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11
Sodium and YouSodium and You
Presenter: CherinePresenter: Cherine
UsherwoodUsherwood
RD/NutritionistRD/Nutritionist
2
At the end of the session participants shouldAt the end of the session participants should
be able to:be able to:
1.1. Define how sodium affects peopleDefine how sodium affects people
2.2. Identify foods high in sodiumIdentify foods high in sodium
3.3. Make healthier food choices to reduceMake healthier food choices to reduce
their intaketheir intake
3
What is sodium?What is sodium?
Sodium is one of the most abundantSodium is one of the most abundant
elements on earthelements on earth
Most people think of salt when sodium isMost people think of salt when sodium is
mentionedmentioned
Salt is actually the mineral compoundSalt is actually the mineral compound
‘sodium chloride’‘sodium chloride’
Foods we eat may contain sodiumFoods we eat may contain sodium
chloride (salt) or may contain sodium inchloride (salt) or may contain sodium in
other formsother forms
4
Where is Sodium Found?Where is Sodium Found?
Sodium is naturally present in most foodsSodium is naturally present in most foods
It is a component of salt; table salt is 40%It is a component of salt; table salt is 40%
sodium and 60% chloridesodium and 60% chloride..
Most of the sodium in processed foods is addedMost of the sodium in processed foods is added
to preserve or flavor them. Salt is the majorto preserve or flavor them. Salt is the major
source of this sodiumsource of this sodium
Salt is added to most canned and some frozenSalt is added to most canned and some frozen
vegetables, smoked and cured meats, andvegetables, smoked and cured meats, and
picklespickles
5
It is used in most cheeses, sauces, soups,It is used in most cheeses, sauces, soups,
salad dressings and many breakfastsalad dressings and many breakfast
cerealscereals..
6
How is salt used today?How is salt used today?
Salt is used in a variety of ways, the mostSalt is used in a variety of ways, the most
common use is for seasoningcommon use is for seasoning
Manufacturers of prepared, frozen and cannedManufacturers of prepared, frozen and canned
foods often use sodium to enhance the flavour offoods often use sodium to enhance the flavour of
their productstheir products
Salt is also still used as a preservativeSalt is also still used as a preservative
7
Salt is used for non-Salt is used for non-
food purposes asfood purposes as
well, such as de-icing,well, such as de-icing,
soft water treatmentsoft water treatment
and soap makingand soap making
http://winterservicesohio.com/deicing.htm
8
The role of sodium in the bodyThe role of sodium in the body
Sodium is one of the body’s three majorSodium is one of the body’s three major
electrolytes (potassium and chloride areelectrolytes (potassium and chloride are
the other two).the other two).
Electrolytes control the fluids going in andElectrolytes control the fluids going in and
out of the body’s tissues and cellsout of the body’s tissues and cells
When the body becomes dehydrated, itWhen the body becomes dehydrated, it
loses fluid and electrolytesloses fluid and electrolytes
9
Sodium also contributes to the followingSodium also contributes to the following
body functions:body functions:
1.1. regulates blood pressure and bloodregulates blood pressure and blood
volumevolume
2.2. helps transmit impulses for nervehelps transmit impulses for nerve
function and muscle contractionfunction and muscle contraction
3.3. regulates the acid-base balance of bloodregulates the acid-base balance of blood
and body fluidsand body fluids
10
Sodium maintains the water balanceSodium maintains the water balance
within cells.within cells.
Any extra sodium is excreted by theAny extra sodium is excreted by the
kidneyskidneys
Consuming excess sodium may lead toConsuming excess sodium may lead to
edema or water retentionedema or water retention
11
How much sodium is enough?How much sodium is enough?
The recommended intake of sodium forThe recommended intake of sodium for
most healthy people is 2,300 milligrams ormost healthy people is 2,300 milligrams or
less each day (FDA recommendedless each day (FDA recommended
intake).intake).
This is almost the amount of sodium inThis is almost the amount of sodium in
one teaspoon of salt.one teaspoon of salt.
12
How much sodium isHow much sodium is
enough?enough?
Women who consume excess sodiumWomen who consume excess sodium
may be at higher risk for developingmay be at higher risk for developing
osteoporosisosteoporosis
Some evidence suggests that for eachSome evidence suggests that for each
teaspoon of salt consumed, considerableteaspoon of salt consumed, considerable
calcium is excreted in the urine.calcium is excreted in the urine.
13
How does sodium affect peopleHow does sodium affect people
with kidney disease?with kidney disease?
Having kidney disease means yourHaving kidney disease means your
kidneys cannot get rid of excess sodiumkidneys cannot get rid of excess sodium
and fluid from your body.and fluid from your body.
As sodium and fluid build up in yourAs sodium and fluid build up in your
tissues and bloodstream, your bloodtissues and bloodstream, your blood
pressure increases and you feelpressure increases and you feel
uncomfortable.uncomfortable.
14
How does sodium affect peopleHow does sodium affect people
with kidney disease?with kidney disease?
Particularly damaging is sodium's link toParticularly damaging is sodium's link to
high blood pressure.high blood pressure.
High blood pressure can cause moreHigh blood pressure can cause more
damage to unhealthy kidneysdamage to unhealthy kidneys
This damage further reduces kidneyThis damage further reduces kidney
function, resulting in even more fluid andfunction, resulting in even more fluid and
waste build up in the bodywaste build up in the body
15
Other sodium-related complicationsOther sodium-related complications
include the following:include the following:
1.1. Edema:Edema: noticeable swelling in your legs,noticeable swelling in your legs,
hands and facehands and face
2.2. Heart failure:Heart failure: excess fluid in theexcess fluid in the
bloodstream can overwork your heartbloodstream can overwork your heart
making it enlarged and weakmaking it enlarged and weak
3.3. Shortness of breath:Shortness of breath: fluid can build up influid can build up in
the lungs, making it difficult to breathethe lungs, making it difficult to breathe
16
Sodium and the renal dietSodium and the renal diet
Controlling blood pressure is important inControlling blood pressure is important in
managing kidney diseasemanaging kidney disease
Restriction is recommended if bloodRestriction is recommended if blood
pressure is high or if you are retaining fluidpressure is high or if you are retaining fluid
Low sodium diets range from 1,000 toLow sodium diets range from 1,000 to
2,000 mg based on individual2,000 mg based on individual
requirementsrequirements
17
Sodium and the renal dietSodium and the renal diet
If you have other medical conditions, suchIf you have other medical conditions, such
as heart or liver disease, you may need toas heart or liver disease, you may need to
restrict sodium more.restrict sodium more.
If you are at stage 5 CKD, also known asIf you are at stage 5 CKD, also known as
(ESRD), and require dialysis you will be(ESRD), and require dialysis you will be
asked to follow a low sodium diet.asked to follow a low sodium diet.
The diet will help with B/P control, It willThe diet will help with B/P control, It will
also help you control thirst and fluid intakealso help you control thirst and fluid intake
18
Sodium and the renal dietSodium and the renal diet
Controlling sodiumControlling sodium
intake will help avoidintake will help avoid
cramping and bloodcramping and blood
pressure drops duringpressure drops during
dialysis.dialysis.
19
How to reduce sodium in theHow to reduce sodium in the
dietdiet
Choose fresh, frozen or canned food itemsChoose fresh, frozen or canned food items
without added salts.without added salts.
Limit the amount of salty snacks you eat,Limit the amount of salty snacks you eat,
such as chips.such as chips.
Avoid adding salt and canned vegetablesAvoid adding salt and canned vegetables
to homemade dishes.to homemade dishes.
20
How to reduce sodium in the dietHow to reduce sodium in the diet
Select unsalted, fat-free broths or soups.Select unsalted, fat-free broths or soups.
Select fat-free or low-fat milk, low-sodium,Select fat-free or low-fat milk, low-sodium,
low-fat cheeses, as well as low-fat yogurt.low-fat cheeses, as well as low-fat yogurt.
Specify what you want and how you wantSpecify what you want and how you want
it prepared when dining out. Ask for yourit prepared when dining out. Ask for your
dish to be prepared without salt.dish to be prepared without salt.
Use spices and herbs to enhance theUse spices and herbs to enhance the
taste of your food.taste of your food.
21
How to reduce sodium in the dietHow to reduce sodium in the diet
Read food labels.Read food labels.
22
Read food labelsRead food labels
23
Do not add salt at the tableDo not add salt at the table
24
Avoid High sodium foodsAvoid High sodium foods

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Sodium

  • 1. 11 Sodium and YouSodium and You Presenter: CherinePresenter: Cherine UsherwoodUsherwood RD/NutritionistRD/Nutritionist
  • 2. 2 At the end of the session participants shouldAt the end of the session participants should be able to:be able to: 1.1. Define how sodium affects peopleDefine how sodium affects people 2.2. Identify foods high in sodiumIdentify foods high in sodium 3.3. Make healthier food choices to reduceMake healthier food choices to reduce their intaketheir intake
  • 3. 3 What is sodium?What is sodium? Sodium is one of the most abundantSodium is one of the most abundant elements on earthelements on earth Most people think of salt when sodium isMost people think of salt when sodium is mentionedmentioned Salt is actually the mineral compoundSalt is actually the mineral compound ‘sodium chloride’‘sodium chloride’ Foods we eat may contain sodiumFoods we eat may contain sodium chloride (salt) or may contain sodium inchloride (salt) or may contain sodium in other formsother forms
  • 4. 4 Where is Sodium Found?Where is Sodium Found? Sodium is naturally present in most foodsSodium is naturally present in most foods It is a component of salt; table salt is 40%It is a component of salt; table salt is 40% sodium and 60% chloridesodium and 60% chloride.. Most of the sodium in processed foods is addedMost of the sodium in processed foods is added to preserve or flavor them. Salt is the majorto preserve or flavor them. Salt is the major source of this sodiumsource of this sodium Salt is added to most canned and some frozenSalt is added to most canned and some frozen vegetables, smoked and cured meats, andvegetables, smoked and cured meats, and picklespickles
  • 5. 5 It is used in most cheeses, sauces, soups,It is used in most cheeses, sauces, soups, salad dressings and many breakfastsalad dressings and many breakfast cerealscereals..
  • 6. 6 How is salt used today?How is salt used today? Salt is used in a variety of ways, the mostSalt is used in a variety of ways, the most common use is for seasoningcommon use is for seasoning Manufacturers of prepared, frozen and cannedManufacturers of prepared, frozen and canned foods often use sodium to enhance the flavour offoods often use sodium to enhance the flavour of their productstheir products Salt is also still used as a preservativeSalt is also still used as a preservative
  • 7. 7 Salt is used for non-Salt is used for non- food purposes asfood purposes as well, such as de-icing,well, such as de-icing, soft water treatmentsoft water treatment and soap makingand soap making http://winterservicesohio.com/deicing.htm
  • 8. 8 The role of sodium in the bodyThe role of sodium in the body Sodium is one of the body’s three majorSodium is one of the body’s three major electrolytes (potassium and chloride areelectrolytes (potassium and chloride are the other two).the other two). Electrolytes control the fluids going in andElectrolytes control the fluids going in and out of the body’s tissues and cellsout of the body’s tissues and cells When the body becomes dehydrated, itWhen the body becomes dehydrated, it loses fluid and electrolytesloses fluid and electrolytes
  • 9. 9 Sodium also contributes to the followingSodium also contributes to the following body functions:body functions: 1.1. regulates blood pressure and bloodregulates blood pressure and blood volumevolume 2.2. helps transmit impulses for nervehelps transmit impulses for nerve function and muscle contractionfunction and muscle contraction 3.3. regulates the acid-base balance of bloodregulates the acid-base balance of blood and body fluidsand body fluids
  • 10. 10 Sodium maintains the water balanceSodium maintains the water balance within cells.within cells. Any extra sodium is excreted by theAny extra sodium is excreted by the kidneyskidneys Consuming excess sodium may lead toConsuming excess sodium may lead to edema or water retentionedema or water retention
  • 11. 11 How much sodium is enough?How much sodium is enough? The recommended intake of sodium forThe recommended intake of sodium for most healthy people is 2,300 milligrams ormost healthy people is 2,300 milligrams or less each day (FDA recommendedless each day (FDA recommended intake).intake). This is almost the amount of sodium inThis is almost the amount of sodium in one teaspoon of salt.one teaspoon of salt.
  • 12. 12 How much sodium isHow much sodium is enough?enough? Women who consume excess sodiumWomen who consume excess sodium may be at higher risk for developingmay be at higher risk for developing osteoporosisosteoporosis Some evidence suggests that for eachSome evidence suggests that for each teaspoon of salt consumed, considerableteaspoon of salt consumed, considerable calcium is excreted in the urine.calcium is excreted in the urine.
  • 13. 13 How does sodium affect peopleHow does sodium affect people with kidney disease?with kidney disease? Having kidney disease means yourHaving kidney disease means your kidneys cannot get rid of excess sodiumkidneys cannot get rid of excess sodium and fluid from your body.and fluid from your body. As sodium and fluid build up in yourAs sodium and fluid build up in your tissues and bloodstream, your bloodtissues and bloodstream, your blood pressure increases and you feelpressure increases and you feel uncomfortable.uncomfortable.
  • 14. 14 How does sodium affect peopleHow does sodium affect people with kidney disease?with kidney disease? Particularly damaging is sodium's link toParticularly damaging is sodium's link to high blood pressure.high blood pressure. High blood pressure can cause moreHigh blood pressure can cause more damage to unhealthy kidneysdamage to unhealthy kidneys This damage further reduces kidneyThis damage further reduces kidney function, resulting in even more fluid andfunction, resulting in even more fluid and waste build up in the bodywaste build up in the body
  • 15. 15 Other sodium-related complicationsOther sodium-related complications include the following:include the following: 1.1. Edema:Edema: noticeable swelling in your legs,noticeable swelling in your legs, hands and facehands and face 2.2. Heart failure:Heart failure: excess fluid in theexcess fluid in the bloodstream can overwork your heartbloodstream can overwork your heart making it enlarged and weakmaking it enlarged and weak 3.3. Shortness of breath:Shortness of breath: fluid can build up influid can build up in the lungs, making it difficult to breathethe lungs, making it difficult to breathe
  • 16. 16 Sodium and the renal dietSodium and the renal diet Controlling blood pressure is important inControlling blood pressure is important in managing kidney diseasemanaging kidney disease Restriction is recommended if bloodRestriction is recommended if blood pressure is high or if you are retaining fluidpressure is high or if you are retaining fluid Low sodium diets range from 1,000 toLow sodium diets range from 1,000 to 2,000 mg based on individual2,000 mg based on individual requirementsrequirements
  • 17. 17 Sodium and the renal dietSodium and the renal diet If you have other medical conditions, suchIf you have other medical conditions, such as heart or liver disease, you may need toas heart or liver disease, you may need to restrict sodium more.restrict sodium more. If you are at stage 5 CKD, also known asIf you are at stage 5 CKD, also known as (ESRD), and require dialysis you will be(ESRD), and require dialysis you will be asked to follow a low sodium diet.asked to follow a low sodium diet. The diet will help with B/P control, It willThe diet will help with B/P control, It will also help you control thirst and fluid intakealso help you control thirst and fluid intake
  • 18. 18 Sodium and the renal dietSodium and the renal diet Controlling sodiumControlling sodium intake will help avoidintake will help avoid cramping and bloodcramping and blood pressure drops duringpressure drops during dialysis.dialysis.
  • 19. 19 How to reduce sodium in theHow to reduce sodium in the dietdiet Choose fresh, frozen or canned food itemsChoose fresh, frozen or canned food items without added salts.without added salts. Limit the amount of salty snacks you eat,Limit the amount of salty snacks you eat, such as chips.such as chips. Avoid adding salt and canned vegetablesAvoid adding salt and canned vegetables to homemade dishes.to homemade dishes.
  • 20. 20 How to reduce sodium in the dietHow to reduce sodium in the diet Select unsalted, fat-free broths or soups.Select unsalted, fat-free broths or soups. Select fat-free or low-fat milk, low-sodium,Select fat-free or low-fat milk, low-sodium, low-fat cheeses, as well as low-fat yogurt.low-fat cheeses, as well as low-fat yogurt. Specify what you want and how you wantSpecify what you want and how you want it prepared when dining out. Ask for yourit prepared when dining out. Ask for your dish to be prepared without salt.dish to be prepared without salt. Use spices and herbs to enhance theUse spices and herbs to enhance the taste of your food.taste of your food.
  • 21. 21 How to reduce sodium in the dietHow to reduce sodium in the diet Read food labels.Read food labels.
  • 22. 22 Read food labelsRead food labels
  • 23. 23 Do not add salt at the tableDo not add salt at the table
  • 24. 24 Avoid High sodium foodsAvoid High sodium foods