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6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Involving Citizens
in Planning “Green Cities”
Dr. Gisela Wachinger,
Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Ortwin Renn
ZIRIUS, Research Center
for Interdisciplinary Risk and Innovation Studies,
University of Stuttgart
Germany
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Three examples of “green” conflicts
2. Renewable energy,
wind power station1. Flood risks
2. Urban green planning (City of Stuttgart)
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Perception of values Floods
VALUE:
How do we
want to live
“Natural” or
“man-made”?
Biodiversity
“Why should I pay
anything for a species
I’ll never see in my life?”
Nature protection
“What is nature?”
Should we protect
individual species?
Or should we allow free
development of nature?
Experience,
education
“I am not
allowed to walk
on a meadow!”
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Why include lay persons?
 to increase the amount of data
 to include people who did not care before (aspect of
education)
 to make results more acceptable
 to improve the results
 to improve decisions
 to increase trust
4
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Participation in flood risk prevention
During participation processes,
people learn to trust each other
(authorities, stakeholders, the public)
Photos: Wachinger
After a participation process in flood
preparation, acceptance of non-technical
measures was higher than before
(Stanghellini and Collentine, 2008;
Slinger et al., 2007).
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Experience is a significant and strong predictor for risk perception
(Felgentreff, 2003; Grothmann et al., 2006; Miceli et al., 2008; Terpstra,
2011; Heitz et al., 2009; Siegrist et al., 2006).
Experience
Odra near Frankfurt, 2010, Photo: Gatzki
Personal experience
proved to be the most
influential factor among
many other tested
(Plapp and Werner, 2006)
6
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
A research question
Conflicts in any nature-related planning process, such
as flood prevention or green urban space planning, are
not only driven by facts and research results, but also
(and often even more so) by personal views and values.
How can we combine these views and values
with the knowledge of the experts, and make sure that
both “expertises” are integrated into the process of
planning risk prevention measures and “green cities”?
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
The traditional planning process
authorities, councils, boards: the project is conceptualized
expertise, alternatives, plans, architecture competitions
decision on one planning alternative
hearing of the concerned public
realization of the project
X
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Concept of early participation
council committee: the participation process is conceptualized
citizen participation 1: expert consultation
citizen participation 2: value expertise
expert report
decision on one planning alternative
hearing of the concerned public
realization of the project
X
X
X
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Successful participation
1. open and transparent decision options (early)
2. all stakeholders and decision makers included
3. all participants have all the relevant information
4. clearly communicated transparency and confidentiality
5. clear structure of the process
6. AND: constructive attitude of the organizers and all
participants
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
mandate by the city council
city council decision
citizen forum 1:
risks, opportunities, questions
1. When to begin?
general questions
answered by invited experts
citizen forum 2:
Recommendations on options
expertise
value expertise
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
2. Who to include?
Interessen
Facilitator
NGOs
Authorities
Politics Citizens,
neighbours
of all sites!
Planners Investor ?
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
3. How to inform?
Photo: LGA
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Working groups are confidential Plenary sessions are transparent
(mediation) (facilitation)
4. When to observe confidentiality?
Photos: Wachinger
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
5. How to structure the process?
Interessen
Photo: Wachinger
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Fotos Auftakt
Photo: Wachinger
6. Which attitude to encourage?
In participation
processes,
people begin to
trust each other
(authorities,
stakeholders, the
public)
Collentine, 2008,
Slinger et al.,
2007.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Photo: Wachinger
Summary: The value expertise
1. The “value expertise” can
complement the “factual
expertise” in a meaningful way.
2. In a facilitated environment that
gives room to sharing concerns
and values as well as facts,
deadlocked mind patterns can be
broken up, on all sides.
3. Decisions that are based on both
the “value expertise” and the
“factual expertise” are not only
more readily accepted by the
public, but also more qualified and
more sustainable.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Citizen science - participatory research
implementation
data sampling
modelling, analysing
interpretation of data
evaluation, monitoring
research design, methods,
programs
agenda setting, research questions
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Publications
Photo: Wachinger
Renn O: Stakeholder Involvement in
Risk Governance (2014)
Wachinger, G, Begg, C, Renn, O and
Kuhlicke, C. The Risk Perception Paradox
–Implications for Governance and
Communication of Natural Hazards. Risk
Analysis (2013) 33, No 6.
Wachinger G, Renn O, Wist S-K,
Steinhilber S-M and Triemer U. Using
participation to create resilience: how to
involve citizens in designing a hospital
system? Environmental Systems and
Decisions (2014) 34:208-223

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The Process of Involving Citizens in the Planning of Green Cities, Gisela WACHINGER

  • 1. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Involving Citizens in Planning “Green Cities” Dr. Gisela Wachinger, Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Ortwin Renn ZIRIUS, Research Center for Interdisciplinary Risk and Innovation Studies, University of Stuttgart Germany
  • 2. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Three examples of “green” conflicts 2. Renewable energy, wind power station1. Flood risks 2. Urban green planning (City of Stuttgart)
  • 3. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Perception of values Floods VALUE: How do we want to live “Natural” or “man-made”? Biodiversity “Why should I pay anything for a species I’ll never see in my life?” Nature protection “What is nature?” Should we protect individual species? Or should we allow free development of nature? Experience, education “I am not allowed to walk on a meadow!”
  • 4. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Why include lay persons?  to increase the amount of data  to include people who did not care before (aspect of education)  to make results more acceptable  to improve the results  to improve decisions  to increase trust 4
  • 5. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Participation in flood risk prevention During participation processes, people learn to trust each other (authorities, stakeholders, the public) Photos: Wachinger After a participation process in flood preparation, acceptance of non-technical measures was higher than before (Stanghellini and Collentine, 2008; Slinger et al., 2007).
  • 6. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Experience is a significant and strong predictor for risk perception (Felgentreff, 2003; Grothmann et al., 2006; Miceli et al., 2008; Terpstra, 2011; Heitz et al., 2009; Siegrist et al., 2006). Experience Odra near Frankfurt, 2010, Photo: Gatzki Personal experience proved to be the most influential factor among many other tested (Plapp and Werner, 2006) 6
  • 7. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org A research question Conflicts in any nature-related planning process, such as flood prevention or green urban space planning, are not only driven by facts and research results, but also (and often even more so) by personal views and values. How can we combine these views and values with the knowledge of the experts, and make sure that both “expertises” are integrated into the process of planning risk prevention measures and “green cities”?
  • 8. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org The traditional planning process authorities, councils, boards: the project is conceptualized expertise, alternatives, plans, architecture competitions decision on one planning alternative hearing of the concerned public realization of the project X
  • 9. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Concept of early participation council committee: the participation process is conceptualized citizen participation 1: expert consultation citizen participation 2: value expertise expert report decision on one planning alternative hearing of the concerned public realization of the project X X X
  • 10. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Successful participation 1. open and transparent decision options (early) 2. all stakeholders and decision makers included 3. all participants have all the relevant information 4. clearly communicated transparency and confidentiality 5. clear structure of the process 6. AND: constructive attitude of the organizers and all participants
  • 11. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org mandate by the city council city council decision citizen forum 1: risks, opportunities, questions 1. When to begin? general questions answered by invited experts citizen forum 2: Recommendations on options expertise value expertise
  • 12. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 2. Who to include? Interessen Facilitator NGOs Authorities Politics Citizens, neighbours of all sites! Planners Investor ?
  • 13. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 3. How to inform? Photo: LGA
  • 14. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Working groups are confidential Plenary sessions are transparent (mediation) (facilitation) 4. When to observe confidentiality? Photos: Wachinger
  • 15. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 5. How to structure the process? Interessen Photo: Wachinger
  • 16. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Fotos Auftakt Photo: Wachinger 6. Which attitude to encourage? In participation processes, people begin to trust each other (authorities, stakeholders, the public) Collentine, 2008, Slinger et al., 2007.
  • 17. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Photo: Wachinger Summary: The value expertise 1. The “value expertise” can complement the “factual expertise” in a meaningful way. 2. In a facilitated environment that gives room to sharing concerns and values as well as facts, deadlocked mind patterns can be broken up, on all sides. 3. Decisions that are based on both the “value expertise” and the “factual expertise” are not only more readily accepted by the public, but also more qualified and more sustainable.
  • 18. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Citizen science - participatory research implementation data sampling modelling, analysing interpretation of data evaluation, monitoring research design, methods, programs agenda setting, research questions
  • 19. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Publications Photo: Wachinger Renn O: Stakeholder Involvement in Risk Governance (2014) Wachinger, G, Begg, C, Renn, O and Kuhlicke, C. The Risk Perception Paradox –Implications for Governance and Communication of Natural Hazards. Risk Analysis (2013) 33, No 6. Wachinger G, Renn O, Wist S-K, Steinhilber S-M and Triemer U. Using participation to create resilience: how to involve citizens in designing a hospital system? Environmental Systems and Decisions (2014) 34:208-223