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6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Linkages in Disasters:
A Perspective on Migrants Inclusivity in
Disaster Risk Reduction
Lisette R.ROBLES1, Tomohiro ICHINOSE2
1Graduate School of Media and Governance/Keio University, Japan
2Faculty of Environment and Information Studies/Keio University, Japan
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
INTRODUCTION
Trends in Reported Natural Disasters 1900-2015
(by Disaster Type)
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
INTRODUCTION
Trends in Reported Natural Disasters 1900-2015
(by Continent)
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
On Disaster and Vulnerability
• Research for a number of years has examined the notion that
some groups in society are more prone than other to damage,
loss, and suffering in the context of differing hazards (Blaikie
et al. 1994).
• Key characteristics of these variations of impact include class,
caste, ethnicity, gender, disability, age or seniority. Migrants
are among the vulnerable population during disasters.
(Thomas, D.S.K. et.al. 2013).
• Non-nationals, especially migrant workers and their families,
have often remained invisible and thus not been accounted
for humanitarian response mechanisms. (International
Organization for Migration, 2012)
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Source: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimatesmaps.shtml
Based on the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, trends in international
migrant stock for 2015 included 243,700,236 persons moving across countries for various reasons
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Total Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country, mid-2013 Estimates
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Migrants and Disasters
• Migrants (foreign residents) automatically perceived as
victims, are very often found vulnerable to disaster risks
due to certain limitations in language, civil rights, social
protection and support. However, they bear distinct
capacities to deal and respond to catastrophic conditions.
The shift of the changing times puts its spotlight for the
need to recognize their capacities; and among the
neglected resources of migrants includes their composite
set of social connections.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Social Capital in Disaster
• Natural disasters altered the geophysical landscapes,
consequentially disrupting economics, politics, and even the
existing social fabrics. In cases of large-scale disasters, people’s
relations are interrupted, causing the need to adjust social
connections to cope and advance their resilience. The catastrophes
act as catalyst to these changes that either enhance or diminish
their personal networks. (Robles and Ichinose, 2016)
• Disasters constitute as those settings where people (re)create
connections to increase their capacity to respond and recover. As
Woolcock and Narayan (2000) puts it: “It’s not what you know, it`s
who you know“. Resources are essential in addressing catastrophic
conditions, but human resources built in one’s personal network of
connections makes it possible.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
actual or potential resources
durable network
mutual acquaintance
& recognition
membership
collectively
owned capital
credential
Bourdieu, 1983
social capital
connections
individuals
social networks
reciprocity
Putnam,2000
trust-worthiness
defined by its function
social structures
actors within structure
Coleman, 1988
institutions, relationships,
and norms
social
interactions
social cohesion
it is the glue that
holds them together
The World Bank
networks of social relations
access to resources and
supports
Policy Research
Initiative, 2005
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Social Capital and Disasters
• Disasters are significant moments where human relations
take dynamic transitions. In the study of these human
drawbacks during catastrophic conditions; social connections
are noteworthy sources of resilience and recovery. Hence, it
places value to social capital –the intangible yet equally
important resource for individuals and on a larger stream, the
community relevant to disaster response, mitigation and
recovery (Aldrich 2012).
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
BONDING
BRIDGING
LINKING
(Adapted from Building Resilience: Social Capital in Post-Disaster
Recovery. Aldrich, 2012)
Individuals and localities do not
bounce back from disaster solely
through wealth, government aid or
top-down leadership but through
their neighbors, connections and
social networks. (Aldrich 2012)
Across
vertical gradients
Between
networks
Within
networks
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
MIGRANTS
RESOURCES
MIGRANT LINKAGES
Who are these agents of
linking social capital?
What roles do linking
capital assumes to
support migrants /foreign
resident in disasters?
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Disaster, Linking Social Capital
and Social Justice Theory
• Linking capital has an elective
affinity with social
justice…Justice “issues”
include social processes such
as deciding how to distribute
resources, determining the
role of values in managing
conflicts and particularly,
providing a voice for
marginalized groups in
making decisions and
resolving conflicts (Opotow &
Clayton, 1994 ; Opotow &
Weiss, 2000 in Loebach &
Stewart, 2015 ).
Disaster
Social
Capital
Social
Justice
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Linking Capital
and
Social Justice
Linking social capital advances distributive and procedural
justice that delivers tangible outcome towards disaster
recovery (Loebach and Stewart, 2015). This constitutes the
vital functions of linking social capital in instances of disaster.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Distributive Justice
Reiterating the position that migrants are part of the vulnerable
population, they too necessitate a particular set of support especially in
the recovery from the disaster.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
2011-03-11 05:46 UTC
Magnitude:
9.0 (the largest earthquake recorded in Japan)
Hypocenter:
38° 6.2′ N, 142° 51.6′ E (130km ESE off Oshika
Peninsula) Depth 24km
JMA Seismic Intensity:
[7(Max)] - Kurihara City of Miyagi Prefecture
[6+] - 28 cities and towns in Miyagi,
Fukushima, Ibaraki, and Tochigi Pref.
[6- or weaker] - Observed nationwide from
Hokkaido to Kyushu
Observed tsunami:
9.3m or higher at Soma (Fukushima Pref.),
8.6m or higher at Ishinomaki (Miyagi Pref.),
etc.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Great East Japan Earthquake
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Humanitarian Aid during the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake
• 163 countries and regions as well as 43 international
organizations have expressed their intentions to extend
assistance. (This includes general offer of assistance,
dispatching relief teams, providing relief supplies and
donations.)
• Relief goods and donations from 128 countries /regions
reached more than 17.5 billion yen in total (As of Dec
2012).
Source: List of Relief Supplies and Donations from Overseas, As of December 28, 2012. MOFA
http://www.mofa.go.jp/j_info/visit/incidents/pdfs/r_goods.pdf
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.orgMap Source: http://www.jnto.go.jp/eq/eng
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Bayanihan Kesennuma Filipino Community
The organization with 74 members
began 18 years ago. Their network
greatly helped in disseminating
information to Filipinos who were
victims of the 2011 earthquake and
tsunami.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Bayanihan Kesennuma Radio
• FMYY provided broadcasting
facilities
• One hour broadcast
• Internet radio- local and
international
• Content: Disaster experiences, safety
measures, information on daily living
• Language use- Japanese, English &
Filipino
• Started in June 2011
• Now shifted to Kesennuma Sainai
FM- local station; regular
programming-10 minutes, twice a
month
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Caregiver Training
• Certification
• 2 year project
• Previous factory workers
• Several graduates (Chilean, Chinese,
Korean, Filipino)
• Some works in senior citizen centers
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Immediate Long-term
RESOURCES
*Author-formulated diagram
Distributive Justice M*
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Procedural Justice
This instigates the core values of respect and inclusion to
which all affected parties have rights, are deemed respected,
recognized and encourage to participate (Paavola and Adger,
2006; Loebach and Stewart, 2015). It administers the
formulation of rules and policies that intends to be beneficial
to all stakeholders.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Local Government Initiatives
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
The Sendai Tourism Convention and International Association (SenTIA) initiates disaster-
relevant activities to make foreign residents better informed in instances of disaster. More
than the disaster programs, migrants are invited to participate in other solidarity activities
that can engage their better involvement in the community even prior to a disaster. This
may have been previously practiced even in other cities, but the 2011 disaster strengthened
this incentive for migrant participation in their community.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Accessible Information
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Website Features/Details (As of Aug 2016) Total (%)
Links available for Foreign Residents 47 (100%)
Available links for International Exchanges and Supports 39 (83.0%)
International Association (As available in the website) 20 (42.6%)
Living Information (Settlement) Support 46 (97.9%)
Disaster-Relevant Information (in For. Lang) 44 (93.6%)
Available Foreign language options 47 (100 %)
Languages Available:
English 47 (100 %)
Chinese 47 (100 %)
Korean 43 (91.5%)
Other languages: Russian, German, Spanish, Portuguese,
Tagalog, Thai, French, Vietnamese and Italian
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
POLICIES & PROGRAM
National Level
Local Level
*Author-formulated diagram
Procedural Justice M*
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
MIGRANT INCLUSIVE RISK MANAGEMENT
& URBAN RESILIENCE
• Tokyo Metropolitan Area
From Tokyo Statistical Yearbook
2014
• Tokyo Pop. 13,296,517
• Daytime Pop.: 15.58 Million
• Nighttime Pop: 13.16 Million
• Net Inflow
• 2,416,725 persons
• 2,161,589 commuters
• 255,136 pupils/students
• 499,042 Foreign Residents
(As of Jan 1, 2016)
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Sendai Framework
Priority of Action 1 Understanding Risk
(1.4) Building capacity to ensure
that all sectors and countries have access to,
understand and can use scientific information for
better informed decision-making
Rethinking policies to better
integrate the vulnerable
population in DRR
Urban sites remain at risk if a
definitive understanding of the
population is not achieved.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
The Linkage Capital and
the Shift in Migrant Perspective
Hyogo Framework Agreement
2005-2015
III. Priorities for action
(e) Cultural diversity, age, and
vulnerable groups should be
taken into account when
planning for disaster risk
reduction, as appropriate;
Sendai Framework for Disaster
Risk Reduction 2015-2030
V. Role of Stakeholders
(vi) Migrants contribute to the
resilience of communities and
societies and their knowledge,
skills and capacities can be
useful in the design and
implementation of disaster risk
reduction.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Summary: Functions of Linking Capital for Migrants
and the Corresponding Social Agents
Function Description Agents (Social Actors)
Distributive
Appropriate resource
distribution to vulnerable
population
Local government
(Host country)
Consular Office (Home country),
International Agencies and
Humanitarian Groups, NPOs,
NGOs
Procedural
Policy formation for
inclusive implementation
Local and Prefectural
government (Host country),
International Agencies
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
CONCLUSION
• Linking social capital transpires between two nodes, one of
which are the formal agencies that supports the
implementation of distributing resources and crafting
procedures. However, at the other end of the spectrum are the
migrants who are expected to actively participate and engage in
such activities attuned to their needs. Inclusion requires the
collaboration among stakeholders and to do so, we have to
recognize our capacities and be able to engage and be active
partners in disaster risk reduction and recovery.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
REFERENCES
• Aldrich, Daniel (2012a). Social capital in post-disaster recovery: Towards a resilient and
compassionate East Asian community. In Sawada, Y. and S. Oum (eds.), Economic and Welfare
Impacts of Disasters in East Asia and Policy Responses, 157-178, ERIA, Jakarta.
• Aldrich, Daniel (2012b). Building resilience: Social capital in post-disaster recovery, University of
Chicago, Chicago.
• Airiess, Christopher A. (2008). Church-based social capital, networks and geographical scale: Katrina
evacuation, relocation, and recovery in a New Orleans Vietnamese American community Geoforum,
39 (3), 1333-1346.
• Blaikie, Piers et.al. (1994) At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters, Routledge,
London.
• Chamlee-Wright, Emily (2006). After the storm: Social capital regrouping in the wake of Hurricane
Katrina. Global Prosperity Initiative, Working Paper 70, 38 pages.
• Cutter, Susan L.; Boruff, Bryan J.; Shirley, W. Lynn (2002). Social Vulnerability to Environmental
Hazards. Social Science Quarterly, 84, 242-261.
• Hawkins, Robert L.; Maurer, Katherine (2010). Bonding, bridging and linking: How social capital
operated in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. British Journal of Social Work, 40, 1777-1793.
• Loebach, Peter; Stewart, Julie (2015). Vital linkages: A study of the role of linking social capital in a
Philippine disaster recovery and rebuilding effort. Social Justice Research, 28(3), 339-362.
• Nakagawa, Yuko; Shaw,Rajib (2004). Social capital: A missing link to disaster recovery. International
Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters , 22(1), 5–34.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
REFERENCES
• Paavola, Jouni; Adger, W. Neil (2006). Fair adaptation to climate change. Ecological Economics, 56,
594-609.
• Putnam, Robert D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. Simon
& Schuster, New York.
• Robles, Lisette R.; Ichinose, Tomohiro (2016). Connections, Trust and Social Capital in Disaster : A
study on the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan affected residents in Leyte, Philippines. Journal of
Environmental Information Science 44 (5), 79-88.
• Szreter, Simon; Woolcock, Michael (2004). Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and
the political economy of public health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33(4), 650-667.
• United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. (2015). Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk
Reduction (2015-2030).
• Woolcock, Michael; Narayan, Deepa (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory,
research, and policy. The World Bank Research Observer, 15(2), 225-249.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Thank You!
Vielen Dank!

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Linkages in Disasters A Perspective on Migrants Inclusivity in Disaster Risk Reduction, Lisette Robles ROBLES

  • 1. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Linkages in Disasters: A Perspective on Migrants Inclusivity in Disaster Risk Reduction Lisette R.ROBLES1, Tomohiro ICHINOSE2 1Graduate School of Media and Governance/Keio University, Japan 2Faculty of Environment and Information Studies/Keio University, Japan
  • 2. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org INTRODUCTION Trends in Reported Natural Disasters 1900-2015 (by Disaster Type)
  • 3. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org INTRODUCTION Trends in Reported Natural Disasters 1900-2015 (by Continent)
  • 4. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org
  • 5. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org On Disaster and Vulnerability • Research for a number of years has examined the notion that some groups in society are more prone than other to damage, loss, and suffering in the context of differing hazards (Blaikie et al. 1994). • Key characteristics of these variations of impact include class, caste, ethnicity, gender, disability, age or seniority. Migrants are among the vulnerable population during disasters. (Thomas, D.S.K. et.al. 2013). • Non-nationals, especially migrant workers and their families, have often remained invisible and thus not been accounted for humanitarian response mechanisms. (International Organization for Migration, 2012)
  • 6. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Source: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimatesmaps.shtml Based on the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, trends in international migrant stock for 2015 included 243,700,236 persons moving across countries for various reasons
  • 7. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Total Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country, mid-2013 Estimates
  • 8. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Migrants and Disasters • Migrants (foreign residents) automatically perceived as victims, are very often found vulnerable to disaster risks due to certain limitations in language, civil rights, social protection and support. However, they bear distinct capacities to deal and respond to catastrophic conditions. The shift of the changing times puts its spotlight for the need to recognize their capacities; and among the neglected resources of migrants includes their composite set of social connections.
  • 9. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Social Capital in Disaster • Natural disasters altered the geophysical landscapes, consequentially disrupting economics, politics, and even the existing social fabrics. In cases of large-scale disasters, people’s relations are interrupted, causing the need to adjust social connections to cope and advance their resilience. The catastrophes act as catalyst to these changes that either enhance or diminish their personal networks. (Robles and Ichinose, 2016) • Disasters constitute as those settings where people (re)create connections to increase their capacity to respond and recover. As Woolcock and Narayan (2000) puts it: “It’s not what you know, it`s who you know“. Resources are essential in addressing catastrophic conditions, but human resources built in one’s personal network of connections makes it possible.
  • 10. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org actual or potential resources durable network mutual acquaintance & recognition membership collectively owned capital credential Bourdieu, 1983 social capital connections individuals social networks reciprocity Putnam,2000 trust-worthiness defined by its function social structures actors within structure Coleman, 1988 institutions, relationships, and norms social interactions social cohesion it is the glue that holds them together The World Bank networks of social relations access to resources and supports Policy Research Initiative, 2005
  • 11. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Social Capital and Disasters • Disasters are significant moments where human relations take dynamic transitions. In the study of these human drawbacks during catastrophic conditions; social connections are noteworthy sources of resilience and recovery. Hence, it places value to social capital –the intangible yet equally important resource for individuals and on a larger stream, the community relevant to disaster response, mitigation and recovery (Aldrich 2012).
  • 12. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org BONDING BRIDGING LINKING (Adapted from Building Resilience: Social Capital in Post-Disaster Recovery. Aldrich, 2012) Individuals and localities do not bounce back from disaster solely through wealth, government aid or top-down leadership but through their neighbors, connections and social networks. (Aldrich 2012) Across vertical gradients Between networks Within networks
  • 13. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org MIGRANTS RESOURCES MIGRANT LINKAGES Who are these agents of linking social capital? What roles do linking capital assumes to support migrants /foreign resident in disasters?
  • 14. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Disaster, Linking Social Capital and Social Justice Theory • Linking capital has an elective affinity with social justice…Justice “issues” include social processes such as deciding how to distribute resources, determining the role of values in managing conflicts and particularly, providing a voice for marginalized groups in making decisions and resolving conflicts (Opotow & Clayton, 1994 ; Opotow & Weiss, 2000 in Loebach & Stewart, 2015 ). Disaster Social Capital Social Justice
  • 15. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Linking Capital and Social Justice Linking social capital advances distributive and procedural justice that delivers tangible outcome towards disaster recovery (Loebach and Stewart, 2015). This constitutes the vital functions of linking social capital in instances of disaster.
  • 16. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Distributive Justice Reiterating the position that migrants are part of the vulnerable population, they too necessitate a particular set of support especially in the recovery from the disaster.
  • 17. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 2011-03-11 05:46 UTC Magnitude: 9.0 (the largest earthquake recorded in Japan) Hypocenter: 38° 6.2′ N, 142° 51.6′ E (130km ESE off Oshika Peninsula) Depth 24km JMA Seismic Intensity: [7(Max)] - Kurihara City of Miyagi Prefecture [6+] - 28 cities and towns in Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki, and Tochigi Pref. [6- or weaker] - Observed nationwide from Hokkaido to Kyushu Observed tsunami: 9.3m or higher at Soma (Fukushima Pref.), 8.6m or higher at Ishinomaki (Miyagi Pref.), etc. Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Great East Japan Earthquake
  • 18. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Humanitarian Aid during the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake • 163 countries and regions as well as 43 international organizations have expressed their intentions to extend assistance. (This includes general offer of assistance, dispatching relief teams, providing relief supplies and donations.) • Relief goods and donations from 128 countries /regions reached more than 17.5 billion yen in total (As of Dec 2012). Source: List of Relief Supplies and Donations from Overseas, As of December 28, 2012. MOFA http://www.mofa.go.jp/j_info/visit/incidents/pdfs/r_goods.pdf
  • 19. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.orgMap Source: http://www.jnto.go.jp/eq/eng
  • 20. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Bayanihan Kesennuma Filipino Community The organization with 74 members began 18 years ago. Their network greatly helped in disseminating information to Filipinos who were victims of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami.
  • 21. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Bayanihan Kesennuma Radio • FMYY provided broadcasting facilities • One hour broadcast • Internet radio- local and international • Content: Disaster experiences, safety measures, information on daily living • Language use- Japanese, English & Filipino • Started in June 2011 • Now shifted to Kesennuma Sainai FM- local station; regular programming-10 minutes, twice a month
  • 22. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Caregiver Training • Certification • 2 year project • Previous factory workers • Several graduates (Chilean, Chinese, Korean, Filipino) • Some works in senior citizen centers
  • 23. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Immediate Long-term RESOURCES *Author-formulated diagram Distributive Justice M*
  • 24. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Procedural Justice This instigates the core values of respect and inclusion to which all affected parties have rights, are deemed respected, recognized and encourage to participate (Paavola and Adger, 2006; Loebach and Stewart, 2015). It administers the formulation of rules and policies that intends to be beneficial to all stakeholders.
  • 25. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Local Government Initiatives
  • 26. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org The Sendai Tourism Convention and International Association (SenTIA) initiates disaster- relevant activities to make foreign residents better informed in instances of disaster. More than the disaster programs, migrants are invited to participate in other solidarity activities that can engage their better involvement in the community even prior to a disaster. This may have been previously practiced even in other cities, but the 2011 disaster strengthened this incentive for migrant participation in their community.
  • 27. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Accessible Information
  • 28. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org
  • 29. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Website Features/Details (As of Aug 2016) Total (%) Links available for Foreign Residents 47 (100%) Available links for International Exchanges and Supports 39 (83.0%) International Association (As available in the website) 20 (42.6%) Living Information (Settlement) Support 46 (97.9%) Disaster-Relevant Information (in For. Lang) 44 (93.6%) Available Foreign language options 47 (100 %) Languages Available: English 47 (100 %) Chinese 47 (100 %) Korean 43 (91.5%) Other languages: Russian, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Tagalog, Thai, French, Vietnamese and Italian
  • 30. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org POLICIES & PROGRAM National Level Local Level *Author-formulated diagram Procedural Justice M*
  • 31. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org MIGRANT INCLUSIVE RISK MANAGEMENT & URBAN RESILIENCE • Tokyo Metropolitan Area From Tokyo Statistical Yearbook 2014 • Tokyo Pop. 13,296,517 • Daytime Pop.: 15.58 Million • Nighttime Pop: 13.16 Million • Net Inflow • 2,416,725 persons • 2,161,589 commuters • 255,136 pupils/students • 499,042 Foreign Residents (As of Jan 1, 2016)
  • 32. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Sendai Framework Priority of Action 1 Understanding Risk (1.4) Building capacity to ensure that all sectors and countries have access to, understand and can use scientific information for better informed decision-making Rethinking policies to better integrate the vulnerable population in DRR Urban sites remain at risk if a definitive understanding of the population is not achieved.
  • 33. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org The Linkage Capital and the Shift in Migrant Perspective Hyogo Framework Agreement 2005-2015 III. Priorities for action (e) Cultural diversity, age, and vulnerable groups should be taken into account when planning for disaster risk reduction, as appropriate; Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 V. Role of Stakeholders (vi) Migrants contribute to the resilience of communities and societies and their knowledge, skills and capacities can be useful in the design and implementation of disaster risk reduction.
  • 34. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Summary: Functions of Linking Capital for Migrants and the Corresponding Social Agents Function Description Agents (Social Actors) Distributive Appropriate resource distribution to vulnerable population Local government (Host country) Consular Office (Home country), International Agencies and Humanitarian Groups, NPOs, NGOs Procedural Policy formation for inclusive implementation Local and Prefectural government (Host country), International Agencies
  • 35. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CONCLUSION • Linking social capital transpires between two nodes, one of which are the formal agencies that supports the implementation of distributing resources and crafting procedures. However, at the other end of the spectrum are the migrants who are expected to actively participate and engage in such activities attuned to their needs. Inclusion requires the collaboration among stakeholders and to do so, we have to recognize our capacities and be able to engage and be active partners in disaster risk reduction and recovery.
  • 36. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org REFERENCES • Aldrich, Daniel (2012a). Social capital in post-disaster recovery: Towards a resilient and compassionate East Asian community. In Sawada, Y. and S. Oum (eds.), Economic and Welfare Impacts of Disasters in East Asia and Policy Responses, 157-178, ERIA, Jakarta. • Aldrich, Daniel (2012b). Building resilience: Social capital in post-disaster recovery, University of Chicago, Chicago. • Airiess, Christopher A. (2008). Church-based social capital, networks and geographical scale: Katrina evacuation, relocation, and recovery in a New Orleans Vietnamese American community Geoforum, 39 (3), 1333-1346. • Blaikie, Piers et.al. (1994) At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters, Routledge, London. • Chamlee-Wright, Emily (2006). After the storm: Social capital regrouping in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Global Prosperity Initiative, Working Paper 70, 38 pages. • Cutter, Susan L.; Boruff, Bryan J.; Shirley, W. Lynn (2002). Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards. Social Science Quarterly, 84, 242-261. • Hawkins, Robert L.; Maurer, Katherine (2010). Bonding, bridging and linking: How social capital operated in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. British Journal of Social Work, 40, 1777-1793. • Loebach, Peter; Stewart, Julie (2015). Vital linkages: A study of the role of linking social capital in a Philippine disaster recovery and rebuilding effort. Social Justice Research, 28(3), 339-362. • Nakagawa, Yuko; Shaw,Rajib (2004). Social capital: A missing link to disaster recovery. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters , 22(1), 5–34.
  • 37. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org REFERENCES • Paavola, Jouni; Adger, W. Neil (2006). Fair adaptation to climate change. Ecological Economics, 56, 594-609. • Putnam, Robert D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. Simon & Schuster, New York. • Robles, Lisette R.; Ichinose, Tomohiro (2016). Connections, Trust and Social Capital in Disaster : A study on the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan affected residents in Leyte, Philippines. Journal of Environmental Information Science 44 (5), 79-88. • Szreter, Simon; Woolcock, Michael (2004). Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33(4), 650-667. • United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. (2015). Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). • Woolcock, Michael; Narayan, Deepa (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory, research, and policy. The World Bank Research Observer, 15(2), 225-249.
  • 38. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Thank You! Vielen Dank!