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Presented By
Malik Sameeullah
M.Tech (RES)

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURUKSHETRA

1
Contents

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
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
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
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


Solar PV Sector
Type of Solar PV system
Need of Charge Controller and MPPT
Solar PV Cell: Basic model
Type of Battery: features and characteristics
Basic Charge controller model
Buck Boost Converter
MPPT model
MPPT Based Optimum Controller Design
Conclusion
Research Work and Future Work
References
2
Solar Power Sector
 India lies in a sunny tropical belt (High








insolation) Total approximate potential
annually over 5000 trillion kWh
Over 70% of India’s households experience
significant power cuts every year
National Solar Mission and other Generation
Based Incentives (GBI) are available through
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
(MNRE)
JNNSM have a mission to install 20 GW
solar PV plant by 2022
Cost of PV module, land scarcity and
technological barrier is a main restriction.
Current cost of production is ` 12/KWh and
expected cost is ` 6/KWh by 2020

Jawahar Lal Nehru National
Solar Mission Target
2010-2013
On grid PV power of 1000-2000 MW
Off grid PV application 200 MW
Solar collector 7 million sq. meter
2013-2017
On grid PV power of 4000-10000
MW
Off grid PV application 1000 MW
Solar collector 15 million sq. meter
2017-2022
On grid PV power of 22000 MW
Off grid PV application 2000 MW
Solar collector 20 million sq. meter

3
Type of Solar PV System
Solar PV
System

Grid
Connected PV
Large scale
production

Off Grid PV
System

Hybrid PV
System

With Battery
Wind-PV hybrid system

(Without Battery)

(e.g. for houses and
industries)

With Battery

Without Battery

Solar Lamp, Solar
mobile charger
etc.

PV-Diesel hybrid System

(Smart Grid concept)

PV based
Utilities

(PV water Pump)
4
Need of Charge Controller and
MPPT
 Battery is a costly device and must be managed properly.

 It is found if proper care is taken then life of battery increase

significantly
 A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is

added to or drawn from electric batteries
 Charge Controller take care of battery under voltage and over

voltage condition
 MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) is a electronic device

which maximize PV module output under varying operating
condition
5
Solar PV Cell: Basic Model


I

Dark condition

V

Illumination
6
Solar PV Diode Model

Equivalent circuit of PV cell
I-V curve of PV cell

P-V curve of PV cell
7
Battery
 The cell is the basic electrochemical unit in a battery,

consisting of a set of positive and negative plates divided
by separators, immersed in an electrolyte solution and
enclosed in a case.
 Nominal cell voltage is 2.1 V for lead acid battery
Primary function of battery in PV system:
1.

Energy storage and autonomy

2.

Voltage and current stabilization

3.

Supply surge current

8
Secondary battery types and characteristics
Battery Type

Cost

Deep cycle
Performance

Maintenance

Lead Antimony

Low

Good

high

Lead-Calcium open vent

Low

Poor

Medium

Lead-Calcium sealed vent

Low

Poor

Low

Lead Antimony/Calcium hybrid

Medium

Good

Medium

Gelled

Medium

Fair

Low

Absorbed glass Mat

Medium

Fair

Low

Sintered Plate

High

Good

None

Pocket Plate

high

good

Medium

Flooded Lead Acid

Captive Electrolyte Lead Acid

Nickel-Cadmium

9
Battery Parameters
 Battery

Capacity (Ah): It is the
maximum charge storage capacity of a
battery.
 Battery Voltage (V): It is the terminal
voltage of battery under no load
condition
 Depth of Discharge (DoD): This is a
measure of how much energy has been
withdraw from a battery.
 Battery Life cycle: It is defined as
number of complete charge-discharge
cycle that battery can perform before it
nominal capacity fall below 80% of
initial value

Graph between Depth of Discharge and Life cycle of
batteries(data is approx.)

10
Factor Affecting Battery Performance
 Operating voltage range
 Magnitude of battery discharge current

 Battery temperature during discharge
 Choice of battery for particular application

Ideal charging characteristics for a lead-acid battery

11
DC-DC Converter
 Used for converting DC voltage from one level to another
 It is used to convert unregulated DC into a controlled DC

output
 Suitable for PV system where due to change in
atmospheric condition DC output change continuously
 It is also a basic component of MPPT system

12
Topologies of DC-DC Converter

Isolated type converter

Grid tied system used this
topologies, as isolation is
required for safety reason

Flyback

Non-Isolated type converter

Most of the DC drive
used this converter. No
need of transformer .

Buck-Boost

Half Bridge

SEPIC

Full Bridge

Cuk
13
Basic Converter
 It consist of switch which operate continuously to

maintain output voltage

Fundamental switching
converter circuit

14
BUCK Converter
• Used for step down of DC voltage

BOOST Converter
• Used for step up of DC voltage

15
BUCK-BOOST Converter


The basic principle of the buck–boost
operation
1. While in the On-state, the input voltage
source is directly connected to the
inductor (L). This results in accumulating
energy in L. In this stage, the capacitor
supplies energy to the output load.
2. While in the Off-state, the inductor is
connected to the output load and
capacitor, so energy is transferred from L
to C and R.

Buck Boost Converter
16
Type of Charge Controller

 Shunt Type Charge Controller
 Series Type Charge Controller

Shunt Converter

 DC-DC Converter Type Charge Controller
No additional losses due to switch and
better regulation of battery charging

Series Converter

PV
array

DC-DC
converter

L
O
A
D

 MPPT Charge Controller
17
Maximum Power Point Tracking
It consist of electronic circuit allow to collect maximum
power from PV module under different condition

R

PV
array

a
b’

b
c

c’

18
Hill Climbing Method


•

Hill climbing method fail
environment change condition

under rapid
19
Algorithm of Hill Climbing Method
Start

Set duty

Yes
No

Yes

No
No


Yes
20
Standalone PV System
 For standalone system to category of converter used, 1.

Renewable side converter (RSC) and 2. Storage side
converter

Circuit diagram of charge controller

 Inputs are actual PV voltage, PV current, battery

voltage and battery current
 Measurement of battery current provide additional
protection again overcurrent condition
21
Optimal Charge Controller Logic

Controller of DC-DC converter

22
Study of Output Response of Controller
Conventional controller output
Hill Climbing MPPT Method track for
maximum power and for battery voltage higher
than maximum limit than need to open switch

Proposed scheme
It always track for maximum power condition.
when battery voltage or current is above the
set limit than it try to push converter toward
low power extraction region and provide
better charging control
23
Conclusion
 In solar PV based battery charging, MPPT algorithms

are used
 When the state of charge (SoC) of battery is high and
system is on no-load, excess power flows into the
battery
 This results in low operational life of the battery
 Slight variation in design of MPPT improve the
charging condition of battery

24
Research Area and Future Work
 There is number of MPPT control algorithm. Fuzzy and

Neural network based MPPT algorithm are more
accurate.
 No of improved DC-DC converter topologies are in
picture like CUK converter, Isolated converter etc.
 By choosing the optimal combination of DC-DC
converter and MPPT algorithm better regulation of
battery is possible

25
References
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

7.

Sandeep Anand, Rajesh Singh Farswan, Bhukya Mangu, B.G. Fernades,
“Optimal charging of Battery Using Solar PV in Standalone DC System,”
Industrial Electronics Magazine , vol.7, no-3,pp.6 – 20, Sep 2013
Trishan Esram, and Patrick L. Chapman, “Comparison of Photovoltaic
Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques,” IEEE Trans. on
Energy Conversion, vol. 22, no. 2, June 2007
Tom Markvark, Luis Castaner,” Solar Cells: Material, Manufactures and
operation,” Elsevier, ISBN-1856174573
Chetan Singh Solanki, “Solar Photovoltaic: Fundamentals, Technology and
Applications,” Eastern Economy Edition, ISBN-9788120343863
Simon S. Ang, “Power Switching Converters,” Marcel Dekker Inc., ISBN0824796306
Paras Karki, Brijesh Adhikary, “ MATLAB/Simulink based Modeling and
Simulation of Gird-connected Solar Photovoltaic System in Distribution
Power Network,”Fifth International Conference on Power and Energy
Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal, pp.28 - 30 October, 2013
James P. Dunlop, P. E. Florida, “Batteries and Charge Control in StandAlone Photovoltaic Systems Fundamentals and Application,” Solar Energy
Center1-679, Clearlake RoadCocoa, FL 32922-5703
26
27

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MPPT Based Optimal Charge Controller in PV system

  • 1. Presented By Malik Sameeullah M.Tech (RES) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURUKSHETRA 1
  • 2. Contents             Solar PV Sector Type of Solar PV system Need of Charge Controller and MPPT Solar PV Cell: Basic model Type of Battery: features and characteristics Basic Charge controller model Buck Boost Converter MPPT model MPPT Based Optimum Controller Design Conclusion Research Work and Future Work References 2
  • 3. Solar Power Sector  India lies in a sunny tropical belt (High      insolation) Total approximate potential annually over 5000 trillion kWh Over 70% of India’s households experience significant power cuts every year National Solar Mission and other Generation Based Incentives (GBI) are available through Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) JNNSM have a mission to install 20 GW solar PV plant by 2022 Cost of PV module, land scarcity and technological barrier is a main restriction. Current cost of production is ` 12/KWh and expected cost is ` 6/KWh by 2020 Jawahar Lal Nehru National Solar Mission Target 2010-2013 On grid PV power of 1000-2000 MW Off grid PV application 200 MW Solar collector 7 million sq. meter 2013-2017 On grid PV power of 4000-10000 MW Off grid PV application 1000 MW Solar collector 15 million sq. meter 2017-2022 On grid PV power of 22000 MW Off grid PV application 2000 MW Solar collector 20 million sq. meter 3
  • 4. Type of Solar PV System Solar PV System Grid Connected PV Large scale production Off Grid PV System Hybrid PV System With Battery Wind-PV hybrid system (Without Battery) (e.g. for houses and industries) With Battery Without Battery Solar Lamp, Solar mobile charger etc. PV-Diesel hybrid System (Smart Grid concept) PV based Utilities (PV water Pump) 4
  • 5. Need of Charge Controller and MPPT  Battery is a costly device and must be managed properly.  It is found if proper care is taken then life of battery increase significantly  A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries  Charge Controller take care of battery under voltage and over voltage condition  MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) is a electronic device which maximize PV module output under varying operating condition 5
  • 6. Solar PV Cell: Basic Model  I Dark condition V Illumination 6
  • 7. Solar PV Diode Model Equivalent circuit of PV cell I-V curve of PV cell P-V curve of PV cell 7
  • 8. Battery  The cell is the basic electrochemical unit in a battery, consisting of a set of positive and negative plates divided by separators, immersed in an electrolyte solution and enclosed in a case.  Nominal cell voltage is 2.1 V for lead acid battery Primary function of battery in PV system: 1. Energy storage and autonomy 2. Voltage and current stabilization 3. Supply surge current 8
  • 9. Secondary battery types and characteristics Battery Type Cost Deep cycle Performance Maintenance Lead Antimony Low Good high Lead-Calcium open vent Low Poor Medium Lead-Calcium sealed vent Low Poor Low Lead Antimony/Calcium hybrid Medium Good Medium Gelled Medium Fair Low Absorbed glass Mat Medium Fair Low Sintered Plate High Good None Pocket Plate high good Medium Flooded Lead Acid Captive Electrolyte Lead Acid Nickel-Cadmium 9
  • 10. Battery Parameters  Battery Capacity (Ah): It is the maximum charge storage capacity of a battery.  Battery Voltage (V): It is the terminal voltage of battery under no load condition  Depth of Discharge (DoD): This is a measure of how much energy has been withdraw from a battery.  Battery Life cycle: It is defined as number of complete charge-discharge cycle that battery can perform before it nominal capacity fall below 80% of initial value Graph between Depth of Discharge and Life cycle of batteries(data is approx.) 10
  • 11. Factor Affecting Battery Performance  Operating voltage range  Magnitude of battery discharge current  Battery temperature during discharge  Choice of battery for particular application Ideal charging characteristics for a lead-acid battery 11
  • 12. DC-DC Converter  Used for converting DC voltage from one level to another  It is used to convert unregulated DC into a controlled DC output  Suitable for PV system where due to change in atmospheric condition DC output change continuously  It is also a basic component of MPPT system 12
  • 13. Topologies of DC-DC Converter Isolated type converter Grid tied system used this topologies, as isolation is required for safety reason Flyback Non-Isolated type converter Most of the DC drive used this converter. No need of transformer . Buck-Boost Half Bridge SEPIC Full Bridge Cuk 13
  • 14. Basic Converter  It consist of switch which operate continuously to maintain output voltage Fundamental switching converter circuit 14
  • 15. BUCK Converter • Used for step down of DC voltage BOOST Converter • Used for step up of DC voltage 15
  • 16. BUCK-BOOST Converter  The basic principle of the buck–boost operation 1. While in the On-state, the input voltage source is directly connected to the inductor (L). This results in accumulating energy in L. In this stage, the capacitor supplies energy to the output load. 2. While in the Off-state, the inductor is connected to the output load and capacitor, so energy is transferred from L to C and R. Buck Boost Converter 16
  • 17. Type of Charge Controller  Shunt Type Charge Controller  Series Type Charge Controller Shunt Converter  DC-DC Converter Type Charge Controller No additional losses due to switch and better regulation of battery charging Series Converter PV array DC-DC converter L O A D  MPPT Charge Controller 17
  • 18. Maximum Power Point Tracking It consist of electronic circuit allow to collect maximum power from PV module under different condition R PV array a b’ b c c’ 18
  • 19. Hill Climbing Method  • Hill climbing method fail environment change condition under rapid 19
  • 20. Algorithm of Hill Climbing Method Start Set duty Yes No Yes No No  Yes 20
  • 21. Standalone PV System  For standalone system to category of converter used, 1. Renewable side converter (RSC) and 2. Storage side converter Circuit diagram of charge controller  Inputs are actual PV voltage, PV current, battery voltage and battery current  Measurement of battery current provide additional protection again overcurrent condition 21
  • 22. Optimal Charge Controller Logic Controller of DC-DC converter 22
  • 23. Study of Output Response of Controller Conventional controller output Hill Climbing MPPT Method track for maximum power and for battery voltage higher than maximum limit than need to open switch Proposed scheme It always track for maximum power condition. when battery voltage or current is above the set limit than it try to push converter toward low power extraction region and provide better charging control 23
  • 24. Conclusion  In solar PV based battery charging, MPPT algorithms are used  When the state of charge (SoC) of battery is high and system is on no-load, excess power flows into the battery  This results in low operational life of the battery  Slight variation in design of MPPT improve the charging condition of battery 24
  • 25. Research Area and Future Work  There is number of MPPT control algorithm. Fuzzy and Neural network based MPPT algorithm are more accurate.  No of improved DC-DC converter topologies are in picture like CUK converter, Isolated converter etc.  By choosing the optimal combination of DC-DC converter and MPPT algorithm better regulation of battery is possible 25
  • 26. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sandeep Anand, Rajesh Singh Farswan, Bhukya Mangu, B.G. Fernades, “Optimal charging of Battery Using Solar PV in Standalone DC System,” Industrial Electronics Magazine , vol.7, no-3,pp.6 – 20, Sep 2013 Trishan Esram, and Patrick L. Chapman, “Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques,” IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 22, no. 2, June 2007 Tom Markvark, Luis Castaner,” Solar Cells: Material, Manufactures and operation,” Elsevier, ISBN-1856174573 Chetan Singh Solanki, “Solar Photovoltaic: Fundamentals, Technology and Applications,” Eastern Economy Edition, ISBN-9788120343863 Simon S. Ang, “Power Switching Converters,” Marcel Dekker Inc., ISBN0824796306 Paras Karki, Brijesh Adhikary, “ MATLAB/Simulink based Modeling and Simulation of Gird-connected Solar Photovoltaic System in Distribution Power Network,”Fifth International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal, pp.28 - 30 October, 2013 James P. Dunlop, P. E. Florida, “Batteries and Charge Control in StandAlone Photovoltaic Systems Fundamentals and Application,” Solar Energy Center1-679, Clearlake RoadCocoa, FL 32922-5703 26
  • 27. 27