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6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Satoru NISHIKAWA , Ph.D
Tomohisa SASHIDA, Mikiko IKEGAMI, Hajime KAGIYA,
Noriko SUZUKI, Kazuyuki NAKAGAWA
JCADR
Development & Application of
‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’
for Disaster Awareness:
“If We were Back the Day before the Disaster,
How can We better Prepare?”
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Mother Nature is not Gentle in Japan !
• Earthquakes
• Tsunamis
• Volcanic Eruptions
• Typhoons
(July – October)
• Heavy Monsoon Rains
(May – July)
• Floods
• Landslides
• Snow Avalanches
Number of earthquakes with magnitude of
6.0 or larger (2003-2013)
World
945
2
18.5%
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
22000
Casualties by Natural Disasters in Japan
Ise-wan
Tyhoon Hanshin
Awaji
Earthquake
Great East Japan
Eq. & Tsunami
6,062
4,897
3,212
5,868
6,482
22,277
How to raise disaster awareness in peaceful years?
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Call for a Nation-Wide Movement
for Disaster Reduction Actions
Self-action
Mutual-action Public-action
Self-help action by individuals, families and companies
Mutual-help action at neighborhoods and local communities
Public-action by governments
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Website for Nation-Wide Movement for Disaster Reduction Actions
http://www.bousai.go.jp/kyoiku/keigen/index.html
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Recognized
Risk
Risk
Risk
Risk Perception Gap
Actual Risk
Big Gap
Need for Developing Realistic Disaster Education
Materials Tailored to Attract Adults
Not me
Why are people Reluctant to take Preventive Action?
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
The tragic footages are not isolated
events, it may be right behind you !
(the award winning poster of the 2005 competition)
Disasters are not
somebody else’s
affair.
Do’s and Don’ts
preaching style
educational materials
do not attract adult’s
attention.
How can we motivate
individuals to take
preventive action ?
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Evolution of Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project
 Narratives are effective for communicating disaster
experiences to next generations, ie;
Inamura-no-Hi (Tsunami Evacuation Story) of Japan
Flood Mythologies around the world
 Question by Nishikawa to Jiji Press Mr. Nakagawa in 2006;
How can you media professionals contribute to Nation-
Wide Movement for Disaster Reduction?
 Answer by Mr. Nakagawa;
We can be the good interviewer, record the live stories of
disasters and hand them to our next generations.
Let’s Do It !!!
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
 Interview people who were seriously affected by a
disaster, who have responded to a disaster,
by posing the question;
“ What would you do if you were back the day before
the disaster (Ichi-Nichi-Mae) ?”
 Edit the most impressive personal stories into 200 to
600 word short stories; Add an indicative illustration
 Publish it on the Cabinet Office Disaster Management
Website
http://www.bousai.go.jp/kyoiku/keigen/ichinitimae/index.html
 Free to download and use
What is ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ ?
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Procedures for ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’
1. Interview & Edit Personal Stories
2. Publish Stories on Cabinet Office Disaster Management Website
3. Conduct Workshops
4. Voluntary Propagation through Various Channels
5. Voluntary Applications Encouraged
‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’: Application of Social Psychology
• Sincere personal stories generate sincere empathy to individuals in
similar circumstances.
• This empathy will make them be aware that they do have a possibility to
be personally affected by a disaster.
• Once they recognize this possibility, they will feel that they do not want
to suffer similarly. This will work as a wake-up call for their preventive
action.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
1. Interview & Edit Personal Stories
11
Step Standard
Procedure
Action Points & Tips
1 Identify
Interviewer
Find good volunteers.
Interviews to be conducted by 2 to 3 interviewers
2 Identify
Storyteller
Request assistance from local community centers, school PTA,
volunteer firefighters, and local shop leaders to indentify storytellers
who experienced the disaster. Include volunteer firefighters and
responders.
3 Group
Interview
Find a relaxing place. Set a voice recorder. Bring news photos and
news articles on the disaster. Don’t interrupt the storyteller.
4 Extract
Stories
Note down keywords. Try to pick up moving stories, mistakes and the
wishes they want to convey.
5 Edit Stories Edit the stories each into 200 to 600 words. One story should focus on
one topic. Correct dialects if they are difficult to understand.
6 Add
Headlines
Interviewers to agree on each headline. Headlines should be in oral
tone.
7 Selection by
Expert
Ask the disaster experts in the region to participate in the selection
process. Don’t add didactic modification. Make clear that mistakes are
mistakes.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
2-1. Stories Published by situation
Efforts made to collect stories encountered at
various situations where adults reside;
not only at home but at offices, schools,
commuting rail stations, neighborhoods, etc.
Situation Number of Stories (as of March 2014)
Home 226
Community & Neighborhood 291
Commuting and Travelling 42
Schools 19
Company ,Office & Workplaces 158
Government Offices 76
total 812
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
2-2. Stories Published by Disaster Type
Efforts made to collect stories of various
disaster types which adults encountered.
Disaster Type Number of Stories (as of March 2014)
Earthquake & Tsunami 404
Flooding, Typhoon and Inundations 271
Heavy Snow 32
Volcanic Eruption 61
Tornado 8
Stories Common to Disaster Type 36
total 812
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Landslides, It is too dangerous to flee after the event
It was like messenger from hell; woods, rocks & debris smashed into my house
(Torrential Rains in July 2009) (Story by a man in the 50s, Hofu City, Yamaguchi)
I barely escaped out of the main door, where the debris
broke in. Just outside of my doorsteps, torrents of mud
water dug the ground for 4 to 5 meters like a river, roared
noisily.
My house was new, but to my grief, I could never come
back and live in my house again.
A horrific noise like the theme music of messenger from hell blasted from the
ground. The noise was approaching and when I looked out of my window, brown
avalanche was pressing towards me. Fallen woods, numerous rocks and voluminous
debris rushed to me.
Oh! My house will be crushed! The moment I fell back, something smashed my
house, breaking noise, I was immersed up to my waist. The shattered window glass
attacked me, my leg was cut, mud water turned red with my blood.
How can I escape out? “Oh I need shoes !”, came to my mind. I snatched one of my
shoes adrifting on mud water, hardly put them on, waded through fallen sofa and
chairs, found another shoe, put it on and tried to escape out of the patio door, but
the door sill was crooked and couldn’t open.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Tsunami Survivor
I Tumbled Round and Round in the Seawater (Nankai Earthquake & Tsunami 1946)
(Story by a female survivor in the 70s, Tokushima Prefecture)
Drifting for awhile, my hand touched something like a
wood. I grabbed it. Since my feet were still wandering in the
water, my hands ached to keep hold of it. But if my hands let
it go, I would be swept away to nowhere. I I held on like
grim death.
Then dim light came. I nervously looked around to see my
whereabouts. Surprise! I was hanging onto the doorsill of
my next door neighbor’s entrance.
After the big shake, seawater surged in waves into my house. We had 4 family
members at home. They all shouted, “Hurry! Hurry!” and ran. But the waves hit us
from the back and from the side and made us so difficult to move.
The next moment, all four of us were swept away by a big wave. I tumbled round and
round as if I was put in a washing machine. My mouth was filled with seawater, almost
suffocated. Unless I can pop my head out the seawater, I will die! This is the end! This
might be my last breath! That was all I could think in the salty whirlpool.
Luckily the next moment my head popped out of the waves! Oh my goodness! I can
breathe. I am still alive. That was all I could think.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Office workers caught in a stupor by Earthquake
I felt the shake and knew that I should protect myself but couldn’t move
(Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake July 2007) (Story by a male office worker in the 40s,
Kashiwazaki City, Niigata)
I shouted again and again and urged them to move.
At last we were able to evacuate.
The shaking lasted quite long. I should have ducked
under my office table to protect myself from falling
objects.
It was Sunday, but I was in my office on the 2nd floor, working in my desk.
Suddenly shake came. I recognized that it was an earthquake, but did not expect it
to be such a big one and kept on sitting in my chair. But the shaking continued and
got bigger and bigger, and finally I was barely grasping my desk with all my might.
Since we experienced the 2004 Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, my company had
emergency evacuation procedure. We were to, put on our helmets, all the staff on
2nd floor was supposed to gather and evacuate to the outside vacant parking space.
So I shouted, “Put on your helmet !” “ We shall evacuate downstairs !”
But many of my colleagues seemed to be in a stupor, and did not take action.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Company Manager after Earthquake
The Water Leak from the Kitchen on the Computer Made My Blood Freeze
(Niigata Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake 2007) (Story by a male company manager in the 40s )
Considerable amount of water fell to the
computer room; it was mere luck that the water did
not soak the computers themselves. If they were,
we would not have been able to resume production
3 days after the earthquake. Even if the main
production facilities are safe, without network
services we cannot operate.
Since, we have decided to waterproof our
important facilities.
The first thing for me to do after the earthquake was to resume welfare services to
our employees. Since our company cafeteria was damaged, I had to arrange delivery
of 600 to 700 meals every day for about one month. Since it was summer and hot, I
paid every attention to avoid food poisoning.
Since most of our major facilities were affixed against earthquakes, we did not suffer
big damage. However our computer room was located one floor below the damaged
cafeteria kitchen. So the water leaked from the broken pipes in the kitchen to the
computer room.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
A Single facing Starvation after Earthquake
I Really Regret Unprepared Single’s Life (The Great East Japan Earthquake, March 2011)
(Story by a company employee in the 30s, Sendai City)
The Earthquake came when I was working in my office. Everything in the office
turned over and fell down. Fortunately nobody was injured in my office.
I reported to the main office that we were all safe. I informed my parents that I was
safe. I was lucky to get my e-mail messages through and felt relieved.
Then I went home to my dormitory room. It was a terrible mess! Since I am single and
living alone, I do not cook. I always dined outside or bought lunch boxes at nearby
convenience stores. My refrigerator was always empty.
I asked my parents in the countryside to send me some food. But immediately after
the earthquake, the package delivery service was not available.
So my relief food supplies did not reach me.
Supermarkets and convenience stores had empty
shelves. I nearly starved to death.
I really recognized the importance of food stockpiling.
If I was back the day before the Earthquake,
I would buy canned food.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Civil Servant facing Volcano Evacuees
We did not know whose words to believe. (Mt. Unzen Volcanic Eruption 1991)
(Story by a municipal male civil servant in the 50s, Shimabara City)
Every day, we the municipal civil servants were tending to the evacuees in the
evacuation centers all night long. There, quite often, rumors spread “On X day Y
month there will be an enormous eruption!” Such groundless rumors with no
scientific evidence will spread out immediately. Since all the evacuees are full of fear
and anxiety, once they hear a rumor “On X day Y month there will be zzzzzzz”
indicating exact date of something to happen, they will simply react like “Oh! I have to
be on maximum alert! But what can I do!” I cannot blame them for such behavior.
Actually, on X day Y month, nothing happens. But the evacuees are all afraid and
anxious. We the civil servants did not have any means to ease their unnecessary fear
caused by such rumors.
One day, a news media staff told me that the
volcano is really in a critical situation. Since I did not
have scientific background knowledge on volcanoes, I
wondered whether I should believe it or not.
I really felt that there should be a trustworthy
mechanism where all the local responders and the
evacuees can share accurate information.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
3. Conduct ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae’ Workshops
Step Action Action Points & Tips
1 Read Divide the participants into small groups of 4 to 7. Let the
participants do self-introduction, chat and small games for ice-
breaking. Read carefully the disaster experience story. It would be
effective to watch a video footage of the disaster, prior to reading.
2 Write Underline the points in the story where it was a surprise, a sorrow
and a joy. Write memos on Post-It tags and put them on where the
participant found important.
3 Discuss Group members tack tags on a large piece of paper in turn. If there
are same content tags, place them together. Classify the tags by,
things to be done by individuals, things to be done in the community,
things to be done as the society, and discuss among the group what
should be done to reduce disaster risks.
4 Present Discuss among the group and select several action points which the
group thinks important for disaster reduction, and present.
5 Act Execute the action points identified by your group and the attractive
action points which were identified by other groups. Action points
which can be easily executed by oneself, for example affixture of
furniture for earthquake safety, should be done on return to home.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae’ workbook published by the Cabinet Office
Pose a Question, What would you do in such situation?
You are a resident of a town in a valley.
Rain continued
for 3 days
The river nearby has
often overflowed
Are you aware of
past landslides of
your nearby slopes ?
No
Yes
Grandma told
me about past
landslides
Never heard
of landslides
‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae’ Episode of landslides
Yes
No
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
4-1. Voluntary Propagation of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’
 Local Governments
• Tokushima Prefecture: Anshin Tokushima Website
http://anshin.pref.tokushima.jp/bunya/project/
• Fujikawaguchiko Town: Town Website
http://www.town.fujikawaguchiko.lg.jp/ka/info.php?if_id=1814
• Shiga Prefecture: YouTube Movie
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tDmMdLOmPVs
 Companies
• Rescuenow Inc.
• J-CAST Inc.
• Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd.
http://www.tokiomarine-nichido.co.jp/world/kids/chosa/mae.html
• Japanese Consumers’ Co-operative Union (COOP)
• iTSCOM Cable TV Co.
http://www.itscom.net/safety/column/054.html
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
4-2. Voluntary Propagation of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’
 Media
• NHK Radio: aired Recitation of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ stories
in radio program on 1 Sept. 2012
• Mainichi Shimbun (National Newspaper)
• JOQR Radio: featured ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ on their website
http://www.joqr.co.jp/hodo/2011/01/
 Public Library
• Chiba Prefecture Central Library: featured ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae
Project’ website as the information source for awareness
http://www.library.pref.chiba.lg.jp/reference/pathfinder/pf_bo
usai20110317.pdf
• Wakayama Prefecture Central Library:
https://www.lib.wakayama-c.ed.jp/honkan/3tenji/6link2.html
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
4-3. Voluntary Propagation of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’
 Citizen’s Blog :Numerous Citizens are referring to ‘Ichi-
Nichi-Mae Project’ as the best methodology for public
awareness programs.
Examples of Japanese Citizen’s Blog
http://panda.sc/updates/?p=56
http://blogs.yahoo.co.jp/otenki_bosai/55685361.html
Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project is a MUST READ
Ichi-Nichi-Mae seems to be the clue for awareness
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
5. Application of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ Methodology
 Kawai Town (Nara Prefecture) launched their own
‘Kawai Town Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ to excavate
their 1982 flooding experience.
 Japanese Society for Artificial Organs applied ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’
methodology to record and inherit their Great East Japan EQ
experience.
 At the request of Fire & Disaster Management Agency(FDMA), group
of Pro-bono journalists applied ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ methodology
to interview mayors who experienced disasters and FDMA conducted
disaster preparedness top seminars for mayors.
 Jiji Press (Independent Japanese News Agency) features ‘Ichi-Nichi-
Mae Project’ as methodology applicable to children’s awareness
program and delivers series of articles for local newspapers.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Mayor regrets heavy drinking
It was mere luck that we had no casualties, Our initial response failed due to my drinking
(The Mt. Usu Volcanic eruption, March 2000) (Story by former mayor of Sobetsu Town, Hokkaido )
The response to the volcanic eruption of Mt. Usu in 2000 is often quoted as a
success story of early warning and evacuation. But it was a mere luck, I must say.
The 1977 volcanic mud flow killed one of my daughter’s classmate. This made me
serious about volcanoes and I kept insisting that our town has to co-exist with the
volcano. Our response to the 2000 volcanic eruption was a mere product of chance,
and we barely secured our safety.
Before dawn on 28 March 2000, when I was informed that volcanic earthquakes are
sharply increasing, I was heavily drinking in a local bar and was not able to rush
immediately to my town office. I was aware that Mt. Usu tends to erupt within a few
hours of volcanic earthquakes, but I couldn’t make it to my office because of drinking.
Local mayors like me have many parties they must attend, so we must
take caution. I really regret that I was in such a bad condition when I had
to cope with a volcanic crisis.
Luckily, as a result, there were 3 days before the real eruption and we
were able to manage. But I still regret why I was in such a shameful
condition on that day.
Application of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae’ for awareness of Mayors
Case study edited by FDMA Japan
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.orgMutu Sinpou 17 July2016
Shizuoka Shimbun 29 May 2016
Local Newspaper Articles Featuring ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae’
Original news text provided by Jiji Mr. Nakagawa
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
「天災は忘れた頃にやってくる」
Please visit
http://www.bousai.go.jp/kyoiku/keigen/index.html
You will find personal stories by someone who resembles your position.
The ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ episodes will not allow you to forget about
natural disasters.
Thank you !
Proverb by Japanese Physics Scientist
Dr. Torahiko TERADA (1878-1935)
who investigated the damage by
1923 Great Kanto Earthquake
“Natural Disasters will hit us by the
Time people have forgotten about it”

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Development & Application of Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project for Disaster Awareness If You Were Back One Day before the Disaster..., Satoru NISHIKAWA

  • 1. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Satoru NISHIKAWA , Ph.D Tomohisa SASHIDA, Mikiko IKEGAMI, Hajime KAGIYA, Noriko SUZUKI, Kazuyuki NAKAGAWA JCADR Development & Application of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ for Disaster Awareness: “If We were Back the Day before the Disaster, How can We better Prepare?”
  • 2. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Mother Nature is not Gentle in Japan ! • Earthquakes • Tsunamis • Volcanic Eruptions • Typhoons (July – October) • Heavy Monsoon Rains (May – July) • Floods • Landslides • Snow Avalanches Number of earthquakes with magnitude of 6.0 or larger (2003-2013) World 945 2 18.5%
  • 3. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 22000 Casualties by Natural Disasters in Japan Ise-wan Tyhoon Hanshin Awaji Earthquake Great East Japan Eq. & Tsunami 6,062 4,897 3,212 5,868 6,482 22,277 How to raise disaster awareness in peaceful years?
  • 4. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Call for a Nation-Wide Movement for Disaster Reduction Actions Self-action Mutual-action Public-action Self-help action by individuals, families and companies Mutual-help action at neighborhoods and local communities Public-action by governments
  • 5. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Website for Nation-Wide Movement for Disaster Reduction Actions http://www.bousai.go.jp/kyoiku/keigen/index.html
  • 6. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Recognized Risk Risk Risk Risk Perception Gap Actual Risk Big Gap Need for Developing Realistic Disaster Education Materials Tailored to Attract Adults Not me Why are people Reluctant to take Preventive Action?
  • 7. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org The tragic footages are not isolated events, it may be right behind you ! (the award winning poster of the 2005 competition) Disasters are not somebody else’s affair. Do’s and Don’ts preaching style educational materials do not attract adult’s attention. How can we motivate individuals to take preventive action ?
  • 8. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Evolution of Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project  Narratives are effective for communicating disaster experiences to next generations, ie; Inamura-no-Hi (Tsunami Evacuation Story) of Japan Flood Mythologies around the world  Question by Nishikawa to Jiji Press Mr. Nakagawa in 2006; How can you media professionals contribute to Nation- Wide Movement for Disaster Reduction?  Answer by Mr. Nakagawa; We can be the good interviewer, record the live stories of disasters and hand them to our next generations. Let’s Do It !!!
  • 9. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org  Interview people who were seriously affected by a disaster, who have responded to a disaster, by posing the question; “ What would you do if you were back the day before the disaster (Ichi-Nichi-Mae) ?”  Edit the most impressive personal stories into 200 to 600 word short stories; Add an indicative illustration  Publish it on the Cabinet Office Disaster Management Website http://www.bousai.go.jp/kyoiku/keigen/ichinitimae/index.html  Free to download and use What is ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ ?
  • 10. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Procedures for ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ 1. Interview & Edit Personal Stories 2. Publish Stories on Cabinet Office Disaster Management Website 3. Conduct Workshops 4. Voluntary Propagation through Various Channels 5. Voluntary Applications Encouraged ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’: Application of Social Psychology • Sincere personal stories generate sincere empathy to individuals in similar circumstances. • This empathy will make them be aware that they do have a possibility to be personally affected by a disaster. • Once they recognize this possibility, they will feel that they do not want to suffer similarly. This will work as a wake-up call for their preventive action.
  • 11. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 1. Interview & Edit Personal Stories 11 Step Standard Procedure Action Points & Tips 1 Identify Interviewer Find good volunteers. Interviews to be conducted by 2 to 3 interviewers 2 Identify Storyteller Request assistance from local community centers, school PTA, volunteer firefighters, and local shop leaders to indentify storytellers who experienced the disaster. Include volunteer firefighters and responders. 3 Group Interview Find a relaxing place. Set a voice recorder. Bring news photos and news articles on the disaster. Don’t interrupt the storyteller. 4 Extract Stories Note down keywords. Try to pick up moving stories, mistakes and the wishes they want to convey. 5 Edit Stories Edit the stories each into 200 to 600 words. One story should focus on one topic. Correct dialects if they are difficult to understand. 6 Add Headlines Interviewers to agree on each headline. Headlines should be in oral tone. 7 Selection by Expert Ask the disaster experts in the region to participate in the selection process. Don’t add didactic modification. Make clear that mistakes are mistakes.
  • 12. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 2-1. Stories Published by situation Efforts made to collect stories encountered at various situations where adults reside; not only at home but at offices, schools, commuting rail stations, neighborhoods, etc. Situation Number of Stories (as of March 2014) Home 226 Community & Neighborhood 291 Commuting and Travelling 42 Schools 19 Company ,Office & Workplaces 158 Government Offices 76 total 812
  • 13. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 2-2. Stories Published by Disaster Type Efforts made to collect stories of various disaster types which adults encountered. Disaster Type Number of Stories (as of March 2014) Earthquake & Tsunami 404 Flooding, Typhoon and Inundations 271 Heavy Snow 32 Volcanic Eruption 61 Tornado 8 Stories Common to Disaster Type 36 total 812
  • 14. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Landslides, It is too dangerous to flee after the event It was like messenger from hell; woods, rocks & debris smashed into my house (Torrential Rains in July 2009) (Story by a man in the 50s, Hofu City, Yamaguchi) I barely escaped out of the main door, where the debris broke in. Just outside of my doorsteps, torrents of mud water dug the ground for 4 to 5 meters like a river, roared noisily. My house was new, but to my grief, I could never come back and live in my house again. A horrific noise like the theme music of messenger from hell blasted from the ground. The noise was approaching and when I looked out of my window, brown avalanche was pressing towards me. Fallen woods, numerous rocks and voluminous debris rushed to me. Oh! My house will be crushed! The moment I fell back, something smashed my house, breaking noise, I was immersed up to my waist. The shattered window glass attacked me, my leg was cut, mud water turned red with my blood. How can I escape out? “Oh I need shoes !”, came to my mind. I snatched one of my shoes adrifting on mud water, hardly put them on, waded through fallen sofa and chairs, found another shoe, put it on and tried to escape out of the patio door, but the door sill was crooked and couldn’t open.
  • 15. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Tsunami Survivor I Tumbled Round and Round in the Seawater (Nankai Earthquake & Tsunami 1946) (Story by a female survivor in the 70s, Tokushima Prefecture) Drifting for awhile, my hand touched something like a wood. I grabbed it. Since my feet were still wandering in the water, my hands ached to keep hold of it. But if my hands let it go, I would be swept away to nowhere. I I held on like grim death. Then dim light came. I nervously looked around to see my whereabouts. Surprise! I was hanging onto the doorsill of my next door neighbor’s entrance. After the big shake, seawater surged in waves into my house. We had 4 family members at home. They all shouted, “Hurry! Hurry!” and ran. But the waves hit us from the back and from the side and made us so difficult to move. The next moment, all four of us were swept away by a big wave. I tumbled round and round as if I was put in a washing machine. My mouth was filled with seawater, almost suffocated. Unless I can pop my head out the seawater, I will die! This is the end! This might be my last breath! That was all I could think in the salty whirlpool. Luckily the next moment my head popped out of the waves! Oh my goodness! I can breathe. I am still alive. That was all I could think.
  • 16. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Office workers caught in a stupor by Earthquake I felt the shake and knew that I should protect myself but couldn’t move (Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake July 2007) (Story by a male office worker in the 40s, Kashiwazaki City, Niigata) I shouted again and again and urged them to move. At last we were able to evacuate. The shaking lasted quite long. I should have ducked under my office table to protect myself from falling objects. It was Sunday, but I was in my office on the 2nd floor, working in my desk. Suddenly shake came. I recognized that it was an earthquake, but did not expect it to be such a big one and kept on sitting in my chair. But the shaking continued and got bigger and bigger, and finally I was barely grasping my desk with all my might. Since we experienced the 2004 Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, my company had emergency evacuation procedure. We were to, put on our helmets, all the staff on 2nd floor was supposed to gather and evacuate to the outside vacant parking space. So I shouted, “Put on your helmet !” “ We shall evacuate downstairs !” But many of my colleagues seemed to be in a stupor, and did not take action.
  • 17. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Company Manager after Earthquake The Water Leak from the Kitchen on the Computer Made My Blood Freeze (Niigata Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake 2007) (Story by a male company manager in the 40s ) Considerable amount of water fell to the computer room; it was mere luck that the water did not soak the computers themselves. If they were, we would not have been able to resume production 3 days after the earthquake. Even if the main production facilities are safe, without network services we cannot operate. Since, we have decided to waterproof our important facilities. The first thing for me to do after the earthquake was to resume welfare services to our employees. Since our company cafeteria was damaged, I had to arrange delivery of 600 to 700 meals every day for about one month. Since it was summer and hot, I paid every attention to avoid food poisoning. Since most of our major facilities were affixed against earthquakes, we did not suffer big damage. However our computer room was located one floor below the damaged cafeteria kitchen. So the water leaked from the broken pipes in the kitchen to the computer room.
  • 18. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org A Single facing Starvation after Earthquake I Really Regret Unprepared Single’s Life (The Great East Japan Earthquake, March 2011) (Story by a company employee in the 30s, Sendai City) The Earthquake came when I was working in my office. Everything in the office turned over and fell down. Fortunately nobody was injured in my office. I reported to the main office that we were all safe. I informed my parents that I was safe. I was lucky to get my e-mail messages through and felt relieved. Then I went home to my dormitory room. It was a terrible mess! Since I am single and living alone, I do not cook. I always dined outside or bought lunch boxes at nearby convenience stores. My refrigerator was always empty. I asked my parents in the countryside to send me some food. But immediately after the earthquake, the package delivery service was not available. So my relief food supplies did not reach me. Supermarkets and convenience stores had empty shelves. I nearly starved to death. I really recognized the importance of food stockpiling. If I was back the day before the Earthquake, I would buy canned food.
  • 19. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Civil Servant facing Volcano Evacuees We did not know whose words to believe. (Mt. Unzen Volcanic Eruption 1991) (Story by a municipal male civil servant in the 50s, Shimabara City) Every day, we the municipal civil servants were tending to the evacuees in the evacuation centers all night long. There, quite often, rumors spread “On X day Y month there will be an enormous eruption!” Such groundless rumors with no scientific evidence will spread out immediately. Since all the evacuees are full of fear and anxiety, once they hear a rumor “On X day Y month there will be zzzzzzz” indicating exact date of something to happen, they will simply react like “Oh! I have to be on maximum alert! But what can I do!” I cannot blame them for such behavior. Actually, on X day Y month, nothing happens. But the evacuees are all afraid and anxious. We the civil servants did not have any means to ease their unnecessary fear caused by such rumors. One day, a news media staff told me that the volcano is really in a critical situation. Since I did not have scientific background knowledge on volcanoes, I wondered whether I should believe it or not. I really felt that there should be a trustworthy mechanism where all the local responders and the evacuees can share accurate information.
  • 20. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 3. Conduct ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae’ Workshops Step Action Action Points & Tips 1 Read Divide the participants into small groups of 4 to 7. Let the participants do self-introduction, chat and small games for ice- breaking. Read carefully the disaster experience story. It would be effective to watch a video footage of the disaster, prior to reading. 2 Write Underline the points in the story where it was a surprise, a sorrow and a joy. Write memos on Post-It tags and put them on where the participant found important. 3 Discuss Group members tack tags on a large piece of paper in turn. If there are same content tags, place them together. Classify the tags by, things to be done by individuals, things to be done in the community, things to be done as the society, and discuss among the group what should be done to reduce disaster risks. 4 Present Discuss among the group and select several action points which the group thinks important for disaster reduction, and present. 5 Act Execute the action points identified by your group and the attractive action points which were identified by other groups. Action points which can be easily executed by oneself, for example affixture of furniture for earthquake safety, should be done on return to home.
  • 21. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae’ workbook published by the Cabinet Office Pose a Question, What would you do in such situation? You are a resident of a town in a valley. Rain continued for 3 days The river nearby has often overflowed Are you aware of past landslides of your nearby slopes ? No Yes Grandma told me about past landslides Never heard of landslides ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae’ Episode of landslides Yes No
  • 22. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 4-1. Voluntary Propagation of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’  Local Governments • Tokushima Prefecture: Anshin Tokushima Website http://anshin.pref.tokushima.jp/bunya/project/ • Fujikawaguchiko Town: Town Website http://www.town.fujikawaguchiko.lg.jp/ka/info.php?if_id=1814 • Shiga Prefecture: YouTube Movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tDmMdLOmPVs  Companies • Rescuenow Inc. • J-CAST Inc. • Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. http://www.tokiomarine-nichido.co.jp/world/kids/chosa/mae.html • Japanese Consumers’ Co-operative Union (COOP) • iTSCOM Cable TV Co. http://www.itscom.net/safety/column/054.html
  • 23. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 4-2. Voluntary Propagation of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’  Media • NHK Radio: aired Recitation of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ stories in radio program on 1 Sept. 2012 • Mainichi Shimbun (National Newspaper) • JOQR Radio: featured ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ on their website http://www.joqr.co.jp/hodo/2011/01/  Public Library • Chiba Prefecture Central Library: featured ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ website as the information source for awareness http://www.library.pref.chiba.lg.jp/reference/pathfinder/pf_bo usai20110317.pdf • Wakayama Prefecture Central Library: https://www.lib.wakayama-c.ed.jp/honkan/3tenji/6link2.html
  • 24. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 4-3. Voluntary Propagation of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’  Citizen’s Blog :Numerous Citizens are referring to ‘Ichi- Nichi-Mae Project’ as the best methodology for public awareness programs. Examples of Japanese Citizen’s Blog http://panda.sc/updates/?p=56 http://blogs.yahoo.co.jp/otenki_bosai/55685361.html Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project is a MUST READ Ichi-Nichi-Mae seems to be the clue for awareness
  • 25. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 5. Application of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ Methodology  Kawai Town (Nara Prefecture) launched their own ‘Kawai Town Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ to excavate their 1982 flooding experience.  Japanese Society for Artificial Organs applied ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ methodology to record and inherit their Great East Japan EQ experience.  At the request of Fire & Disaster Management Agency(FDMA), group of Pro-bono journalists applied ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ methodology to interview mayors who experienced disasters and FDMA conducted disaster preparedness top seminars for mayors.  Jiji Press (Independent Japanese News Agency) features ‘Ichi-Nichi- Mae Project’ as methodology applicable to children’s awareness program and delivers series of articles for local newspapers.
  • 26. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Mayor regrets heavy drinking It was mere luck that we had no casualties, Our initial response failed due to my drinking (The Mt. Usu Volcanic eruption, March 2000) (Story by former mayor of Sobetsu Town, Hokkaido ) The response to the volcanic eruption of Mt. Usu in 2000 is often quoted as a success story of early warning and evacuation. But it was a mere luck, I must say. The 1977 volcanic mud flow killed one of my daughter’s classmate. This made me serious about volcanoes and I kept insisting that our town has to co-exist with the volcano. Our response to the 2000 volcanic eruption was a mere product of chance, and we barely secured our safety. Before dawn on 28 March 2000, when I was informed that volcanic earthquakes are sharply increasing, I was heavily drinking in a local bar and was not able to rush immediately to my town office. I was aware that Mt. Usu tends to erupt within a few hours of volcanic earthquakes, but I couldn’t make it to my office because of drinking. Local mayors like me have many parties they must attend, so we must take caution. I really regret that I was in such a bad condition when I had to cope with a volcanic crisis. Luckily, as a result, there were 3 days before the real eruption and we were able to manage. But I still regret why I was in such a shameful condition on that day. Application of ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae’ for awareness of Mayors Case study edited by FDMA Japan
  • 27. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.orgMutu Sinpou 17 July2016 Shizuoka Shimbun 29 May 2016 Local Newspaper Articles Featuring ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae’ Original news text provided by Jiji Mr. Nakagawa
  • 28. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 「天災は忘れた頃にやってくる」 Please visit http://www.bousai.go.jp/kyoiku/keigen/index.html You will find personal stories by someone who resembles your position. The ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project’ episodes will not allow you to forget about natural disasters. Thank you ! Proverb by Japanese Physics Scientist Dr. Torahiko TERADA (1878-1935) who investigated the damage by 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake “Natural Disasters will hit us by the Time people have forgotten about it”