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Chemistry of digestionChemistry of digestion
& absorption, Local& absorption, Local
hormones of GIThormones of GIT
Dr Ifat Ara Begum
Associate Professor
Dept of Biochemistry
Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka
1
2
What is Digestion?What is Digestion?
3
 It is the process by which complex food
materials are broken down into simple
absorbable units
 Based on how food is broken down:
I.Mechanical digestion
II.Chemical digestion
What is the basic process of digestion?What is the basic process of digestion?
5
 Basic process:
Hydrolysis
 Enzymes involved:
Hydrolases group of enzymes found in
digestive juices
Functions of digestive systemFunctions of digestive system
7
 Ingestion
 Secretion of water, acid, buffer and
enzyme in to gastrointestinal lumen
 Mixing and propulsion
 Digestion
 Absorption
 Excretion (Defecation)
 
8
Digestive
juices
9
Name Source Secretion
(L/day)
pH Imp.
component
Saliva Salivary
glands
0.75-1.5 6.7-7.0 Mucus,
Salivary
amylase,
[Lingual
lipase]
Gastric
juice
Gastric
glands
2- 2.5 1.5-2.0 Mucus,
HCl,
Pepsin,
Intrinsic
factor of
castle,
[Gastric
lipase]
10
Name Source Secretio
n
(L/day)
pH Imp. component
Pancreati
c juice
Pancrea
s
0.8
-1.2
8.0
-
8.3
1)Amylolytic
enzyme:
• P. amylase
2)Lipolytic
enzyme:
• P. lipase
• Cholesterol -
esterase
•Phospholipase A2
3)Proteolytic
enzyme
•Trypsin
•Chymotrypsin
•Carboxypeptidase
11
Name Source Secretion
(L/day)
pH Imp.
component
Bile Liver 0.5-1.0 7.8 •Bile salts
•Bile
pigments
(e.g.
bilirubin)
• Cholesterol
ester
• PL (lecithin)
12
Name Source Secretion
(L/day)
pH Imp. component
Succus
entericu
s
Small
intestin
al
mucosa
1.0-2.0 7.5 1) Amylolytic
enzyme:
• Maltase
•Sucrase
•Lactase
•α-limit
dextrinase 2)
Proteolytic
enzyme:
•Aminopeptidas
e
•Di & tri
peptidases
3) Enterokinase/
Enteropeptidase
13
14
15
16
What is Absorption?What is Absorption?
17
 It is the process by which end product
of digestion, water, electrolytes,
minerals & vitamins pass through the
intestinal epithelium to enter into
blood / lymph
Glucose, AA -> Blood
Fatty acid -> Lymph
18
Processes involved in absorptionProcesses involved in absorption
19
 Active transport
 Diffusion
 
20
Local
Hormones of
GIT
What is this?What is this?
21
 A group of hormones liberated from the GIT
mucosa in response to the presence of food
in the lumen of the gut.
 
22
23
Name Origin Stimulus
for
secretion
Function
Gastrin G cell of
stomach
Products
of protein
digestion
Stimulates secretion
of :
Gastric acid
Pepsin
CCK Duodenu
m &
jejunum
Products
of :
Protein
digestion
Fat & FA
Stimulate enzyme
rich pancreatic
secretion
Contraction of GB
Decrease gastric
acid secretionSecreti
n
Duodenu
m &
jejunum
Acid
chyme
FA
Stimulate HCO3
rich pancreatic
secretion
Stimulate bile
secretion
Decrease gastric
24
Name Origin Stimulus
for
secretion
Function
Somatostati
n
D cells of
GIT
Fat
ingestion
Inhibit gastrin &
gastric acid
secretion
Inhibit
pancreatic
secretion
GIP Duodenu
m &
jejunum
Nutrients Inhibit gastric
acid secretion
VIP Nerve
ending of
GIT
- Decrease
gastric
secretion
 Increase
pancreatic
 
25
Digestion
&
Absorption of
Carbohydrate
26
27
End product of carbohydrateEnd product of carbohydrate
digestiondigestion
28
 Glucose
 Fructose
 Galactose
If starch : Only glucose
Absorption by Na+ dependant secondary activeAbsorption by Na+ dependant secondary active
transport (SGLT) & Facilitated diffusiontransport (SGLT) & Facilitated diffusion
(GLUT)(GLUT)
29
 
30
 
31
Digestion
&
Absorption of
Protein
Proteolytic enzymes: TypesProteolytic enzymes: Types
32
 
33
 
34
 
35
End product of protein digestionEnd product of protein digestion
36
 A mixture of free AA, di and
tripeptides, all of which are absorbed
actively from lumen to cell
 
37
 
38
 
39
Digestion
&
Absorption of
Lipid
40
41
42
End product of lipid digestionEnd product of lipid digestion
43
 FA
 Glycerol
 2-MAG
 Cholesterol
 LysoPL
All these are of amphipathic nature
having hydrophilic and hydrophobic
group
44
45
 
46
Summary on
digestion &
absorption of
nutrients
47
48
49

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Chemistry of digestion &; absorption

  • 1. Chemistry of digestionChemistry of digestion & absorption, Local& absorption, Local hormones of GIThormones of GIT Dr Ifat Ara Begum Associate Professor Dept of Biochemistry Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. What is Digestion?What is Digestion? 3  It is the process by which complex food materials are broken down into simple absorbable units  Based on how food is broken down: I.Mechanical digestion II.Chemical digestion
  • 4.
  • 5. What is the basic process of digestion?What is the basic process of digestion? 5  Basic process: Hydrolysis  Enzymes involved: Hydrolases group of enzymes found in digestive juices
  • 6.
  • 7. Functions of digestive systemFunctions of digestive system 7  Ingestion  Secretion of water, acid, buffer and enzyme in to gastrointestinal lumen  Mixing and propulsion  Digestion  Absorption  Excretion (Defecation)
  • 9. 9 Name Source Secretion (L/day) pH Imp. component Saliva Salivary glands 0.75-1.5 6.7-7.0 Mucus, Salivary amylase, [Lingual lipase] Gastric juice Gastric glands 2- 2.5 1.5-2.0 Mucus, HCl, Pepsin, Intrinsic factor of castle, [Gastric lipase]
  • 10. 10 Name Source Secretio n (L/day) pH Imp. component Pancreati c juice Pancrea s 0.8 -1.2 8.0 - 8.3 1)Amylolytic enzyme: • P. amylase 2)Lipolytic enzyme: • P. lipase • Cholesterol - esterase •Phospholipase A2 3)Proteolytic enzyme •Trypsin •Chymotrypsin •Carboxypeptidase
  • 11. 11 Name Source Secretion (L/day) pH Imp. component Bile Liver 0.5-1.0 7.8 •Bile salts •Bile pigments (e.g. bilirubin) • Cholesterol ester • PL (lecithin)
  • 12. 12 Name Source Secretion (L/day) pH Imp. component Succus entericu s Small intestin al mucosa 1.0-2.0 7.5 1) Amylolytic enzyme: • Maltase •Sucrase •Lactase •α-limit dextrinase 2) Proteolytic enzyme: •Aminopeptidas e •Di & tri peptidases 3) Enterokinase/ Enteropeptidase
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. What is Absorption?What is Absorption? 17  It is the process by which end product of digestion, water, electrolytes, minerals & vitamins pass through the intestinal epithelium to enter into blood / lymph Glucose, AA -> Blood Fatty acid -> Lymph
  • 18. 18
  • 19. Processes involved in absorptionProcesses involved in absorption 19  Active transport  Diffusion
  • 21. What is this?What is this? 21  A group of hormones liberated from the GIT mucosa in response to the presence of food in the lumen of the gut.
  • 22.   22
  • 23. 23 Name Origin Stimulus for secretion Function Gastrin G cell of stomach Products of protein digestion Stimulates secretion of : Gastric acid Pepsin CCK Duodenu m & jejunum Products of : Protein digestion Fat & FA Stimulate enzyme rich pancreatic secretion Contraction of GB Decrease gastric acid secretionSecreti n Duodenu m & jejunum Acid chyme FA Stimulate HCO3 rich pancreatic secretion Stimulate bile secretion Decrease gastric
  • 24. 24 Name Origin Stimulus for secretion Function Somatostati n D cells of GIT Fat ingestion Inhibit gastrin & gastric acid secretion Inhibit pancreatic secretion GIP Duodenu m & jejunum Nutrients Inhibit gastric acid secretion VIP Nerve ending of GIT - Decrease gastric secretion  Increase pancreatic
  • 26. 26
  • 27. 27
  • 28. End product of carbohydrateEnd product of carbohydrate digestiondigestion 28  Glucose  Fructose  Galactose If starch : Only glucose
  • 29. Absorption by Na+ dependant secondary activeAbsorption by Na+ dependant secondary active transport (SGLT) & Facilitated diffusiontransport (SGLT) & Facilitated diffusion (GLUT)(GLUT) 29
  • 30.   30
  • 33.   33
  • 34.   34
  • 35.   35
  • 36. End product of protein digestionEnd product of protein digestion 36  A mixture of free AA, di and tripeptides, all of which are absorbed actively from lumen to cell
  • 37.   37
  • 38.   38
  • 40. 40
  • 41. 41
  • 42. 42
  • 43. End product of lipid digestionEnd product of lipid digestion 43  FA  Glycerol  2-MAG  Cholesterol  LysoPL All these are of amphipathic nature having hydrophilic and hydrophobic group
  • 44. 44
  • 45. 45
  • 47. 47
  • 48. 48
  • 49. 49