg kl/If0f, ;Nolqmof,                        ? lzIffsf] sld
       xol/ËP8ljt/0f                             ? hgr]tgfsf] cefj
   ? ;d'xut Ifdtf clej[l4, sfg'gL                  ? cfly{s sl7gfO{
       Ifdtf clej[l4                               ? kof{Kt ;xfos ;fdu|Lsf] cefj
   ? ;d'x ;zlQms/0f


       ckf·tf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/d"vL gf/fx?
  æxfd|f] cfkmg} ;xeflutf ljgf xfd|f] jf/]df ul/g] lg0f{o xfd|f] nflu dfGo x'g]5}gÆ
  æckfËtf JolQmut ;d:of xf]Og, of] ;fdflhs ;d:of xf]Æ
  æxfd|f] nflu xfd|} ;xeflutfÆ
  "Nothing about us without us"
  "Towards Inclusive, Barrier Free and Rights based Society for the Persons with
  Disabilities"
  æckfËtf c;Ifdtf xf]Og, To;}n] o;nfO{ c;Ifdtf;Fu bfFh/ k|of]u ug{ t'?Gt jGb u/f}Æ
                                                       ]                         F
  æckfËtf bof / pksf/sf] ljifo xf]Og, dfgj clwsf/ / ljsf;sf] d'2f xf]Æ
  æckfËtf :jo+ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] dfq ljifo xf]Og j? of] t /fHo / ;dfhsf
  cGo ;jfnx¿;Fu} ufFl;P/ hfg] ;jfn xf] .Æ
  æxfd|f] nflu xfd|} cfjfhÆ "A Voice of Our Own"
  æckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DjlGw dxf;+wLnfO{cg'df]bg u/f}F
  ckfËtf ;DjlGw ;Dk"0f{ lje]bsf/L sfg"gx¿sf] cGTo u/f}F Æ
  "Ratify CRPD-2006, Eliminate Discriminations"
  æxfd|f] n8fFO bofsf] cfu|x xf]Og , klxrfg, cl:tTj, clwsf/ / :Jffledfgsf] nflu xf] Æ
  æ;Dk"0f{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] Pp6} cfjZostf, gofF g]kfnsf] gofF ;+ljwfgdfdf
  pmgLx¿sf] clwsf/, klxrfg / :jfledfgsf] ;"lglZrttfÆ
;dfrf/ ljljw

                    xfd|f] wd{df ckf·x¿sf] :yfg
                                                                            lzjuf]kfn l/;fn
        j}lbs ;gftg wd{;fj{ef}d, zfZjt / ;fj{sflns 5 . o;n] dfgj hLjgnfO{ O{Zj/OEdf
k'¥ofpgsf nflu cg]s k|sf/sf dfu{x¿ b]vfPsf] 5 . hGdhGdfGt/sf cToGt 7'nf7'nf
k'0o–k'~hsf] kmn:j¿k dfgj hLjg kfOg] ePsfn] o; hLjgnfO{a9LeGbf a9L ;'vl, ;DkGg,
cfgGbL, ;Gtf]ifL, zfGt agfP/ k/a|Xd k/dfTdk|flKtsf lgldQ lgisfd sd{of]ub]lv p7fP/,
lgu'{0f elQmk"j{s 1fgfh{g u/fP/ k/dkb :j¿k df]IfdlGb/df k'¥ofpg' g} j}lbs wd{sf], j}lbs
wd{df cfwfl/t u|Gyx¿sf ] p2]Zo xf] .
               xfd|f j]b, pklgifb, dfxfef/t, /fdfo0f, UfLtf cflb zf:qx¿df /f]uL, ul/a, ckfË,
ljsnfË cflb k|lt bof, s¿0ff, ;]jfsf] k|z:t pNn]v kfOG5 . dfgj wd{cg';f/
;Dk"0f{k|f0fLx¿nfO{g}cfTdjtdfGg' kg]{ePsfn] cfkm" h:t}dfG5] s'g}sf/0fjz ckfË eof ] eg]
To;kl| t kljq efjgfn ] ;j] f ug{' ;gftg wd{sf] cfbz{xf] . /f]uL, b'MvL, ckfËx¿nfO{l5=== l5M===
/ b"/== b"/= ug{' t cdfgjLo dfq xf]Og bfgjL Pj+ kfzljs efj k|bz{g ug'{xf] . jf:OEdf j}lbs
sfnsf hgtfx¿ cfTdjt;j{e"t]if' cyf{t;Dk"0f{k|f0fLnfO{cfkm" h:t}dfGb5g.
 j]b, k'/f0f cflbdf ckfËtf ¿kdf b]lvPsf dxfdfgjx¿
            j}lbs Pj+ kf}/fl0fs ;dodf klg ;gftgLx¿ ckfËx¿kl| t cToGt kd]| , bof, pbf/tf
b]vfpg] uby{] . Tolt dfq xf]Og ckfËx¿ c;fwf/0f k|ltef ;DkGg eQm, 1fgL, Pj+ dGq›i6f
Clifx¿ ;d]t lyP . o:tf zlQm;DkGg, 1fg;DkGg dxfdfgjx¿ csf{sf] ;xofu] sf] ckI] ff ug{'
t stf xf] stf a¿ cfkmF}c¿sf] p4f/ ug{df tTk/ /xGy] . o;af6 s] s'/fsf] k'li6 ldNb5 eg]
;a}g}cfˆg}tkf]ann], eujfg k/dfTdfk|ltsf] elQmann] clg cfˆg}k'¿iffy{¿k 1fgann] ;DkGg
lyP– s;}n] s;}nfO{vf;¿kdf ;xof]u ug'{kg]{cfjZostf g}lyPg . tyflk ;a}g}k'0ofTdf
ePsfn] To:tf bLg–b'MvL, lgM;xfo, ckfËcflbsf] ;]jf ug{kfpg', To:tfnfO{ ;xof]u ug{kfpg'
cfˆgf] dxfg;f}efUo 7fgL To:tf ;'cj;/nfO{;j{bf ;b'kof]u ub{y] . ul/a, cgfy, /f]uL,
ckfËx¿df O{Zj/s]f af; 5 eGg] k"0f{ljZjf;k"j{s To:tfs]f oyfzSo ;j] f ug{] ;a}sf]
:jfefljs kj[lQ lyof] .
!= e/åfh – k'/f0fdf w]/}7fpFdf e/åfh Clifsf] k|;Ë cfpF5 . oL dGq›i6f j}lbs Clif x'g. oL
    dxfgzlQm;DkGg lyP . cfˆg' tkf]an Pj+ 1fgann] logsf] k|1frIf' v'ln;s]sfn]
    ef}lts¿kdf rd{rIf' geP tfklg lognfO{To;sf] cfjZostf g}lyPg . e/åfh cGwf yP .
    cfˆg' 1fgann] cfKtsfd ePsfn] lognfO{s'g} s'/fsf] OR5f g}lyPg; s;}sf] ;xof]usf]
    cfjZostf g}lyPg . a¿ cfˆg' cf>odf cfPsfnfO{s'g}g s'g}k|sf/sf] ;]jf ub{y] . d"ntM
    1fgsf] pkb]z g}lbGy] . ckfË eP tfklg o:tf dxfdfgjx¿n] j}lbs o'us}, j}lbs
    wd{s}dof{bf /fv]sf 5g.
@= bL3t{t{df – oL dGq›i6f j}lbs Clif cGwf lyP . ou' –ou' df kfkfTdf, b'i6x¿sf] klg hGd
    x'Fbf] /x]5 . /fd h:tf ;bfrf/L cfbz{dxfgk'¿ifs}sfndf /fj0f h:tf b'/frf/L, b'i6 bfgjsf]
    klg hGd ePemF}ljleGg o'udf c;n, k'0ofTdfsf ;fy v/fa kfkfTdf klg hGdbf /x]5g .
    bL3t{df cGwf eP klg k|sf08 ljåfg, c;fwf/0f k|ltef–;DkGg, 1fgjfglyP . t/ pgdf
;dfrf/ ljljw
   ePsf] 1fg/flzsf] pkef]u u/]/ s[ts[To x'g' t stf xf] stf wgnf]n'k, ;]jf–k/fªd'v,
   st{JoRo't, b'i6 :jefj ePsf pgs}kl/jf/n] pgnfO{gbLdf aufOlbP . O{Zj/sf ;[li6df
   s;}n] s;}nfO{ kmfn]/ kmflnFb}g, kfn]/ kflnFb}g . cfkm–cfkmg" k|f/Aw cfkm};Fu 5 .
sljlz/f]dl0f n]vgfy eGb5g–
                        Tof] kfnLsg kflnbFbFbF g}hg'g'g' Tof]
                                kmflnG5 hf] bj}j}n ] .
                       Tof ] kmfnLsg kmflnbFbFbF g}hg'g'g' Tof]
                               kflnG5 hf ] b}j}jn ] ..
               oxL s'/f bL3{tdf Clifsf] hLjgdf 36of] gbLdf kmflnPsf Clif aUb}–aUb}gbLsf
lsgf/df 5fnn] x'TofOP5g. dnfxfn] km]nf kf/L /fhfsxfF
k'¥ofP5g. /fhfn] oqf lbJo tk:jL, 1fgL ClifnfO{cfkmg " b/af/df kfpFbf cfkmg' efUosf] kz| ;+
f ub{}kfng–kf]if0f u/]5g. kl5 log}k|tfkL, 1fgjfg
Clifaf6 lgof]u–ljlwcg';f/ ;Gtfg k}bf u/fP . bL3{tdfn] klg cfkm" ckfË eP/ klg csf{sf]
;]jf vf]h]ggt/ c¿s};]jf u/] .
#= ci6fjjm|m| – cf7 7fpdF f aflËPsf ljsnfË, ckfË ci6fjj|m Clif cfkmg' s'df/fj:yfdf
    g}ljb]x gu/Lsf /fhf hgssf b/af/df k'U5g. /fh;efdf 7'nf7'nf lbUuh ljåfgx¿sf]
    cWoIftf ub}{/fhf hgs wd{, cy{, sfd, df]If¿k rf/}k'¿iffy{Pj+ cy{gLlt, /fhgLlt cflb
    ljifodf 5nkmn ub}{ lyP . ;+of]un] ci6fjj|m /fh;efdf cflb ljifodf 5nkmn ub{}lYfP .
    ;+of]un] ci6fjj|m /fh;efdf k;] . o:tf lj¿k, s'¿k cgf}7f a|Xdrf/LnfO{b]v]/ ;f/f ;ef;b
    xfF:g yfn] . o;/L ;f/f ;ef;b xfF:g yfn]sf] b]v]/ ci6fjj|m klg k]6 ldrL–ldrL xfF:g yfn] .
    clg xfF:b}–xfF:b};efdf a:b}ga;L aflx/ lgl:sxfn] . cfˆgf b/af/df cfPsf cEofut ;efdf
    a:b}ga;L 7f8}uf]8fn] kms]{sf], km]l/ xfF:b}lg:s]sf] b]lv /fhf hgsnfO{lgs}cfZro{klg nfUof]
    clg g/dfOnf ] klg …tkfOF{ lsg xfF:g'eof] < clg lsg lxFl8xfNg'eof] <Ú egL a8f] gd|tfk"j{s
    xft hf]8]/ hgs /fhfn] ci6fjj|m ClifnfO{;f]w]kl5 pxfF eGg'x'G5 – …hgs dxf/fhsf 7'nf]
    a|Xd;ef x'G5 eg]/ a|Xdjftf{u¿F, ;'g'F eg/] cfPsf] lyP F t/ ;ef;b t hDd}rd{sf/ kf]
    /x]5g, To;}n] c;fWo xfF;f p7of] / xfF;]sf] x'F . o:tf rd{sf/ a;]sf ;efdf a:g' plrt 5}g
    egL lxFl8xfn]sf] x'F .Ú ci6fjj|msf] o:tf s'/f ;'g]kl5 hgs /fhfn] cfˆg}7'nf] a]OHhtL, ckdfg
    ;Dem] / oqf 7'nf Clifaf6 1fg lng'k5{egL u'¿ dfgL 1fg l;s] . ci6fjj|mn] hgsnfO{
    pkb]z lbPsf] u|Gy j]bfGtsf] c;fwf/0f u|Gy dflgG5 . Tof] xf] ci6fjj|muLtf jf
    ci6fjj|m;+lxtf . ;a}sf] 5fnfdf a'l4 /x]5 . 1fgL, eQm, ;T;+uLsf] aflx/ 5fnf, df;' cflbdf
    a'l4 x'Fb}g .
     ci6fjj|m c;fwf/0f 1fgjfglyP . pgsf] uLtf j]bfGtsf] chfQbdf cfwfl/t 5 . hgs /fhf
      pgs}pkb]zn] ljb]x -z/L/sf] efg}gePsf] eP– d'Qm ag] .
$= s'Ahf – oL >Ldbefujt dxfk'/f0fsf syfdf kfOg] Ps j[4f x'g. logL c;fWo elStGfL
      lyOg. logn] eujfg>Ls[i0frG›df rGbg ck{0f u/]sLn]
      eujfgv'zL eO{s's'rfdf 6]ls lrpF8f]df ;dftL tflglbP/ ;f/f z/L/nfO{;f]emf]
      kfl/lbg'eof] / logsf] p4f/ ug'{eof] – >Ls[i0fn] .
;dfrf/ ljljw
    o;/L k'/f0f cflbdf b]lvPsf ckfËx¿k|lt ;dfhsf] wf/0ff cToGt kljq kfOG5 . logsf
    ;]jfdf cfˆg' tg, dg, wg, nufpg' eGg] zf:qsf jrgx¿ k|z:t kfOG5g. o;}k|;Ëdf
    xfd|f dxfef/t, k'/f0f cflb zf:qx¿df ul/a, bLg, b'MvL, ljsnfË, ckfË lgM;xfo cflbk|lt
    s:tf] b[li6sf]0f lnOPsf] /x]5, ltgsf] ;]jfsf nflu, ;xof]usf nfu wd{df s] pNn]v ePsf]
    /x5] eGg ] s'/f ;+If]kdf rrf {u/fF}–
!= /fhwd{sf ;Gbe{df /fhf dfGwftfnfO{ptYon] lbPsf] pkb]z eg]/ eLid lktfdxn] /fhf
o'lwli7/nfO{;'gfPsf] cToGt dfld{s s'/f] o:tf] 5 –
               s[k0ffya[4fgf+ + obf>' kl/dfhL{t+
               xif{;~hgoGg[0ff++ ; /f1f] wd{pRot] .
               -dxfef/t, zflGtkj{…/fhwdf{g'zf;ggkj{Ú{, (!.#*_
-cyf{tu/La, cgfy, j[4x¿sf] cf+z' k'5]/ ;a}nfO{;'vL agfpg' /fhfsf] wd{ xf] ._
             o;af6 :ki6 x'G5 /fhfsf] sTf{Jo xf] – cfˆgfhgtfnfO{cem vf; u/L b'MvL, bl/›x¿,
ckfËx¿nfO{ljz]ifu/L :g]x, ;xfg'e"ltk"j{s ljrf/ u/L ltgsf] cfFz' k'5g' . of] wd{xf], st{Jo–sd{
xf] . s'g};f]v x}g, ¿lrsf] s'/f x}g .
@= o:t}k|;Ë x]dfbL bfgv08df kfOG5 –
                             /f]lu0ff+ kl/rof{r k't{l{dTolelglb{z]td .
                                          – bfg:j¿k k|s/0f .
-cyf{t/f]uLx¿sf] ;]jf z'>"iff cflb ug'{dxfg;]jf sd{dflgPsf] 5 ._
         g;Sg]nfO{;Sg]n] gu/] s;n] ub{5 < tL klg t pxL O{Zj/sf ;Gtfg x'glg . lxhf]sf]
lg/f]uL cfh /f]uL x'g ;S5, lxhf]sf] wgL cfh ul/a x'g ;S5 eg]
dfgjn] efjnfO{dfgj ;/x Jojxf/ ug'{wd{xf], st{Jo xf] .
#= bfgkfq ljj]rg k|;Ëdf lji0f'wdf]{Q/df atfOPsf] 5 –
                            bLgfgfy ljlzi6]Eof] bfTo++ e"l"ltldR5tf .
                              cbQbfgfHofoGt] k/efUof]khLljg M ..
      -cyf{tbLg, b'MvL, cgfy cflb csf{sf efUodf hLjg latfpg ljjz ePsfx¿sf] sNof0f
ug'{k5{, ;]jf ug{k' 5{._
$= kBk'/f0fdf elgPsf] 5 –
                               bLgfGws[k0ffgfy jflUjxLg]if' oQyf .
                                 ljsn]if' tyfGo]if' h8jfdgkªu'if' ..
                              /f]uft]{if' r o2t+ tT:oftax'kmn+ wgd.
-cyf{tbLgM b'vL, u/La, cgfy, nf6f], ckfË, h8, jfdk'8s] nË8f], /f]uL cflbnfO{lbPsf]
s'g}k|sf/sf] wg, cGg, ;]jf, cflbaf6 /fd|f] kmn kfOG5 .
           dflysf ;a}k|df0fkqx¿af6 s] l;4 x'G5 eg] xfd|f k'/f0f cflb, wd{zf:q cflbn] cem
:ki6 zAbdf eGg] xf] eg] j}lbs ;gftg wd{/ ;dfhn]
o:tf cgfy, bLg, /f]uL ckfËx¿nfO{ljz]if¿kdf ;xof]u ug'{, ;]jf ug,{' logsf] bM'v x6fpg' eg]/
dfgj wd{df ;dfj]z u/]sf 5g. x'g klg xf] x'g]n]
gx'g]nfO{, af7fn ] nf6fnfO{gftfn,] csf{] dfgjtfsf gftfn] klg xfd|f] ;]jf–efjgf ckfËx¿k|lt
;dfrf/ ljljw
hfg}k5{. olb hfFb}g eg] kfk nfU5, To;sf] k|folZrt ug'{k5{. o1 gu/Lsg b'MvL, u/La
ckfËx¿sf] ;]jf gu/Lsg vfg]nfO{klg kljq dfq ;lsFb}g . ca lgisif{df k'u]/ s] eGg ;lsG5
eg]–
                                                     bl/›fgbLot bfgd.
                                -bfg eg]s]sf] bl/›nfO{g}lbg' k5{.
       cGt/fli6«o ckfË jif{sf ;Gbe{df klg xfdLn]cfkmg" /fli6«o Pj+ wfld{s k/Dk/fsf] dof{bf
/fVg] qmddf klg cGwf, ckfË, cflbk|lt ;xfg'e"lt b]vfP/
dfq k'Ub}g logsf] lxtsf nflu, sNof0fsf nflu s]xL 7f]; ;xof]u k'Ug] vfnsf] of]ubfg
lbg}k5{–oxL xf] xfd|f] wd{sf] dd{. o:tf–o:tf bfgaf6 xfd|f] lrQ z'4 x'G5 . wgk|ltsf], ank|ltsf],
ljBfk|ltsf], z/L/k|ltsf] cledfgnfO{ lzlyn agfpgsf nflu klg xfdL nË8fg]/, sfgfg]/,
vf]/G8fg]/, s'Fhf]g]/ k'u]/ To;sf ] bM'v, j]bgf x]g{] ;'Gg] / x6fpg ] pkfo ug{'k5{. ;a}sf] hLjg ;w}F
g}Psgfz x'Fb}g . ;]jf g}jf:tjdf wd{xf] .
                                             –lzjd:t'–
;dfj]lz tyf clje]b kl/of]hgf
                                                                       pQd lzjfsf]6L
                                                                          If]=;+of]hs
         ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx? nfO{ ;du| ljsf; k|s[ofsf] Ps cleGg cu+sf] ?kdf l:jsf/
ub}{/fi6| lgdf0f{df plgx?sf] ;xeflutf nfO{;'lgl:rtf lbg ;Dk'0f{cfd hg;d'bfosf] ckfu+tf
ePsf AolQmx? k|ltsf] wf/0ff ;sf/fTds jgfpg}kg]{x'G5 clg dfq ;frf] cy{df ;dflhs
;dfj]lzs/0fsf] cleofg k'/f x'g ;S5 . olx dd{sf ;fy /fli6|o ckfu+ dxf;3+ g]kfnn] Knfg
g]kfnsf] cfly{s ;xof]udf ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ;dfj]lzs/0f tyf clje]b kl/of]hgf
;+rfng ul//]sf] 5 .
         o; kl/of]hgfn] ljif]zt df]/u+ /
;'g;/L lhNnf nfO{d'Vo sfo{If]q jgfP/
sfo{ul//x]sf] 5 . lhNnf txdf w]/}sfdx? eP
klg Plss[t ?kdf cleofg nfO{cufl8 j8fpg
g;lsPsf] ljutsf] l;sfO{nfO{cfTd;fy
ub}{xfnsf jif{x?df dxf;3+n] ckfu+tf ePsf
AoLQx?sf] ;+oGq nfO{Aojl:yt ub}{jsfnt
nfO{hf]8bf/ ?kdf cufl8 j8fpb}lgltut
Aoj:yfsf] sfo{Gjogdf dftxtsf ;+oGqx?
nfO{kl/rfng ul//x]sf] 5 . dxf;3n] ;/sf/L
tx;u ;s[o ;dGjo :yflkt ub]{clwsf/sf]
;xh sfo{Gjogdf kxn ul//x]sf] 5 .
;dfj]lz kl/of]hgf ;+rfng eP k:rft ckfu+tf If]qdf cfPsf] kl/jt{gx? lgDg cg';f/ /x]sf
5g .
!= :yflgo ;|f]t dflysf] kx'r — ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] z;lQms/0fsf nflu /fHo 4f/f
   ljlgof]hg u/]sf] ;|f]t dflysf] kx'r sfod x'g g;ls/x]sf] cj:yfdf ;dfj]lz kl/of]hgfn]
   lhNnf sfo{of]hgfsf] lgdf0f{ul/ ckfu+tf ePsf ;+hfnx? nfO{ Ifdtf ljsf; ul/ nuftf/
   k}/jL u/] k:rft ljut ltg jif{b]lv jflif{s jh]6 lg/Gt/ j[l4 x'b}uPsf] 5 eg] ;DjlGwt
   ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?nfO{sfo{of]hgfsf] jf/]df lj:t[t hfgsf/L tyf cled'lvs/0f u/fP
   k:rft ;|f]t ljlgof]hgdf ;sf/fTds j[l4 ePsf] 5 . h; cg';f/ xfn df]/u+ / ;'g;/L
   lhNnfsf ;j}uf=lj=;=x?df :yflgo ;ldltx?n] lnlvt ?kdf k|:tfj k]z ul/ sfo{qmd
   ;+rfng ul//x]sf 5g . xfn oL lhNnfx?df lt; xhf/ b]lv gAa] xhf/ ;Dd jh]6 ljlgof]hg
   ePsf] 5 eg] lhNnf :t/df o; jif{ljut jif{eGbf bf]Aj/ jh]6 ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 h;
   cg';f/ df]/u+ lh=lj=;=n] ut jif{gf}nfv krf; xhf/ ljlgof]hg u/]sf]df o; jif{pGgfO{;
   nfv krf; xhf/ ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5 .
@= Ifdtf ljsf; tyf ;+emfnLs/0f — ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQx?sf] :yflgo ;]jf ;'ljwfx?df kx'r
   clej[l4 ug{:yflgo :t/df ;+emfnx?sf] ljsf; ub}{plgx?sf] Ifdtf ljsf; u/fpg] k|of;
:j?k ;g@))( df df]/u+ lhNnfdf !) j6f / ;'g;/L lhNnfdf !) j6f uf=lj=;=:t/Lo
  ;+hfnx?sf] :yfkgf / Ifdtf clej[l4sf tfnLd k|bfg ul/ ;s] kl5 :yflgo ;|f]t tyf
  ;fwgx?df kx'r j[l4 / ;dflhs ;xeflutfdf ;'wf/ cfpg'sf ;fy}ckfu+tf ;jfnsf] jf/]df
  :yflgo :t/df cfjh p7g yfn]kl5 o:sf] lg/Gt/tf lbg' k5{elg o; If]lqo sfo{non]
  ljleGg ;fem}bf/ lgsfox? ;u klg ;fem]bf/Ltfsf] lj:tf/ ul/ ;+oGqx?sf] ljsf; tyf
  Ifdtf clej[l4 ub{}xfn ;Dd df]/u+ / ;'g;/L lhNnfsf ;j}uf=lj=;=x?df :yflgo ;+oGqsf]
  ljsf; ub}{ cufl8 j8g] qmddf xfn ;Dd df]/u+sf $% uf=lj=;= / ;'g;/Lsf #%
  uf=lj=;=x?df ;ldlt lgdf0f{ ul/ kl/rfng ul//xs]f 5 . o;/L x]bf{b'O{lhNnfdf ul/ nueu
  !))) hgf ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQx? :yflgo ;ldltdf cfj4 eP/ k|ToIf ?kdf ckfutf
  Aoj:yfkgsf] If]qdf s[oflzn /x]sf 5g . h; jf6 ckfu+tfsf] ;jfndf :yflgo txdf
  k|fyldstf kfpg yfn]sf] 5 eg] ckfu+tfsf ljljb ;d:ofx?sf] ;dfwfgdf :yflgo ;+efnx?
  s[oflzn jGb}uPsf 5g . To:t}:yflgo ;+oGqsf] ;s[otfsf] sf/0f ljut b'O{jif{df df]/u+
  lhNnfdf kl/ro kq k|fKt ug]{sf] ;+Vof %))) jf6 j9]/ nueu *%)) k'u]sf] 5 eg] ;'g;/L
  lhNnfdf klg #))) jf6 j9]/ nueu %))) k'u]sf] 5 h;sf] sf/0f ;+emfnLs/0fsf]
  s[oflzntf jf6 cj;/ tyf ;'ljwf ljlxg w]/} ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQmx?n] Go'g eP klg cfkgf]
  klxrfg ;lxt ;]jf ;'ljwfx?sf] pkef]u ul//x]sf 5g .
#= ;dflhs ;xeflutf — ;dfj]lz kl/of]hgfsf] nueu % jif{sf] cjlwdf ckfu+tf ePsf
   AolQmx?sf] ;:yfut Ifdtf tyf g]t[Tjsf] ljsf;sf] sf/0fn] lhNnf b]lv :yflgo tx ;Dd
   ;xeflutf clej[l4 x'g yfn]sf] 5 . ckfu+tf ePsf ;:yfx? tyf AolQmx? nfO{Psj4 ug{
   kl/of]hgfn] k'of{Psf] ;xof]u jf6 df]/u+ / ;'g;/L lhNnfdf ckfu+tfsf] If]qdf s[oflzn
   ;:yfx?sf] lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt nfO{Ifdtf clej[l4 ub}{;s[o u/fO{P k:rft xfn lhNnf
   :t/sf x/]s lglt lgdf0f{k|s[ofdf ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ;xeflutfdf j[l4 ePsf] 5 eg]
   :yflgo ;|f]tsf] k|of]u tyf kl/rfngdf ckfu+tf If]qsf s[oflzn ;:yfx?sf] cfkgf] :jo
   lg0f{o jf6 kl/rfng x'g yfn]sf] 5 eg] uf=lj=;=:t/df ljleGg ;/sf/L tyf cw{;/sf/L
   ;+/rgfx?df ckfu+tf ;jfnsf] ;xeflutfsf] yfnlg x'g yfn]sf] 5 . xfn uf=lj=;= ,:jf:Yo
   :f:yf , ljwfnox? tyf :yflgo txdf ljsf; lgdf0f{sf nlfu jGg] ;ldltx?df ckfu+tf
   ePsf AoQLx?sf] ;s[o ;xeflutfdf j[l4 x'g yfn]sf] b]lvG5 .
$= ;dfj]lz lzIffsf] k|jw{g — ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] z}lIfs kx'r clej[l4 ub}{ljsf;
    k|s[ofdf plgx?sf] ;xefuLtf j9fpg] k|of; :j?k o; ;:yfn] g]kfns}klxnf] k6s
    lh=lz=sf=sf] k|ToIf ;+nUgtfdf ;dfj]lz lzIff ;DjlGw lhNnf /0flglt kq lgdf0f{ ul/ df]/u+
    / ;'g;/L lhNnf nfu' ul//x]sf] 5 . ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQmx?sf] kx'r ljwfno xftf leq k'Ug
    g;ls/x]sf] cj:yfdf o; sfo{of]hgf ;j};DjlGwt ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;+nUgtfdf ;fd'lxs
    cleofg nfO{cufl8 j8fO{/x]sf] 5 eg] ut jif{;dfj]lz lzIff nfO{ ljwfno txdf sfo{Gjog
    ub}{;j}sf nflu xfd|f] ljwfno jgfpg] cleofgdf ef}lts ;+/rgf nfO{d}lq jgfpg]
    ,ckfu+tfsf] k|s[lt cg's'n lzsfO{lzIf0fsf] ljsf; ug]{,ljif]z lzIff lglt cg';f/ Pp6}dfq
    k|s[ltsf ckfu+tf ePsf jfn jfnLsfx? nfO{/fv]/ u/fO{g] cWofkg jf6 plgx?sf]
    ;flhls/0f jf6 jlGrt ePsf] cj:yf nfO{lrb}{k|Tt]s jfn jfnLsfx?n] cfkg};d'bfodf
    kl/jf/df jl; k9g / ;dflhlss/0f x'g] cj;/ ;lxt k9fpg] Aoj:yf ug{sf] nflu ljwfno
    txsf lglt lgdf0f{txdf j;]sf AoLQmx? nfO{ tfnLd k|bfg ul/ of]hgf ;lxt cufl8
jl8/x]sf] 5 eg] lh=lz=sf n] ;dfj]lz lzIffsf] sfo{Gjogdf cToGt}7'nf] rf;f] / ;s[oftf
    b]vfPsf] x'bf ljwfno txdf ;sf/fTds ;+s]t b]lvg yfn]sf] 5 . h; cg';f/ 5fqj[lQsf] ;lx
    sfo{Gjog ,;j} k|s[ltsf ckfu+tf ePsf jfn jfnLsfx?sf] cWofkgsf] nflu ljwfno tof/
    ePsf] 5 eg] df]/u+sf #%) / ;'g;/Lsf #)) pRr df=lj= tyf df=lj x?df ckfu+tf ;jfn
    nfO{k|jw{g ug]{kmf]sn k;g{sf] k|=c=:jod nfO{;s[o u/fO{Psf] 5 . h;jf6 ckfu+tf ePsf
    jfn jfnLsfx?nfO{ljwfnodf cfO{kg]{ ;d:ofx? ;dfwfg x'g] jftfj/0fsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 .
    To:t}ef}lts ;+/rgf d}lq k'0f{jgfpg lh=lz=sf=;u ;dGjo ul/ ;j}k|ljlwsx?nfO{tfnLd
    k|bfg ul/ ;lsP kl5 xfn gof jGg] ;j};+/rgfx? ckfu+tf d}lq jGg yfn]sf 5g . csf]{tkm{
    ckfu+tf ePsf jfn jfnLsfx?sf] nflu jg]sf ;|f]t s]Gb|x?sf] qmdz Aoj:yfkgdf ;'wf/sf
    nflu ckfu+tf If]qdf sfo{/t ;:yfx?sf] klg ;+nUgtf nfO{cufl8 j8fO{Psf] 5 eg] cfjfl;o
    Ao:yfx? nfO{qmdz x6fpb}3/ kfos ljwfnox?df d}lq k'0f{ ?kdf kl/jf/df j;]/ k8g]
    Aoj:yfsf] ;':jft x'g yfn]sf] 5 h; cg';f/ jf}l4s ckfu+tf ePsf jfn jfnLsfx?sf] nflu
    ;+rfnLt uf]u/fxf pRr df=lj=df /x]sf] ;|f]t s]Gb|sf] cfjfl;o j;fO{nfO{x6fO{;f] :yfgsf (
    hgf jfn jfnLsfx? nfO{3/ kfos ljwfnodf k7g kf7gsf] Aoj:yf ldnfO{Psf] 5 eg] ;f]
    ;|f]t s]Gb| lbjf ;]jfsf] dfq sIff ;+rfng ul/ gof jfn jfnLsfx? egf{ul/ hfg] cfpg]
    jftfj/0f ldnfO{Psf] 5 . o:tf] cj:yf jf6 :yflgo txd};j}k|s[ltsf jfn jfnLsf k8g]
    jftfj/0f jgfpg lh=lz=sf cufl8 jl8/x]sf] 5 .
%= ckfu+tf leqsf] ;dfj]lzs/0f— o; kl/of]hgfn] ckfu+tf leqsf] klg dlxnfx?sf] ;xeflutf
   nfO{j9fpg tyf plgx?sf] z;lQms/0fdf 7'nf] ;xof]u k'u]sf] 5 h:sf] sf/0f If]lqo dlxnf
   ;+emfn tyf lhNnf ;+emfnx?sf] j[l4 eO{/x]sf] 5 eg] cfkgf] ;+oGq leq klg lg0f{fos txdf
   dlxnfx?sf] ;xeflutf x'g yfn]sf] 5 . To:t}ckfu+tf leqsf] klg k5fl8 k/]sf] jf}l4s
   ckfu+tfsf] ;jfn clxn] cufl8 j8g yfn]sf] 5 eg] ;f] ju{sf] ;:yfut k|ltlglwTj / ;|f]tx?
   dfly klg kx'r sfod x'g ;s]sf] 5 h:sf] sf/0f ckfu+tf leq klg ;dfj]lzs/0f ;ej
   ePsf] 5 .
^= cjwf/0ffut :ki6tf — ckfu+tfsf] If]qdf o; kl/of]hgfn] ;'?sf jif{x?df ;/f]sf/jfnf tyf
   :jod ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?df klg /fxt d'lv cjwf/0ff sfod lyof] h:sf] sf/0f o;
   ;jfnn] k|d'vtf kfpg ;s]sf] lyPg t/ hj kl/of]hgf clwsf/df cfwfl/t ljsf; jf6
   cufl8 j8g] cleofg ;+rfng uof]{o:n] klxn] cfkgf] ;+oGqsf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ ;kmn
   ePsf] lyof] ;f] k:rft ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfo / cfd ;+rf/ dfWodx?sf] kl/rfng jf6 cfd
   AolQmx?df clwsf/d'v ;f]r jf6 ckfu+tf nfO{j'Hg 7'nf] of]ubfg lbof] h:sf] sf/0f olxn]
   /fHo jf6 ;+rfnLt sfo{qmdx? klg clwsf/d'lv ;f]r jf6}{ cfPsf 5g / of] ;jfndf k|d'v
   ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?df ;dj'hfO{sfod ePsf] 5 h; jf6 ckfu+tfsf] If]qdf k'jf{~rndf
   b'|t lsl;dn] kl/jt{cfO{/x]sf] 5 h; cg';f/ lzIffdf kx'r j[l4 eO{/x]s]f 5,kl/ro kq
   ljt/0fdf 7'nf] kl/jt{g cfPsf] 5 , lgltut Aoj:yf sfo{Gjogdf ;'wf/ cfPsf] 5 , gof jGg]
   ;+/rgfx? d}lqk'0f{jGg yfn]sf 5g, :yflgo ;+hfnx?nfO{;/sf/L ;xof]u j[l4 x'b}uPsf] 5
   ,ckfu+tfsf] If]qdf s[oflzn k|ltlglwx?sf] k}/jL ug]{Ifdtfdf ljsf; ePsf] 5,ckfu+tf
   nfO{xf]Rofpg] / sdhf]/L ;u bfHg] qmd 36]sf] 5 h; jf6 of] ;jfndf kl/of]hgfsf]
   ;xof]u,bft[lgsfosf] lg/Gt/ k/fdz{ / ;DjlGwt ;:yfsf] s'zn kl/of]hgf Aoj:yfkgsf]
   lzk tyf ;dGjosf sf/0f ckfu+tf Aoj:yfksf] nflu /fHo nfO{jl9 eGbf jl9 lhDd]jf/
   jgfpb}ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQx?sf] ;du| ljsf;df s';]9'uf+ ;fljt ePsf] 5 .
jf}l4s ckf·tfd}qL jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf dfu{bz{g tyf ;"rsx?
cl6Hd Ps kl/ro M
                    8f= dx]Gb| dNn, jl/i6 jfn/f]u ljz]if1, eQmk'/ c:ktfn


         c6LHd jRrfdf ! b]vL # jif{sf] b]vfkg]{ ckfËkg xf] . o;n] gzfsf] u8jl8n] lbdfusf]
;fdfGo cj:yfdf km/s kf5{ / jRrfsf] ;fdflhs ;+rf/ / ;Lkdf c;/ kfb{5 . o;n] jf]nL /
Ozf/f, ;fdflhs s[ofsnfk / v]Ng] s[ofsnfkdf c;/ kfb{5 . of] pervasive Developmental
Disorder (PDD) cGtu{t k5{ . cd]l/sfdf ul/Psf] cWoog cg';f/ x/]s !%) hgfdf !
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cg'dfg ul/G5 . o:tf};d:of h'g;'s}kl/jf/ jf k[i7e"ldsf] dflg;df klg x'g ;S5 t/ o;sf]
vf; sf/0f eg] xfn;Dd yfxf kfpg ;lsPsf] 5}g . lbdfusf sfo{/ jgfj6df cfpg'
c;fdfGotfn] o:tf] ePsf] elgG5 t/ j}1flgsx?n] o; ;DjGwdf cg';+wfg hf/L /fv]sf 5g
h:t}hGdhft, j}zf0f' / d]l8sn ;d:ofsf] cfk;L ;DjGw jf/] / k|;'lt / aRrf hGdbfsf
;d:ofx?sf] ;d:ofx?, jftfj/0fLo tTjx? M h:t} efO/n ;+qmd0f, /;folgs ;Dks{,
d]6fjf]lns c;Gt'ng cflb .
o;sf lrGxx? M
? af]Ngdf ;':t, gjf]Ng' cyjf jf]Ngdf sdL x'g' .
? af/Djf/ Tolx efiff bf]xf]/ofpg' cyjf df+zk]zLsf] k|of]u ul/ ug]{Jojxf/ bf]xf]/ofO/xg] M
  h:t}xft xNnfpg], s'g}v]nf}gf rnfO/xg] .
? clnslt cyjf k'/}cfFvfsf] ;Dks{df cfpg grfxg' .
? ;fyLefOdf OR5f gx'g', v]Ngdf OR5f gx'g' .
? s'g} j:t'df nuftf/ Wofg lbO/xg' .

oL dflysf lrGx s'g}aRrfdf b]vfk/]df lj1;Fu ;/;Nnfx ug'{h?/L x'G5 . sf7df8f}+sf]
nflhDkf6 l:yt Autism Care Cen-tre Nepal gfds ;+:yfn] o:tf] ;d:of ePsf jRrfx?sf]
nflu sfd ul//x]sf] 5 .

ckf+utf ;DjGwL s]lx tYox?
? ;+;f/df sl/j ^ s/f]8 %) nfv ckf+utf ePsf dflg;x? /x]sf 5g / of] hg;+Vof
      j[l4;Fu} j9bf] ultdf /x]sf] 5 .
? dflg;sf] cf}ift cfo' &) jif{eGbf j9L ePsf d'n'sx?df x/]s JolQmn] cfkmgf] hLjgsf]
      cf}ift em08}* jif{cyjf !!=% k|ltzt cfkmgf] hLjgsf] ;do ckf+utf lnP/ jfFRg' k5{ .
? /fi6«;+3Lo ljsf; sfo{qmdn] hgfP cg';f/ s"n ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx? dWo] *)
      k|ltzt ljsf:jGd'v tyf cNk ljsl;t b]zdf 5g .
? ckf+utf ePsf dlxnfx? n}+lus tyf ckf+utfsf] sf/0fn] ul/g] lje]bsf] bf]xf]/f] df/df
      /x]sf 5g .
? ;g @))$ df ef/tsf] pl8;f /fHodf ul/Psf] Ps gd'gf cWoogn] ;j}h;f] ckf+utf
NFDN Regional publication
NFDN Regional publication
NFDN Regional publication
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NFDN Regional publication

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NFDN Regional publication

  • 1. o; cªsleq jif{–# c+s–( d+l;/ @)^( ? ;Dkfblso ! /fli6«o ckf·u dxf;+3 g]kfn k"jf{~rn If]lqo sfof{no lj/f6gu/ 4f/f k|sflzt ? gofF g]lqTj rog ub}{If]lqo clwj]zg jif{ #, c+s ( d+l;/ @)^( ? ;xof]u klg ;lhn}df ;Nnfxsf/ ? tYofs+df ckfu+tf ;'b{zg ;'j]bL /fd axfb'/ sfsL{ ? b}ljk|sf]k Aoj:yfkgdf ckfu+tf ;jfn ;ltz rGb| emf ? g]kfndf ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ca:yf vu]Gb| axfb'/ e§/fO{ ? gj k|ltefsf wlg ljqmd ;fDkfu+ ;Dkfbs d08n ? olb ;j}6+s uf}td / /fhg kf}8]n e}lbP===== lji0f' k|;fb a/fn ? ;d'bfodf cfwf/Lt k'g{:yfkg,ljsf;qmd==== od axfb'/ a:g]t ? lxljn lro/ k|of]ustf{nfO{;xof}u ug]{tl/sf pQd lzjfsf]6L ? ci6faqm km/s Ifdtfsf] klxnf] kf}/f0fLs==== bfdf]b/ l/hfn /fh]Gb| bfxfn ? clwsf/sf] cleofg ? l;=la=cf/ sfo{qmd af6 df]/ª lhNnfsf]==== Aoj:yfkg÷ljt/0f ? wgs'6f lhNnfsf] ckfËtf ultljwL /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfn k'jf{~rn If]lqo sfof{no lj/f6gu/ ? xfd|f] wd{df ckf+ux?sf] :yfg ? ;dfa]lz tyf clje]b kl/of]hgf k|sfzs ? af}l4s ckf+utfd}qL jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf==== /fli6«o ckf+u dxf;+3 g]kfn ? cl6Hd Ps kl/ro k'jf{~rn If]lqo sfof{no lj/f6gu/–!% hgky6f]n df]/+u ? zflGt k|s[of / ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx? kmf]g g+ M )@!–$&!)** ? b[li6 ;DalGw ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?sf===== O{d]n Mnfdnero@gmail.com ? /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfn ;+u cfj4==== k|sfzg ;xof]u Knfg g]kfn, df]/Ë sfo{qmd OsfO{ tyf g]b/Nof08 n]k|f];L l/nLkm, lj/f6gu/ sDKo'6/ l8hfO P08 ;]l6ª ljj]s ofbj, lj/f6gu/–!% df]= (*)&#!)^*^ D'fb|0f c/lgsf] 5fkfvfgf lj/f6gu/–!%, hgky6f]n kmf]g g+= )@!%@^)&* ! ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
  • 2. ;DkfbsLo ckfu+ t fsf] ;jfnnfO{ jt{ d fg csf]{tkm{o; ju{sf nflu lgltut kl/b[liodf r'gf}lt / ;Defjgfsf b'j} sf]0faf6 ?kdf w]/}ljifox? ;Djf]wg eP klg, ljZn]if0f ug'{ ;fGble{s x'G5 . ;dosf] dxf;lwsf] cg'df]bg eP klg ;f]sf] ultlzntf, ckfu+tf If]qdf s[oflzn sfo{Gjogdf b]lvPsf] ;':ttf / pbfl;kgn] ;:yfx?sf] ;s[otf / bjfj d'ns k]}/jLsf cfk kfs]/ klg vfg gkfPsf] cj:yf sf/0f o; ;jfnnfO{ xfnsf s]lx jif{x¿af6 rf}tlkm{b]lvPsf] 5 . ckfu+tf cleofg ckfu+tf ;sf/fTds x]/fO{ / Go'g¿kdf eP klg ePsf AolQmx?sf] dfq rf;f}sf] ljifo jGg] ;+jf]wgsf] k|of; x'g yfn]sf] 5 . /fHoaf6 lj8Djgfn] ubf{ klg o; ;jfnn] ;xh?kdf ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] nflu lzIff, ;dflhs ;dfwfg kfpg ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . :jf:Yo, /f]huf/ / kx'Frsf nflu lgltut ckfu+tf ljsf;sf] d'4f / of] ;d:of ;dflhs Joj:yfx? x'Fb}cfPsf] 5 / ;j} eGbf dxTjk"0f{ ;d:of ePsf] x'bf ;Dk'0f{;r]t gful/sx?sf] ljifo t ckfu+tf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ cGo nflu of] ;jfn ;femf ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo jGg' gful/s ;x/ clwsf/sf] pkef]u ug]{ k5{. ljsf; k|s[ofsf x/]s r/0fdf ckfu+tf jftfj/0fsf] ;[hgf u/fpg afWo kfg]{ ckfËtf ;jfn nfO{ ; Djf] w g ug{ ; lsPg eg] ePsf AolQmx?sf] clwsf/ ;DjlGw hg;Vofsf] 7'nf] lx:;f lje]bdf kg{hfG5 cGt/fli6¿o dxf;lGw ;g @))^ nfO{ h:sf] sf/0f ;d'Ggt ;dfh jgfpg] ;kgf cg'df]bg ul/ g]kfn kIf /fi6| jlg ;s]sf] ;fsf/ gx'g ;S5 To;}n] ckfu+tf ePsf cj:yfn] xfld ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?sf] AolQmx?sf] @! cf}cGt/fli6|o lbj;s}cj;/ elj:o w]/} xb ;Dd ;'/lIft x'g] lj:jf; lng kf/]/ cj xfld ;j}n] k|0f u/f}ls ;j}lsl;dsf ;lsG5 . ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ;u+l7t ljsf;sf k|s[ofx?df cljj]lb l;bfGtsf cjfh qmdz bl/nf] x'b} hfbf ljj]bsf/L cfwf/df ckfu+ t f ePsf AolQmx? lgltx? tyf cj/f]wo'Qm jftfj/0f x? qmdz nfO{;xeflutf u/fpb}gofF g]kfnsf] ofqf to Go'lgs/0f x'g yfn]sf] 5 h'g Pp6f ckfu+tf u/f}clg dfq ljsf; ;j}sf nflu,;dfh ;j}sf clwsf/ cleofgsf] nflu ;sf/fTds kf6f] nflu / /fi6| ;j}sf nflu eGg] gf/f ;fsf/ klg xf] . x'G5 . ;dfh ;w}s;}sf] nflu gsf/fTds x'b}g dfq p;nfO{ j'hfpg k|oTg hf/L /fVg' k5{eGg] dfGotf :j?k ;r]tgfsf cleofgx? Aofks ?kdf cufl8 j8]sf sf/0f ;d'bfo :t/df klg ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx? xfd|f] ;jfn xfd|f] cu'jfO{eGb}jflx/ cfpg yfn]sf 5g / clwsf/sf] bflj ug{ yfn]sf 5g h'g xfnsf jif{df x?df ckfu+tf ;jfnn] xfl;n u/]sf ;'Gb/ kIfx? x'g . @ ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
  • 3. @! cf}“ ckf·utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] cGt/f{li6«o lbj;sf] ;Gbe{ M ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?sf] gf/ul/s tyf /fhg}lts, cfly{s, ;fdfhLs tyf ;f:s[lts clwsf/sf] dfu ub}{ ckfËtfsf] If]qdf lqmoflzn ;+3 ;+:yfx?sf] lg/Gt/ bjfjsf] kmn:j?k ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3n] ;g !(*! df ckfËtf ;DjlGw ljZjAofkL sfo{of]hgf tof/ u/L kf/Lt ul/Psf] lbg # l8;]Dj/ nfO{cGt/fli6«o ?kd} ckfËutf ePsf AolQmx?sf] lbj;sf] ?kdf dgfpg] k|rng /lx cfPsf] 5 . pQm lbg kf/Lt u/LPsf] ;f] b:tfj]h sfof{Gjogsf nfuL !(*! nfO{ cGt/fli6«o ckfË jif{, !(*@ b]vL !((! ;Dd cGt/fli6« ckfË bzs / !((@ b]vL lgoldt ?kdf ckfËtf lbj; ;+;f/e/ Pp6} gf/fsf;fy ljleGg sfo{qmdx?sf] cfof]hgf ub}{ eAotfsf ;fy dgfOG5 . of] lbj;df Psflt/ ckfËutf If]qdf k|fKt ePsf ;kmntfx? tyf ckfËtf If]qdf cfufdL lbgdf ug'{kg]{ ljleGg cleofg tyf dfux?nfO{ p7fg ug]{, ljleGg If]qdf ;kmntf k|fKt u/]sf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ ;Ddfg ub}{ cGo ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?df xf};nf / pT;fx k|bfg ug]{, ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?n] ljleGg dgf]/~hgsf sfo{qmdx? ub}{ Pscfk;df v'l; ;f6f ;f6 ub}{ of] lbj; dgfOb} cfPsf] 5 . o;} cleofgnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg]qmd ;+u} ljZj sfo{ of]hgfaf6 z'? ePsf] of]hgfj4 ljsf;nfO{ Aojl:yt ug{, ljBdfg ;jfnx? p7fg u/L ;dfwfgdf ;/f]sf/jfnfx/sf] Wofgfsif{0f ug{ u/fpg tyf ;kmn ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?nfO{ ;Ddfg ub} cGo JolQmx?df xf};nf / pTk|]/0ff k|bfg ug{sf nfuL of] jif{klg ljljw sfo{qmd ;lxt of] lbj; dgfpg] nIo to u/LPsf] 5 . ljut !% jif{sf cGt/f{i6«o ckfËtf lbj;sf gf/fx?n] u/]sf k|ltj4tfx? M 1998 – Art Culture and Independent Living -snf ;+:s[lt / :jfjnDjg hLjgk4lt_ 1999 – Accessibility for all new millennium -gofF ;x;|fJbLdf ;j}sf] kx'Fr_ 2000 – Making information technologies work for all -;"rgf k|ljlwnfO{;j}sf]nflu pkof]uL jgfpF_ 2001 – Full participation and equality: the call for new ap-proaches to assess progress and evaluate outcome -k"0f{ ;xefuLtf / ;dfgtf M k|ult / kl/0ffdnfO{ d'Nof+sg ug]{ gofF cjwf/0ffsf] nflu cfXjfg _ 2002 – Independent Living and Sustainable livelihoods -:jfjnDjg hLjgk4lt / lbuf] hLjgofkg_ 2003 – A voice of our own -xfd|f] nflu xfd|} cfjfh_ 2004 – Nothing about us without us -xfd|f] nflu xfd|} ;xeflutf_ 2005 – Rights of persons with disability: Action in Develop-ment -ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ M ljsf;df ;dfj]zLs/0f_ 2006 – E-Accessibility -ljB'tLo ;"rgf k|ljlwdf kx'Fr_ 2007 – Decent Work for persons with disabilities -ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] nflu ;Ddfgk"0f{sfd_ 2008 – Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities: Dignity and justice for all of us -ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ ;DjGwL dxf;+wL M ;j}sf] nflu cfTd;Ddfg / Gofo _ 2009 – Making the MDGs inclusive: Empowerment of persons with disabilities and their communities around the world -;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIfdf ;dfj]zLs/0f M ckf+utf ePsf JolQm tyf ltgsf ;d"bfosf] ljZjJofkL z;lQms/0f_ 2010 – Keeping the promise: Mainstreaming Disability in the Millennium Development Goals towards 2015 and beyond -k|ltj4tfsf] ;Ddfg M ;g @)!% ;Dd / kZrft ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIfdf ckf+utfsf] d"n k|jflxs/0f _ 2011 - æ ;'gf}nf] ljZjsf] nflu ;j}sf] ;DnUgtf M ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQmx? ;d]tsf] ljsf;df ;xeflutfÆ 2012 - "Removing barriers to create an inclusive and accessible society for all" Æ cj/f]wx? x6fpb};j}sf nflu ;dfj]lz tyf kx'ro'Qm ;dfhsf] l;h{gf u/f}Æ @ ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
  • 4. gof“ g]lqTj rog ub}{ If]lqo clwj]zg bfdf]b/ l/hfn ;b:o, /f=c=d=k"=If]=sf /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfn ;du| ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?sf] clwsf/nfO{ :yflkt ug{ ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?4f/f ;+rflnt ;+:yfx? ldln lj=;+ @)%) ;fndf :yflkt 5ftf ;ªu7g xf] . cfˆgf] :yfkgf sfn b]lv g} dxf;+3 ;Dk"0f{ ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ufF;, af;, skf;, lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/ / ;'/Iffsf] k"0f{k|Tofe'tL sf nfuL lg/Gt/ ;+3if{l;n 5 . o; qmddf dxf;+3sf % j6f If]lqo sfof{nox? / &$ lhNnfdf @%) j6f ;b:o ;+:yfx? sf] kl/rfng ul/ cfkmgf] clwsf/d'vL cleofg ;+rfng ul//]sf] 5 . dxf;+3n] lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt / uf=lj=;=:tl/o ;dGjo ;ldltx? :yfkgf ub}{cfkmgf] ;GhfnLs/0f cleofg / sfo{If]qnfO{ ljs]lGb|s[t ?kdf lj:tf/ ub}{cuf8L a9]sf] 5 . /fli6«o ckfË dxfF;+3 g]kfnsf] ldlt @)^* ;fn kmfNu'g ^,& / *df lj/f6gu/df ;DkGg 5}6f}+ /li6«o dxflwj]zg k:rft cfkmgf % j6}If]lqo ;ldltsf clwj]zgx? klg ;DkGg e};s]sf 5g . k|hftflGqs cEof;af6 g]lqTj rog ug]{ / ;+:yfdf nf]stGqsf] k"0f{ cEof; ug]{ qmddf /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfn k"jf{rn If]lqo sfof{no la/f6tu/n] cfkmgf] 5}6f}+ aflif{s ;fwf/0f ;ef tyf t];|f] If]lqo clwj]zg ut @)^( cfiff9 % / ^ ut] pbok'/ lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfd ufO3f6dff ;DkGg u/]sf] 5 f /fli6«o ckfË dxfF;+3 g]kfnsf] s]lGb|o dxflbj]zg la/f6gu/df ;DkGg eP kZrft k"=If]=sf= n] o; aif{;DkGg u/]sf] bf];|f] 7"nf] sfo{S|mk klg xf] of] clwj]zg . k"j{~rn ljsf; If]q cGt/ut /x]sf !^ j6} lhNnf df sfo{/t cfkmgf $( j6f ;b:o ;+:yfsf !)) hgf k|ltlgwL x? / @) hgf ko{AoIfsx? pkl:yt /xsf] pQm sfo{qmd @ lbg ;Dd rn]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf ;+:yfut k|ult k|ltj]bg tyf eflj sfo{of]hgf ;lrj lji0f' a/fn af6 k|:t't ul/Psf] lyof] eg] ;+:yfut cfly{s k|ult k|ltj]bg tyf eflj sfo{qmdsf] cg'dflgt nfut ljj/0f sf]iffWoIf kfj{tf >]i6 af6 k|:t't ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm clwj]zgn] ;lt; rGb| emf sf] g]lqTjdf /x]sf] dxf;+3sf] If]lqo sfo{ ;ldltnfO{ ljbfO ub}{ /fd axfb'/ sfsL{sf] cWoIftfdf !# ;bl;o If]lqo sfo{ ;ldltsf] ;d]t rot u/]sf] lyof] . # ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
  • 5. /fli6«o ckf· dxfF;+3 g]kfnsf] at{dfg k"jf{rn If]lqo so{ ;ldlt ljj/0f $ ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
  • 6. b[li6sf]0f ;xof]u klg ;lhn}df lbg k|ltlbg ;'wf/ ePem} nfU5 . df]/ª, 6+sL l;g'jf/Lsf j'4nfn uR5bf/ cf7 jif{sf] /fhg kf}8]n 5f]/f] sfFvdf /fv]/ lgxfn]/ x]b}{ eG5g . oxfF;Dd Nofpg / n}hfg g} cK7of/f] k5{ . kfrF dlxgf eof] s]Gb| ;'? u/]sf] . g ;fOsndf x'G5 g df]6/;fOsndf . l/S;fdf s]6fs]l6x? clncln d:s'/fpg yfn]sf 5g . NofpFbf ;o ?k}ofF ef8f nfU5 . To;}n] 6+sL olx g} dxTjk"0f{ kl/jt{g xf] . xf]d lelh6 eGbf rf}saf6 gf}jh] j; r95' . ljh'nL clkm; s]Gb|}l7s . 5f]§}cjlw b]lvPsf] k|ultdf bªu 5]pdf cf]ln{5' clg af]s]/ NofpF5' . 5f8]/ hfpF l5g lutf vjf; . dw'/ ;+lutsf] w'g alh/xG5 . km]l/ a]n'sf rf/ jh] lng cfpg' k5{ . lbgel/ w'g;Fu}sf]lx kfn}kfnf] u/]/ v'§f prnL lbG5g . olx a:5' . cfly{s cj:yf sdhf]/ ePsf d sf]lx xft ;dft]/ p7fpg] sf]lz; u5{g . h:tfnfO{ 6]Sg' g ;dfpg'' < ;Gtfgsf] dfof / 6fpFsf] l;wf jgfpg 3fF6Lsf] k5fl8 d;fh s'g} ;f; x'Gh]n cfzf x'g] g} eof] . la=P= k9bf k9b} emsf]{ kmsf]{ 5}g . k|To]s kf]lh;gdf cfxf Û hlGdPsf] lyof] o;sf] x]/rfx / pkrf/s} nflu s:tf] /fd|f] u/]sf] . km]l/ u/f} x}F < knkndf k9fOg} 5f8g' xf};nfo'Qm k/] s f] ljut gd| af]nL / sf] 6 o fp5g . d f o f n ' ckfªtfsf] jftfj/0f . If]qdf sfd ug]{ 3'8fFsf] ;dfh ;+3–;+:yf t w]/} ub} { lutfn] 5g t/ otf kl§ elgg o;sf] Wofg lbPsf v' § } rNb} g 5} g g pgsf] lyP . ;+dftL ljrf/df . lbof] eg] cln g]qlxg, alx/f, cln lx8 g z f l / l / s yfn]sf] 5 . l5§} lx8f]; eGg] t nfU5 t/ eg] ckfªnfO{ klg ;xof]u rflxG5 . t/ Tof] eGbf h:tf] x'b}ggL Û lj:tf/} cg'xf/df b]lvPsf] v'zL cem ;xof]u o:tfnfO{ h?/L k5{ . v}s] ug'{ < clg o:t} /f]lu emds lwld/]sf] ;kmntfn] ;xof]u klg ;lhn}df hfg] /x]5 . o;}sf] nflu xfdLnfO{ xf};nf lbPsf] atfpl5g . d':s'/fPsf] kl/jf/sf Pshgfn] k'/} ;do lbg'k5{ . d]/f] a]nfdf c?;Fu v]Ng ?rfpg], af]Ng vf]Hg] h:tf] sxfgL c?sf] klg plx xf] . of] t n's]sf] glhlsg] s|d al9 g} x'G5 . s]Gb|sf] /fd|f] kIf g} cfkt xf]gL Û pgn] yk] . sd;]sd s]Gb|;Dd olx xf] . lj/f6gu/ dft[sf dfu{df cjl:yt Nofpg] / n}hfg] ;fwg eP w]/} /fxt x'g]lyof] . s]Gb|df k|To]s lbg b'O{hgf cleefjsx? kfnf] kfnf]df cfpg' jfx]s c? lbgt sfd ug{ u/]/ cfpg' x'G5 . lkmlhof]y]/fkL, vfhf kfO{GYof] . ;]/]j|n kN;L -l;=lk_ lzz' :ofxf/ v'jfpg / v]nfpg] ug'{ x'G5 :jod ;]jssf] cyf{t jfn dl:tis kIff3ft ePsf ?kdf . oxfF l;s]sf] 3/df sfd nfU5 . dfl;s afnaflnsf :ofxf/ s]Gb|df e]l6Psf pgsf] ltg ;o / 5f]/f5f]/L Nofpg] / n}hfg] egfO dfld{s 5 . cleefjsn] g} ug'{k5{ . % ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
  • 7. b[li6sf]0f s'g} lsl;dsf] ljs[tL x'g' . jx' ckfªtf Tof] dl:tis kIff3ft :jfjnDjg ;d"x / klg j|]g;+u ;DalGwt s]z t hl6n x'G5 pgsf] /f]6/L 6fpg lj/f6gu/sf] ;xof]udf ;Grfng ljrf/df . l;lk ePsfsf] pkrf/ / k'gM:yfkgf eO/x]sf] s]Gb|df k'jf{~rns} klxnf] xf] . t ug}{k5{ . Tof;} o;af6 ;'/lIft x'g] dl:tis, kIf3ft ePsf P3f/ hgf pkfox?df klg hf]8 lbg' k5{. d"Vo ?kdf afnaflnsf 5g . pgLx? gu/kflnsf / ue{jtL cj:yfdf kf}li6s vfgf vfg', cjwL cf;kf;sf uflj;sf x'g . k'ludfq csf]{ ue{ x'g' . lgoldt :jf:Yo kl/If0f u/fpg' ue{j:yfdf 8fS6/sf] ;nnfxdf dfq uef{j:yfdf jf kl5 slnnf] dl:tisdf cf}ifwL vfg' , ;?jf /f]uaf6 aRg' / cko"Qm clS;hgsf] sld x'gfn] jfn dl:tis kIff3ft :jf:y ;+:yfdf ;'ts]/L u/fpg' k5{ . x'G5 . :qL /f]u ljz]if1 ddtf jdf{elG5gj|]g / jl8sf] sg]S;g gePkl5 rfn / hLpsf] dl:tis kIff3ft afnaflnsfsf l:ytLdf sl7gfO{ x'G5 . pgL elG5g dl:tis cfdfafj'nfO{ dfgl;s, cfly{s tyf ;fdlhs kIff3ft x'g'sf d'Vo ltg sf/0fx? 5g . klxnf] ?kdf ck7of/f] k/]sf] x'G5 . t;y{o:tf] aRrf hGdg' cl3sf sf/0fx?df ue{jtL afnaflnsfsf] plrt x]/rfx pkrf/ / cj:yfdf kf]i6Ls cfxf/df sdL, dw'd]x, pRr cleefjs b'j}nfO{ ;xof]u rflxG5 . t;y{ /Qmrfk / bfb'/f cfpg' x'g . bf];|f] aRrf ckfªtfsf] nflu sfd ug]{ ;/sf/L / u}/ hGdbfsf sf/0fx? gjhft lzz'nfO{ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?n] otfkl6 Wofg lbg' h?/L 5 . clS;hgsf] sld eP/ hGdgf ;fy g?g' jf ;txL ;xof]u, t?Gt glthf b]lvg] sfddf / ;f; km]g{ l9nf] x'g' . k|;j j]bgf nfdf] jf cfkm" cg's"n sfd ug]{ k2lt abn]/ of] If]qnfO{ si6k|b x'g' . dlxgf gk'Ub} aRrf hGdg' / ;d] 6 g ' k 5{ . tYofÍ cg' ; f/ o:tf aRrfsf] tf}n sd x'g' . To:t} t];|f] aRrf hGd afnaflnsfsf] ;+Vof g]kfndf && xhf/ kl5sf sf/0fx?df d] l gghfO{ l 6;, k"jf{~rndf ;ft ;o, df]/ªdf ltg ;o krf; / OG;]kmnfO{l6;n] dl:tisdf ;+s|d0f ug'{, 5f/] lj/f6gu/df %% hgf 5g . /f]u nfUg', 6fpsf]df rf]6 nfUg' / dl:tisdf rajan-paudel@hotmail.com ^ ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
  • 8. ;jfn tYofªsdf ckf·tf Ps hfgsf/L If]lqo sfo{no g]kfndf ckfËutfsf] l:ytL M g]kfn Ps ljs6, u/Lj / ljslf]Gd'v d'n's xf] . oxf+sf dflg;x? n}l‹s, hflto tyf cfly{s ?kn] jlu{s[t 5g . b]zsf] ef}uf]nLs ljefhg, ln+u, ;fdfhLs, cfly{s cj:yf, ckf+utf cfbL ljrsf] ljle]b pNn]vlgo /x]sf] 5 . u/Llj / ckf+utf ljr glhssf] ;DjGw /x]sf] tYof+snfO{ljleGg /fli6«o tyf cGt/fli6«o ;+:yfx?n] k'li6 u/L;s]sf 5g. t;y{u/Llj / clzIffs} sf/0fn] g]kfndf ckf+ukg lbgfg'lbg jl9/x]sf] 5 eGbf cltzof]QmL gxf]nf . csf]{lt/ b]zdf ljBdfg /fhg}lts c;Gt'ngn] ckf+utfsf] Aoj:yfkgnfO{k|efljt ;d]t kf/L/x]sf] 5 . s'kf]if0f, b'3{6gf, x]/rfxsf] sdL, c1fgtf / 4G4nfO{ g]kfndf ckf+utfsf] d'Vo sf/0f dfGg ;lsG5 . xfn ;Dd g]kfndf ckfËutf ePsf AolQmx?sf] e/kbf]{tYof+s gePtf klg ljleGg ;/sf/L tyf u}/ ;/sf/L lgsfox?n] u/]sf] gd'gf ;j]{If0fsf cfwf/df ckf+utfsf] cj:yfnfO{tYof+sut ?kdf lgDg cg';f/ x]g{;lsG5 . xfn ;Dd ePsf cWooog / lgisif{ -s'n hg;+Vofsf]_ M ? s]lGb|o tYof+s ljefusf] u0fgf, ;g @))! !=%)Ü ? ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7gsf] ljZjAoflk ;e]{If0f cg'dfg, ;g !(&^ !)=)) Ü ? ckf+ux? jf/] gd'gf /fli6«o ;e]{If0f, ;g !(*) #=)) Ü ? /fli6«o hgu0fgf, ;g !(*! )=%) Ü ? CERIDSEUBDEPDANIDA, ;Gf !((% -cf7 lhNnfdf u/]sf] cWoog_ $=%% Ü ? APPROSE , ;GF !(*! #=$! Ü ? /Fli6«o hgu0FGFf, ;GF @))! )=$% Ü ? /fli6«o of][hgf cfof]usf] ;e]{If0f, ;g @))! !=^# Ü ? >f]tM s]lGb|o tYof+s ljefu, UNICEF-NPC, 2001_ oL /fli6«o :t/sf ljleGg tYofªssf cfwf/df ljleGg lhNnfdf ljleGg ;+:yfx?n] u/]sf ;j]{If0f tyf cWoog ;d]tn] ckfËtfsf] ;+Vof / k|ltztnfO{ km/s–km/s ?kdf k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . ckfËtfsf] kl/efiff / jlu{s/0f cg'?k u0fsx?n] ;lx ?kdf tYof+s lng g;Sg', kl/jf/ tyf ;dfhn] ckfËtf ePsf AolQmx?nfO{ b]vfpg grfxg', ckfËtfnfO{ x]g]{ ;dfhsf] km/s cjwf/0f cflbn] ubf{ tYofªsdf km/skgf cfPsf] ckfËutf ;jfndf sfo{ ug]{ clwsf/sdL{x?sf] bfjL /lx cfPsf] 5 . tyfkL klg ckfËutf ;jfndf sfd ug]{ ljsf; ;+:yfx? / clwsf/sdL{x?n] s'n hg;+Vofsf] !) k|ltzt eGbf jl9 ckfËutfsf] ;+Vof /x]sf bfjL ug{ eg] 5f]8]sf 5}gg . o;} k[i7e"dLdf o;;Fu ;DjlGwt lgsfon] k'jf{~rnsf s]xL lhnnfx?df u/]sf] ;j]{If0f tyf cWoogsf cfwf/df kfOPsf s]xL tYofªsx?nfO{ lgDg cg';f/ k|;t't u/LPsf] 5 M ? lh=lj=;= ;'g;/L / j8{lehg g]kfn @))^ / @))& -;'g;/L lhNnf_ M $=*& ? l;=lj=cf/ lj/f6gu/ @))& -df]/+u lhNnf_ M !=^# & ¿kfGt/0f k"jf{~rn
  • 9. b[li6sf]0f b}ljs k|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf ckf·tf ;jfn dgf]h uf]lxjf/ sfo{qmd ;+of]hs /f=c=d=g]kfn, s]lGb|o sfo{no b}ljk|sf]ksf] a]nf h'g;'s} ;d'bfo klg plQs} hf]lvddf ePtf klg pgLx?n] Joxf]g]{ hf]lvdsf] uflDeo{tf pgLx?sf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs cj:yf, p¢f/ ;fdfu|L, k|sf]k ;DaGwL r]tgf tyf JolQmut udglzntfdf e/kg]{ x'G5 . hxfF;Dd ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;jfn b}ljk|sf]k;Fu hfl8G5, pgLx?sf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs cj:yf, JolQmut udglzntf, k|sf]k ;DaGwL r]tgf h:tf s'/fx? c? ju{ ;d'bfosf] t'ngfdf Go"g x'G5 . h;sf] kl/0ffd:j?k ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx? Emergency sf] a]nfdf ul/g] Evacuation / To;kl5 ckgfOg] /fxt ljt/0f k|s[ofdf ;w}F kl5 kfl/g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . k|sf]ksf] a]nfdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ p4f/ ug]{ JolQm ;d]t hf]lvddf kg]{ ;Defjgf ePsfn] cfˆg}kl/jf/sf ;b:o klg pgLx?nfO{ p4f/ ug{ tfTko{ xF'b}gg . blIf0f Plzofsf] b]zx? dWo] g]kfn klg b}ljk|sf]ksf] b[li6sf]0fn] hf]lvd w/ftnsf] ?kdf /x]sf] 5 . e"sDk, k}/f], af9L, cfunflu h:tf 36gfx? ljleGg ;dodf 3l6t x'Fb} cfPsf] oyfy{ cjut} 5 . lo b'3{6gfx?sf] k|efj Go"lgs/0f ug{ s]Gb| b]lv :yfgLo:t/;Dd ljleGg ;+oGqx? ;+rfngdf /x]sf] 5 . t/ clxn] ;Ddsf] s'g} klg b}ljk|sf]k Go"lgs/0f cleofg÷sfo{÷tflnddf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;Djf]wg ul/Psf] kfO{b}g . clxn] g]kfnsf] /fHo k'g{;+/rgf tyf gofF ;+ljwfg n]vg k|s[of cuf8L a9fOPsf] 5 / cGt/fli6«o :t/df g]kfn ;/sf/n] ckfËtf clwsf/ ;DaGwL dxf;lGw (CRPD) sf] ;d]t cg'df]bg ul/;s]sf] 5 . o; kl/k|]Iodf g]kfndf klg lzIff, :jf:Yo, zflGt k|s[of nufotsf kIfx?df ck]lIft ?kdf gePklg s]lxxb;Dd ckfËtfsf ;jfn k|ltlalDat ePsf] kfOP klg b}ljk|sf]k ;DalGw l:yltdf Wofg gk'/ofOg' cfkm}df v]bk"0f{5 . o;sf k5fl8 ljleGg sf/s tTjx? x'g ;S5 t/ cfhsf] kl/j]zdf ckfËtfsf ;jfn b}ljk|sf]ksf] x/]s k|s[ofut of]hgfdf k|ltlglwTj x'g'kb{5 . t;y{ Disability nfO{ b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf lgDg lsl;dn] ;dfof]hg ug'{k5{ . ckfËtf ;jfnnfO{ b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf ;dfj]z ul/g'kg]{sf cfwf/x?M ;}4flGts tyf Jojxfl/s cfwf/M b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf k/Dk/fut cjwf/0ff cg';f/ s'g} klg k|sf]k 3l6t eO;s]kl5 jf 3l6/x]sf] a]nfdf bIf k|ljlw 6f]lnn] p4f/sf] sfd ug]{ / To; kl5 k|sf]k k|efljt ;d'bfonfO{ cfly{s, ;fdflhs k'g:yf{kgfsf] sfd ug]{ /x]sf] lyof] t/ of] cjwf/0ff / o;sf] cEof;n] k|efjsf/L kl/0ffd lbg g;s]sf]n] b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf tLg j6f r/0fx?sf] klxrfg ul/of] . * ¿kfGt/0f
  • 10. b[li6sf]0f != b}ljk|sf]k k"j{ul/g] tof/L @= b}ljk|sf]k 3l6/x]sf] cj:yfdf To;sf] k|efjnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug]{ lqmofsnfkx? . #= k|sf]k kl5 ul/g] ;fdflhs, cfly{s k'g{:yfkgf Pj+ ef}lts k'g/;+/rgf ;DaGwL lsofsnfkx? k/Dk/fut cjwf/0ff kl5 ljsl;t of] gofF cjwf/0ffn] k|sf]k hf]lvd If]qsf ;d'bfonfO{g}b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf kl/rfng u/L, cgfofz}36g] ;Defljt k|sf]ksf] c;/ Go"gLs/0f ug{nufpg' k5{eg] dfGotf :yflkt u/]sf] kfO{G5 . o;} cjwf/0ff cg';f/ k|sf]k ;Defljt If]qx?sf] klxrfg u/L pQm If]qdf /x]sf] hf]lvdk"0f{;d'bfonfO{k|ToIf ;xeflu u/fO{ Early Warning System (Symbols), Emergency Plan, Services having Universal design, Training h:tf ultljwLx? ;~rfng ul/g' k5{eg] dfGotf /x]sf] 5 . sfg'gL cwf/ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ ;DalGw dxf;lGwsf] wf/f !! cg';f/ kIf /fi6«x?n] cGt/fli6«o sfg'g, cGt/fli6«o dfgjLo sfg'g / cGt/fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ sfg'gn] Joj:yf u/]sf] bfloTjsf] cwf/df x/]s k|sf/sf cfktsflng kl/l:ylt, ;Zf:q 4Gb, dfgjLo ;s+6 / b}ljk|sf]ksf] cj:yfdf ;a}k|sf/sf cfjZos pkfo tyf ;fwgx?sf] k|of]u ul/ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;+/If0f / ;'/Iff ug{' kb{5 . b}ljk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ s;/L ;dflxt ug]{ (How to Integrate Disability)? ? s'g} klg b}ljk|sf]k ;+efljt If]qdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] tYofÍ lhNnf b}ljk|sf]k ;ldltn] lng' kg]{ . ? Emergency Planning ubf{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?¢f/f ;~rflnt ;+:yf (DPOs) x? ;Fu ;dGjo ul/ ckfËtfsf] k|fs[lt, pgLx?nfO{ p¢f/ ubf{rflxg] ;fdfu|L, ;xof]usf] af/]df lhNnf b}ljk|sf]k ;ldltn] hfgsf/L lng' kb{5 . ? b}ljk|sf]k k"j{;fjwfgL ckgfpgsf nflu ;+rf/ ul/g] ;'rgfsf] dfWod, ckfËtf d}lq x'g' kb{5 . ? cfktsflng 4f/ jf dfu{x? ljleGg k|s[ltsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] nflu ;xh / kx'Fr of]Uo x'g' kb{5 . ? b}ljk|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"lgs/0fsf nflu ;+rfng ul/g] tflnd, tof/ kfl/g] k|rf/ k;f/ ;fdfu|L, ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;Nnfx / plgx?sf] k|ToIf ;xeflutfdf ug{' kb{5 . ? lhNnf b}ljk|sf]k Go"lgsf/0f ;ldlt, ;d'bflos b}ljk|sf]k Go"lgs/0f ;ldltdf plgx?sf] k|ToIf ;xeflutf u/fpg' kb{ 5 . ( ¿kfGt/0f
  • 11. ;kmntfsf] syf g]kfndf ckf·tf ePsf JolQmx?sf] cj:yf ;ltz rGb| emf s]lGb|o ;b:o g]kfndf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] s8f sfd gu/L b}lgs vfg]s'/fsf] Joj:yf cj:yfnfO{ x]g{] xf] eg] of] cToGt} b'MvbfoL / ug{g;Sg] cj:yf ePsf] / cfkmgf] kl/jf/df ;d:of u|:t dfq xf]Og dfgj clwsf/sf] ePsf] ckf+u ;b:on] pQm sfo{df ;xof]u pkof]u ;Ddflgt hLjg / ljsf;sf] d'n ug{g;Sg] jf Psbd}sd dfq ;xof]u ug{;Sg] wf/faf6 w]/} 6f9f ePsf] k|ToIf cg'ej ug{ ePsfn] k|fo kl/jf/n] cfkmgf] ckf+utf ePsf] ;lsG5 . g]kfnL ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx? cem} ;GtfgnfO{kl/jf/sf] Pp6f af]emsf] ?kdf klg k/Dk/fjfbL / ?9LjfbL ;fdflhs ;f]rsf dx;'; ug{] u5{g . lzsf/ ePsf 5g . h;n] ckf+utfnfO{ dflg;sf] Pp6f vf; :jf:Yo l:ytL gdfg]/ k|hftGqsf] k'g:yf{kgf kl5 ckfËtf k'j{hGdsf] kfksf] kmn dfGg] ul/G5 . of] ePsf JolQmx?åf/f g} cfkm'k|lt ul/g] ;f]rfO{sf] sf/0fn] Psflt/ ckf+utf ePsf e]befjsf] lj?4 cfGbf]lnt ug{] / cfkmgf] JolQmx?n] Pp6f dfgjLo hLjg eGbf cnUu} clwsf/sf] :yfkgfsf] nfuL cfkm}n8g] pB]Zo l5 l5 / b'/b'/sf] hLjg latfO/xg' k/]sf] 5 eg] lnP/ w]/} ;+:yfx?sf] :yfkgf eof] t/ g]t[Tj / csf{]lt/ pgLx?sf] kl/jf/n] ;d]t ;dfhaf6 Joj:yfksLo Ifdtf, hgjsfnt tyf :yflgo ckx]lnt x'g' k/]sf] 5 h;sf] kl/0ffd :j?k ;fwg >f]tsf] kl/rfng ug{] Ifdtf / b]zJofkL o;tf kl/jf/x? klg e]l6G5gh;n] cfkmgf ?kdf Pp6f alnof] P]Soa4tfsf] cefjdf ckfËtf ePsf] kl/jf/sf] ;b:onfO{ ;dfhaf6 ltgLx?åf/f p7fOPsf cfjfhx? :yflgo n'sfP/ /fVg] k|of; u5{g . :t/df ckfËx?sf clwsf/ :yflkt ug{ hlt k|efjsf/L x'g'kg{] xf] Tolt x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . w]/} h;f] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx? ul/a kl/jf/af6 x'g] ePsfn] ul/aLsf] sf/0fn] w]/}h;f] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx? cfkm} b]vfkg{] kl/0ffdx?sf] yk efuLbf/ x'g'kb{5 . tyf pgLx?sf cleefjsx? ckf+utfsf vf; pgLx? k|lt ;dfhsf] gfsf/fTds ;f]r, sf/0fx? ckfËtf ePkl5 x'g'kg{] pkrf/ tyf cj/f]wo'Qm ef}lts jftfj/0f, cleefjsx?sf] k'g:yf{kgfsf pkfox? ckf+utfsf /f]uyfdsf cfkmgf ckfËtf ;Gtfgk|ltsf] pbfl;gtf, pkfox? ;/sf/L ;'ljwfx? sfg'gL Joj:yfx? sdhf]/ cfly{s cj:yf OTofbL s'/fx?n] nufot u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?sf k|of;x? ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ lzIff, :jf:Yo, af/]sf hfgsf/Laf6 w]/} g} 6f9f 5g . ;~rf/, ;xfos ;fdfu|L, /f]huf/, dfgj clwsf/ / ljleGg ;fdflhs lqmofsnfkx?af6 w]/}6f9f /x]sf 5g. g]kfn Pp6f ;'kl/j]li7t / *%% eGbf a9L hgtf k/Dk/fut s'/fdf cfl>t d'n's xf] h;sf] w]/}h;f] u|fld0f If]q cljsl;t / ul/a hgtfn] cf]u6]sf] 5 . u|fld0f hgtf v]tdf uP/ !) ¿kfGt/0f
  • 12. ;kmntfsf] syf ckf·tfsf] ;afndf ljBdfg sfg'gL k|fjwfgx? ckf+utf ;DjlGwt sfg'gsf] s'/fx? anb]j d08n s]nfpbf cGt/fli6«o ;Gbe{nfO{la;{g ldNb}g . ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/x?sf] clwsf/sf] s'/f ubf{klxnf] cGt/fli6«o sfg'gL sNof0fsf/L efjgfn] NofO{Psf] x'bf o;sf] b:tfa]hsf] ?kdf dfgj clwsf/ ;DjlGw vf; sfg'gL x}l;ot dflgb}g . /fHon] :j]R5fsf] ljZjAofkL 3f]if0ffkq !($* nfO{{lng ;lsG5 . cfwf/df o;nfO{nfu' ug{] elg 5f]l8Psf]n] o;}sf cfwf/df tof/ ePsf gful/s, o;sf] sfg'gL kIf cToGt} lkmtnf] x'g uPsf] xf] /fhg}lts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts . of] P]g ag]sf] !@ aif{kl5 lgodfanL aGg' / clwsf/ ;DjlGw k|lt1f kq, af}l4s ckf+u csf{] !# aif{kl5 To;sf] sfo{of]hgf aGg'n] JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ ;DjlGw 3f]if0ffkq !(&!, ckf+u JolQmnfO{bofdfofsf] kfqsf] ?kdf ckf+u JolQmsf] clwsf/ ;DjlGw 3f]if0ffkq :yflkt ug{vf]h]sf] eP klg of] b:tfa]h w]/}g} !(&%, ckf+u JolQm ;DjlGw ljZj sfo{of]hgf ck'/f] / cw'/f] dflgG5 . o;sf cnfjf !(*@, afnclwsf/ ;DjlGw dxf;lGw !(*(, ckf+ux?sf] lzIffsf] plrt Joj:yfsf nfuL ;a}sf] nfuL lzIff ljZj ;Dd]ng, yfO{Nof8 lzIff P]g @)@*, lgodfanL @)%(, laif]z hf]dl6g !((), ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] lzIff gLlt @)%# df s]lx Joj:yfx? ul/Psf] cj;/ ;df0fLs/0f ;DjlGw k|dfl0fs lgodx? kfO{G5 . o;}ul/ :yflgo :jfoQ zf;g P]g !(($, ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ @)%% n] ckf+ux?sf] tYof+s :yflgo :t/df ;DjlGw cGt/fli6«o dxf;lGw @))^ h:tf cWofjlws ug'{kg{], pgLx?sf nfuL cfjZos b:tfa]hx? cGt/fli6«o ?kd} dxTjk'0f{ sfo{qmdx? agfO{sfof{Gjog ul/g' kg{] :yflgo dflgG5g. lgsfox?n] ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] cfly{s g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df x]bf{g]kfnsf] cGtl/dtyf ;fdflhs ljsf;df ;xof]u k'/ofpgsf ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] wf/f ## -3_ df /fHosf] nfuL :yflgo :t/df k|fKt x'g] cg'bfg /sdsf] lgb{]zs l;4fGtsf ?kdf d'n'ssf] /fHo ! b]lv % k|ltzt /sd ;Ddsf] sfo{qmd ;+/rgfsf] ;a}c+ux?df ckf+utf ePsf agfO{sfof{Gjog ul/g' kg{], :yflgo :t/df JolQmx?nfO{;dfg'kflts ;dfa]zLsf] cfwf/df u7g x'g] ljleGg ;ldlt tyf pk;ldltx?df ;xefuL u/fpg] s'/f pNn]v 5 . To:t} cGtl/d ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;xfelutf ;+lawfgsf] wf/f #%-!$_ df ;fsf/fTds ;'lglZrt ul/g' kg{] gLlt cjnDjg u/]sf] 5 . lje]bsf cfwf/df ljz]if Joj:yf ug{] pNn]v o;}u/L uflj; cg'bfg sfo{qmd ;~rfng ul/Psf] 5 . ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] lzIff, sfo{ljlw–@)^# n] dfgljo ;+zfwg sfo{qmd :jf:Yo, /f]huf/L, tflnd, k'g:yf{kgf, ckf+utfcGtu{t ljlgof]lht u/]sf] Ps nfv krf; kl/ro kq, ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] xhf/ dWo] af6 ;d]t sfo{qmd agfO{sfof{Gjog ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf] lglDt dfl;s a[QL k|bfg ul/g' kg{] Joj:yfx? u/]sf] kfO{G5 . xfn}g]kfn ul/g' kg{] nufotsf ;]jf ;'ljwf tyf clwsf/ ;/sf/sf tkm{af6 kfl/t ckf+utf ;DjlGw ;'/lIft ug{] u/L @)#( ;fndf ckf+u ;+/If0f /fli6«o gLlt tyf sfo{of]hgf @)^# n] ;d]t tyf sNof0f P]g hf/L ePsf] 5 . ckf+utfsf] ljleGg P] g lgodfanL tyf gLlt If]qdf ;a}eGbf dxTjk'0f{ sfg'gL b:tfa]hsf] lgb{]lzsfx?df ;dfa]z ePsf k|fjwfgx? ?kdf dflgPsf] of] P]g blIf0f Plzofd}klxnf] ;lxt !& j6f a'¤bfdf lj:t[t sfo{of]hgf tof/ P]g dflgG5 . o; P]gdf ePsf Joj:yfx? !! ¿kfGt/0f
  • 13. :yfg kl/ro u/]sf] 5 . sfg'gL ?kdf o;sf] Tolt x}l;ot ? ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] :ki6 tYof+s gePtf klg o; If]qdf sfd ug{;DjlGwt tyf cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f x'g g;Sg' . ;a}nfO{dfu{bz{g eg] k|z:t u/]sf] kfO{G5 . ? o; If]qdf sfd ug{] ljleGg ;+3 ;+:yf tyf JolQmx?sf] lardf ;dGjo / ;~rf/sf] sfof{Gjogsf d'Vo r'gf}tLx? ? cefjn] k|>o kfO{/xg' . ? clwsf/sdL{ tyf k'g:yf{kgfsdL{x?sf] Jofks hgr]tgfsf] sdL . tflnd / ;+Vofdf sdL . ;dfh k'/ftgafbL ;f]r / ;/sf/af6 d'Qm ? >f]t tyf ;fwgx?sf] ckof{Kttf . x'g g;Sg' . ef}uf]lns ljs6tf . ? ljBdfg sfg'gL k|fjwfgx?sf] af/]df ? ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ ofjt ;/f]sf/afnfx? cgle1 /xg' . ;d:ofx?af6 sd u/fpgsf] nfuL /fHosf] /fHosf ljleGg c+ux? -Joj:yflksf, d'nwf/df Nofpg'kg{] x'G5 / d'nwf/df sfo{klnsf, Gofokflnsf, of]hgf cfof]u Nofpgsf] nfuL /fHosf tx / tksfdf cflb_ df ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;xeflutf k|ltlglwTj x'g g;Sg' . clgjfo{?kdf u/fpg' k5{. ;fy} ljBdfg ePsf P]g sfg'gx? sNof0fsf/L g]kfnsf /fhlglts kf6Lx?n] cfkmgf cjwf/0ffaf6 k|]l/t x'g' . 3f]if0ffkqdf ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ? kof{Kt, k|efjsf/L / afWosf/L P]g clwsf/sf s'/fx? 3f]if0ff u/L ckf+utf sfg'gx? gePsf] . ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ ;dfa]zLs/0fsf] ? /fHodf nfdf] ;do;Dd /fhg}lts cfwf/df ;xeflutf u/fpg' kg{] x'G5 / cl:y/tf /lx/xg' . g]kfndf sfo{/t /fli6«o tyf cGt/fli6«o ? ckfËux?sf] kl/efiff / auL{s/0f cem} ;fdflhs ;+3 ;+:yfx?n] ckfËtf ePsf klg a}1flgs gx'g' . JolQmx?sf] ljsf; / clwsf/sf] lglDt dxTjk'0f{ e'ldsf lgjf{x ug{'kg{] x'G5 . !@ ¿kfGt/0f
  • 14. v]n ;dfrf/ gj k|ltefsf wlg ljqmd ;fDkf· bfdf]b/ l/hfn ;b:o, /f=c=df=k"=If]=sf dftf dËnLdfof ;fDkfË / lktf d5]g s'df/ ;fDkfË sf k'q/Tgsf] ?kdf lj= ;+ @)%# ;fn a}zfv @* ut] a]n8fFuL–@ bds emkfdf hlGdPsf ljqmd ;fDkfË -;+of]u_ dl:t:s kIf3ft eO{ ckfËtf j/0f u/]sf AolQm x'g . xfn plg ;kl/jf/ cfkmgf] ;/0ffyL{ lhjg latfO/x]sf 5g g]kfndf . d Pp6f ;fdfGo AolQmsf] geP/ Ps s';n ;|:6fsf] kl/ro lbO/x]sf] 5' . ;lxlTos hutdf syf, sljtf, ?jfO{h:tf ljwfdf snd rnfpb}d]/f] n]vx? gfds ;flxlTos k':ts k|sf;Lt ul/;s]sf 5g;|i7f ;+of]u n] . cfk'm ckfËtf ePsf] AolQm eP/ klg ;lxlTos cfsf;df Pp6f rlDsnf] tf/f aGg sDd/ s;]sf :f|i7f ;+of]u nfO{;'esfdgf . d]/f] n]vx? af6 s]lx ;+of]u sf l;h{gfx? ;fef/ ul/Psf] ?jfO{ ckfË afFr]sf 5gdflg; 8n/sf] cfzdf oxfF c?sf] sdfO eG5gp8fOlbG5gtf;df oxfF dfG5]n] u5{g ckfËnfO{ 3[0ff lzla/ lalu|of] h'jft;n] oxfF ljBfyL{sf] eljio lalu|of] k'gaf{;n] oxfF . 3[0ff ubf{plgx|?nfO{slt x'G5 lk8f s;n] aem5 plgx?sf] b'vsf] syf k"0fLdfdf /dfpg dg nfU5 h'gtf/f ;dfpg dg nfU5 ckfËsf] lhjgdf x'G5 w]/} Aoyf . vf]O ;S5' of ;lSbg sNkgfnfO{3'dfpg dg nfU5 . ;xG5g 3[0ff / lk8f vfb}ggxf/ k"n;Fu gfrf}+ nfU5 ckfËsf] klg x'G5 nIo u5{g kf/ k"0fL{dfsf] h'g ;Fu afFrf}+ nfU5 c?;Fu l/;fpg' eGbf plgx? klg s]lx u5{gb]zsf] lglDt cfkmGt ;Fu xfF;f}+ nfU5 . cGofo cTofrf/ gu/f}d]/f] 5 laGtL . s:tf] b' vL lhjg latfO{/x]5' cfk}m xf/]/ s;}nfO{lhtfO/x]5' ;fy lbp l;sfp plgx?nfO{xfdL s:tf] xf/ vfP lhjgdf dfG5] glrgL dLt nfP5' . kl5 lj4fg eO{x'G5ggfdL plgx?sf] dgnfO{gagfp lvGg k"mn;Fu gfrf}+ nfU5 h"g;Fu xfF;' nfU5 ckfË eO{kfpg' k5{lhpg . k|]ddf /dfp nfU5 k|]dLsfsf] xft ;dfp nfU5 . !# ¿kfGt/0f
  • 15. ljZn]if0f olb ;j} 6+s uf}td / /fhg kf}8]n e}lbP slt j]; x'g] lyof] xf]nf======== cfh sfo{nodf k|j]z u/] b]lv g} d]/f] pQd lzjfsf]6L dfg;k6ndf Pp6f km/s ;f]rfO{n] kl/qmdf If]=;+of]hs uttam_siwakoti101@yahoo.com ul//xof] / d]/f] cGt/cfTdfn] lsg xf] lsg elg/x]sf] lyof} lsg ;a} lhDd]jf/ txsf dfG5] Aojfxf/ ug]{tl/sf eGbf km/s 9u+n] ckfu+tf 6+s uf}td jGg ;St}gg lsg /fhg kf}8]n jGg ljsf;sf] d'4fsf] ?kdf j'Hb}cfkm' ;u ePsf] ;St}gg . of] hl6n t/ lttf] oyf{ytfnfO{ d}n] Ifdtf / ;[hglzntfn] lg/Gt/ c?nfO{ljrf/ / aflx/ Nofpg}k5{ Tof] g} d]/f] wd{ xf] eGg] nfUof] dfu{bz{g k|jfx ul//x]sf 5g . clg ;'? u/] d}n] d]/f] ljZn]if0fnfO{ sfuhdf lzIffsf] Hof]tLn] ckfu+tf ePsf jfn uef{wf/0f u/fpg . sltnfO{ x'g ;S5 of] rrf{ jfnLsfx?sf] lhjg nfO{ s;/L k|sfzdo ;fGble{s gjGg klg ;Snf t/ AolQmsf] jgfpg] eGg] cleofgdf lhNnf lzIff sfo{no lg:jfy{ k|oTgnfO{ ;b}j ;Ddfg ug]{ k/Dk/fsf] df]/u+df sfo{/t ;dflxt lzIff ;fvf k|d'v pk z'?jft xfldn] cf/De ug}{k5{ . ;lrj 6+s uf}tdsf] ;s[otf / lhDd]jf/Ljf]b xfdL ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] jflxl/ ?kdf jxfFsf] zfl/l/s prfO{eGbf hLjgnfO{ ;Ddflgt jgfpg lhjgsf ;a} sof}u'0ff cUnf] 5 h:n] cfkgf] k|oTg nfO{;b}j pmhf{ / k|oTg nufP/ cufl8 jl8/x]sf 5f}F . ;j} c kfu+ t f ePsf jfn jfnLsfx? cefj} cefjsf] hftf]df lkl;P/ klg slxn} plgx?s}kf/Ljf/Ls dfof ddtfdf cfkgf lxDdt gxfg'{kg]{, slxn} gyfSg' kg}{, slxn} ;j}ljz]iftf ;lxt d}lqk'0f{jftfj/0fdf lzIffsf] lg/f; gx'g' kg]{, xfdL klg olx ;dfhsf pkh cj;/ k|fKt ug'{kfpg h;jf6 plgx?sf] xf} eg]/ ;b}j jsfnt ug'{kg}{ xfd|f] lgoltdf ;dflhs klxrfg klg sfod xf]; elg lg/Gt/ lgDtf lbP/ xf]O{g ,cg'/f}w u/]/ xf]Og, ?kdf cfkm' eGbf pkNnf] txdf k}/jL / tNnf] :j:km't{?kdf dfgjtf jf]b eP/ Pp6f ljj]s txdf lgb}{zg / ljrf/sf] k|jfx ul//xg' ePsf] lzn dgf]j[lQ jf6 ckfu+tf ;jfnnfO{ cfkm' 5 h'g Pp6f cfd k|zf;ssf] j'hfO{df cfkgf] ;u ePsf] lj1tfsf] pmhf{yKb}lg/Gt/ xfd|f] klbo lhDd]jf/L tyf !) b]lv % jh] ;Ddsf] klxrfgsf] ofqf nfO{ cufl8 j8fpg jn k|of]u hflu/] ;:sf/ ePsfx?sf] nflu sfo{If]q tyf ul//xg] jf}l4s hdft nfO{sb/ gu/]/ /fi6|sf lhDd]jf/L eGbf jflx/sf] klg x'g ;S5 . t/ lhDd]jf/ txdf cf;g u|x0f ul/ jf]nLdf oxfF k|Zg cfp5 s] 6+s uf}td / cGo u'lnof] / sfddf lttf] ug]{jf}l4s hdft k|zf;sx?df t'ngfTds ?kdf ;dflhs nfO{s;/L sb/ ug]{k|Zg 5nkmnsf] ljifo jGnf lhjg k|ltsf] cfTdf;Gt'li6 j/fj/ 5t < ;fob . ljwfnosf] xft leq l5g{gkfO{cWof/f]df lhjg ckfËtfnfO{ ;Ifdtfsf] kl/efiff leq Aoltt u/L/x]sf,cg]sf}si7sf ;fy ljwfno /fVg ?rfpg] 6+s uf}td / /fhg kf}8]n k|j]z u/] klg ;b}j pk]lIft eP/ j:g' kg]{;of} s'g}g]tf, snfsf/, j}1flgs, bfz{lgs jf zlQm ckfu+tf ePsf jfn jfnLsfx?sf] lhjgdf ;DkGg AolQmTj xf]O{gg tkfO{ xfdL h:t} cfd b]lvPsf] cWof/f] d]6g k|oTg lzn 6+s uf}td g]kfnL gfu/Ls g} x'g h:n] cfkgf] klbo nfO{lhDd]jf/ k|zf;s eGg] ls lj4jfgsf] kul/ lhDd]jf/L k'/f ub}{ cfkgf] ;dflhs lhDd]bf/L nufP/ lhDd]jf/ kbdf cfl;g hflu/] nfO{klg cfkgf] j'l4 / ljj]s n] cGo cfd ;+:s[ltdf jflr/x]sf k|zfzs nfO{pQ/ dflg;x?n] ckfu+tf ;jfn nfO{x]g]{,j'Hg] / cfkm}k|i6 5 ;fob . /fi6|sf lhDd]jf/ txdf !$ ¿kfGt/0f
  • 16. ljZn]if0f cfl;g k|zf;s olb ljj]slzn jGg] xf] eg] ;dflhs bfloTj klg xf] h:n] xfd|f] gh/df ;dfhdf 5l/P/ /x]sf ;lbof}b]lv /fHosf] /fhg kf}8]n nfO{ cGox?sf nflu ;fwf/0f d'nwf/ jf6 cnUofO{Psf ckfu+tf ePsf AolQm eP klg xfd|f nflu jxfF 7'nf] ;DklQm xf] AolQmx?n] klg /fi6| lgdf0f{df of]ubfg lbg eGg] nfU5 . Pp6f ;r]t snd lhljsf] cfvfFn] ;S5g t/ k|zfzs pbfl;g jlg/xg] xf] eg] o:tf ;fjnx? b]Vg' k5{h'g ;frf] cy{df ;du| sof} cfjfh ljlxgx?sf] cfjfh slxn] klg ljsf; k|s[of jf6 cnUofO{Psf] xf];,cfwf/e't jflx/ gcfpg] ul/ lgdf]l7g]5 . olb cflwsf/x?jf6 jl~rt kfl/Psf AolQmx?sf] ;j}k|zf;s cfkgf nflu yf]/}c?sf nflu xf]; clg dfq snd lhljsf] sndn] klg w]/}jflrlbP ;dfh slt ;r]t / ;[hglzn jGg] lhjgttf kfp5 . snd snd g}xf] To;n] /fd|f] lyof] ;fob / xfd|f] rfxfgf klg Tolx 5 ;don] klg n]V5 g/fd|f] klg,wlgsf jf/]df klg w]/}6+s uf}td hGdfcf]; of] xfd|f] c;dfgtfsf] ul/jsf jf/]df klg ,jlnofsf jf/]df klg n8fO{;j}sf] ;+o'Qm jGg ;sf]; . lgj{lnofsf jf/]df klg t/ Tof] snd Tolt v]/ To:t} j flx/L kq jf6 cfsng ;fy{ s x' G 5 h:n] ul/ljsf] lk8f ug{g;lsg] ;fwf/0f kfq x'g /fhg kf}8]n hf] nfO{n]vf];,dfgj dfgj ljrsf] c;dfgtf lglh{j cfjfhx? nfO{ljrf/sf sndn] k|f0f nfO{n]vf]; h:jf6 ;j}n] ;j}sf jf/]df hfGg / lbb}ckfu+tf leqsf] ;Dj]bgf nfO{kqsf/Ltfsf] j'Hg kfpg,;j}df st{Aojf]wsf] ;[hgf xf]; / dfWod jf6 o; ckfu+ t f ;jfn Ps csf{df ;xof]u,;xsfo{/ cflTdotfn] xfd|f] nfO{gb]Vg],gj'Hg],g;'Gg] g]kfnL ?l9jflb ;dfh ;j} c6fpg],;Ddfg kfpg],ljsl;t x'g] ;dflhs lrGtg nfO{ nuftf/ sof}jif{b]lv ;femf km'njf/L jGg ;sf]; clg dfq sndsf] df]km;n jf6 AoË k|fxf/ ul//x]sf 5g . jf:tljs d'No k|fKt x'G5 / ;f]lx jf6f]df /fhg ckfu+tf nfO{dfgj ljljwtfsf] ?kdf AofVof kf}8]nsf sndx?n] ljut b]lvg};'Id ljZn]if0f ub}{;dfhLs ;dfwfgsf] kxnsf nflu lglt ;lxt ckfu+tf If]qsf sof}ljifox?sf] p7fg lgdftf{b]lv cfd gful/s ;Dd ckfu+tf ;jfn cfkgf b[li6sf]0f ;lxtsf k|sflzt kmf]6f] k|lt ;b}j ;sf/fTds b[li6sf]0f jgf]; elg ;fdu|Lx? k6s k6s sflGtk'/sf] sf]z]nL cfkgf] bIftf nfO{ j]nf j]nfdf ;dlk{t nufot cGo ;+rf/ dfWodx?df b]Vbf xfd|f ug]{/fhg kf}8}n cGt/fli6|o u}=;=;=Knfg cleofgdf o:sf sfof}/fhg kf}8]nx? n] g]kfnsf] lhDd]jf/ kbdf cfl;g AoltTj eP o;}ul/ snd rnfO{lbP cleofg slt cufl8 klg jxfFsf] of] ;s[otf klbo lhDd]jf/L eGbf j8g] lyof] / of] k'/ftg ;dfh ckfu+tf ePsf Pp6f leGg kf6f]sf] ?kdf pgn] lgefPsf] AoLQmx?sf nflu klg d}lq jGg] lyof] xf]nf . !% ¿kfGt/0f
  • 17. ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g:yf{kgf (Community Based Rehabilitation – CBR), ljsf;qmd tyf P]ltxfl;s k[i7e'dL gGbnfn jf:tf]nf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g:yf{kgf ;f/f+zdf g]b/Nof08; n]k|f];L l/lnkm ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;dfj]zL ljsf; (Community ?kdf dfq lnP/ ljleGg ;+3 ;+:yfx?;d]t olx based inclusive developmet – CBID) sf gfdjf6 ;+rflnt ePsf] x'gfn] hgdfg;x?df nflu k|of]ul;2, j}1flgs, cTofw'lgs / ;do ;fk]IF y'k|}cGof}nsf] ;[hgf ePsf] 5 . of] :tDedf ;fdfGo kl/jlt{t cjwf/0ff xf] . ljZj :jfYo ;+u7gn] u/]sf] ?kdf ckf+utf Joj:yfkgsf ljljw kIF ;lxt of] kl/efiff cg';f/ ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g:yf{kgf cjwf/0ffsf] P]ltxfl;s k[i7e'dL / ljsf;qmdsf d'Vo eg]sf] ;j}ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{k'g{:yfkgf, c+zx?nfO{ ;d]6g] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . cj;/x?df ;dfgtf / ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f ckf+utf Joj:yfkgsf] ljsf;qmdnfO{ ;/n ug]{;du| ;d'bfosf] ljsf; cGtu{tsf] Pp6f /0fgLlt lsl;dn] pNn]v ug{kbf{tnsf % r/0fdf ljefhg xf] . o;}ul/ WHO, ILO, UNESCO Joint ul/ ;+IF]kdf kl/ro lbg pko'Qm x'g]5, position Paper 2004 n] u/]sf] kl/efiff nfO{ lng] xf] eg], l; lj cf/ k'g{:yfkgf, cj;/x?sf] ;dfgtf, != ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] Go'gLs/0fsf kxnx? ul/jL Go'gLs/0f / ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0fsf nflu z'?jftsf lbgx?df ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?n] Ps lsl;dsf] jx'kIFLo /0fgLlt xf] . csfn d[To'sf] ;fdgf ug{k/]sf] cj:yf lyof] . ljleGg l; lj cf/ ;du| ;d'bfosf] ljsf;sf] j}1fgLs k|ljlwx?sf] ljsf; ;+u}ue{df /x]sf] lzz'df cjwf/0ffnfO{ cfTd;ft ub{5 t/ ljsf;sf] d'n zf/Ll/s ?kdf s]xL hl6ntfx? b]lvPdf ue{ktg k|jfxdf ;dfj]z x'g g;s]sf] kIf h:t} ckf+utfsf ug]{kIf t Pp6f eof] t/ s]xL o'/f]lkog b]zx?df To; ;jfnx? cflb nfO{s]Gb| ljGb' jgfP/ ;dfj]zL ljsf; lsl;dn] zfl//Ls sdhf]/L ePsf ;lxtsf] ;dfj]zL ;dfh g}of] /0fgLltsf] d'Vo nIo jRrfx?nfO{hGd]sf] tLg lbg leq cleefjs / xf] . l; lj cf/ sf] sfo{Gjog ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx? lrlsT;ssf] ;Nnfxdf dfg{ ;lsg] ;Ddsf k|:tfjx? cfkm}, pgLx?sf kl/jf/sf ;b:ox?, ;d'bfo / cfPsf] b]lvG5 . jfr]sfx?n] klg plrt :ofxf/ ;+:yfx?, / :jf:Yo, lzIff, Jofj;flos, ;fdflhs ;+ef/, ;Gt'lnt ef]hg, pkrf/ cflbsf] cefjdf tyf cGo ;]jfx? k|bfg ug]{;/sf/L Pj+ u}x| ;/sf/L csfnd}d[To'j/0f ug{k/]sf y'k|}pbfx/0fx? 5g . bf];|f] ;+:yfx?sf] ;+o'Qm kxnjf6 ul/G5 . lxhf] cfhsf] ljZjo'4tfsf hd{gdf gfhLx?n] dfgl;s ckf+utf kl/jlt{t kl/efiffsf] cf;onfO{ lnbf ;+o'Qm ePsf JolQmx?sf] >[v+nfj4 xTof u/]sf] Oltxf;n] /fi6«;+34f/f kfl/t e}ljZjsf ;j}h;f] b]zx?n] k'li6 u/]sf] 5 . o'4 ckf/fwsf] gfddf d[To'b08 lbg] x:tfIf/ tyf w]/}b]zx?4f/f cg'df]bg ;d]t e};s]sf] qmddf lx6n/ / p;sf ;dy{sx?n] #)),))) hlt ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ ;DjlGw ckf+utf ePsf / vf; u/L dfgl;s ckf+utf ePsf dxf;GwL @))^ nfO{Jojxfl/s ?kdf nfu' dflg;x?sf] vf]hL vf]hL oftgfu[xdf NofO{ Hofg ug]{b:tfj]hsf] ?kdf l; lj cf/ nfO{lng ;lsG5 / lnPsf] Oltxf;df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L x]bf{ of] dxf;GwL jfWosf/L sfg'gL b:tfj]h xf] eg] l; lj cf/ dxf;GwLsf] Jojxf/Ls k|of]usf] k|l;4 j}1fgLs tyf hLj;f:qL 8flj{gn] dfWod xf] eg]df cTo'lQm gxf]nf . k|ltkfbg u/]sf] l;4fGt jftfj/0fLo kl/jt{g ;+u}kl/jt{g x'g ;Sg] / tGb'?:t dfq jfRg ;Sg] dflysf] kl/efiffn] cj of] :ki6 e};s]sf] 5 (Survival of the fittest) sf] unt JofVofn] klg of] ls ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{;dfg cj;/, ;dfg cj:yfnfO{cem j9fjf lbPsf] a'emg ;lsG5 . o;sf clwsf/ / jftfj/0fLo cj/f]wsf] Go'gLs/0f ;lxt nflu s]xL kf}/fl0fstfdf ljZjf; /fVg] JolQmx?n] ;;lQms/0f / ;dfj]zL ljsf; g}l; lj cf/ sf] Wo]o ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{nf]k eO{;s]sf jf xf] . t/ of] /0fg}lts cjwf/0ffnfO{Pp6f sfo{qmdsf] nf]kf]Gd'v cj:yfsf hgfj/x?;+u bfHg] u/L kl/efiff !%
  • 18. ljrf/ u/]sf] b]lvG5 . ;dosf] kl/jt{g ;+u}gof+ k|ljlwx?sf] klg @= cnUofpg] ljsf; x'g yfNof] h:t};g !&*$ df b[li6ljlxgx?sf j[4, cgfy, j]/f]huf/, ljleGg lsl;dsf nflu gof k4tL / ;g !*@$ df n'O; j|]nn] ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, h]n d'Qm JolQm j|]nnLkLsf] cfljisf/ u/] kZrfb of] IF]qdf 7"nf] cflbx?nfO{pgLx? ljleGg /f]ux?jf6 ;+qmldt x'g /fxtsf] dx;'; ul/of] . klxn]sf lbgx?df sf]7f leq} ;Sg], /f]u ;fg{ ;Sg] h:tf cg'dfgn] ;d'bfo eGbf y'lgP/ /xg] cj:yfjf6 j/k/, 5/l5d]s cflbdf cnUu}/fVg] u/L ljleGg lsl;dsf cfjf;x?sf] lx88'n ug]{cj:yfsf] ;[hgf eof] t/ oL cfj;x?df Joj:yf ul/of] t/ oL cfjf;x? dflg;x? j:g of]Uo JolQmx?sf] cTolws ;+Vof j9g yfn] kl5 eg] lyPgg To;}n] oL cfjf;x?nfO{ul/j / wfGg}g;lsg] cj:yfx?sf] ;[hgf eof] . cnUofpg] c;Qmx?sf nflu 3/ eGg] ul/GYof] . k|j[ltsf lj?2 cfjhx? p7g yfn] h;n] ubf{ r nfsLk' 0 f{ 9+ u n] ckf+ u tf ePsf o;/L 5'§}sd;n lsl;dsf cfjf;sf JolQmx?nfO{zf/Ll/s ?kdf jGbL jgfpg eGbf ;Gbe{df y'k|}/f]rs sxfgLx? 5g . lj|6]gdf ;g !^)! dfgl;s ?kdf b'j{n jgfpg] lsl;dsf kxnx? sf] u/Ljsf nflu sfd sf] gLltut k|Fjwfg cg';f/ ul/P . o:tf ejgx? lgdf{0fsf] lhDdf pgLx?nfO{lbOPsf] lyof] . pgLx?nfO{;xh klxrfgsf] nflu s'g} /+usf] ckf+utf ePsf s]xL JolQmx?n] k|fKt kf]zfs jf lrGx k|of]u ug{nufOGYof] t/ pgLx?n] cj;/x?sf] pkof]u u/L ljleGg IF]qx?df cfÎgf ljleGg ;fdflhs sfo{x? h:t}dtbfg cflbdf cl4tLo ;Lk / IFdtfx? k|bz{g u/] h;n] ubf{kl/jf/, ;xefuL x'gjf6 jGb]h ul/Psf] lyof] . lzlIft tyf ;d'bfo, ;+3;+:yf Pj+ /fi6«n] ;d]t oL kIFx?sf] sb/ wgfWo JolQmx?n] ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{cfkm' / pkof]u ug{ jfWo eof] h;sf] kl/0ffd hgdfg;df j;]sf] ;d'bfojf6 x6fpg w]/}s/ ltg]{jf 5'§}cfly{s ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf IFdtf k|lt ;sf/fTds ;xof]u ug]{h:tf k|j[lt t cem}klg slx st}b]Vg / ;Gb] z uof] eg] kl/jf/ / ;d' b fon] ;'Gg kfOG5 . of] cj:yf eg]sf] /fxtd'vL ;Dd klg pgLx?nfO{:jLsfg]{cj:yfsf] ;[hgf eof] . o;sf lyPg t/ JolQmx?nfO eg] dfu]/ vfP klg lhjg ;fy}oL u[xx?df ePsf ljleGg lsl;dsf lx+;f Pj+ hLpg ;Sg] lsl;dsf cf+lzs cfwf/x? v8f ePsf ck/fwsf 36gfx? klg ;fj{hlgs x'g yfn] . o;} lyP t;y{ jfRg] ;Dd clwsf/sf] ;'/IFf geP klg qmddf ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfsf] ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] oL lgz]wsf] cj:yf eGbf of] s]xL ;'wfl/Psf] cj:yf u[xx?df ePsf lx+;f ck/fw Pj+ dfgljo bdg tyf eGbf cGoyf gxf]nf . clwsf/ pn+3gsf lj?4df km};nf u¥of] . #= ;+:yfut ;+/If0f / k'g:yf{kgf -cnUu}/fv]/ lbOg] ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zx?df cem}klg o:tf ;]jfx?_ ;+/rgfx?sf] ljuljuL g}5 . vf; u/L of] cj:yf eg]sf] dfly bf];|f] r/0fdf pNn]v jfnjfnLsfx?nfO{lzIFf lbg] jf pkrf/ u/fpg] ul/Psf] cnUu} /fVg] k|j[ltsf] clnslt ljsl;t ?k gfddf tyf Joj;flos tfnLd / /f]huf/Lsf gfddf dfq xf] h;df ljz]if eGg] ljz]if0f zJbsf] k|of]u u/L o:tf s]Gb|x? ;+rflnt 5g eg] k'g:yf{kgf zJbsf] k'g:yf{kgf eGg] jfSof+n] ;lh;hfj6 ug{dfq k|of]ujf6 clwsf+z ;DjlGwt lgsfox?n] o;sf] d'n vf]hLPsf] xf] t/ cfzo eg] ckf+utf ePsf dd{a'emg sl7g ePsf] jf j'emkrfPsf] cj:yf 5 . JolQmx?nfO{;fdfGo gful/s eGbf km/s lsl;dn] x]g]{/ Jojxf/ ug]{k|j[lt g} xf] . of] cj:yfsf] km/s kIf $= Plss[t of]hgfsf nflu kxnx? eg]sf] cnUofpg] / /fxtd'vL cjwf/0ffsf] ldl>t ;+:yfut k'g:yf{kgsf] ljsNkdf Plss[t :j?k xf] . j[4 l;kfxL / ckf+utf ePsf ;fdflhs cjwf/0ffsf] qmdz ljsf;sf nflu lgDg JolQmx?nfO{/fVg] cfjf;sf] ?kdf ;j}eGbf klxn] pNn]lvt cj:yfx?sf] d'Vo e'ldsf /x]sf] b]lvG5, k|mfG;df Pp6f u[xsf] Joj:yf ePsf] lyof] h;df ? pkrf/ k|0ffnLdf gof+ k2tL jf k|ljlwsf] ljsf; &))) JolQmx? c6g ;Sg] Ifdtf lyof] . ljZjsf ? cfzf ul/P cg'?k zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s cj:yfdf cGo b]zx?df klg o; k4tLsf] cg's/0f x'b}uof] . !^
  • 19. ;dfrf/ ljljw ;'wf/ x'g g;s]sf] jf To; lsl;dsf lj1x?sf] h:tf ljljw kIFx?sf] ljsf; ePjf6 Plss[t ;dfh cefj ljsf;sf sfo{qmdx?n] ;kmntf k|FKt ug{ ;Dej ? cfly{s cefj eof] . ? ?9LjfbL ;+:sf/, sf]nf]gL/ l8S6]6/ k|j[ltsf lj?4df nfvf}dflg;x?sf] lj/f]w o;};dodf lj1x?n] ;+:yfut j;fO{/ ? ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx? Pj+ cleefjs Plss[t of]hgfx?sf] yfngL kl5 ckf+utf ePsf ;d'xx?sf] ;;Qm cfjfh JolQmx?sf] hLjg:t/df cfPsf] kl/jt{g ;DjlGw cWoogx? u/] . cWoogn] s] b]vfof] eg] JolQmsf] bf];|f] ljZjo'4 kZrfb hj o'4sf] sf/0f 7"nf] ;jf{l¨0f ljsf;sf nflu of] ljsl;t kxn g}clt of]Uo ;+Vofdf JolQmx?n] ckf+utf j/0f u/], ;+rflnt /x]5 . h:t}pbfx/0fsf nflu s'g}jfnjfnLsfnfO{nfdf] ;+:yfx?n] of] ;+Vof wfGg ;s]gg / of] Jojxfl/s klg ;do;Dd af]l8{Ëdf /fv]/ ;f+s]lts efiff l;sfpg t b]lvPg To;}n] pgLx?nfO{pgLx? /x]sf] ;d'bfodf g} ;lsG5 t/ o;n] p;nfO{efiffut ?kdf emg}sdhf]/ /fv]/ ;]jf pknJw u/fpg yflnof] . o;/L Plss[t agfpFb5 / p;n] c? JolQmx?;+u ;+jfb ;fdflhs cEof;sf] z'?jft t ul/of] t/ ug]{tl/sfdf emg}sdL Nofpb5 . kfl/jf/Ls ?kdf JolQmx?sf] rfxgf / 5gf}6sf] Vofn}ul/Pg / cfly{s ldl>t j;fO, ;fyL efO{x?;+usf] x]nd]n cflb jf6 kIFnfO{dfq k|fyldstf lbOof] . kf}/fl0fs o; kIFdf cfd'n ;'wf/ Nofpg ;lsG5 . o;/L cjwf/0ffnfO{cfTd;ft ug]{dflg;x?n] ;f]r] h:tf] Plss[t ;fdflhs of]hgx?sf] ;kmntfk'j{s o;n] ;dfhdf g s'g} hl6ntf pTkGg eof] g t sfo{Gjogjf6 ;dfj]zL ;dfhsf] kl/sNkgf ;+ej dflg;x?sf] hLjg:t/df g}s'g}km/s kf¥of] j? x'G5 . ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{x]g]{;sf/fTds efjgsf] ljsf; x'b}uof] . %= :jfeLdfg / ;;lQms/0f :jfeLdfg eGgfn] ckf+ u tf ePsf cjsf] b;sdf kZlrd]nL d'n'sx?df ePsf] JolQmx?n] k'0f{?kdf ;fdflhs ;xeflutf ;lxt cfly{s ljsf;n] ckf+utf d}qL ;+/rgfx? ;lxtsf cfÎgf cfjZostfx? cfkm}n] k'/f ug{;kmn eO{pRr ;+:yfx?sf] ljsf;n] cleefjsx?nfO{ckf+utf dgf]jn ;lxt cfTdlge{/ / k|ltli7t ;fdflhs ePsf JolQmx?nfO{3/d}/fv]/ ;]jfx?sf] pkef]u hLjgofkg ug{;Sg] cj:yfnfO{pNn]v ub{5 . o;sf ug]{Pj+ cfjthfjt ug{;Sg] cfwf/x? v8f ul/lbof] . nflu ;;lQms/0f cfjZos dfWod x'g ;Sb5 . cfly{s ljsf; / d}qL ;+/rgfx?sf sf/0f ckf+utf k'g:yf{kgf / o; ;+u ;DjlGw ;j}sfo{qmdx?sf] ePsf JolQmx?n] pRr lzIFf xfl;n ug{;d]t ;xh clGtd nIo klg olx g}xf] . dx;'; ug{yfn] . y'k|}lbjf ;]jsf ;+:yfx? jf tfnLd s]Gb|x? ;+rfngdf cfpg yfn] . ;g !(%) sf] bzs dflg;x?sf cfjZostfx? cgluGtL x'g ;Sb5g kl5 dgf]j}1fgLs IF]qdf t cfd'n kl/jt{g g}u/fO t/ Ps hgf lj4fgsf cg';f/ tL cfjZostfx?nfO{ lbof], cf}ifwL pkrf/sf] gof+ k|of]usf sf/0f lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{;lsG5, nfvf}dfgl;s ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?df ;'wf/ s= dgf];fdflhs cfjZostf ;lxt jfRgsf nflu eO{pgLx? c:ktfnjf6 cfÎg}3/df kms]{/ Jojxfl/s cfwf/x? h:t}vfgf, kfgL, cf/fd cflb hLjg lgjf{x ug{ yfn] . ;g !(^) eGbf klxn] v= vt/fd'Qm cj:yf / ;'/IFfsf] cfjZostf Ifof/f]usf sf/0fdfq 7'nf] ;+Vofdf ckf+utf ePsf u= ;fdflhs cfjZostfx? h:t}, dfof, :g]x, JolQmx?sf] d[To' ePsf] kfOG5 eg] lj l; hL ;Ddfg EoflS;gsf] k|of]u x'g yfn] kl5 of] ;+Vof sd eof] / 3= dgf]jnsf cfjZostfx? h:t}:j dgf]jn / le8ef8 ePsf c:ktfndf jGbLsf] hLjg ljtfpg c?jf6 k|fKt, klxrfg jfWo ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{lbjf ;]jf pknJw ª= :jfeLdfgsf cfjZostfx? h:t} cfkmgf u/fpg] k|Fjwfg ;lxt pgLx?s}3/df kmsf{pg cfjZostfx? cfkm}n] k'/f ug{], Ifdtfsf] sb/ yflnof] . ;du|df cfly{s ljsf;, lbjf ;]jf cg'dfg t ug{;lsG5 ls rflxg] ;fdfgx? s] G b| x ?sf] ljsf;, tfnLd, :jo+ x] / rfx klg k|FKt eP, k/+k/fut ?kdf k'g:yf{kgf ;]jfsf lqmofsnfkx?sf] yfngL, 3/e]6 tyf k/fdz{;]jf ;j}cfwf/x? klg pknJw 5g t;y{ckf+utf ePsf !&
  • 20. ;dfrf/ ljljw JolQmx?n] pRr u'0f:t/Lo hLjg lgjf{x u/]sf dxf;GwL, ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf clwsf/ x'g]5g lsg ls ;j}cfjZostfx? k'/f eP . t/ ;DjlGw dxf;GwL nufot y'k|} b:tfj]hx?jf6 of] JolQmut :jfeLdfgsf] sb/ ub}{ ;du| k|0ffnLsf] IF]qdf cfd'n kl/jt{g g}ePsf] 5 . lxhf] cfhsf lbgdf ljsf; ;lxt JolQmut ljsf;sf cfwf/x?sf] ckf+utfnfO{JolQmsf] JolQmut ;d:of g e};fdflhs klxrfg x'g g;s];Dd oL cg'dfg / k|of;x? lg/y{s ;d:of / ljsf;sf] ;jfnsf] ?kdf lng] ul/G5 h;n] x'g]5g h'g s'/f ;+ejt ckf+utf Joj:yfkgsf ljljw ubf{jftfj/0fLo cj/f]wsf] Go'gLs/0f ;lxt ;dfj]zL r/0fx? h'g of] :tDedf pNn]v ul/Psf 5g ljsf; ;lxtsf] ;dfj]zL ;dfh cfhsf] d'Vo nIo xf] tLgLx?n] k'li7 ul/;s]sf 5g . h;sf nflu l; lj cf/ pk'Qm / j}1flgs /0fgLlt x'g ;Sb5 . ;j}eGbf r'/f] s'/f eg]sf] dflg;x?sf] ;f]rdf kl/jt{g xf] h;sf] cefjdf kl/jlt{t ;f/f+z ckf+utf d}qL ;dfhsf] kl/sNk0ff ;Dej g}5}g . ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{x]g{] b[li6sf]0f / ckf+utfsf] kl/efiffdf qmdz j}1fgLs tYox?sf] ljsf; x'b}cfPsf] ;j}n] a'emg ;lsG5 . k'j{hGdsf] kfk, b}jL>fk h:tf kIFx?jf6 ePsf] z'?jft ^)sf] b;s cl3;Dd of] JolQmsf] JolQmut ;d:ofsf] ?kdf kl/eflift lyof] t/ ^) b]lv &) ;Ddsf] b;sfdf o; ljifodf y'k|}jx;x? eP . ;g !(&* df ;j}sf nflu :jf:Yo, cNdfcf6f jf6 l; lj cf/ cjwf/0ffsf] z'?jft eP kl5 o; ljifodf yk ljsf; ePsf] kfOG5 . ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3sf] dfgj clwsf/ ;DjlGw 3f]if0ff kq, jfn clwsf/ ;DjlGw !*
  • 21. ;fxl;s k|of; JxLnlro/ k|of]ustf{nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ tl/sf JxLn lro/ k6ofpg] tl/sf != a|]sx? /fd|/L nufpg'xf]; . @= v'§f /fVg] Ps tx dfly p7fpg'xf]; . #= l;6nfO{b'j}xftn] ;dfpg'xf]; . $= l;w}dfly tfGg'xf]; . JxLn lro/ vf]Ng] tl/sf != l;6sf] 808L ;dfTg'xf]; yf]/} vf]Ng'xf]; . @= l;6sf] b'j}lt/ xft /fVg'xf]; . #= lj:tf/}vf]Nb}tnlt/ lyRg'xf];, Wofglbg'xf]; xft RofKg ;S5 . JxLn lro/ k|of]u ug]{tl/sf != cuf8L p7fpg] rnfpg' eGbf cuf8L k|of]ustf{nfO{dflylt/ p7fpg nufpg] . cuf8Lsf] ;fgf] rSsfn] dflylt/ p7fpg ;xof]u ub{5 . k5f8Lsf] 808Ln] ;fgf] rSsfnfO{ p7g dåt u5{, o;nfO{ yf]/} ws]Ng] h;n] ubf{ Xof08n tflgG5 / ;Gt'ng sfod /fV5 . tn ePkl5 tn ug]{ eGg'xf]; . @= cf]/fnf]df k|of]u ug]{tl/sf s_ cf]/fnf] af6f]df k|of]u ubf{ Xof08nnfO{ lj:tf/} ;dfTg] / z/L/ clns glhs Nofpg] o; ubf{ tfGg] dfG5] k5f8L 5f]l8b}g . psfnf] hfFbf Xof08n nfO{ b/f];+u ;dfTg] / z/L/nfO{ glhs /fVg] . o;f] ubf{ k|of]u ug]{ dfG5] k5f8L 5f]l8Gb}g . v_ clncln cf]/fnf]df cuf8Lsf] efu df]l8g ;S5 / r]o/ tflgg ;S5 . o:tf] cf]/fnf]df g3r]l8sg u'8g ;S5 . To;}n] r9]sf] JolQm gem/f]; eg]/ ljz]if ;fjwfgL ckgfpg' kb{5 . u_ 7f8f] cf]/fnf] -le/fnf]_ df r]o/ k5f8L kms{g ;S5 . To;n] z/L/ glhs NofP/ rnfbf lj:tf/} lj:tf/} r]o/ tn u'85 . #= v/fj af6f]df k|of]u ug]{ tl/sf vfN6fv'N6Ldf hf]ufP/ u'8fpg] jf ;fgf] rSsfnfO{ p7fpg] / ;Gt'ngdf /fv]/ 7]Ng] . $= l8ndf k|of]u ug]{tl/sf lXjnlro/nfO{$%Ü sf] sf]0fdf p7fP/ hfg] jf ;fgf] rSsfnfO{ p7fP/ ;Gt'ng sfod /fVg] / tfGg] . !(
  • 22. b:tfj]h %= v'6sLnf kf/ ubf{k|of]u ug]{tl/sf %=! dfly hfFbf k|of]ustf{ nfO{ædfly hfFpÆ eGg] . k5f8Lsf] v'§f /fVg] 808Ldf v'§f /fv]/ cuf8Lsf] ;fgf] rSsfnfO{ prfNg] . cuf8Lsf] ;fgf] rSsfnfO{ v'6]sLnfdf /fVg] . z/L/nfO{ glhs NofP/ r]o/sf] 6fo/nfO{ uf]lnufF7fn] 5'g] . o;n] ubf{ k5f8Lsf] 6fo/ dflylt/ hfg ;xof]u ub{5 . %=@ tn hf“bf tn hfg' cuf8L k|of]ustf{nfO{ætn hfpÆ eGg] . k5f8Lsf] rSsfnfO{ 5'b} unlt/ emg]{ . o;f] ubf{r]o/ k5f8L tflgG5, cuf8Lsf] ;fgf] rSsf p75 / v'§f k5f8Lsf] v'§f /fVg] 808Ldf /fv]sf] x'g' kb{5 . o;n] cuf8Lsf] ;fgf] rSsfnfO{tn emg{dåt ub{5 . ^= v'6sLnfx?df k|of]u ug]{ tl/sf -;fjwfgLM v'6sLnfdf r9bf lXjnlro/sf] l:ylt dfly / tn emfbf{k5f8L x'g' kb{5 ._ ^=! ;xof]u ug]{dfG5] @ hgf ePdfM rSsfnfO{a|]s nufpg] . lXjnlro/ k|of]ustf{n] b'a}xft ;xof]ustf{nfO{ sfFwdf /fVg] . ;xof]ustf{n] Xof08n / v'§f /fVg] 808LnfO{ ;dfTg] . -;fjwfgM lXjnlro/ klxn]s} l:yltdf cfpg ;S5 ._ o;f] ubf{ lXjnlro/ k5f8L tflgG5 / tn em5{ . ^=@ ;xof]ustf{# hgf ePdfM rSsfnfO{a|]s nufpg] . k5f8Lsf] ;xof]ustf{n] Pp6f Xof08n ;dfTg] . cuf8L bfFof jfFof b'O{lt/sf ;xof]ustf{n] cfˆgf]lt/sf] Xof08n / v'§f /fVg] 808L ;dfTg] . -;fjwfgM lXjnlro/ klxn]s}l:yltdf cfpg ;S5 ._ o;n] lXjnlro/ k5f8L tflgG5 / tnlt/ emfg{;xof]u ub{5 . ^=# ;xof]ustf{$ hgf ePdfM rSsfnfO{a|]s nufpg] . k5f8L pleg] b'O{hgfn] cfˆgf] k§Lsf] bfFof jfFofsf] Xof08n ;dfTg] . cuf8L bfFof jfFof pleg] ;xof]ustf{n] v'§f /fVg] 808L ;dfTg] . -;fjwfgM lXjnlro/ klxn]s}l:yltdf cfpg ;S5 ._ o;n] lXjn lro/nfO{ k5f8L tfG5 /tnlt/ emfg{ ;xof]u ub{5 . lbksnf /fO{ sf]iffWoIf /f=c=d=k'=If]=sf @)
  • 23. b:tfj]h ckf·tf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/sf] ;Ddfg ub}{ ;jf]{Rr cbfnt ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;du| clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt ug{ ljleGg ;dodf s]xL eP klg gLltut Joj:yfx? g]kfn ;/sf/af6 Joj:yf eP klg ;f] sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog x'g g;Sbf ckfËtf If]qdf lqmoflzn ;+:yfx?sf] kxn sbdLaf6 gLltut n8fO{+ cufl8 a9fpg] qmddf ;Ddflgt ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] klxnf] P]g ckfË ;+/If0f tyf sNof0f P]g @)#( nfO{ 6]Sb} b]ze/ /x]sf clt c;Qm ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf nflu ;fdflhs ;'/Iff eQf / cfj;u[xsf] dfu u/L g]kfn ckfË dfgj clwsf/ s]Gb|, sflnsf–#, alb{of lgjf;L clwjQmf ;'bz{g ;'j]bL / eQmk'/ Ogf rf}s lgjf;L cltczQm ckfËtf ePsf JolQm lbk]Gb| zfSo / lj=;+= @)^* ;fn efb| !* ut] g]kfn ;/sf/ lj?4 /L6 bfo/ u/]sf]df ;f] ljifonfO{ lnP/ ;jf]{Rr cbfnt sf7df08f}Fåf/f dfggLo GofowLz tflx/ cnL cG;f/L / sdn gf/fo0f bf;sf] ;+o'Qm Ohnf;df @)^( >fj0f #) ut] d+unaf/ ckfËutf ePsf JolQmx?sf] kIfdf k}m;nf ;'g'jfO{ ul/Psf] 5 . pQm k}m;nfsf] k/dfb]z cg';f/ ug'{kg]{ sfo{x? M != clxn];Dd klxrfg / u0fgf eO;s]sf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ ckfËutfsf] cj:yf x]/L a]/f]huf/ / cfo;|f]t gePsf / j[4 ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ Go"gtd dfl;s ?= %)) b]lv ?=#))) ;Dd lgjf{x eQf lbg] lbnfpg] Joj:yf ug'{kg]{, @= klxrfg eO{u0fgf eO;s]sf zf/Ll/s ?kn] lxF88'n ;d]t ug{g;Sg] k"0f{c;Qm jf k"0f{?kn] dfglzs ljlIfKtQfsf] cj:yfdf /x]sf] cltczQm ckfËtf ePsf JolQmnfO{ x]/rfx ug]{kl/jf/ gePsf jf ;f] ug{;Ifd kl/jf/ gePsfnfO{ x]/rfx ug]{ JolQm ;d]tsf] nflu Go"gtd lgjf{x eQfsf] ?kdf cj:yf cg';f/ ?=#))) b]lv ?= %))) dfl;s ljz]if eQf pknAw u/fpg], #= ckfËutf ePsf JolQmx?sf] klxrfg, juL{s/0f / ltgLx?sf] ;du| xslxt ;d]t x]g{] u/L k|To]s lhNnfdf slDtdf ! hgf ;dfhsNof0f clws[tsf] lgo'QmL ug]{jf lghsf] sfd ug]{u/L g]kfn ;/sf/sf] s'g} clws[tnfO{ tf]Sg'kg]{, $= pk/f]Qm bkmf ! / @ cg';f/sf] eQf / ljz]if eQf of] cfb]z k|fKt ePsf] ldltb]lv nfu" 'x'g]u/L cfb]z k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] # dlxgfleq pknAw u/fpg'kg]{, %= of] cfb]z k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] ^ dlxgfleq ;dfhsNof0f clws[t lgo'Qm u/L ;Sg'kg]{, ^= pk/f]Qm adf]lhdsf] sfo{x? ;DkGg u/L of] cfb]z k|fKt ePsf] ;tf}F dlxgfleq cfb]z sfof{Gjog ePsf] hfgsf/L o; cbfntnfO{ u/fpg'kg]{ . lgb]{zfTds cfb]z hf/L ul/Psf] ljifo != ckfË ;+/If0f tyf sNof0f P]g @)#( sf] bkmf # sf] k|of]hgsf nflu lrlsT;f zf:qsf ;j{dfGo l;4fGt / cGt/f{li6ªo dfkb08 ;d]tsf] cfwf/df zf/Ll/s, dfglzs / af}l4s ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] u0fgf u/L ltgLx?sf] :t/ lgwf{/0f Pjd juL{s/0f oyflz3| ug]{jf u/fpg], @= ckfËtfsf] nflu 3/ lgdf{0f Pjd ;~rfng ug]{ . o;sf] nflu cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv g} ckfËtfsf] ;+Vofsf] cfwf/df a9L ckfËtf ePsf] lhNnf of If]qdf of]hgfa4 9+un] k|To]s jif{! ckfË 3/sf] lgdf{0f / ;~rfng ub}{ hfg'kg]{, @!
  • 24. b:tfj]h #= P]g / lgodn] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] cfwf/e"t ;'ljwfsf] ;DaGwdf u/]sf] Joj:yfnfO{ k|efjsf/L 9+un] nfu" ub}{hfg], $= ckfË sNof0f / ;'/Iff ;DalGw ;/sf/L / u|}x ;/sf/L :t/af6 ul/g] lqmofsnfk / ultljlwsf] k|efjsf/L cg'udg ug]{ u/fpg] p2]Zon] dGqL kl/ifb ;lrjfnodf / dlxnf afnaflnsf tyf ;dfhsNof0f dGqfnodf clws[t :t/sf] !–! cg'udg clwsf/L lgo'Qm ug]{ / ltgLx?sf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/ klg kl/dflh{t ckfË ;+/If0f tyf sNof0f P]gdf lgwf{/f0f ug]{, %= g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] wf/f !# -#_ sf] k|ltaGwfTds v08 / ;+ljwfgsf] efu–$df /fHosf] bfloTj / /fHosf gLlt / pNn]v ul/P cg';f/ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf nflu ljz]if Joj:yf / sfo{qmdx?sf] th'{df ul/ nfu" ub}{hfg'kg]{5 . ^= ckfËtf clwsf/ / ckfË sNof0fsf] If]qdf sfo{/t ;/sf/L / u}|x ;/sf/L lgsfox?sf] sfd sfjf{jfxLdf cfjZostfcg';f/ ;dGjo / ;xof]usf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . &= g]kfnn] ckfËtf ;DalGw dxf;lGw @))^ cg'df]bg ul/;s]sf] cj:yf ;d]tnfO{ ljrf/u/L o; If]qsf lj1x? / ;/f]sf/jfnfx? ;d]t;Fu cjfZos k/fdz{ Pjd ;'emfj lnO{ ckfË ;+/If0f tyf sNof0f P]g @)#( / lgodfjnL @)%!df ;do cg's"n ;+zf]wg / kl/dfh{g ug]{ jf gofF PsLs[t P]g / ;f]xL cg'?ksf] PsLs[t lgodfjnL lgdf{0f ug'{kg]{ . @@
  • 26. ;dfrf/ ljljw ci6fjqmM km/s Ifdtfsf] klxnf] kf}/fl0fs pb3f]ifs tyf k|jQmf /lj/fh l/dfn ci6fjqm ;+;f/sf] klxnf] o:tf] JolQm x'g. h;n] ;TonfO{h;/L hfg] To;/L g}elglbP . ci6fjqmsf] cfdfsf] gfd ;'hftf lyof] . pgsf] lktfsf]gfd sxf]8 lyof] . sxf]8 Clif p2fns gfdsf Clifsf]lzio tyf j]b k9]sf k|sf+08 lj4fg lyP . /fHodf sxf]8 ClifnfO{zf:qfy{df s;}n] klg lhTg ;Sb}gy] . elgG5, ci6fjqm ha cfdfsf] ue{df lyP . pgL cfkmgf] lktfaf6 zf:qfy{sf] af/]df ;'Gby] . Ps lbgci6fjqmn] ue{leq}af6 afa'sf] zf:qfy{nfO{e'm6 eg]+ . …1fg zf:qx?df xf]Og, cfkm+}leq x'G5 . ;To zf:qx?df xf]Og, cfkm+}leq xG'5 . zf:q t zJbsf] ;+u|xdfq xf]Ú eg]+ . Tof] ;'g]/ pgsf] lktf qmf]lwt eP . pgsf] lktfdf cx+sf/ hfu]/ p7of] . hf] clxn] klg ue{df 5, To;n] d]/f] 1fgdfyL k|ZglrGx nufO{lbof] eg]/ pgsf lktf ltnldnfP . cfˆg}k'qn] dnfO{pkb]z lbO{/x]sf] 5, hf] clxn] hlGd;s]sf] 5}g . To;}n] pgsf] afa'n] >fk lbP ls hGdb}zl// cf7 7fpFdf 6]9f] xf]cf];. To;}n] ci6fjqm gfd /xg uof] . lktfsf] o:tf] >fksf] jfjh'b ci6fjqm lktfeQm lyP . ha pgL afX jif{sf lyP . /fHodf /fhf hgsn] 7"nf] zf:qfy{;Dd]ng cfof]hgf u/]sf lyP . b]zsf ;a} k|sf08 ljåfgx?nfO{ ljz]if cfdlGqt ul/Psf] lyof] . ci6fjqmsf] lktfnfO{klg ljz]if cfdGq0f ul/Psf] lyof] . /fhf hgsn] ;ef:yndf Ps xhf/ ufO{afFw]/ ufO{sf] l;ËnfO{;'gn] df]g{nufPsf lyP . ufO{sf] unfdf lx/f hjfx/ftsf] dfnf nufO{Psf] lyof] / 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] lyof] ls– h;n] o; zf:qfy{df lhT5, To;n] ;a}ufO{n}hfg kfpg] 5 . a]n'sf xFb}ubf{{va/ cfof] ls ci6fjqmsf] lktf zf:qfy{df xfl//x]sf 5g. z'?af6 ;a}nfO{lhlt/x]sf lyP . t/ cGTodf j+bgL gfd u/]sf Ps hgf k+l8t;Fu eg]+ xfg]{ l:ytLdf k'u]sf 5g. ci6fjqmsf] lktf clxn] xf?g jf kl5 xf?g t/ v]ndf ci6fjqmsf] lktfn] xfg]{ l:ytL aGb} lyof] . o:tf] yfxf kfP/ afns ci6fjqm v]Ng 5f8]/ /fhb/jf/ k'u] . ci6fjqm ljåfgx?n] el/Psf] ;efdf uP/ pleP . cf7 7fpFdf 6]8f]d]8f] zl// / cgf}7f] rfn b]v]/ ;efdf ePsf ljåfgx? xfF:g yfn] . o:tf] b]v]/ ci6fjqm pkl:yt JolQmx? k|lt emghf]8n] xfF:g yfn] . /fhf hgsn] eg+] c? ;a}xfF;]sf] sf/0f dn} ae'm+] t/ afa' ltdL xf:g'sf] sf/0f s] xf] < ci6fjqmn] eg]+– of] rdf/x?sf] ;efdf ;Tosf] lg0fo{eO{/x]sf] 5 . dnfO{cfZro{nflu/x]sf] 5 sL lo rdf/x? oxfF s] ul//x]sf 5g< ci6fjqmsf] o:tf] s'/f ;'g]/ ;f/f ;ef cjfseof] . rf/}lt/ ;Ggf6f 5fof] . /fhf hgs :jo+ klg ;Gg eP . pgn] ;f]w– ltd|f] dtna s] xf] < ] ci6fjqmn] hjfkm lbP– l;wf s'/f logLx? df;' dfq b]V5g, dnfO{ b]Vb}gg . To;}n] logLx? rdf/ dfq x'g. pgLx? dh:tf] l;wf;fbf dfG5] b]Vb}gg pgLx? d]/f] 6]8f]d]8f] zl// dfq b]Vb5g. /fhgÛ s] dlGb/ 6]9f] x'b}df cfsfz 6]8f] x'G5 . 3}6f] k'm6b}df s] cfsfz k'm65 < cfsfz t @$
  • 27. ;dfrf/ ljljw lglj{sf/ 5 . d]/f]] zl// 6]9f]d]9f] x'Fb}df d t 6]9f]d]9f] 5g}gLF . d]/f] leq h] 5, To;nfO{ b]Vg'k5{ d]/f] zl//nfO{ b]v/, d]/f] xf8, 5fnf / df;'nfO{ x]// hf] xfF:5 Tof] rdf/ geP sf] xf] t < eg]/ k|Zg u/] . ] ] jf:tjdf ci6fjqmn] /fhf hgssf] zf:qfy{;efdf cfk'm cf7 7fpFdf 6]9f]d]9f] z/L/ ePsf] ci6fjqm -cfhsf] cfw'lgs cjwf/0ff cg';f/ zf/Ll/s ckfËtf ePsf] JolQm_ ePsf] / cfk"mleq lglxt km/s IfdtfnfO{lrGg g;s]sf]df ljåfgx?sf] ;efnfO{ xf8, 5fnf / df;'sf] af/]df dfq tf}ng], To;sf] af/]df dfq hfg]sf rdf/x?sf] ;ef eg]/ /fhf ;dIf cfˆgf] s'/f lgle{stfsf ;fy /fv] . o;/L ci6fjqmn] cfk"m leq lglxt km/s IfdtfnfO{pb3f]if u/] . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmdf lglxt km/s IfdtfnfO {a‰g' kg{] g ls xf8, 5fnf, df;'nfO{dfq tf}n]/, x]/]/ ul/g] cdfgjLo Jojxf/sf] af/]df /fhf hgsn] cfof]hgf u/]sf] ljåfgx?sf] ;efdf k|ltjfb u/] . zfl:qo ljåfgx?sf] ljåtf dfyL k|Zg lrGx nufO{lbP . cfˆgf afa'nfO{zf:qfy{df lhtfpg ci6fjqmn] dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u k'¥ofP . Tolt dfq xf]O{g ls pgn] /fhf hgssf] ;a}bfz{lgs lh1f;fx?sf] ;dfwfg klg ul/lbP / /fhf hgssf] u'? aGg klg ;kmn eO{ci6fjqmn] cfk"m leq /x]sf] Ifdtfsf] k'li6 ul/lbP . ci6fjqmn] /fhf hgssf] ;efdf cfˆgf] aflx/L z/L/ x]/]/ xFf:g,] lvl;6ofO{ug{] slyt ljåfgx?sf] ljåtfnfO{k/flht dfq u/]ggls pgn] cfk'mleq cGt{lglxt km/s Ifdtf ;d]t k|bz{g ul/ kl08t j+bgL;Fu ePsf] zf:qfy{dfk/fhosf] glhs k'lu/x]sf cfˆgf] lktfnfO{zf:qfy{lhtfP . ci6fjqmn] cfk"mleq cyf{tcfkmgf] zf/Ll/s ckfËtf eGbf k/ /x]sf] km/s Ifdtfsf] kb|z{g ul/ jiff{}bl]vsf /fHodf sxlnPsf zfl:qo kl08tx?nfO{/fhf hgssf] ;efdf g} nlHht agfO{lbP . h] u/] cfˆgf] Ifdtfsf] pb3f]if u/] / cfˆgf ] km/s Ifdtfsf ] kb|z{g u/] . kf}/fl0fs syfdf cfpg] of] k|;Ë ckfËtf ePsf] JolQmdf lglxt km/s Ifdtfsf] k|bz{gsf] Pp6f /fd|f] b[i6fGt xf] . of] ;To 36gfsf] ?kdf Clif ci6fjqm / syfsf] ?kdf o;sf]] /rgf ug{] Clif b'a} ckfËtf ePsf JolQmsf] km/s Ifdtfsf hfgsf/ dxfg JolQmx? xg' . xfdL k"jL{o wd{bz{g sf cg'ofoLx?n] o; k|lt uf}/j jf]w ub{} ckfËtf ePsf] JolQmsf] km/s Ifdtf k|j4g{df tg, dg / jrgn] s[t;+slNkt eO{ lqmoflzn eO{/xg] c7f]6 / k|ltj4tf Jojxf/af6 k'li6 ug'{kb{5 . ci6fjqmg} ckfËtf ePsf JolQmsf] km/s Ifdtf klxrfg ul/ pb3f]if ug{] klxnf] km/s Ifdtfsf pb3f]ifs tyf k|jQmf x'geGg] tYonfO{ xfdL ;a} k|s[ltsf ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?n] ckgTjaf]w / uf}/jjf]w u/f+}.
  • 28. ;dfrf/ ljljw l;=lj=cf/= sfo{qmdaf6 df]/Ë lhNnfsf] ckfËtf Joj:yfkgdf 7'nf] km8sf] /fh]Gbbxfn lkmN8 ;+of]hs /f=c=d=k"=If]=sf= la/f6gu/ df]/Ë lhNnfsf] ^% j6} uflj;x?nfO{ nlIftu/L /f=c=d=g]=k"=If]=sf=lj/f6gu/n] Pg=Pn=cf/= lj/f6gu/sf] ;fem]bfl/tfdf ;g@)!) af6 # aif]{ kfO{n6 kl/of]hgfsf] ?kdf ;'? ul/Psf] ljz]if df]/Ë ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g{:yfkgf sfo{qmd n] b'O{ jif{s} cjlwdf $$ cf]6f uflj;x?df kl/of]hgfsf] ;kmn sfof{Gjog ug{;ls df]/Ë lhnnfsf] ckfËtf Joj:yfkgdf 7'nf] km8sf] dfg{ ;kmn ePsf] 5 . cfh eGbf b'O{ jif{ cufl8sf] df]/Ë lhNnfsf] ckfËtfsf] cj:yfnfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] df]/Ë lhNnfdf ( cf]6f lhNnf :tl/o l8lkcf]x? ePtf klg :yflgo :t/sf] ckfËtf d'4fnfO nlIft u/L :ki6 sfo{qmdx? gePsf sf/0f ckfËtf ;DalGe r]tgfsf] :t/ sd ePsf] ;dfhdf ckfËtfsf] cj:yfnfO{ ljleGg cj}1flgs ts{ / cfIf]kx? nufOg] ul/Gyof] . sltko dflg;n] ckfËtfsf] cj:yf ePsf] dflg; k"0f{dfgj xf]Og elg cdfgljo Jojxf/ ub{y] . ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?sf] s f / 0 f a f 6 3/kl/jf/sf] ;fdflhs k|lti7f Ifo x'G5 eGg] gs/fTds ;f] r lyof] . t;y{ M k l / j f / s } ;b:ox?n] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ 3/leq} n' s fP/, afw]/ jf cGo si7 lbP/ /fv]sf pbfx/0fx? k|z:t} e]l6Gy] . csf{lt/ /fHo nufot cGo lgsfox?n] ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ gLltut ?kdf k|bfg ug'{kg]{ lzIff, :jf:Yo, ljljsf]kfh{g, cfwf/e't dfgj clwsf/sf ;]jfx? tyf k'g{:yfkgfhGo ;]jf ;'ljwfx?sf] ljt/0fdf tl/sf, 1fg / ;]jfk|bfosx? ljr tfnd]n gePsf sf/0f To:tf gLltut ;]jf / ;'lawfx?af6 6f9f g} a:g'kg]{ cj:yf lyof] . h'g s'/f Pg=Pn=cf/=lj/f6gu/n] df]/Ë lhNnfsf] !^ cf]6f uflj;x?df u/]sf] gd'gf ;j]{If0fn] klg b]vfPsf] 5 . of] ;j]{If0fs} cfwf/df ljBdfg ckfËtf d'4fx?nfO{ lrb}}{–# aif{leq} df]/udf ckfutf Joj:yfkg ug]{ pRr kl/sNkgfsf ;fy
  • 29. ;dfrf/ ljljw kfOn6 kl/of]hgf lgdf{0f u/L /fli6o ckfu dxf;+3 lj/f6gu/ d'Vo sfof{Gjogstf{ /xg] u/L ;d'bfo :t/df ckfutf ;DalGw sfd ug]{ ;+:yfx? l;ljcf/ la/f6gu/ / g]kfn s'i7/f]u ;+utL O{6x/L;Fu sf] kf6{g/;Lkdf of] kl/of]hgf ;+rfn eO{/x]sf] 5.df]/u+ lhNnfsf] ^% cf]6f uflj;x? nfO{ tLg cf]6f kf6{g/x?ljr @@÷@@ cf]6f efudf kg]{ ul/ uflj;x?sf] efu aG8f u/L sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug]{ /0fgLlt cg'?k sfo{qmdx? cuf8L a9fOPsf] ePtf klg /fli6o ckfu dxf;+3 n] g}d'Vo e'ldsf lgjf{x u/L lhDd]jf/L cg'?k cuf8L al9/x]sf 5 . df]/Ë lhNnfdf k'g{:yfkgfhGo ;]jfx?sf] yfngL ul/ ax'klIfo dfWodaf6 o;sf] pkof]u ug]{ ljif]z pb]Zosf ;fy of] kl/of]hgfsf] ;fdGo pb]Zox?df s=;fd'bflos lqmofsnfkx?df ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] cGt{lqmofTds ;xeflutfsf] ;'lglZrt ug]{ , v=cGo gful/s ;/x ;d'bfodf ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?nfO{;dfg clwsf/sf] k|Tofe'lt u/fpg] /x]sf] lyof] . kl/of]hgf ;+rfng eO{;s]sf uflj;x?df at{dfg ;dodf ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;fdflhs kl/rfngdf Ifdtf a[l4 x'g', ;/sf/L gLlt lgodx?sf] lj:tf/}sfof{Gjog x'gyfNg', lzIff, :jf:Yo / lhljsf]kh{g h:tf If]qx?df kx'r a[l4 x'g' cflb pknlAwx? k|fKt x'gyfln;s]sf 5g . ljz]if df]/Ë ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g{:yfkgf sfo{qmd dfkm{t :yflgo :t/sf] ckf+utf Joj:yfkgsf If]qdf lgDg pknlAwx? k|fKt eO{;s]sf 5gM != $$ cf]6f uflj;x?df uflj; :tl/o ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx?sf] ;d'x -l8lkcf]_ u7g eO{$)) hlt ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx? ckf+utf ;jfndf ;r]t / lqmoflzn 5g. @= #% hgf hlt ckf+utf ePsf JolQmx? uflj; :tl/o ljleGg ;ldlt / ;d'x?df cfa4 eO{lqmoflzn /x]sf 5g. #= #) cf]6f uflj;x?df s'i7 k|efljt ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?sf] :jodx]/rfx ;d'x u7geO{:jod x]/rfx ;DalGw ultljlw / s]lx AolQmx?n] lhljsf]kfh{g sf sfo{x? ;+rfng ul//x]sf 5g. $= $) hgf eGbf w]/}ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?n] b}lgs cfocfh{gd'ns Joj;fo ul//x]sf 5g. %= kl/of]hgf nlIft uflj;x?df !)) k|ltztdf :yflgo :t/sf] jh]6 ljlgof]hg x'g yfn]sf] 5 . ^= df]/Ë lhNnfsf] hDdf ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx? dWo] ^) k|ltzt eGbf w]/}n] ckf+utf kl/ro kq kfO{;s]sf 5g. &= $) k|ltzt hlt ckf+utf d'4f :ylgo :t/dfg}sfof{Gjog x'g yfn]sf 5g. *= df]/Ë lhNnfsf] hDdf ;fd'bflos ljBfnox? dWo] %) k|ltzt eGbf w]/};fd'bflos ljbfnosf k|=c= x? ;dfj]zL lzIff df k|fljlws 1fg xfl;n u/L ckf+utf afnaflnsfx?sf] Ifdtf, cfjZostf / rfxgf cg'?ksf] lzIf0f k|0ffnL ljsf; ug{k|ltj4 ePsf 5g. (= ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ;d'bfo :t/df xs clwsf/ / sfg'gL ;]jfx?sf] ;'lglZrttfsf nfuL !% cf]6f uflj; :tl/o l8lkcf]sf] k|ltlglwTj /xg] ul/ $ cf]6f Onfsf :tl/o ;+hfn u7g eO{q}dfl;s ?kdf ;d'bfo :t/df ckf+utf ;DalGw r]tgf d'ns 5nkmn uf]li7 / cfjZostf cg';f/ ckf+utf d'4fdf nljË, jsfnt / kxnsbld
  • 30. ;dfrf/ ljljw h:tf sfo{x? x'gyfn]sf]] 5 . !)= clwsf+; uflj;x?sf cfd ;d'bfon] ckf+utf Joj:yfkgsfnfuL lrlsT;sLo cjwf/0fdf ;'wf/ u/L clwsf/df cfwf/Lt cjwf/0ff nfO{c+ufNg yfn]sf 5g. !!= :yflgo :t/ b]lv lhNnf tx ;Ddsf ckf+utfsf d'4f, ultltlw / gLlt sfof{Gjog h:tf ckf+utf Aoj:yfkgsf If]qdf 5nkmn ug{sf nfuL df]/Ë lhNnfsf ;Dk'0f{;/sf/L sfof{no , ckf+utf If]qdf ;xof]u ug]{/fli6«o ÷cGt{/fli6«o bft[ lgsfox? / lhNnf :tl/o l8lkcf] x? ljrsf] lhNnf ckf+utf Jo:yfkg tyf ;dGjo ;ldlt u7g ul/ q}dfl;s ?kdf ldl6Ë tyf 5nkmn x'gyfn]sf] 5 . !@=ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx? nfO{cfktsflng ;xof]u, zf}lIfs tyf ;xfos ;fdu|L ;xof]u sf nfuL Ps4f/ k|0ffnL 4f/f sf]if :yfkgf y/L lhnnf ckf+utf ;dGjo ;ldlt af6 ;+rfng eO{/x]sf] 5 . ljsf;nfO{ dfgj clwsf/;Fu hf]8]/ cuf8L a9fO{g' k5{ eGg] ljsf;sf] gljgtd cjwf/0ffnfO{ ;fy{stf t'Nofpg ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t k'g{:yfkgf h:tf sfo{qmdx?sf] 7'nf] e'ldsf /xG5 . ljsf;sf] kx'r af6 ;a}eGbf 6f9f /x]sf] ju{ -ckf+utf_ nfO{ g} s]Gb|ljGb' agfO{ jftfj/0f dfyL k/]sf] k|efjx?nfO{ d'Nof+sg u/L clwstd dfqdf :yflgo >f]t / ;fwgx?sf] kl/rfngaf6 ckf+utf Aoj:yfkgsf] ;fy;fy} ;fd'bflos ljsf;df 6]jf k'Ug] o; kl/of]hgfsf] e'ldsf ;/xlgo 5 . o; kl/of]hgf af6 k|fKt x'g yfn]sf] pknlAwx?nfO{ Jojl:yt u/L lg/Gt/tfsf nfuL ljsf;;Fu ;DalGwt ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L lgsfox? , gfu/Ls ;dfh tyf ;+rf/sdL{ / cfd ;d'bfosf] dxTjk'0f{e"ldsf /xg] ePsfn] pxfx?sf] ;xof]usf nfuL xfl4{s clkn ub{5' . cGTodf ;fd'bflos ljsf;af6 dfq ckf+utf Joj:yfkg ;Dej 5 , / ckf+utf Aoj:yfkgaf6 dfq ckf+utf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ljsf; / dfgj clwsf/sf] k|Tofe'lt lbnfp ;lsg] ePsfn] ;fd'bflos ljsf;sfdf dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg k'/ofpg] o;vfnsf sfo{qmdx?df ;a}sf] ;xof]u / ;xsfo{ eO{ o:tf sfo{qmdx?n] lg/Gt/tf kfpg ;sf]; .
  • 31. ;dfrf/ ljljw wgs'6f lhNnfsf] ckfËtf ultljwL ofd axfb'/ a:g]t cWoIf ckfË ;]jf ;+3 wgs'6f ckfË ;]jf ;+3sf] :yfkgf @)%& ;fndf ljlwjt ?kdf lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf btf{, ;dfhsNof0f kl/ifb, u}=;=;= dxf;+3 / /fli6«o ckfË dxf;+3 g]kfndf cfj4tf /x]sf] 5 . lhNnfljsf; ;ldlt wgs'6f4f/f @)^$ ;fndf ul/Psf] 3/w'/L ;j{]If0f cg';f/ s'n hg;+Vof !^**#@ /x]sf] kfOG5 . h;dWo] k'?ifsf] hg;+Vof*&(&@ / dlxnf hg;+Vof *)*^) /x]sf] 5 . ;f] hg;+VofdWo] ckfË ;]jf ;+3 wgs'6fn] @)^%df u/]sf] 3/w'/L ;j{]If0f cg';f/ ckfËtfePsfdlxnf !$)* / k'?if @)#&ul/ hDdf ckfËtf #$$% /x]sf] kfOG5 . h;df zfl//Ls ckfËtf !@#), ;'=>= tyfalx/f !@@&, :j/jf]nfO{!%!, ;'=d= !@@, dfgl;s !!*, >j0f b[li6ljlxg %, b[li6ljlxg ##^ / ax'ckfËtf @%^ /x]sf] 5 . != #%uf=lj=;=, ! g=kf= ;dGjo ;ldlt u7g @= lhNnf kfZjlrq tof/ @)^% hDdf–#$$%,dlxnf–!$)*,k'?if–@)#& #= tYofÍ cWofjlws af/Daf/ $= ckfËtf kl/rokq :yflgo :t/df 6f]nLuO{ljt/0f ul/Psf] xfn ;Dd @& j6f uf=lj=;= ;DkGg afFls * j6f uf=lj=;= -xfn rfn'df ;+rfng eO{/x]sf _ xfnjg]sf] ;+=–!*)% hgf %= ;fdflhs ;'/IffeQfsf] l:ylt -cf=j= )^*÷)^(_ k'0f{czQm @$&hgf, cfFlzsczQm ^( hgf ckfËtf 5fqj[lQsf] ;+Vof #%^ hgf ^= o; lhNnfdf ckfËtf If]qdf lqmoflzn ;+:yfx? ckfË ;]jf ;+3 wgs'6f wgs'6f alx/f ;+3 wgs'6f g]qlxg ;+3 wgs'6f ckfËdlxnf ;+3 wgs'6f af}l4s ckfËtf cleefjs ;+3 wgs'6f l;=kL= ;]G6/ wgs'6f &= ;DkGg d'Vod'Vo sfo{qmdx?M– ? l;kd'ns tyf cfocfh{g sfo{qmd -l;nfO{ s6fO{ tflnd, rslgdf{0f, xft]xf]lhxf/L, ;'O/ a'gfO{, a]tafF; tflnd d}galQ lgdf{0f tflnd_ ? tflndx?M– -g]t[Tjljsf;, k|:tfjgf n]vg, ;d'x Ifdtf clej[l4tflnd, e]6g/L ;DaGwL_ ? bIfk|fljlws pTkfbgM– -lkmlhof] y]/fkL tflnd, bf]efif] tflnd_ ? ;xfos ;fdu|L ljt/0f -wheel chair, j}zfvL, v'§f, Soflnk/ cfbL_ ? 3'DtL sf]if nufgL
  • 32. ;dfrf/ ljljw *= xfn ;Dd ;+rflntsfo{qmdx?M– ? ufFp ;dGjo ;ldltk'g{u7g ? k/fdz{;]jf ? ;fdflhs kl/rfns kl/rfng ? :jf:Yo kl/If0f lzlj/ ? ckfËtf lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt u7g ? lkmlhof]y]/fkL ;]jf ? ;f+s]lts efiff tflnd ;+rfng ? ;Nolqmof ;+rfng ? d}galQ tflnd ? ;xfos ;fdu|Lljt/0f ? Onfsf :tl/o ;dGjo ;ldlt u7g ? ;f+s]ltsefifftflnd !)= ;d:of tyf r'gf}ltx?M– (= ;Defljt sfo{qmdx?M– ? ef}uf]lns ljs6tf ? sfg kl/If0f, ;Nolqmof, ? lzIffsf] sld xol/ËP8ljt/0f ? hgr]tgfsf] cefj ? ;d'xut Ifdtf clej[l4, sfg'gL ? cfly{s sl7gfO{ Ifdtf clej[l4 ? kof{Kt ;xfos ;fdu|Lsf] cefj ? ;d'x ;zlQms/0f ckf·tf ePsf JolQmx?sf] clwsf/d"vL gf/fx? æxfd|f] cfkmg} ;xeflutf ljgf xfd|f] jf/]df ul/g] lg0f{o xfd|f] nflu dfGo x'g]5}gÆ æckfËtf JolQmut ;d:of xf]Og, of] ;fdflhs ;d:of xf]Æ æxfd|f] nflu xfd|} ;xeflutfÆ "Nothing about us without us" "Towards Inclusive, Barrier Free and Rights based Society for the Persons with Disabilities" æckfËtf c;Ifdtf xf]Og, To;}n] o;nfO{ c;Ifdtf;Fu bfFh/ k|of]u ug{ t'?Gt jGb u/f}Æ ] F æckfËtf bof / pksf/sf] ljifo xf]Og, dfgj clwsf/ / ljsf;sf] d'2f xf]Æ æckfËtf :jo+ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] dfq ljifo xf]Og j? of] t /fHo / ;dfhsf cGo ;jfnx¿;Fu} ufFl;P/ hfg] ;jfn xf] .Æ æxfd|f] nflu xfd|} cfjfhÆ "A Voice of Our Own" æckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] clwsf/ ;DjlGw dxf;+wLnfO{cg'df]bg u/f}F ckfËtf ;DjlGw ;Dk"0f{ lje]bsf/L sfg"gx¿sf] cGTo u/f}F Æ "Ratify CRPD-2006, Eliminate Discriminations" æxfd|f] n8fFO bofsf] cfu|x xf]Og , klxrfg, cl:tTj, clwsf/ / :Jffledfgsf] nflu xf] Æ æ;Dk"0f{ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿sf] Pp6} cfjZostf, gofF g]kfnsf] gofF ;+ljwfgdfdf pmgLx¿sf] clwsf/, klxrfg / :jfledfgsf] ;"lglZrttfÆ
  • 33. ;dfrf/ ljljw xfd|f] wd{df ckf·x¿sf] :yfg lzjuf]kfn l/;fn j}lbs ;gftg wd{;fj{ef}d, zfZjt / ;fj{sflns 5 . o;n] dfgj hLjgnfO{ O{Zj/OEdf k'¥ofpgsf nflu cg]s k|sf/sf dfu{x¿ b]vfPsf] 5 . hGdhGdfGt/sf cToGt 7'nf7'nf k'0o–k'~hsf] kmn:j¿k dfgj hLjg kfOg] ePsfn] o; hLjgnfO{a9LeGbf a9L ;'vl, ;DkGg, cfgGbL, ;Gtf]ifL, zfGt agfP/ k/a|Xd k/dfTdk|flKtsf lgldQ lgisfd sd{of]ub]lv p7fP/, lgu'{0f elQmk"j{s 1fgfh{g u/fP/ k/dkb :j¿k df]IfdlGb/df k'¥ofpg' g} j}lbs wd{sf], j}lbs wd{df cfwfl/t u|Gyx¿sf ] p2]Zo xf] . xfd|f j]b, pklgifb, dfxfef/t, /fdfo0f, UfLtf cflb zf:qx¿df /f]uL, ul/a, ckfË, ljsnfË cflb k|lt bof, s¿0ff, ;]jfsf] k|z:t pNn]v kfOG5 . dfgj wd{cg';f/ ;Dk"0f{k|f0fLx¿nfO{g}cfTdjtdfGg' kg]{ePsfn] cfkm" h:t}dfG5] s'g}sf/0fjz ckfË eof ] eg] To;kl| t kljq efjgfn ] ;j] f ug{' ;gftg wd{sf] cfbz{xf] . /f]uL, b'MvL, ckfËx¿nfO{l5=== l5M=== / b"/== b"/= ug{' t cdfgjLo dfq xf]Og bfgjL Pj+ kfzljs efj k|bz{g ug'{xf] . jf:OEdf j}lbs sfnsf hgtfx¿ cfTdjt;j{e"t]if' cyf{t;Dk"0f{k|f0fLnfO{cfkm" h:t}dfGb5g. j]b, k'/f0f cflbdf ckfËtf ¿kdf b]lvPsf dxfdfgjx¿ j}lbs Pj+ kf}/fl0fs ;dodf klg ;gftgLx¿ ckfËx¿kl| t cToGt kd]| , bof, pbf/tf b]vfpg] uby{] . Tolt dfq xf]Og ckfËx¿ c;fwf/0f k|ltef ;DkGg eQm, 1fgL, Pj+ dGq›i6f Clifx¿ ;d]t lyP . o:tf zlQm;DkGg, 1fg;DkGg dxfdfgjx¿ csf{sf] ;xofu] sf] ckI] ff ug{' t stf xf] stf a¿ cfkmF}c¿sf] p4f/ ug{df tTk/ /xGy] . o;af6 s] s'/fsf] k'li6 ldNb5 eg] ;a}g}cfˆg}tkf]ann], eujfg k/dfTdfk|ltsf] elQmann] clg cfˆg}k'¿iffy{¿k 1fgann] ;DkGg lyP– s;}n] s;}nfO{vf;¿kdf ;xof]u ug'{kg]{cfjZostf g}lyPg . tyflk ;a}g}k'0ofTdf ePsfn] To:tf bLg–b'MvL, lgM;xfo, ckfËcflbsf] ;]jf ug{kfpg', To:tfnfO{ ;xof]u ug{kfpg' cfˆgf] dxfg;f}efUo 7fgL To:tf ;'cj;/nfO{;j{bf ;b'kof]u ub{y] . ul/a, cgfy, /f]uL, ckfËx¿df O{Zj/s]f af; 5 eGg] k"0f{ljZjf;k"j{s To:tfs]f oyfzSo ;j] f ug{] ;a}sf] :jfefljs kj[lQ lyof] . != e/åfh – k'/f0fdf w]/}7fpFdf e/åfh Clifsf] k|;Ë cfpF5 . oL dGq›i6f j}lbs Clif x'g. oL dxfgzlQm;DkGg lyP . cfˆg' tkf]an Pj+ 1fgann] logsf] k|1frIf' v'ln;s]sfn] ef}lts¿kdf rd{rIf' geP tfklg lognfO{To;sf] cfjZostf g}lyPg . e/åfh cGwf yP . cfˆg' 1fgann] cfKtsfd ePsfn] lognfO{s'g} s'/fsf] OR5f g}lyPg; s;}sf] ;xof]usf] cfjZostf g}lyPg . a¿ cfˆg' cf>odf cfPsfnfO{s'g}g s'g}k|sf/sf] ;]jf ub{y] . d"ntM 1fgsf] pkb]z g}lbGy] . ckfË eP tfklg o:tf dxfdfgjx¿n] j}lbs o'us}, j}lbs wd{s}dof{bf /fv]sf 5g. @= bL3t{t{df – oL dGq›i6f j}lbs Clif cGwf lyP . ou' –ou' df kfkfTdf, b'i6x¿sf] klg hGd x'Fbf] /x]5 . /fd h:tf ;bfrf/L cfbz{dxfgk'¿ifs}sfndf /fj0f h:tf b'/frf/L, b'i6 bfgjsf] klg hGd ePemF}ljleGg o'udf c;n, k'0ofTdfsf ;fy v/fa kfkfTdf klg hGdbf /x]5g . bL3t{df cGwf eP klg k|sf08 ljåfg, c;fwf/0f k|ltef–;DkGg, 1fgjfglyP . t/ pgdf
  • 34. ;dfrf/ ljljw ePsf] 1fg/flzsf] pkef]u u/]/ s[ts[To x'g' t stf xf] stf wgnf]n'k, ;]jf–k/fªd'v, st{JoRo't, b'i6 :jefj ePsf pgs}kl/jf/n] pgnfO{gbLdf aufOlbP . O{Zj/sf ;[li6df s;}n] s;}nfO{ kmfn]/ kmflnFb}g, kfn]/ kflnFb}g . cfkm–cfkmg" k|f/Aw cfkm};Fu 5 . sljlz/f]dl0f n]vgfy eGb5g– Tof] kfnLsg kflnbFbFbF g}hg'g'g' Tof] kmflnG5 hf] bj}j}n ] . Tof ] kmfnLsg kmflnbFbFbF g}hg'g'g' Tof] kflnG5 hf ] b}j}jn ] .. oxL s'/f bL3{tdf Clifsf] hLjgdf 36of] gbLdf kmflnPsf Clif aUb}–aUb}gbLsf lsgf/df 5fnn] x'TofOP5g. dnfxfn] km]nf kf/L /fhfsxfF k'¥ofP5g. /fhfn] oqf lbJo tk:jL, 1fgL ClifnfO{cfkmg " b/af/df kfpFbf cfkmg' efUosf] kz| ;+ f ub{}kfng–kf]if0f u/]5g. kl5 log}k|tfkL, 1fgjfg Clifaf6 lgof]u–ljlwcg';f/ ;Gtfg k}bf u/fP . bL3{tdfn] klg cfkm" ckfË eP/ klg csf{sf] ;]jf vf]h]ggt/ c¿s};]jf u/] . #= ci6fjjm|m| – cf7 7fpdF f aflËPsf ljsnfË, ckfË ci6fjj|m Clif cfkmg' s'df/fj:yfdf g}ljb]x gu/Lsf /fhf hgssf b/af/df k'U5g. /fh;efdf 7'nf7'nf lbUuh ljåfgx¿sf] cWoIftf ub}{/fhf hgs wd{, cy{, sfd, df]If¿k rf/}k'¿iffy{Pj+ cy{gLlt, /fhgLlt cflb ljifodf 5nkmn ub}{ lyP . ;+of]un] ci6fjj|m /fh;efdf cflb ljifodf 5nkmn ub{}lYfP . ;+of]un] ci6fjj|m /fh;efdf k;] . o:tf lj¿k, s'¿k cgf}7f a|Xdrf/LnfO{b]v]/ ;f/f ;ef;b xfF:g yfn] . o;/L ;f/f ;ef;b xfF:g yfn]sf] b]v]/ ci6fjj|m klg k]6 ldrL–ldrL xfF:g yfn] . clg xfF:b}–xfF:b};efdf a:b}ga;L aflx/ lgl:sxfn] . cfˆgf b/af/df cfPsf cEofut ;efdf a:b}ga;L 7f8}uf]8fn] kms]{sf], km]l/ xfF:b}lg:s]sf] b]lv /fhf hgsnfO{lgs}cfZro{klg nfUof] clg g/dfOnf ] klg …tkfOF{ lsg xfF:g'eof] < clg lsg lxFl8xfNg'eof] <Ú egL a8f] gd|tfk"j{s xft hf]8]/ hgs /fhfn] ci6fjj|m ClifnfO{;f]w]kl5 pxfF eGg'x'G5 – …hgs dxf/fhsf 7'nf] a|Xd;ef x'G5 eg]/ a|Xdjftf{u¿F, ;'g'F eg/] cfPsf] lyP F t/ ;ef;b t hDd}rd{sf/ kf] /x]5g, To;}n] c;fWo xfF;f p7of] / xfF;]sf] x'F . o:tf rd{sf/ a;]sf ;efdf a:g' plrt 5}g egL lxFl8xfn]sf] x'F .Ú ci6fjj|msf] o:tf s'/f ;'g]kl5 hgs /fhfn] cfˆg}7'nf] a]OHhtL, ckdfg ;Dem] / oqf 7'nf Clifaf6 1fg lng'k5{egL u'¿ dfgL 1fg l;s] . ci6fjj|mn] hgsnfO{ pkb]z lbPsf] u|Gy j]bfGtsf] c;fwf/0f u|Gy dflgG5 . Tof] xf] ci6fjj|muLtf jf ci6fjj|m;+lxtf . ;a}sf] 5fnfdf a'l4 /x]5 . 1fgL, eQm, ;T;+uLsf] aflx/ 5fnf, df;' cflbdf a'l4 x'Fb}g . ci6fjj|m c;fwf/0f 1fgjfglyP . pgsf] uLtf j]bfGtsf] chfQbdf cfwfl/t 5 . hgs /fhf pgs}pkb]zn] ljb]x -z/L/sf] efg}gePsf] eP– d'Qm ag] . $= s'Ahf – oL >Ldbefujt dxfk'/f0fsf syfdf kfOg] Ps j[4f x'g. logL c;fWo elStGfL lyOg. logn] eujfg>Ls[i0frG›df rGbg ck{0f u/]sLn] eujfgv'zL eO{s's'rfdf 6]ls lrpF8f]df ;dftL tflglbP/ ;f/f z/L/nfO{;f]emf] kfl/lbg'eof] / logsf] p4f/ ug'{eof] – >Ls[i0fn] .
  • 35. ;dfrf/ ljljw o;/L k'/f0f cflbdf b]lvPsf ckfËx¿k|lt ;dfhsf] wf/0ff cToGt kljq kfOG5 . logsf ;]jfdf cfˆg' tg, dg, wg, nufpg' eGg] zf:qsf jrgx¿ k|z:t kfOG5g. o;}k|;Ëdf xfd|f dxfef/t, k'/f0f cflb zf:qx¿df ul/a, bLg, b'MvL, ljsnfË, ckfË lgM;xfo cflbk|lt s:tf] b[li6sf]0f lnOPsf] /x]5, ltgsf] ;]jfsf nflu, ;xof]usf nfu wd{df s] pNn]v ePsf] /x5] eGg ] s'/f ;+If]kdf rrf {u/fF}– != /fhwd{sf ;Gbe{df /fhf dfGwftfnfO{ptYon] lbPsf] pkb]z eg]/ eLid lktfdxn] /fhf o'lwli7/nfO{;'gfPsf] cToGt dfld{s s'/f] o:tf] 5 – s[k0ffya[4fgf+ + obf>' kl/dfhL{t+ xif{;~hgoGg[0ff++ ; /f1f] wd{pRot] . -dxfef/t, zflGtkj{…/fhwdf{g'zf;ggkj{Ú{, (!.#*_ -cyf{tu/La, cgfy, j[4x¿sf] cf+z' k'5]/ ;a}nfO{;'vL agfpg' /fhfsf] wd{ xf] ._ o;af6 :ki6 x'G5 /fhfsf] sTf{Jo xf] – cfˆgfhgtfnfO{cem vf; u/L b'MvL, bl/›x¿, ckfËx¿nfO{ljz]ifu/L :g]x, ;xfg'e"ltk"j{s ljrf/ u/L ltgsf] cfFz' k'5g' . of] wd{xf], st{Jo–sd{ xf] . s'g};f]v x}g, ¿lrsf] s'/f x}g . @= o:t}k|;Ë x]dfbL bfgv08df kfOG5 – /f]lu0ff+ kl/rof{r k't{l{dTolelglb{z]td . – bfg:j¿k k|s/0f . -cyf{t/f]uLx¿sf] ;]jf z'>"iff cflb ug'{dxfg;]jf sd{dflgPsf] 5 ._ g;Sg]nfO{;Sg]n] gu/] s;n] ub{5 < tL klg t pxL O{Zj/sf ;Gtfg x'glg . lxhf]sf] lg/f]uL cfh /f]uL x'g ;S5, lxhf]sf] wgL cfh ul/a x'g ;S5 eg] dfgjn] efjnfO{dfgj ;/x Jojxf/ ug'{wd{xf], st{Jo xf] . #= bfgkfq ljj]rg k|;Ëdf lji0f'wdf]{Q/df atfOPsf] 5 – bLgfgfy ljlzi6]Eof] bfTo++ e"l"ltldR5tf . cbQbfgfHofoGt] k/efUof]khLljg M .. -cyf{tbLg, b'MvL, cgfy cflb csf{sf efUodf hLjg latfpg ljjz ePsfx¿sf] sNof0f ug'{k5{, ;]jf ug{k' 5{._ $= kBk'/f0fdf elgPsf] 5 – bLgfGws[k0ffgfy jflUjxLg]if' oQyf . ljsn]if' tyfGo]if' h8jfdgkªu'if' .. /f]uft]{if' r o2t+ tT:oftax'kmn+ wgd. -cyf{tbLgM b'vL, u/La, cgfy, nf6f], ckfË, h8, jfdk'8s] nË8f], /f]uL cflbnfO{lbPsf] s'g}k|sf/sf] wg, cGg, ;]jf, cflbaf6 /fd|f] kmn kfOG5 . dflysf ;a}k|df0fkqx¿af6 s] l;4 x'G5 eg] xfd|f k'/f0f cflb, wd{zf:q cflbn] cem :ki6 zAbdf eGg] xf] eg] j}lbs ;gftg wd{/ ;dfhn] o:tf cgfy, bLg, /f]uL ckfËx¿nfO{ljz]if¿kdf ;xof]u ug'{, ;]jf ug,{' logsf] bM'v x6fpg' eg]/ dfgj wd{df ;dfj]z u/]sf 5g. x'g klg xf] x'g]n] gx'g]nfO{, af7fn ] nf6fnfO{gftfn,] csf{] dfgjtfsf gftfn] klg xfd|f] ;]jf–efjgf ckfËx¿k|lt
  • 36. ;dfrf/ ljljw hfg}k5{. olb hfFb}g eg] kfk nfU5, To;sf] k|folZrt ug'{k5{. o1 gu/Lsg b'MvL, u/La ckfËx¿sf] ;]jf gu/Lsg vfg]nfO{klg kljq dfq ;lsFb}g . ca lgisif{df k'u]/ s] eGg ;lsG5 eg]– bl/›fgbLot bfgd. -bfg eg]s]sf] bl/›nfO{g}lbg' k5{. cGt/fli6«o ckfË jif{sf ;Gbe{df klg xfdLn]cfkmg" /fli6«o Pj+ wfld{s k/Dk/fsf] dof{bf /fVg] qmddf klg cGwf, ckfË, cflbk|lt ;xfg'e"lt b]vfP/ dfq k'Ub}g logsf] lxtsf nflu, sNof0fsf nflu s]xL 7f]; ;xof]u k'Ug] vfnsf] of]ubfg lbg}k5{–oxL xf] xfd|f] wd{sf] dd{. o:tf–o:tf bfgaf6 xfd|f] lrQ z'4 x'G5 . wgk|ltsf], ank|ltsf], ljBfk|ltsf], z/L/k|ltsf] cledfgnfO{ lzlyn agfpgsf nflu klg xfdL nË8fg]/, sfgfg]/, vf]/G8fg]/, s'Fhf]g]/ k'u]/ To;sf ] bM'v, j]bgf x]g{] ;'Gg] / x6fpg ] pkfo ug{'k5{. ;a}sf] hLjg ;w}F g}Psgfz x'Fb}g . ;]jf g}jf:tjdf wd{xf] . –lzjd:t'–
  • 37. ;dfj]lz tyf clje]b kl/of]hgf pQd lzjfsf]6L If]=;+of]hs ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx? nfO{ ;du| ljsf; k|s[ofsf] Ps cleGg cu+sf] ?kdf l:jsf/ ub}{/fi6| lgdf0f{df plgx?sf] ;xeflutf nfO{;'lgl:rtf lbg ;Dk'0f{cfd hg;d'bfosf] ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx? k|ltsf] wf/0ff ;sf/fTds jgfpg}kg]{x'G5 clg dfq ;frf] cy{df ;dflhs ;dfj]lzs/0fsf] cleofg k'/f x'g ;S5 . olx dd{sf ;fy /fli6|o ckfu+ dxf;3+ g]kfnn] Knfg g]kfnsf] cfly{s ;xof]udf ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ;dfj]lzs/0f tyf clje]b kl/of]hgf ;+rfng ul//]sf] 5 . o; kl/of]hgfn] ljif]zt df]/u+ / ;'g;/L lhNnf nfO{d'Vo sfo{If]q jgfP/ sfo{ul//x]sf] 5 . lhNnf txdf w]/}sfdx? eP klg Plss[t ?kdf cleofg nfO{cufl8 j8fpg g;lsPsf] ljutsf] l;sfO{nfO{cfTd;fy ub}{xfnsf jif{x?df dxf;3+n] ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQx?sf] ;+oGq nfO{Aojl:yt ub}{jsfnt nfO{hf]8bf/ ?kdf cufl8 j8fpb}lgltut Aoj:yfsf] sfo{Gjogdf dftxtsf ;+oGqx? nfO{kl/rfng ul//x]sf] 5 . dxf;3n] ;/sf/L tx;u ;s[o ;dGjo :yflkt ub]{clwsf/sf] ;xh sfo{Gjogdf kxn ul//x]sf] 5 . ;dfj]lz kl/of]hgf ;+rfng eP k:rft ckfu+tf If]qdf cfPsf] kl/jt{gx? lgDg cg';f/ /x]sf 5g . != :yflgo ;|f]t dflysf] kx'r — ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] z;lQms/0fsf nflu /fHo 4f/f ljlgof]hg u/]sf] ;|f]t dflysf] kx'r sfod x'g g;ls/x]sf] cj:yfdf ;dfj]lz kl/of]hgfn] lhNnf sfo{of]hgfsf] lgdf0f{ul/ ckfu+tf ePsf ;+hfnx? nfO{ Ifdtf ljsf; ul/ nuftf/ k}/jL u/] k:rft ljut ltg jif{b]lv jflif{s jh]6 lg/Gt/ j[l4 x'b}uPsf] 5 eg] ;DjlGwt ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?nfO{sfo{of]hgfsf] jf/]df lj:t[t hfgsf/L tyf cled'lvs/0f u/fP k:rft ;|f]t ljlgof]hgdf ;sf/fTds j[l4 ePsf] 5 . h; cg';f/ xfn df]/u+ / ;'g;/L lhNnfsf ;j}uf=lj=;=x?df :yflgo ;ldltx?n] lnlvt ?kdf k|:tfj k]z ul/ sfo{qmd ;+rfng ul//x]sf 5g . xfn oL lhNnfx?df lt; xhf/ b]lv gAa] xhf/ ;Dd jh]6 ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 eg] lhNnf :t/df o; jif{ljut jif{eGbf bf]Aj/ jh]6 ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 h; cg';f/ df]/u+ lh=lj=;=n] ut jif{gf}nfv krf; xhf/ ljlgof]hg u/]sf]df o; jif{pGgfO{; nfv krf; xhf/ ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5 . @= Ifdtf ljsf; tyf ;+emfnLs/0f — ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQx?sf] :yflgo ;]jf ;'ljwfx?df kx'r clej[l4 ug{:yflgo :t/df ;+emfnx?sf] ljsf; ub}{plgx?sf] Ifdtf ljsf; u/fpg] k|of;
  • 38. :j?k ;g@))( df df]/u+ lhNnfdf !) j6f / ;'g;/L lhNnfdf !) j6f uf=lj=;=:t/Lo ;+hfnx?sf] :yfkgf / Ifdtf clej[l4sf tfnLd k|bfg ul/ ;s] kl5 :yflgo ;|f]t tyf ;fwgx?df kx'r j[l4 / ;dflhs ;xeflutfdf ;'wf/ cfpg'sf ;fy}ckfu+tf ;jfnsf] jf/]df :yflgo :t/df cfjh p7g yfn]kl5 o:sf] lg/Gt/tf lbg' k5{elg o; If]lqo sfo{non] ljleGg ;fem}bf/ lgsfox? ;u klg ;fem]bf/Ltfsf] lj:tf/ ul/ ;+oGqx?sf] ljsf; tyf Ifdtf clej[l4 ub{}xfn ;Dd df]/u+ / ;'g;/L lhNnfsf ;j}uf=lj=;=x?df :yflgo ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ub}{ cufl8 j8g] qmddf xfn ;Dd df]/u+sf $% uf=lj=;= / ;'g;/Lsf #% uf=lj=;=x?df ;ldlt lgdf0f{ ul/ kl/rfng ul//xs]f 5 . o;/L x]bf{b'O{lhNnfdf ul/ nueu !))) hgf ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQx? :yflgo ;ldltdf cfj4 eP/ k|ToIf ?kdf ckfutf Aoj:yfkgsf] If]qdf s[oflzn /x]sf 5g . h; jf6 ckfu+tfsf] ;jfndf :yflgo txdf k|fyldstf kfpg yfn]sf] 5 eg] ckfu+tfsf ljljb ;d:ofx?sf] ;dfwfgdf :yflgo ;+efnx? s[oflzn jGb}uPsf 5g . To:t}:yflgo ;+oGqsf] ;s[otfsf] sf/0f ljut b'O{jif{df df]/u+ lhNnfdf kl/ro kq k|fKt ug]{sf] ;+Vof %))) jf6 j9]/ nueu *%)) k'u]sf] 5 eg] ;'g;/L lhNnfdf klg #))) jf6 j9]/ nueu %))) k'u]sf] 5 h;sf] sf/0f ;+emfnLs/0fsf] s[oflzntf jf6 cj;/ tyf ;'ljwf ljlxg w]/} ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQmx?n] Go'g eP klg cfkgf] klxrfg ;lxt ;]jf ;'ljwfx?sf] pkef]u ul//x]sf 5g . #= ;dflhs ;xeflutf — ;dfj]lz kl/of]hgfsf] nueu % jif{sf] cjlwdf ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ;:yfut Ifdtf tyf g]t[Tjsf] ljsf;sf] sf/0fn] lhNnf b]lv :yflgo tx ;Dd ;xeflutf clej[l4 x'g yfn]sf] 5 . ckfu+tf ePsf ;:yfx? tyf AolQmx? nfO{Psj4 ug{ kl/of]hgfn] k'of{Psf] ;xof]u jf6 df]/u+ / ;'g;/L lhNnfdf ckfu+tfsf] If]qdf s[oflzn ;:yfx?sf] lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt nfO{Ifdtf clej[l4 ub}{;s[o u/fO{P k:rft xfn lhNnf :t/sf x/]s lglt lgdf0f{k|s[ofdf ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] ;xeflutfdf j[l4 ePsf] 5 eg] :yflgo ;|f]tsf] k|of]u tyf kl/rfngdf ckfu+tf If]qsf s[oflzn ;:yfx?sf] cfkgf] :jo lg0f{o jf6 kl/rfng x'g yfn]sf] 5 eg] uf=lj=;=:t/df ljleGg ;/sf/L tyf cw{;/sf/L ;+/rgfx?df ckfu+tf ;jfnsf] ;xeflutfsf] yfnlg x'g yfn]sf] 5 . xfn uf=lj=;= ,:jf:Yo :f:yf , ljwfnox? tyf :yflgo txdf ljsf; lgdf0f{sf nlfu jGg] ;ldltx?df ckfu+tf ePsf AoQLx?sf] ;s[o ;xeflutfdf j[l4 x'g yfn]sf] b]lvG5 . $= ;dfj]lz lzIffsf] k|jw{g — ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?sf] z}lIfs kx'r clej[l4 ub}{ljsf; k|s[ofdf plgx?sf] ;xefuLtf j9fpg] k|of; :j?k o; ;:yfn] g]kfns}klxnf] k6s lh=lz=sf=sf] k|ToIf ;+nUgtfdf ;dfj]lz lzIff ;DjlGw lhNnf /0flglt kq lgdf0f{ ul/ df]/u+ / ;'g;/L lhNnf nfu' ul//x]sf] 5 . ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQmx?sf] kx'r ljwfno xftf leq k'Ug g;ls/x]sf] cj:yfdf o; sfo{of]hgf ;j};DjlGwt ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;+nUgtfdf ;fd'lxs cleofg nfO{cufl8 j8fO{/x]sf] 5 eg] ut jif{;dfj]lz lzIff nfO{ ljwfno txdf sfo{Gjog ub}{;j}sf nflu xfd|f] ljwfno jgfpg] cleofgdf ef}lts ;+/rgf nfO{d}lq jgfpg] ,ckfu+tfsf] k|s[lt cg's'n lzsfO{lzIf0fsf] ljsf; ug]{,ljif]z lzIff lglt cg';f/ Pp6}dfq k|s[ltsf ckfu+tf ePsf jfn jfnLsfx? nfO{/fv]/ u/fO{g] cWofkg jf6 plgx?sf] ;flhls/0f jf6 jlGrt ePsf] cj:yf nfO{lrb}{k|Tt]s jfn jfnLsfx?n] cfkg};d'bfodf kl/jf/df jl; k9g / ;dflhlss/0f x'g] cj;/ ;lxt k9fpg] Aoj:yf ug{sf] nflu ljwfno txsf lglt lgdf0f{txdf j;]sf AoLQmx? nfO{ tfnLd k|bfg ul/ of]hgf ;lxt cufl8
  • 39. jl8/x]sf] 5 eg] lh=lz=sf n] ;dfj]lz lzIffsf] sfo{Gjogdf cToGt}7'nf] rf;f] / ;s[oftf b]vfPsf] x'bf ljwfno txdf ;sf/fTds ;+s]t b]lvg yfn]sf] 5 . h; cg';f/ 5fqj[lQsf] ;lx sfo{Gjog ,;j} k|s[ltsf ckfu+tf ePsf jfn jfnLsfx?sf] cWofkgsf] nflu ljwfno tof/ ePsf] 5 eg] df]/u+sf #%) / ;'g;/Lsf #)) pRr df=lj= tyf df=lj x?df ckfu+tf ;jfn nfO{k|jw{g ug]{kmf]sn k;g{sf] k|=c=:jod nfO{;s[o u/fO{Psf] 5 . h;jf6 ckfu+tf ePsf jfn jfnLsfx?nfO{ljwfnodf cfO{kg]{ ;d:ofx? ;dfwfg x'g] jftfj/0fsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . To:t}ef}lts ;+/rgf d}lq k'0f{jgfpg lh=lz=sf=;u ;dGjo ul/ ;j}k|ljlwsx?nfO{tfnLd k|bfg ul/ ;lsP kl5 xfn gof jGg] ;j};+/rgfx? ckfu+tf d}lq jGg yfn]sf 5g . csf]{tkm{ ckfu+tf ePsf jfn jfnLsfx?sf] nflu jg]sf ;|f]t s]Gb|x?sf] qmdz Aoj:yfkgdf ;'wf/sf nflu ckfu+tf If]qdf sfo{/t ;:yfx?sf] klg ;+nUgtf nfO{cufl8 j8fO{Psf] 5 eg] cfjfl;o Ao:yfx? nfO{qmdz x6fpb}3/ kfos ljwfnox?df d}lq k'0f{ ?kdf kl/jf/df j;]/ k8g] Aoj:yfsf] ;':jft x'g yfn]sf] 5 h; cg';f/ jf}l4s ckfu+tf ePsf jfn jfnLsfx?sf] nflu ;+rfnLt uf]u/fxf pRr df=lj=df /x]sf] ;|f]t s]Gb|sf] cfjfl;o j;fO{nfO{x6fO{;f] :yfgsf ( hgf jfn jfnLsfx? nfO{3/ kfos ljwfnodf k7g kf7gsf] Aoj:yf ldnfO{Psf] 5 eg] ;f] ;|f]t s]Gb| lbjf ;]jfsf] dfq sIff ;+rfng ul/ gof jfn jfnLsfx? egf{ul/ hfg] cfpg] jftfj/0f ldnfO{Psf] 5 . o:tf] cj:yf jf6 :yflgo txd};j}k|s[ltsf jfn jfnLsf k8g] jftfj/0f jgfpg lh=lz=sf cufl8 jl8/x]sf] 5 . %= ckfu+tf leqsf] ;dfj]lzs/0f— o; kl/of]hgfn] ckfu+tf leqsf] klg dlxnfx?sf] ;xeflutf nfO{j9fpg tyf plgx?sf] z;lQms/0fdf 7'nf] ;xof]u k'u]sf] 5 h:sf] sf/0f If]lqo dlxnf ;+emfn tyf lhNnf ;+emfnx?sf] j[l4 eO{/x]sf] 5 eg] cfkgf] ;+oGq leq klg lg0f{fos txdf dlxnfx?sf] ;xeflutf x'g yfn]sf] 5 . To:t}ckfu+tf leqsf] klg k5fl8 k/]sf] jf}l4s ckfu+tfsf] ;jfn clxn] cufl8 j8g yfn]sf] 5 eg] ;f] ju{sf] ;:yfut k|ltlglwTj / ;|f]tx? dfly klg kx'r sfod x'g ;s]sf] 5 h:sf] sf/0f ckfu+tf leq klg ;dfj]lzs/0f ;ej ePsf] 5 . ^= cjwf/0ffut :ki6tf — ckfu+tfsf] If]qdf o; kl/of]hgfn] ;'?sf jif{x?df ;/f]sf/jfnf tyf :jod ckfu+tf ePsf AolQmx?df klg /fxt d'lv cjwf/0ff sfod lyof] h:sf] sf/0f o; ;jfnn] k|d'vtf kfpg ;s]sf] lyPg t/ hj kl/of]hgf clwsf/df cfwfl/t ljsf; jf6 cufl8 j8g] cleofg ;+rfng uof]{o:n] klxn] cfkgf] ;+oGqsf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ ;kmn ePsf] lyof] ;f] k:rft ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfo / cfd ;+rf/ dfWodx?sf] kl/rfng jf6 cfd AolQmx?df clwsf/d'v ;f]r jf6 ckfu+tf nfO{j'Hg 7'nf] of]ubfg lbof] h:sf] sf/0f olxn] /fHo jf6 ;+rfnLt sfo{qmdx? klg clwsf/d'lv ;f]r jf6}{ cfPsf 5g / of] ;jfndf k|d'v ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?df ;dj'hfO{sfod ePsf] 5 h; jf6 ckfu+tfsf] If]qdf k'jf{~rndf b'|t lsl;dn] kl/jt{cfO{/x]sf] 5 h; cg';f/ lzIffdf kx'r j[l4 eO{/x]s]f 5,kl/ro kq ljt/0fdf 7'nf] kl/jt{g cfPsf] 5 , lgltut Aoj:yf sfo{Gjogdf ;'wf/ cfPsf] 5 , gof jGg] ;+/rgfx? d}lqk'0f{jGg yfn]sf 5g, :yflgo ;+hfnx?nfO{;/sf/L ;xof]u j[l4 x'b}uPsf] 5 ,ckfu+tfsf] If]qdf s[oflzn k|ltlglwx?sf] k}/jL ug]{Ifdtfdf ljsf; ePsf] 5,ckfu+tf nfO{xf]Rofpg] / sdhf]/L ;u bfHg] qmd 36]sf] 5 h; jf6 of] ;jfndf kl/of]hgfsf] ;xof]u,bft[lgsfosf] lg/Gt/ k/fdz{ / ;DjlGwt ;:yfsf] s'zn kl/of]hgf Aoj:yfkgsf] lzk tyf ;dGjosf sf/0f ckfu+tf Aoj:yfksf] nflu /fHo nfO{jl9 eGbf jl9 lhDd]jf/ jgfpb}ckfu+tf ePsf AoLQx?sf] ;du| ljsf;df s';]9'uf+ ;fljt ePsf] 5 .
  • 40. jf}l4s ckf·tfd}qL jftfj/0f lgdf{0fsf dfu{bz{g tyf ;"rsx?
  • 41.
  • 42.
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