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11
Points and Crossings:
The arrangements by which different routes,
diverging from the first track, are connected to
facilitate the diversion of trains from one track
to another track without any obstruction are
known as points and crossings.
Turn out
• In case of roads – vehicles move in any direction
• Trains - Change is made possible with the
provision of turnouts
• Consists of points and crossings.
• A complete set of points and crossings provides
for diverting the trains from a main track to a
branch track is known as turn out.
Right Hand Turn out:
Constituents of turnout
Constituents of turnout
1. A pair of Points
2. A pair of stock rails
3. Two check rails
4. Four lead rails
5. A Vee crossing
6. Slide chairs
7. Stretcher bar
8. A pair of heel blocks
9. Switch tie plate or gauge
10. Parts for operating points- Rods, cranks, levers etc
11. Locking system which includes locking box, lock
bar, plunger bar etc
1) A pair of Points (Switches):
A switch, turnout or [set of] points is a
mechanical installation enabling railway
trains to be guided from one track to another.
• Tongue Rail:
▫ It is a tapered movable rail, made of high-carbon or
manganese steel to withstand wear.
▫ At its thicker end, it is attached to a running rail.
▫ A tongue rail is also called a switch rail.
Chapter 6 Points,crossings and yards
2) A pair of stock rails
▫ It is the running rail against which a tongue rail operates.
3) V Crossing:
The function of V crossing is to provide gaps
between the rails to be crossed so that wheel
flanges can pass through the gaps without any
obstruction.
4) Two check rails:
Function of these rails is to check the
tendency of wheels to climb over the crossing.
5) Four lead rails:
In which Rail there is no switch or crossing is
call lead rails.
6) Switch tie plate:
Function of switch tie plate is to maintain
gauge distance at front of switch.
7) Stud(Stop):
A Bent plate which is jointed to stock rail is
called stop.
Function of stop is to maintain the
alignment.
8) Side Chairs:
Function of Side chair is to support the tongue
rails throughout their length.
9) Stretcher bar:
Function of Stretcher bar is to connects toes of
both the tongue rails so that each tongue rail
moves through same distance.
10) Rods, Cranks, Lever:
Function of Rods, Cranks, Lever is to operate
the points.
11) Locking System:
Function of Locking System is to Maintain
timing between signal and tong rails.
Types of Turnouts
• Depending on direction of movement of trains
from main tracks
▫ Left hand turnout
If a train from main track is diverted to the Left of
the main route in the facing direction.
▫ Right hand turnout
If a train from main track is diverted to the Right
of the main route in the facing direction
• Facing direction:
Standing at switch and looking towards crossing
• Trailing direction:
Standing at crossing and looking towards switches
• Facing point of turn out
When trains pass over the switches first and then
they pass over the crossing is called Facing point of
turn out
• Trailing point of turn out
When trains pass over the crossing first and then
they pass over the switches is called Facing point of
turn out
Crossing
▫ A crossing is a device introduced at the junction
where two rails cross each other to permit the
wheel flange of a railway vehicle to pass from one
track to another.
Types of crossing
• Based on the angle of crossing
1. Acute angle crossing: (or V crossing)
 When angle of crossing rails become acute angle
then this crossing is called Acute crossing or V
crossing or Frog.
Types of crossing
2. Obtuse angle
When angle of crossing rails become Obtuse
angle then this crossing is called Obtuse
crossing.
Chapter 6 Points,crossings and yards
Types of crossing
3. Square crossing
When angle of crossing rails become Right
angle then
this crossing is called Right angle crossing or
Square
crossing.
Types of crossing
• According to Diversion
1.Crossover Crossing
when two parallel tracks are connected by two
set of turn out is known as cross over.
Function of this crossing is to connect two
parallel or diverging tracks.
Crossover Crossing
Types of crossing
Types of crossing
2. Diamond Crossing
When two tracks crosses each other at less
than 90 angle then it forms diamond shape so
it is called Diamond Crossing
• It consists
▫ 2 acute angle
▫ 2 obtuse angle
▫ 4 check rails
Types of crossing
NAGPUR STATION'S MOST FAMOUS LANDMARK –
DIAMOND CROSSING connecting North, south, east & west of
India
Types of crossing
3. Gathering Lines:
When there is more than two track divert
from one line then it is called Gathering lines.
Chapter 6 Points,crossings and yards
Types of crossing
4. Scissors Crossing(Double cross):
• It is also known as double cross over. It is a
combination of one cross over the another
cross over in the opposite direction, to enable
the trains to change the tracks from either
direction along the main track.
• And this type is use at goods yard.
Chapter 6 Points,crossings and yards
Chapter 6 Points,crossings and yards
Types of crossing
5. Spring Crossing
In this crossing wing rail is strongly connected
to V part by helical spring so that’s why this
crossing is called spring crossing.
These crossings used in USA but not in
INDIA.
Station and
Yards
Definition of Station
 A railway station or a railroad station and often
shortened to just station, is a railway facility
where trains regularly stop to load or
unload passengers and/or freight
Station and
Yards
Purpose of Railway
station
 For exchange of passengers and goods.
 For control of train movements
 To enable the trains on a single line track to cross from
opposite directions.
 To enable the following express trains to overtake
 For taking diesel or coal and water for locomotives
 For detaching engines and running staff
 For detaching or attaching of compartments and wagons
 For sorting of bogies to form new trains, housing of
locomotive in loco sheds.
 In emergencies in ease of dislocation of track due to rains,
accidents etc...
 For repairing engines and changing their direction
 Railway station are having suitable approach roads from
surrounding areas.
Types of
Stations
 Wayside Stations, Junction Stations, Terminal
Stations
Wayside
Stations
 In this type arrangements are made for crossing or
for overtaking trains. Wayside stations are of the
following types.
 i.Halt stations, ii.Flag Stations, iii.Crossing stations
Halt
Stations
 A halt, is a small station, usually unstaffed and with
few or no facilities. In some cases, trains stop only
on request, when passengers on the platform
indicate that they wish to board, or passengers on
the train inform the crew that they wish to alight.
Halt
Stations
Flag
Stations
 Flag stations describes a stopping point at which
trains stop only on an as-need or request basis; that
is, only if there are passengers to be picked up or
dropped off.
 These stations have no overtaking or crossing
facilities and arrangements to control the movement
of trains. These stations have buildings, staff and
telegraph facilities.
 Some of the flag stations have sidings also in the
form of loops.
Flag
Stations
Crossing
Stations
 Provided with facilities for crossing
 In this type at least one loop line is provided to allow
another train if one track is already occupied by a
waiting train
 Generally the train to be stopped is taken on the loop
line and the through train is allowed to pass on the
main line
Crossing
Stations
Junction
stations:
 At a junction stations, lines from three or more directions
meet
 The stations where a branch line meets the main line are
known as junctions.
Arrangements in junction stations
 Facilities for interchange of traffic between main and
branch line
 Facilities to clean and repair the compartments of the
trains
 Facilities for good sidings, engine sheds, turn table etc.
Junction
stations:
Terminal
Stations:
 It is a station where a railway line or one of its
branches terminates
 Facilities required in terminal stations
 Watering, coaling, cleaning, servicing the engine
 Turn table for the change of direction of the engine
 Facilities for dealing goods traffic. Such as
marshalling yard, engine sheds, sidings etc.
 In circulating area, ticket office, restaurant etc are
provided and it is directly connected to the road
Terminal
Stations:
Classification of
Stations
 Stations can be classified on the basis of their
operation as
 1.Block stations-Class A, Class B and Class C
 2.Non Block Stations-Class D stations or Flag
stations
 3.Special class stations.
Block
Stations:
 The stations at the end the block sections are called Block
stations
 Authority to proceed is given in the shape of token at
these stations.
Class A Station:
 On these stations the track is cleared up to 400m beyond
the home signal for giving permission to approach a train
Class B Station:
 In such stations, the other signal is provided at about
580m from the home signal
Class C Station:
 On these stations passengers are not booked. It is simply
a block meant for splitting a long block section and to
reduce the interval between the successive trains.
Non Block
Stations:
 Also known as Class D station or Flag station
 Situated between two consecutive block stations
 May not be telegraphically connected to the
adjacent stations
 No equipment or staff is provided for controlling
the movements of the trains.
 Trains are stopped by flag signals only
Special class
stations:
 Stations not coming under block station and non
block stations are called special class station
Platforms - Passenger and Goods platforms:
 A railway platform is a section of pathway, alongside rail
tracks at a railway station, metro station or tram stop, at
which passengers may board or alight from trains or trams.
 Almost all rail stations have some form of platform, with
larger stations having multiple platforms.
 Platform types include the bay platform, side
platform (also called through platform), split
platform and the island platform.
 A bay platform is one at which the track terminates, i.e. a
dead-end or siding.
 A side platform is the more usual type, alongside tracks
where the train arrives from one end and leaves towards the
other.
 An island platform has through platforms on both sides; it
may be indented on one or both ends, with bay platforms.
Passenger Platform
Goods
Platform
Definition of
Yard:
 An area consisting of a network of railway tracks,
sidings, and sheds for storing, maintaining, and
joining engines and carriages.
 A yard is defined as a system of tracks laid within
definite limits for various purposes such as receiving
sorting and dispatch of vehicles.
Railway
Yard
Types of
Yards:
 Passenger yards, Goods yards, Marshalling yards,
Locomotive yards
Passenger
yards:
 Function of passenger yard is to provide all the facilities
for the safe movement of passengers.
Facilities in passenger yards
 Booking office, enquiry office, luggage booking room,
cloak room and waiting room for passengers
 Parking space for vehicles
 Signals for reception and dispatch of trains
 Platforms and sidings for shunting facilities
 Facilities for changing batteries
 Facilities for passing a through train
 Washing lines, sick lines facilities
Passenger
yards
Goods
yards:
 A goods station (also known as a goods
yard, goods depot or freight station) is, in
the widest sense, a railway station which is
exclusively or predominantly where goods
(or freight) of any description are loaded or
unloaded from ships or road vehicles and/or
where goods wagons are transferred to local
sidings.
 These are provided for receiving, loading and
unloading of goods
Goods
yards
Requirements of a goods
yard
 Approach road for movement of goods
 Sufficient number of platforms for loading and
unloading
 Sufficient number of godowns
 Booking office
 Cart weighing machine
 Cranes for loading and unloading
 Vacuum testing machine
Marshalling yards:
 Marshalling yard is a railroad yard found at
some freight train stations, used to separate railroad
cars on to one of several tracks
 It is the place where goods wagons received from
different centres are sorted out and placed in order
to detached at different stations
 The marshalling yards are distribution centres
 Empty wagons are also kept in marshalling yards
Marshalling yards:
Factors for the efficient functioning of
marshalling yards
 Shunting operations should not disturb the regular
trains
 Should be kept parallel to the running trains
 Movement of wagons in one direction only
 Repair facilities should be provided on one or more
sidings
 Connected to all important railway stations
 Goods yard should be nearer to the marshalling yard
Types of marshalling
yards:
 (i)Flat yard (ii)Gravity yard (iii)Hump yard
Flat
yard:
 Flat yards are constructed on flat ground, or on a
gentle slope. Freight vehicles are pushed by a
locomotive and coast to their required location.
 A flat yard has no hump, and relies on locomotives
for all car movements
Gravity
yard:
 The whole yard is set up on a continuous falling
gradient and there is less use of shunting engines.
 Typical locations of gravity yards are places where it
was difficult to build a hump yard due to
the topography
 Gravity yards also have a very large capacity but they
need more staff than hump yards and thus they are
the most uneconomical classification yards.
Hump-
yard:
 These are the largest and most effective classification
yards, with the largest shunting capacity—often several
thousand cars a day.
 The heart of these yards is the hump: a lead track on a
hill (hump) that an engine pushes the cars over.
 Single cars, or some coupled cars in a block, are
uncoupled just before or at the crest of the hump, and
roll by gravity onto their destination tracks
 A hump yard has a constructed hill, over which freight
cars are shoved by yard locomotives, and then gravity is
used to propel the cars to various sorting tracks
Hump-
yard:
Locomotive
yards:
 This is the yard which houses the locomotives for
various facilities such as watering, fueling, cleaning,
repairing, servicing etc.
Locomotive
yards:
Locomotive
yards:
Requirements of a locomotive
yard
 Should be located near the passenger and goods
yards
 Water column
 Engine shed, Ash pit, inspection pit, repair shed,
turn table
 Hydraulic jack for lifting operations
 Over head tank and loco well
 Sick siding
 Place for future expansion
Water
Columns:
 A water crane is a device used for delivering a large
volume of water into the tank or tender of a steam
locomotive. The device is sometimes also called a water
column.
 As a steam locomotive consumes large quantities of water,
water cranes were a vital part of railway station equipment,
often situated at the end of a platform, so that water could
be refilled during a stop at the station.
 They are kept at all main line tracks at a distance of not less
than 50Km.
 It should not any obstruction to traffic
 Foot valve is provided to regulate the water flow
 Height of water column is 442cm
 Projection of pipe is about 225 cms
Water
Columns:
Water Column & Ash
Pit
Ash pits: (Ash-
pans)
 Ash pits are provided to collect the ashes from the
locomotives
 They are generally 1.067m deep and length is slightly
more than the length of the locomotive.
 They rest on masonry or concrete walls and rails are
fixed on longitudinal beams provided at the top of
the walls
Turn
table:
 A turntable is a device used to turn railroad rolling stock.
 Turntables were also used to turn observation cars so that
their windowed lounge ends faced toward the rear of the train.
 A turntable is a large circular platform which is used to turn
locomotives and other rolling stock for railways.
 A well-engineered turntable is designed in such a way that the
efforts of only two or three people are needed to operate the
turntable, even when dealing with very large and heavy
locomotives
 The reason the turntable was developed was because early
steam locomotives were somewhat difficult to run in reverse
 As a result, train companies started building turntables so
that they could quickly turn their locomotives around.
Turn Table
Chapter 6 Points,crossings and yards

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Chapter 6 Points,crossings and yards

  • 1. 11
  • 2. Points and Crossings: The arrangements by which different routes, diverging from the first track, are connected to facilitate the diversion of trains from one track to another track without any obstruction are known as points and crossings.
  • 3. Turn out • In case of roads – vehicles move in any direction • Trains - Change is made possible with the provision of turnouts • Consists of points and crossings. • A complete set of points and crossings provides for diverting the trains from a main track to a branch track is known as turn out.
  • 6. Constituents of turnout 1. A pair of Points 2. A pair of stock rails 3. Two check rails 4. Four lead rails 5. A Vee crossing 6. Slide chairs 7. Stretcher bar 8. A pair of heel blocks 9. Switch tie plate or gauge 10. Parts for operating points- Rods, cranks, levers etc 11. Locking system which includes locking box, lock bar, plunger bar etc
  • 7. 1) A pair of Points (Switches): A switch, turnout or [set of] points is a mechanical installation enabling railway trains to be guided from one track to another. • Tongue Rail: ▫ It is a tapered movable rail, made of high-carbon or manganese steel to withstand wear. ▫ At its thicker end, it is attached to a running rail. ▫ A tongue rail is also called a switch rail.
  • 9. 2) A pair of stock rails ▫ It is the running rail against which a tongue rail operates.
  • 10. 3) V Crossing: The function of V crossing is to provide gaps between the rails to be crossed so that wheel flanges can pass through the gaps without any obstruction. 4) Two check rails: Function of these rails is to check the tendency of wheels to climb over the crossing.
  • 11. 5) Four lead rails: In which Rail there is no switch or crossing is call lead rails.
  • 12. 6) Switch tie plate: Function of switch tie plate is to maintain gauge distance at front of switch. 7) Stud(Stop): A Bent plate which is jointed to stock rail is called stop. Function of stop is to maintain the alignment.
  • 13. 8) Side Chairs: Function of Side chair is to support the tongue rails throughout their length. 9) Stretcher bar: Function of Stretcher bar is to connects toes of both the tongue rails so that each tongue rail moves through same distance.
  • 14. 10) Rods, Cranks, Lever: Function of Rods, Cranks, Lever is to operate the points.
  • 15. 11) Locking System: Function of Locking System is to Maintain timing between signal and tong rails.
  • 16. Types of Turnouts • Depending on direction of movement of trains from main tracks ▫ Left hand turnout If a train from main track is diverted to the Left of the main route in the facing direction. ▫ Right hand turnout If a train from main track is diverted to the Right of the main route in the facing direction
  • 17. • Facing direction: Standing at switch and looking towards crossing • Trailing direction: Standing at crossing and looking towards switches • Facing point of turn out When trains pass over the switches first and then they pass over the crossing is called Facing point of turn out • Trailing point of turn out When trains pass over the crossing first and then they pass over the switches is called Facing point of turn out
  • 18. Crossing ▫ A crossing is a device introduced at the junction where two rails cross each other to permit the wheel flange of a railway vehicle to pass from one track to another.
  • 19. Types of crossing • Based on the angle of crossing 1. Acute angle crossing: (or V crossing)  When angle of crossing rails become acute angle then this crossing is called Acute crossing or V crossing or Frog.
  • 20. Types of crossing 2. Obtuse angle When angle of crossing rails become Obtuse angle then this crossing is called Obtuse crossing.
  • 22. Types of crossing 3. Square crossing When angle of crossing rails become Right angle then this crossing is called Right angle crossing or Square crossing.
  • 23. Types of crossing • According to Diversion 1.Crossover Crossing when two parallel tracks are connected by two set of turn out is known as cross over. Function of this crossing is to connect two parallel or diverging tracks.
  • 26. Types of crossing 2. Diamond Crossing When two tracks crosses each other at less than 90 angle then it forms diamond shape so it is called Diamond Crossing • It consists ▫ 2 acute angle ▫ 2 obtuse angle ▫ 4 check rails
  • 28. NAGPUR STATION'S MOST FAMOUS LANDMARK – DIAMOND CROSSING connecting North, south, east & west of India
  • 29. Types of crossing 3. Gathering Lines: When there is more than two track divert from one line then it is called Gathering lines.
  • 31. Types of crossing 4. Scissors Crossing(Double cross): • It is also known as double cross over. It is a combination of one cross over the another cross over in the opposite direction, to enable the trains to change the tracks from either direction along the main track. • And this type is use at goods yard.
  • 34. Types of crossing 5. Spring Crossing In this crossing wing rail is strongly connected to V part by helical spring so that’s why this crossing is called spring crossing. These crossings used in USA but not in INDIA.
  • 35. Station and Yards Definition of Station  A railway station or a railroad station and often shortened to just station, is a railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers and/or freight
  • 37. Purpose of Railway station  For exchange of passengers and goods.  For control of train movements  To enable the trains on a single line track to cross from opposite directions.  To enable the following express trains to overtake  For taking diesel or coal and water for locomotives  For detaching engines and running staff  For detaching or attaching of compartments and wagons  For sorting of bogies to form new trains, housing of locomotive in loco sheds.  In emergencies in ease of dislocation of track due to rains, accidents etc...  For repairing engines and changing their direction  Railway station are having suitable approach roads from surrounding areas.
  • 38. Types of Stations  Wayside Stations, Junction Stations, Terminal Stations
  • 39. Wayside Stations  In this type arrangements are made for crossing or for overtaking trains. Wayside stations are of the following types.  i.Halt stations, ii.Flag Stations, iii.Crossing stations
  • 40. Halt Stations  A halt, is a small station, usually unstaffed and with few or no facilities. In some cases, trains stop only on request, when passengers on the platform indicate that they wish to board, or passengers on the train inform the crew that they wish to alight.
  • 42. Flag Stations  Flag stations describes a stopping point at which trains stop only on an as-need or request basis; that is, only if there are passengers to be picked up or dropped off.  These stations have no overtaking or crossing facilities and arrangements to control the movement of trains. These stations have buildings, staff and telegraph facilities.  Some of the flag stations have sidings also in the form of loops.
  • 44. Crossing Stations  Provided with facilities for crossing  In this type at least one loop line is provided to allow another train if one track is already occupied by a waiting train  Generally the train to be stopped is taken on the loop line and the through train is allowed to pass on the main line
  • 46. Junction stations:  At a junction stations, lines from three or more directions meet  The stations where a branch line meets the main line are known as junctions. Arrangements in junction stations  Facilities for interchange of traffic between main and branch line  Facilities to clean and repair the compartments of the trains  Facilities for good sidings, engine sheds, turn table etc.
  • 48. Terminal Stations:  It is a station where a railway line or one of its branches terminates  Facilities required in terminal stations  Watering, coaling, cleaning, servicing the engine  Turn table for the change of direction of the engine  Facilities for dealing goods traffic. Such as marshalling yard, engine sheds, sidings etc.  In circulating area, ticket office, restaurant etc are provided and it is directly connected to the road
  • 50. Classification of Stations  Stations can be classified on the basis of their operation as  1.Block stations-Class A, Class B and Class C  2.Non Block Stations-Class D stations or Flag stations  3.Special class stations.
  • 51. Block Stations:  The stations at the end the block sections are called Block stations  Authority to proceed is given in the shape of token at these stations. Class A Station:  On these stations the track is cleared up to 400m beyond the home signal for giving permission to approach a train Class B Station:  In such stations, the other signal is provided at about 580m from the home signal Class C Station:  On these stations passengers are not booked. It is simply a block meant for splitting a long block section and to reduce the interval between the successive trains.
  • 52. Non Block Stations:  Also known as Class D station or Flag station  Situated between two consecutive block stations  May not be telegraphically connected to the adjacent stations  No equipment or staff is provided for controlling the movements of the trains.  Trains are stopped by flag signals only
  • 53. Special class stations:  Stations not coming under block station and non block stations are called special class station
  • 54. Platforms - Passenger and Goods platforms:  A railway platform is a section of pathway, alongside rail tracks at a railway station, metro station or tram stop, at which passengers may board or alight from trains or trams.  Almost all rail stations have some form of platform, with larger stations having multiple platforms.  Platform types include the bay platform, side platform (also called through platform), split platform and the island platform.  A bay platform is one at which the track terminates, i.e. a dead-end or siding.  A side platform is the more usual type, alongside tracks where the train arrives from one end and leaves towards the other.  An island platform has through platforms on both sides; it may be indented on one or both ends, with bay platforms.
  • 57. Definition of Yard:  An area consisting of a network of railway tracks, sidings, and sheds for storing, maintaining, and joining engines and carriages.  A yard is defined as a system of tracks laid within definite limits for various purposes such as receiving sorting and dispatch of vehicles.
  • 59. Types of Yards:  Passenger yards, Goods yards, Marshalling yards, Locomotive yards
  • 60. Passenger yards:  Function of passenger yard is to provide all the facilities for the safe movement of passengers. Facilities in passenger yards  Booking office, enquiry office, luggage booking room, cloak room and waiting room for passengers  Parking space for vehicles  Signals for reception and dispatch of trains  Platforms and sidings for shunting facilities  Facilities for changing batteries  Facilities for passing a through train  Washing lines, sick lines facilities
  • 62. Goods yards:  A goods station (also known as a goods yard, goods depot or freight station) is, in the widest sense, a railway station which is exclusively or predominantly where goods (or freight) of any description are loaded or unloaded from ships or road vehicles and/or where goods wagons are transferred to local sidings.  These are provided for receiving, loading and unloading of goods
  • 64. Requirements of a goods yard  Approach road for movement of goods  Sufficient number of platforms for loading and unloading  Sufficient number of godowns  Booking office  Cart weighing machine  Cranes for loading and unloading  Vacuum testing machine
  • 65. Marshalling yards:  Marshalling yard is a railroad yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railroad cars on to one of several tracks  It is the place where goods wagons received from different centres are sorted out and placed in order to detached at different stations  The marshalling yards are distribution centres  Empty wagons are also kept in marshalling yards
  • 67. Factors for the efficient functioning of marshalling yards  Shunting operations should not disturb the regular trains  Should be kept parallel to the running trains  Movement of wagons in one direction only  Repair facilities should be provided on one or more sidings  Connected to all important railway stations  Goods yard should be nearer to the marshalling yard
  • 68. Types of marshalling yards:  (i)Flat yard (ii)Gravity yard (iii)Hump yard
  • 69. Flat yard:  Flat yards are constructed on flat ground, or on a gentle slope. Freight vehicles are pushed by a locomotive and coast to their required location.  A flat yard has no hump, and relies on locomotives for all car movements
  • 70. Gravity yard:  The whole yard is set up on a continuous falling gradient and there is less use of shunting engines.  Typical locations of gravity yards are places where it was difficult to build a hump yard due to the topography  Gravity yards also have a very large capacity but they need more staff than hump yards and thus they are the most uneconomical classification yards.
  • 71. Hump- yard:  These are the largest and most effective classification yards, with the largest shunting capacity—often several thousand cars a day.  The heart of these yards is the hump: a lead track on a hill (hump) that an engine pushes the cars over.  Single cars, or some coupled cars in a block, are uncoupled just before or at the crest of the hump, and roll by gravity onto their destination tracks  A hump yard has a constructed hill, over which freight cars are shoved by yard locomotives, and then gravity is used to propel the cars to various sorting tracks
  • 73. Locomotive yards:  This is the yard which houses the locomotives for various facilities such as watering, fueling, cleaning, repairing, servicing etc.
  • 76. Requirements of a locomotive yard  Should be located near the passenger and goods yards  Water column  Engine shed, Ash pit, inspection pit, repair shed, turn table  Hydraulic jack for lifting operations  Over head tank and loco well  Sick siding  Place for future expansion
  • 77. Water Columns:  A water crane is a device used for delivering a large volume of water into the tank or tender of a steam locomotive. The device is sometimes also called a water column.  As a steam locomotive consumes large quantities of water, water cranes were a vital part of railway station equipment, often situated at the end of a platform, so that water could be refilled during a stop at the station.  They are kept at all main line tracks at a distance of not less than 50Km.  It should not any obstruction to traffic  Foot valve is provided to regulate the water flow  Height of water column is 442cm  Projection of pipe is about 225 cms
  • 79. Water Column & Ash Pit
  • 80. Ash pits: (Ash- pans)  Ash pits are provided to collect the ashes from the locomotives  They are generally 1.067m deep and length is slightly more than the length of the locomotive.  They rest on masonry or concrete walls and rails are fixed on longitudinal beams provided at the top of the walls
  • 81. Turn table:  A turntable is a device used to turn railroad rolling stock.  Turntables were also used to turn observation cars so that their windowed lounge ends faced toward the rear of the train.  A turntable is a large circular platform which is used to turn locomotives and other rolling stock for railways.  A well-engineered turntable is designed in such a way that the efforts of only two or three people are needed to operate the turntable, even when dealing with very large and heavy locomotives  The reason the turntable was developed was because early steam locomotives were somewhat difficult to run in reverse  As a result, train companies started building turntables so that they could quickly turn their locomotives around.