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Presentation for Final Year Students about Solar.pptx
Solar
System
Installation
By:
AMS Green Energies (Pvt. LTD)
Component of Solar Pv system.
SOLAR PANELS
Solar Panels or PV modules are the most commonly known component in a photovoltaic array.
Made up of mostly solar cells, framing, and glass; solar panels work by collecting and
harnessing photovoltaic energy from the sun, and delivering that energy as ‘direct current’.
The DC power generated by a solar module is an electric current that flows in a constant
direction. This type of power is generally not readily useable for standard electric demands, and
must be translated into ‘alternating current’ (AC) power before it can be used for standard
electric devices inside a home or building.
Solar Panels consist of two most well-known types of solar
cells, Polycrystalline and Monocrystalline. The difference consists of how silicon crystals in
the ingots or wafers are harvested, developed and formed, each creating a different look and
color to their appearance. Both types of PV cells are known to be effective in their general
ability to produce solar electricity. EVA(ethyl vinyl acetate) is a layer used to
encapsulate the photovoltaic cells.
Presentation for Final Year Students about Solar.pptx
INVERTERS
Inverters (or Converters) intake DC power generated by a solar panel and process that
energy by converting it into AC power, the resulting power can then be sent to a breaker
or balance of system component and is available for standard use.
Inverters come in different types of
sizes and use various technologies to
enable efficiency in the function to
produce AC power. The most common
inverters are; String Inverters, Central
Inverters, Microinverters, and Battery-
based Inverters. Each will carry
different mechanical and technical
characteristics.
Mounting/Racking Structure
Most racking systems will use a combination of: Rails, Flashings, Lugs, Mounting
Brackets, Wire Clips, Splice Kits, Braces, End Caps, Attachments, Tilt Legs - and
other components to complete a full racking and mounting system. Ground mount
systems will require concrete and steel piping in addition to a complete racking kit to be
placed onto land.
Two types of structure are Used for Panel installation.
1 Ground Mounting Structure.
2 Customized structure.
Ground Mounting Structure
Ground mount systems will require concrete and steel piping in addition to a complete
racking kit to be placed onto land.
LOCATION: Plaspack Factory
PROJECT SIZE: 50Kw
Costumized Structure
Types of PV system
Hybrid
Grid-connected solar system
with battery storage.
On-
grid
On Grid with
Batteries
This system includes both
batteries as well as grid.
also known as a grid-tie
or grid-feed solar system
1. Benefit of both Batteries as
well as Grid feeding.
1. Grid feeding which results
in lower bill costs.
1. Allows you to store
excess solar or low cost
(off-peak) electricity.
2. Reduces power
consumption from the grid
(reduced demand)
3. Higher cost. Mainly due to
the high cost of batteries.
Hybrid System
Modern hybrid systems combine solar and battery storage in one
and are now available in many different forms and configurations.
The battery bank. In a hybrid system once the solar power is used by the appliances in your
property, any excess power will be sent to the battery bank. Once the battery bank is fully
charged, it will stop receiving power from the solar system. The energy from the battery can
then be discharged and used to power your home, usually during the peak evening period when
the cost of electricity is typically at it’s highest.
The meter and electricity grid. Depending on how your hybrid system is set up and whether
your utility allows it, once your batteries are fully charged excess solar power not required by
your appliances can be exported to the grid via your meter. When your solar system is not in
use, and if you have drained the usable power in your batteries your appliances will then start
drawing power from the grid.
HYBRID SOLAR SYSTEM
On-grid
These systems do not need batteries and use either solar inverters or micro-inverters
and are connected to the public electricity grid. Any excess solar power that you
generate is exported to the electricity grid and you usually get paid a feed-in-tariff
(FiT) or credits for the energy you export.
The meter. Excess solar energy runs through the
meter, which calculates how much power you are
either exporting or importing (purchasing).
The electricity grid. Electricity that is sent to the
grid from your solar system can then be used by
other consumers on the grid (your neighbors).
When your solar system is not operating, or you
are using more electricity than your system is
producing, you will start importing or consuming
electricity from the grid.
On-Grid SOLAR SYSTEM
Advantages of On-Grid System
1. Huge reduction in electricity bills
With net-metering in place, the consumer has to pay only for the surplus electricity he consumes, ensuring the bill
generated every month is reduced drastically. Many of our customers have been able to reduce their monthly bills by
90%.
2. Easy maintenance
The elimination of batteries in the on-grid system makes the maintenance quite easy. It also eliminates the cost of upkeep
of the batteries
3. Synchronize with other sources of power
These systems can also synchronize with a diesel generator on site. This is important in case grid power is not available.
(We should add a link here to connect with another blog or technical article to learn more about this)
4. Better ROI
Cost of a On-grid solar system is lower than other types of solar systems because there are no batteries. It also generates
the highest amount of power compared to other types of solar systems. The minimal maintenance and reduction in
monthly power bills ensure the customer gets an ROI of 25 – 30%. This means the customer earns Rs.25,000 for every
1,00,000 they invest in solar.
On Grid with Batteries
In this system, the customer enjoys the benefit of both Hybrid as well as On Grid system.
The excess energy is stored in batteries as well as fed back to the grid resulting in dual benefit for
the end user.
Presentation for Final Year Students about Solar.pptx
Efficient and Effective Energy
Solution through 15 Year
Experienced Technical team
Reduce your Electricity bills to
Zero.
REDUCE YOUR BILLS
SELLING
FEATURES
Online Monitoring Up to Mark Which
will Convert your Solar system More
Profitable
App Based Monitoring
Efficient and Effective Energy
Solution through 15 Year
Experienced Technical team
Payback Time: 2-3 Years.
Scope of Work
Site Survey with costumer
Electrical/Mechanical Design of project/site.
BOQ and Quotation
Costumer approval/purchase/work order with advance payment.
Procurement of Material/vendor.
Material delivery at site.
Civil/Mechanical and Electrical Installation at site.
Testing and Commissioning.
Inspection report of project/site.
Plant monitoring through apps.
Presentation for Final Year Students about Solar.pptx
Presentation for Final Year Students about Solar.pptx
SOLAR SITE SURVEY
Solar project site survey should answer following questions
Is there enough space for solar PV installation?
What is the shadow free area?
What is the average sunlight there?
What is the orientation of the building?
What would be the azimuth angle?
Current state of electrical infrastructure – sanctioned load, current connection etc.
The average and peak requirements for the customer
BOQ and Quotation
DESIGNING
OF PROJECT
A solar PV system design can be done in four steps:
1. Load estimation
2. Estimation of number of PV panels
3. Selection of Suitable equipment
4. Cost estimation of the system.
LOAD ESTIMATION
Furthermore you can also look at the electricity bill and see the peak load used
by the customer.
By a thumb rule, 1 KW of Solar System approximately produces 4 kWh Units per
day.
In this case, the solar requirement will be = Maximum Peak Units in month
(kWh)/4
To calculate for units per day, we divide it with 30:
For doing load estimation, you multiply the power utilized by every machine times the hours of the day
that you use it. This gives you the absolute number of kWh every day for that apparatus.
LOAD ESTIMATION(CONTD.)
 Example, consider the following bill in which peak units are
1200 kWh units/per month
We divide it by 30 to get units required per day i.e; 1200/30=40
units per month
Furthermore, we divide it by 4 to get the system in kW required
for that system:
System in kW Required: 40/4= 10kW System required.
LOAD ESTIMATION(CONTD.)
 Another way to do load estimation is to multiply the
wattage of the fan, lights to the number of hours used per
day.
For Example, if a light of 12W is lit for 7 hours per day for
Solar, then the total Watt hour will be:
Energy consumed by bulbs = 12W x 7h = 84 Wh
Similarly we add the Watt Hour for all the appliances to get
the required Wh for the system.
ESTIMATING NO. OF PANELS
 The next step is estimation of Solar Panels required for the system.
The roof top area which we measure from Site Survey will come in handy for designing of solar
panels for that site.
After taking the complete dimensions, we simulate it in different design softwares such as
SketchUp, AUTOCAD, Helioscope etc.
Design of Projects
Software: Helio Scope
 Energy yield simulator.
 Detailed financial calculator.
 Proposal editor.
Electrical Design
Software: SketchUp
Design: Mechanical
3D Structure Design
3D Design (SketchUp)
Electrical Design (SLD)
Project Installation
After complete procurement of material, the next phase of project is installation. Following is the
sequence of work flow in installation phase:
1) Construction of Civil Blocks
2) Curing of Civil Blocks
3) Assembling and installation of Solar Panel Structure
4) Installation of Panels on Solar Structure
5) Stringing of Solar Panels (Attaching Solar Panels in Series)
6) Installation of Cable Duct and Inverter
7) Connection of Cables with Inverter and Earth Bore.
8) Commissioning of the Inverter
Construction of civil blocks
Civil Blocks are the first component which is constructed at site before installation.
They are important because they serve as a protection for solar panels and structure which are
to be installed on the rooftop.
The dimension of these civil blocks we use is:
10” Length
10” Width
8” Height
One of the main process of civil work is cement curing.
Curing
Methods of Curing
Maintain the presence of water in the concrete during
the early hardening period,
Reduce the loss of water from the surface of the
concrete, and
Accelerate concrete strength gain by supplying heat
and additional moisture.
It takes 2-3 days in this process. We have to shower it
with water regularly for strengthening.
GCC-31S water-base concrete curing compound is
formulated from hydrocarbon resins and may be used
on interior, exterior, vertical and horizontal concrete
surfaces.
Solar Panel Installation Process
Nevertheless, if installation on the roof is
not applicable or desired, the solar panels
could also be mounted on the ground.
You just need to make sure that there
are no objects blocking access to the
sun.
The following steps explain solar panel
installation on a roof:
The most common location for the installation of solar PV panels is the roof. Most roofs typically
have the desired specifications for the installation, so that panels get the maximum sunlight.
 Assembling and installation of Solar Panel Structure
Then, the solar panel mounting system has to be set up. This will support the base of the solar
panels. The whole mounting structure must be tilted and have an angle between 10 to 25
degrees to have maximum sunlight exposure.
 Install the Solar Panels
When the mounts are set up, the solar panel itself has to be installed on the mounting
structure. Make sure to tighten up all the bolts and nuts so that it stays stable.
 Stringing of Solar Panels
The next step in the installation process is to install the electrical wiring. In most
cases, MC4 connectors are used because they are suited for all types of solar panels.
Make sure to shut off the household’s electricity supply during the wiring installation.
Panels are firstly connected in series in order to make an array of panels.
Install Solar Inverter
After that, the solar inverter must be connected to the system. It is typically installed near the main
panel and it could be both indoors and outdoors. Inverters are more efficient if kept in a cooler
place.
If the inverter is outdoors, it should be kept out from the afternoon sun. If it is installed indoors, the
garage or utility room are usually the best places, since they stay cool for most of the year and have
ventilation.
Bond Solar Inverter and Solar Battery
In Hybrid Systems solar inverter has to be connected to the solar battery. The solar battery
storage can save you from worrying about the lack of usable energy during cloudy times, it
can also lower the solar battery storage system cost during installation.
Connect the Inverter to the Consumer Unit
The inverter should be connected to the consumer unit to generate electricity. A generation meter
should also be connected to monitor the amount of electricity the solar panels actually produce.
You can use your computer or other device to check your solar system’s performance. For
example, you can check how much electricity you generate at different times and decide what time
is suitable for using your washing machine or other utilities.
Testing and Commissioning and
Monitoring of Solar system
The final step is to switch the power on and test the newly installed solar panel
system. After that, the solar panel installation process is completed.
Presentation for Final Year Students about Solar.pptx
Superior Multan Road Campus
Superior Hospital 1

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Presentation for Final Year Students about Solar.pptx

  • 3. Component of Solar Pv system.
  • 4. SOLAR PANELS Solar Panels or PV modules are the most commonly known component in a photovoltaic array. Made up of mostly solar cells, framing, and glass; solar panels work by collecting and harnessing photovoltaic energy from the sun, and delivering that energy as ‘direct current’. The DC power generated by a solar module is an electric current that flows in a constant direction. This type of power is generally not readily useable for standard electric demands, and must be translated into ‘alternating current’ (AC) power before it can be used for standard electric devices inside a home or building. Solar Panels consist of two most well-known types of solar cells, Polycrystalline and Monocrystalline. The difference consists of how silicon crystals in the ingots or wafers are harvested, developed and formed, each creating a different look and color to their appearance. Both types of PV cells are known to be effective in their general ability to produce solar electricity. EVA(ethyl vinyl acetate) is a layer used to encapsulate the photovoltaic cells.
  • 6. INVERTERS Inverters (or Converters) intake DC power generated by a solar panel and process that energy by converting it into AC power, the resulting power can then be sent to a breaker or balance of system component and is available for standard use. Inverters come in different types of sizes and use various technologies to enable efficiency in the function to produce AC power. The most common inverters are; String Inverters, Central Inverters, Microinverters, and Battery- based Inverters. Each will carry different mechanical and technical characteristics.
  • 7. Mounting/Racking Structure Most racking systems will use a combination of: Rails, Flashings, Lugs, Mounting Brackets, Wire Clips, Splice Kits, Braces, End Caps, Attachments, Tilt Legs - and other components to complete a full racking and mounting system. Ground mount systems will require concrete and steel piping in addition to a complete racking kit to be placed onto land. Two types of structure are Used for Panel installation. 1 Ground Mounting Structure. 2 Customized structure.
  • 8. Ground Mounting Structure Ground mount systems will require concrete and steel piping in addition to a complete racking kit to be placed onto land.
  • 9. LOCATION: Plaspack Factory PROJECT SIZE: 50Kw Costumized Structure
  • 10. Types of PV system Hybrid Grid-connected solar system with battery storage. On- grid On Grid with Batteries This system includes both batteries as well as grid. also known as a grid-tie or grid-feed solar system 1. Benefit of both Batteries as well as Grid feeding. 1. Grid feeding which results in lower bill costs. 1. Allows you to store excess solar or low cost (off-peak) electricity. 2. Reduces power consumption from the grid (reduced demand) 3. Higher cost. Mainly due to the high cost of batteries.
  • 11. Hybrid System Modern hybrid systems combine solar and battery storage in one and are now available in many different forms and configurations. The battery bank. In a hybrid system once the solar power is used by the appliances in your property, any excess power will be sent to the battery bank. Once the battery bank is fully charged, it will stop receiving power from the solar system. The energy from the battery can then be discharged and used to power your home, usually during the peak evening period when the cost of electricity is typically at it’s highest. The meter and electricity grid. Depending on how your hybrid system is set up and whether your utility allows it, once your batteries are fully charged excess solar power not required by your appliances can be exported to the grid via your meter. When your solar system is not in use, and if you have drained the usable power in your batteries your appliances will then start drawing power from the grid.
  • 13. On-grid These systems do not need batteries and use either solar inverters or micro-inverters and are connected to the public electricity grid. Any excess solar power that you generate is exported to the electricity grid and you usually get paid a feed-in-tariff (FiT) or credits for the energy you export. The meter. Excess solar energy runs through the meter, which calculates how much power you are either exporting or importing (purchasing). The electricity grid. Electricity that is sent to the grid from your solar system can then be used by other consumers on the grid (your neighbors). When your solar system is not operating, or you are using more electricity than your system is producing, you will start importing or consuming electricity from the grid.
  • 15. Advantages of On-Grid System 1. Huge reduction in electricity bills With net-metering in place, the consumer has to pay only for the surplus electricity he consumes, ensuring the bill generated every month is reduced drastically. Many of our customers have been able to reduce their monthly bills by 90%. 2. Easy maintenance The elimination of batteries in the on-grid system makes the maintenance quite easy. It also eliminates the cost of upkeep of the batteries 3. Synchronize with other sources of power These systems can also synchronize with a diesel generator on site. This is important in case grid power is not available. (We should add a link here to connect with another blog or technical article to learn more about this) 4. Better ROI Cost of a On-grid solar system is lower than other types of solar systems because there are no batteries. It also generates the highest amount of power compared to other types of solar systems. The minimal maintenance and reduction in monthly power bills ensure the customer gets an ROI of 25 – 30%. This means the customer earns Rs.25,000 for every 1,00,000 they invest in solar.
  • 16. On Grid with Batteries In this system, the customer enjoys the benefit of both Hybrid as well as On Grid system. The excess energy is stored in batteries as well as fed back to the grid resulting in dual benefit for the end user.
  • 18. Efficient and Effective Energy Solution through 15 Year Experienced Technical team Reduce your Electricity bills to Zero. REDUCE YOUR BILLS SELLING FEATURES Online Monitoring Up to Mark Which will Convert your Solar system More Profitable App Based Monitoring Efficient and Effective Energy Solution through 15 Year Experienced Technical team Payback Time: 2-3 Years.
  • 19. Scope of Work Site Survey with costumer Electrical/Mechanical Design of project/site. BOQ and Quotation Costumer approval/purchase/work order with advance payment. Procurement of Material/vendor. Material delivery at site. Civil/Mechanical and Electrical Installation at site. Testing and Commissioning. Inspection report of project/site. Plant monitoring through apps.
  • 22. SOLAR SITE SURVEY Solar project site survey should answer following questions Is there enough space for solar PV installation? What is the shadow free area? What is the average sunlight there? What is the orientation of the building? What would be the azimuth angle? Current state of electrical infrastructure – sanctioned load, current connection etc. The average and peak requirements for the customer
  • 24. DESIGNING OF PROJECT A solar PV system design can be done in four steps: 1. Load estimation 2. Estimation of number of PV panels 3. Selection of Suitable equipment 4. Cost estimation of the system.
  • 25. LOAD ESTIMATION Furthermore you can also look at the electricity bill and see the peak load used by the customer. By a thumb rule, 1 KW of Solar System approximately produces 4 kWh Units per day. In this case, the solar requirement will be = Maximum Peak Units in month (kWh)/4 To calculate for units per day, we divide it with 30: For doing load estimation, you multiply the power utilized by every machine times the hours of the day that you use it. This gives you the absolute number of kWh every day for that apparatus.
  • 26. LOAD ESTIMATION(CONTD.)  Example, consider the following bill in which peak units are 1200 kWh units/per month We divide it by 30 to get units required per day i.e; 1200/30=40 units per month Furthermore, we divide it by 4 to get the system in kW required for that system: System in kW Required: 40/4= 10kW System required.
  • 27. LOAD ESTIMATION(CONTD.)  Another way to do load estimation is to multiply the wattage of the fan, lights to the number of hours used per day. For Example, if a light of 12W is lit for 7 hours per day for Solar, then the total Watt hour will be: Energy consumed by bulbs = 12W x 7h = 84 Wh Similarly we add the Watt Hour for all the appliances to get the required Wh for the system.
  • 28. ESTIMATING NO. OF PANELS  The next step is estimation of Solar Panels required for the system. The roof top area which we measure from Site Survey will come in handy for designing of solar panels for that site. After taking the complete dimensions, we simulate it in different design softwares such as SketchUp, AUTOCAD, Helioscope etc.
  • 29. Design of Projects Software: Helio Scope  Energy yield simulator.  Detailed financial calculator.  Proposal editor. Electrical Design Software: SketchUp Design: Mechanical 3D Structure Design
  • 32. Project Installation After complete procurement of material, the next phase of project is installation. Following is the sequence of work flow in installation phase: 1) Construction of Civil Blocks 2) Curing of Civil Blocks 3) Assembling and installation of Solar Panel Structure 4) Installation of Panels on Solar Structure 5) Stringing of Solar Panels (Attaching Solar Panels in Series) 6) Installation of Cable Duct and Inverter 7) Connection of Cables with Inverter and Earth Bore. 8) Commissioning of the Inverter
  • 33. Construction of civil blocks Civil Blocks are the first component which is constructed at site before installation. They are important because they serve as a protection for solar panels and structure which are to be installed on the rooftop. The dimension of these civil blocks we use is: 10” Length 10” Width 8” Height One of the main process of civil work is cement curing.
  • 34. Curing Methods of Curing Maintain the presence of water in the concrete during the early hardening period, Reduce the loss of water from the surface of the concrete, and Accelerate concrete strength gain by supplying heat and additional moisture. It takes 2-3 days in this process. We have to shower it with water regularly for strengthening. GCC-31S water-base concrete curing compound is formulated from hydrocarbon resins and may be used on interior, exterior, vertical and horizontal concrete surfaces.
  • 35. Solar Panel Installation Process Nevertheless, if installation on the roof is not applicable or desired, the solar panels could also be mounted on the ground. You just need to make sure that there are no objects blocking access to the sun. The following steps explain solar panel installation on a roof: The most common location for the installation of solar PV panels is the roof. Most roofs typically have the desired specifications for the installation, so that panels get the maximum sunlight.
  • 36.  Assembling and installation of Solar Panel Structure Then, the solar panel mounting system has to be set up. This will support the base of the solar panels. The whole mounting structure must be tilted and have an angle between 10 to 25 degrees to have maximum sunlight exposure.  Install the Solar Panels When the mounts are set up, the solar panel itself has to be installed on the mounting structure. Make sure to tighten up all the bolts and nuts so that it stays stable.  Stringing of Solar Panels The next step in the installation process is to install the electrical wiring. In most cases, MC4 connectors are used because they are suited for all types of solar panels. Make sure to shut off the household’s electricity supply during the wiring installation. Panels are firstly connected in series in order to make an array of panels.
  • 37. Install Solar Inverter After that, the solar inverter must be connected to the system. It is typically installed near the main panel and it could be both indoors and outdoors. Inverters are more efficient if kept in a cooler place. If the inverter is outdoors, it should be kept out from the afternoon sun. If it is installed indoors, the garage or utility room are usually the best places, since they stay cool for most of the year and have ventilation. Bond Solar Inverter and Solar Battery In Hybrid Systems solar inverter has to be connected to the solar battery. The solar battery storage can save you from worrying about the lack of usable energy during cloudy times, it can also lower the solar battery storage system cost during installation. Connect the Inverter to the Consumer Unit The inverter should be connected to the consumer unit to generate electricity. A generation meter should also be connected to monitor the amount of electricity the solar panels actually produce. You can use your computer or other device to check your solar system’s performance. For example, you can check how much electricity you generate at different times and decide what time is suitable for using your washing machine or other utilities.
  • 38. Testing and Commissioning and Monitoring of Solar system The final step is to switch the power on and test the newly installed solar panel system. After that, the solar panel installation process is completed.
  • 40. Superior Multan Road Campus Superior Hospital 1