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Design Aspect of StandAlone Solar
PV System

MALIK SAMEEULLAH
M.Tech (RES)
School of Renewable Energy and Efficiency
NIT KURUKSHETRA
Content
•
•
•
•

Introduction to solar PV industry
Basic principle and general concept involve
StandAlone PV system and features
Designing aspect of off grid Solar PV
PV Solar Industry
• India is a tropical country. About 5000 trillion
kWh per year energy incident over India`s land
area with most parts receiving 4-7 kWh per sq.
m per day
• Small part of total energy receive can meet
entire India power requirement.
• Nature friendly
• Various Policies of central and state govt
India Solar Radiation Map

Daily Global Radiation (KJ m-2 per day)
City

Horizontal
Radiation

Optimum Tilt
Radiation

New Delhi

19.67

21.54

Kolkata

17.47

19.07

Pune

20.40

21.94

Chennai

20.12

20.99
• Policies of Government
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
(MNRE) formed in 2006.
 JNNSM is launched.
It aim to produce 22GW of Solar Energy by
2022
There is no. of subsidy to achieve JNNSM
Goal.
Solar Energy System
Solar Energy

Solar Thermal Collector System

Solar PV system

Low
Temperature
Collector

Off Grid Solar PV
system

Medium
Temperature
Collector

Grid Connected
Solar PV system

High
Temperature
Collector

PV cell based low
power device
Solar PV system
Photovoltaic (PV) is method of generating
electrical power by converting solar radiation
into direct current using semiconductor which
exhibit PV effect.
Solar PV Cell
• It consist of Semiconductor material
• One PV cell produce approx. 0.5V with current
range of 4-5 Amp.
• Solar modules is an arrangement of PV cell in
series and parallel combination to produce
desired rating.
• For 12V battery system 36 cell module is used
(for charging voltage of 18V)
Rating Of PV modules
Standalone PV System: Application and
features.
• Not connected to power grid
• Size of system is from few watts to 10 kW
• Use for telephone tower, remote houses, water pumping
etc.
• System efficiency and cost is also depend upon
geographical location
• Modules and battery add almost 65% of total system cost
• Cost of system increase as much as we required backup in
bad weather
• In average, for per kW system design required Rs. 2.5 Lacs
Pre Consideration Before Design of
System
• Assessment of space available, user
requirement and budget.
• Detail study of Solar radiation availability at
site
• Daily energy requirement of system and type
of system and way to improve load side
efficiency.
• Sunlight and weather resistance system for all
outdoor equipment
Design Step
•
•
•
•
•
•

Solar Energy Estimation
Load Estimation
Inverter Selection
Battery Bank Size
Solar Module calc.
Cost Estimation
Load Estimation
• Detail study need to done to find system maximum load.
• For Lighting load, it is essential to use energy efficient lamp
like CFL, LED
• Cost of Solar PV System is reduce, if proper load study is
done
Daily System Energy Requirement Table
Appliance Load Voltage (AC/DC)

Power

Daily Use(H)

Daily Energy use

CFL (8*12)

240 V (AC)

96 W

9

0.864 kWh

Fan(1*80)

240 V (AC)

80 W

15

1.200 kWh

TV(1*120)

240 V (AC)

120 W

7

0.840 kWh

PC (2*60)

240 V (AC)

120 W

6

0.720 kWh

Charger point

240 V (AC)

20 W

3

0.060 kWh

Total Daily AC Energy Demand
Peak Load

3.684 kWh
436 W
Inverter Selection
• Select Inverter input/output voltage.
• Inverter output power rating is near to 1.5 time
of max. load
• Inverter output overload current 3-5 times total
load current (for fault current protection)
• Select output AC waveform suitable for load
• Capability to sense battery condition
• Now a day, inverter with efficiency in b/w 97% to
99%.
Energy Supplied to Inverter
3.79 kWh

Load Energy Required/ ƞ of Inverter
3.684/0.97
Battery Bank Size
Parameter to choose battery size
Depth of Discharge
useful capacity= rated capacity*DOD
Voltage and Ah of Battery
No of day of storage required.
For 24 V system and 3.79 kWh of Energy
Ah capacity of battery
158 Ah

3790/24 Ah

Now if DOD of battery is 70%
Rating of Battery
226 Ah

158/0.7 Ah
Continue
• Now if consider for system of one day backup,
then Ah rating is just double
• For the given system, total battery size is 450 Ah
• Now for design purpose, battery of 12 V, 100 Ah
and 70% DOD use
• So total of 10 Battery required
Battery bank
Solar PV module Calculation
Main consideration during Panel sizing
 Voltage, Current, wattage of the module
Insolation level in design month
 efficiency of battery and charge controller
Tracking device availability
• Losses in battery and controller during
charging is around 20%.
Energy supplied by PV panel
4738 Wh

3790/0.8Wh

Total Ah generated by Panel
197 Ah

4738/24 Ah

Total Ampereto be produced
50.5 Amp

197/3.9 Amp

No of Parallel module required
6 No.

50.5*12/100

Total PV module required =2*6 =12 No. (system voltage is 24 V)
Cost Estimation
Solar Panel
module
2*7=14 No.

Charge
controller

Rating
100 W, 12 V
Inverter
Rating
0.5 Kw, 24 V input
and 240 V output,
50 Hz.

Battery Bank
2*8=16 No.
Rating
100 Ah, DoD 70%

AC Load of 436 W

S.No

Particulars

Unit

Rate
(INR)

Qty.

Amount (Rs.)

1.

Inverter

kW

12000

0.5 kw

6000.00

2.

Battery 100 Ah

No.

2500

16

40000.00

3.

Solar PV module 100 W

No.

6000

14

84000.00

4.

Charge Controller

No.

5000

1

5000.00

Total

135000.00

Total Cost
5.

Take 30% of total cost as Installation charge and
protection device cost

40500.00

Total Amount

175500.00
Conclusion
• StandAlone PV system depend mainly upon
solar energy
• Proper designing is essential to satisfy load
demand
• Each parameter play a crucial role in designing
• Cost of system depend upon the economical
consideration.
References
• Mohamed H. Beshr, Hany A. Khater, Amr A. Andelraouf, “ Modelling
of a Residential Solar Stand-Alone Power System”, Proceedings of
the 1st International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference
(INREC10), Amman, Jordan, March 21-24, 2010
• Marks Hankins, “Stand-Alone Solar Electric System”,Earthscan
Expert Series
• Chetan Singh Solanki, “Solar Photovoltaics Fundamental,
Technologies and Applications”, PHI
• Enda Flood, K. McDonnell, F. Murphy and G. Devlin, “A Feasibilty
Analysis of Photovoltaic Solar Power for Small Community in
Ireland”, The Open Renewable Energy Journel,2011, 4, 78-92.
• “Performance of Solar Power Plants in India”, submitted to Central
Electricity Regulatory Commission New Delhi in Feb 2011.

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Design Aspect of Standalone PV system

  • 1. Design Aspect of StandAlone Solar PV System MALIK SAMEEULLAH M.Tech (RES) School of Renewable Energy and Efficiency NIT KURUKSHETRA
  • 2. Content • • • • Introduction to solar PV industry Basic principle and general concept involve StandAlone PV system and features Designing aspect of off grid Solar PV
  • 3. PV Solar Industry • India is a tropical country. About 5000 trillion kWh per year energy incident over India`s land area with most parts receiving 4-7 kWh per sq. m per day • Small part of total energy receive can meet entire India power requirement. • Nature friendly • Various Policies of central and state govt
  • 4. India Solar Radiation Map Daily Global Radiation (KJ m-2 per day) City Horizontal Radiation Optimum Tilt Radiation New Delhi 19.67 21.54 Kolkata 17.47 19.07 Pune 20.40 21.94 Chennai 20.12 20.99
  • 5.
  • 6. • Policies of Government Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) formed in 2006.  JNNSM is launched. It aim to produce 22GW of Solar Energy by 2022 There is no. of subsidy to achieve JNNSM Goal.
  • 7. Solar Energy System Solar Energy Solar Thermal Collector System Solar PV system Low Temperature Collector Off Grid Solar PV system Medium Temperature Collector Grid Connected Solar PV system High Temperature Collector PV cell based low power device
  • 8. Solar PV system Photovoltaic (PV) is method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current using semiconductor which exhibit PV effect.
  • 9. Solar PV Cell • It consist of Semiconductor material • One PV cell produce approx. 0.5V with current range of 4-5 Amp. • Solar modules is an arrangement of PV cell in series and parallel combination to produce desired rating. • For 12V battery system 36 cell module is used (for charging voltage of 18V)
  • 10. Rating Of PV modules
  • 11. Standalone PV System: Application and features. • Not connected to power grid • Size of system is from few watts to 10 kW • Use for telephone tower, remote houses, water pumping etc. • System efficiency and cost is also depend upon geographical location • Modules and battery add almost 65% of total system cost • Cost of system increase as much as we required backup in bad weather • In average, for per kW system design required Rs. 2.5 Lacs
  • 12. Pre Consideration Before Design of System • Assessment of space available, user requirement and budget. • Detail study of Solar radiation availability at site • Daily energy requirement of system and type of system and way to improve load side efficiency. • Sunlight and weather resistance system for all outdoor equipment
  • 13. Design Step • • • • • • Solar Energy Estimation Load Estimation Inverter Selection Battery Bank Size Solar Module calc. Cost Estimation
  • 14.
  • 15. Load Estimation • Detail study need to done to find system maximum load. • For Lighting load, it is essential to use energy efficient lamp like CFL, LED • Cost of Solar PV System is reduce, if proper load study is done Daily System Energy Requirement Table Appliance Load Voltage (AC/DC) Power Daily Use(H) Daily Energy use CFL (8*12) 240 V (AC) 96 W 9 0.864 kWh Fan(1*80) 240 V (AC) 80 W 15 1.200 kWh TV(1*120) 240 V (AC) 120 W 7 0.840 kWh PC (2*60) 240 V (AC) 120 W 6 0.720 kWh Charger point 240 V (AC) 20 W 3 0.060 kWh Total Daily AC Energy Demand Peak Load 3.684 kWh 436 W
  • 16. Inverter Selection • Select Inverter input/output voltage. • Inverter output power rating is near to 1.5 time of max. load • Inverter output overload current 3-5 times total load current (for fault current protection) • Select output AC waveform suitable for load • Capability to sense battery condition • Now a day, inverter with efficiency in b/w 97% to 99%. Energy Supplied to Inverter 3.79 kWh Load Energy Required/ ƞ of Inverter 3.684/0.97
  • 17. Battery Bank Size Parameter to choose battery size Depth of Discharge useful capacity= rated capacity*DOD Voltage and Ah of Battery No of day of storage required. For 24 V system and 3.79 kWh of Energy Ah capacity of battery 158 Ah 3790/24 Ah Now if DOD of battery is 70% Rating of Battery 226 Ah 158/0.7 Ah
  • 18. Continue • Now if consider for system of one day backup, then Ah rating is just double • For the given system, total battery size is 450 Ah • Now for design purpose, battery of 12 V, 100 Ah and 70% DOD use • So total of 10 Battery required Battery bank
  • 19. Solar PV module Calculation Main consideration during Panel sizing  Voltage, Current, wattage of the module Insolation level in design month  efficiency of battery and charge controller Tracking device availability
  • 20. • Losses in battery and controller during charging is around 20%. Energy supplied by PV panel 4738 Wh 3790/0.8Wh Total Ah generated by Panel 197 Ah 4738/24 Ah Total Ampereto be produced 50.5 Amp 197/3.9 Amp No of Parallel module required 6 No. 50.5*12/100 Total PV module required =2*6 =12 No. (system voltage is 24 V)
  • 21. Cost Estimation Solar Panel module 2*7=14 No. Charge controller Rating 100 W, 12 V Inverter Rating 0.5 Kw, 24 V input and 240 V output, 50 Hz. Battery Bank 2*8=16 No. Rating 100 Ah, DoD 70% AC Load of 436 W S.No Particulars Unit Rate (INR) Qty. Amount (Rs.) 1. Inverter kW 12000 0.5 kw 6000.00 2. Battery 100 Ah No. 2500 16 40000.00 3. Solar PV module 100 W No. 6000 14 84000.00 4. Charge Controller No. 5000 1 5000.00 Total 135000.00 Total Cost 5. Take 30% of total cost as Installation charge and protection device cost 40500.00 Total Amount 175500.00
  • 22. Conclusion • StandAlone PV system depend mainly upon solar energy • Proper designing is essential to satisfy load demand • Each parameter play a crucial role in designing • Cost of system depend upon the economical consideration.
  • 23. References • Mohamed H. Beshr, Hany A. Khater, Amr A. Andelraouf, “ Modelling of a Residential Solar Stand-Alone Power System”, Proceedings of the 1st International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10), Amman, Jordan, March 21-24, 2010 • Marks Hankins, “Stand-Alone Solar Electric System”,Earthscan Expert Series • Chetan Singh Solanki, “Solar Photovoltaics Fundamental, Technologies and Applications”, PHI • Enda Flood, K. McDonnell, F. Murphy and G. Devlin, “A Feasibilty Analysis of Photovoltaic Solar Power for Small Community in Ireland”, The Open Renewable Energy Journel,2011, 4, 78-92. • “Performance of Solar Power Plants in India”, submitted to Central Electricity Regulatory Commission New Delhi in Feb 2011.