SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Demography
UNIVERSITY OF BURAO
DEPARTMENT OF DENTISTRY
Lecture Objectives
 Present the need for population studies ( demography)
 Source of demographic data
 Introduce the components of population dynamics ( births, deaths,
migration)
 Introduce the basics of fertility and mortality and their measures
 Discuss determinants of fertility
 Describe population composition
 Describe types of population profiles
 Introduce basics of population change
 Introduce basics of population transition
Demography
DEMOGRAPHY ( POPULATION STUDIES):
IS THE STUDY OF HUMAN POPULATIONS: THEIR
SIZE, COMPOSITION, AND DISTRIBUTION AS
WELL AS THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF
CHANGES IN THESE CHARACTERISTICS.
Demography
 Everyone of us is a member of a population.
 Population factors have an impact on many facets of life—
from where we live to the prices we pay for goods and
services.
 The need for health care preoccupies the political leaders of
the industrialized countries whose populations are “aging,”
while the need for classrooms, employment opportunities,
and housing preoccupies the leaders of countries that are
still growing rapidly.
Demography
 Demography is the scientific study of population.
 Demographers seek to know the levels and trends in population
size and its components. They search for explanations of
demographic change and their implications for societies.
 They use censuses, birth and death records, surveys, visa records,
even motor vehicle and school registrations. They shape these
data into manageable forms such as simple counts, rates, or
ratios.
 Most of the principal measures used in demography (counts,
rates, ratios, and proportions) will be defined in these lectures,
together with recent examples of their use.
6
Sources of Demographic Data
1. Complete enumerations ( census) and sample surveys
2. Recording vital events as they occur over a period of
time.
The census
a nation-wide periodic counting of population.
 De jure: - the enumeration (or count) is done according to
the usual or legal place of residence.
excludes temporary residents and visitors, but
includes permanent residents who are temporarily
away.
 De facto: - The enumeration is done according to the actual
place of residence on the day of the census.
7
Information to be collected
• Sex,
• age,
• marital status,
• educational characteristics,
• economic characteristics,
• place of birth, language,
• Fertility, mortality , citizenship ( nationality),
• living conditions (e.g. house-ownership, type of housing and
the like), religion, etc..
8
Common errors in census data
 Omission and over enumeration.
 Miss reporting of age (memory lapse, preference of
terminal digits, over/under estimation).
 Overstating of the status within the occupation.
 Under reporting of births due to problem of reference
period and memory lapse.
 Under reporting of deaths due to memory lapse and
tendency not to report on deaths
( particularly on infant deaths).
9
Sample Survey:
 Is a technique based on sampling methods.
 Made at a given moment, in a specific territory;
sporadically and without periodicity for the deep
study of a problem.
 The sampled population is representative of the
total reference population.
10
Registration of vital events
Is a system by which all
 Births,
 Deaths,
 Marriages,
 Migrations,
 Separation, etc. occurring nationwide are registered,
reported to a control body and compiled centrally.
 Counting of births and deaths (vital records) is a
continuous process.
11
Measures of Vital Statistics
Ratio: the magnitude of one occurrence or condition in relation to another.
Eg - Sex ratio: SR = x 100
- Somaliland females are 52.1 and males are 47.9 (SHDS 2020)
Child-Woman-Ratio (CWR):
CWR = P0-4 / Pf15-49 x 1000 per 1000 women in
the child bearing age.
- Dependency Ratio (DR):
It is useful in economic studies.
F
M
100
P
P
100
P
P
100
P
P
P
DR
64
-
15
65
64
15
14
0
64
15
65
14
-
0












The Tools of Demography
 COUNT: The absolute number of a population or any demographic event
occurring in a specified area in a specified time period. (For example,
2,027,000 live births occurred in Egypt in 2010.).
 RATE: The frequency of demographic events in a population during a
specified time period (usually a year) divided by the population “at risk” of
the event occurring during that time period. Rates tell how common it is for
a given event to occur. (For example, in 2008 in Zambia the death rate was
16 per 1,000 population.) Most rates are expressed per 1,000 population.
Crude rates are rates computed for an entire population and Specific rates are
computed for a subgroup, usually the population more nearly approximating
the population “at risk” of the event (age-specific, sex-specific, race-specific,
occupation-specific)
The Tools of Demography
 RATIO: The relation of one population subgroup to or to
another subgroup; that is, one subgroup divided by
another. (For example, the sex ratio in France in 2010 was
94 males per 100 females.)
 PROPORTION: The relation of a population subgroup to
the entire population; that is, a population subgroup
divided by the entire population. (For example, the
proportion of Vietnam’s population in 2008 classified as
urban was 29 percent.)
Demography:
Population Dynamics
Three major factors determine the dynamics of a
population:
 Births ( fertility)
 Deaths ( mortality)
 Migration
If some groups within a population grow or decline faster
than others, the composition of the whole is altered.
These three factors determine the most basic
characteristics of a population, as well as its demographic
future.
Fertility
Fertility is the number of live births women have.
 Total Fertility Rate (TFR): is the average number of
children that would be born to a woman by the time she
ends childbearing.
 The TFR is one of the most useful indicators of fertility
because it gives the best picture of how many children
women are currently having.
 The average for the world it is 2.9
 In somaliland total fertility rate is 5.7
Fecundity
The physiological ability of women to reproduce.
 Some are infecund due to disease or genetic
dysfunction.
 Mothers could be infecund when they breastfeed.
 For individuals, fecundity ranges between 0-30 children.
Factors Affecting fertility
What are the factors that may influence fertility?
Cultural, social, economic, and health factors
interfere with the process of human reproduction.
 These factors operate in different societies in different
ways. The relative importance of these factors varies by
society.
Factors Affecting fertility
(general factors):
 Cultural values e.g. ( Does the society value large or small
families?)
 Social roles: ( Is the wife primarily a child bearer or a
child rearer ?)
 Economic ( Do parents rely on children to look after
them in old age?)
 Health ( what is the prevalence of gonorrehea in a
population ), that will impair fecundity.
Proximate determinants of fertility
Fertility is affected by cultural, social, economic, and health
factors. Most of these factors operate (indirectly) through 4
other factors which explain nearly all variation in fertility levels
among populations and have a direct biological effect on
fertility:
1. The proportion of women in sexual union.
2. The percentage of women using contraception
3. The proportion of women who are not currently fecund
(primarily because of breastfeeding).
4. The level of induced abortion.
Proximate determinants of fertility
 In US. and most developed countries
contraceptive use and abortion are the most
important proximate determinants. The US, Brazil,
Australia, and few East and South East Asia
countries have contraceptive use rates of >= 75%.
 The latest figure in Jordan is 42% for modern
methods use( DHS report, 2012).
Proximate determinants of fertility
Spain recorded the lowest fertility rate in a
nation 1.15 births per woman of
reproductive age. Basically due to 72%
using contraceptives.
Russia achieved low fertility rates due to
having easier access to abortion.
Proximate determinants
When contraceptive and abortion prevalence rates
are low, the postpartum infecundity and marriage
determinants are more important.
African countries:
women marry early and bring more children, but
they breast feed for 2-3 years, thus prolonging the
period of infecundity following childbirth.
Proximate determinants of fertility
 Others abstain as long as women are breast
feeding.
 Polygamy and being away form home
 Sexually transmitted diseases affect fecundity.
Fertility Measurement
Birth Rate (Crude Birth Rate)
The birth rate (also called the crude birth
rate) indicates the number of live births
per 1,000 population in a given year
It is the most easily obtained and most
common reported fertility measure
Fertility Measurement
Crude Birth Rate
 There were 24 births per 1,000 population in Kuwait in
1994 :
Number of births (38,868) divided by the Total population
(1,620,086 ) x K (1,000 )= 24.0
 In somalia, Crude Birth Rate= 41.59 ( 2019).
Fertility Measurement
General Fertility Rate
The general fertility rate GFR, (also called the
fertility rate) ,is the number of live births per 1,000
women ages 15-49 in a given year.
The GFR is a somewhat more refined measure
than the birth rate because it relates births to the
age-sex group at risk of giving birth (usually
defined as women ages 15-49).
General Fertility Rate
 Yemen’s general fertility rate in the early
1990s was 238 live births per 1,000 women
ages 15-49—one of the highest in the world.
 The Czech Republic’s, it was very low at a rate of
34 per 1,000 women aged 15-49 in 1996.
Replacement level fertility
 The level of fertility at which a couple has only enough
children to replace themselves, or about two children
per couple.
 This pop will eventually stop growing.
 It needs a TFR slightly higher than 2
 In US it is 2.1 because death rate is not too high
 In Sierra Leone , Repl. Level Fert. would be greater
than 3 because death rate is too high.
Mortality
Death Rate
 The death rate (also called the crude death rate) is the number
of deaths per 1,000 population in a given year.
 In the early 1990s, the death rate in Turkey was 6.6 per 1,000
population.
Number of deaths (405,000 )/ Total population (61,644,000) x K
(1,000) = 6.6
 In the early 1990s, Guinea’s death rate was 20 per 1,000
population, while Singapore’s was 5 per 1,000.
Death rates:
Age-Specific death rate
Cause-specific death rate
Sex-specific death rate
In Somaliland The death rate among reproductive-age women is highest with 9.4 deaths per 1,000
population.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of infants under
age 1 per 1,000 live births in a given year.
The infant mortality rate is considered a good indicator of the health status
of a population.
 Latest figure about IMR in Jordan is 17/1000 live births ( DHS /2012)
Maternal Mortality Ratio
 The maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who
die as a result of complications of pregnancy or childbearing
in a given year per 100,000 live births in that year.
 Deaths due to complications of spontaneous or induced
abortions are included.
 a maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while
pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy
from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy
or its management but not from accidental or incidental
causes.
Maternal Mortality Ratio
This measure is sometimes referred to as the maternal
mortality rate
Number of maternal deaths (185 )x Total live births
(1,408,159 )x K (100,000 )= 13.1
In Jordan MMR 19.1 (Maternal Mortality Study – Jordan 2007-2008-
Higher Population Council, 2009)
 Somaliland’s Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) has fallen to 396
maternal deaths per 100,000
Morbidity
Morbidity refers to disease and illness, injury
and disability, in a population.
Data about the frequency and distribution of a
disease can aid in controlling its spread, and in
some cases, may lead to identification of it
causes.
Morbidity : Incidence Rate
Incidence: The incidence rate is the number of people contracting
a disease during a given time period per 1,000 population at risk.
The incidence rate and other morbidity rates vary so widely in
magnitude that any constant may be used that expresses the rate
in a clear manner (from “per 100” or “percent” to “per 100,000”).
Number of people developing tuberculosis
during a given time period x K = 252,316 x 100,000 = 372
Population at risk 67,827,000
The incidence of tuberculosis in the Democratic Republic of the
Congo in 2009 was 372 per 100,000 population
Morbidity (Prevalence)
Prevalence: The prevalence rate is the number of people who have a
particular disease at a given point in time per 1,000 population. This
rate includes all known cases that have not resulted in death, cure,
or remission, as well as new cases developing during the specified
period.
Number of people ages 15-49 with HIV/AIDS x K = 892,750 x 100 = 14.3
Total population ages 15-49 6,243,000
The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe among adults (ages 15-49) in 2009 was 14.3 per 100
population.
In 2009, the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS for males ages 15-49 in Botswana was
20.6 percent and for females, 29.2. Corresponding rates in Argentina were 0.6
and 0.3, respectively.
Morbidity
Case Fatality Rate The case fatality rate is the
proportion of people contracting a disease who die of
that disease during a specified time period.
Number of persons dying from the disease x K = 12,270 x 100,000 = 20.5 Number
of persons contracting the disease 60,000,000
during a period
From April 2009 to March 2010, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention estimates that there were 12,270 deaths from H1N1 flu in the
United States, or 21 deaths for every 100,000 cases
Life Expectancy
Life expectancy is an estimate of the average number
of additional years a person could expect to live if the
age-specific death rates for a given year prevailed for
the rest of his or her life.
Life expectancy is a hypothetical measure because it
is based on current death rates and actual death
rates change over the course of a person’s lifetime.
Each person’s life expectancy changes as he or she
grows older and as mortality trends change.
Life Expectancy
If the age-specific death rates for 1996 remain
unchanged, males in Brazil born in
Life expectancy for Jordanians 73 years (DHS,
2012).
Population Composition
Age and Sex Composition
Age and sex are the most basic characteristics of a
population.
Every population has a different age and sex
composition— the number and proportion of males
and females in each age group—
This structure can have considerable impact on the
population’s social and economic situation, both
present and future.
Population Composition
Age and Sex Composition
Populations could be relatively young / developing
countries, About 40 % <15 years e.g. Africa.. Jordan .
Less than 4% are older groups.
Relatively old populations ( aging), developed
countries, more than 10% over 65 years e.g. Europe/
Less than 25% of pop <15 years.
Age and Sex Composition
Young and old populations have markedly
different age compositions; as a consequence,
they also have different proportions of the
population in the labor force or in school, as
well as different medical needs, consumer
preferences, and even crime patterns.
Median Age
A population’s age structure has a great deal to do with how
that population lives.
 The median age is the age at which exactly half the
population is older and half is younger.
 Examples:
The median age of the Costa Rican population in
1995 was 23 years. While that in Sweden was 38, signifying an
older population.
 In 1995, the median age in Jordan, with a young population,
was 18. In 2012, median age in Jordan was 20,3 years (2012).
Sex Ratio
 The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a given
population,
 usually expressed as the number of males for every
100 females.
 The sex ratio at birth in most countries is about 105 or
106 males per 100 females.
 After birth, sex ratios vary because of different patterns
of mortality and migration for males and females
within the population.
Population Pyramid
A population pyramid graphically displays a
population’s age and sex composition.
Horizontal bars present the numbers or
proportions of males and females in each age
group.
The sum of all the age-sex groups in the
population pyramid equals 100 percent of the
population.
chapter 3 Demography.pptx
Japan’s
population
pyramid,
2006
Population profiles
 Populations of countries can differ markedly as a result of
past and current patterns of fertility, mortality, and migration.
However, they all tend to fall into three general profiles of
age-sex composition.
1. Rapid growth is indicated by a pyramid with a large
percentage of people in the younger ages.
2. Slow growth is reflected by a pyramid with a smaller
proportion of the population in the younger ages.
3. Zero growth or decreasing populations are shown by
roughly equal numbers of people in all age ranges, tapering
off gradually at the older ages.
Age pattern of Senegal population, 2010
Age pattern of Italy’s population, 2010
Age pattern of US population, 2009
JPFHS
2007
Population change
Population change has three components:
births, deaths, and migration.
As people are born, die, or move, their total
numbers in an area change.
 During most of history, world population
increased very slowly, but during the 20th
century, this growth has accelerated.
How do populations change?
A change in population size over a given period
of time equals the number of people in the
population at the beginning of the period plus
any births that occur during the period, minus
any deaths, plus net migration during the period.
Calculating population change over time
P1+(B-D)+(I-E)= P2
Population change
The change in population size accounted for by
more births in the population than deaths is
referred to as "natural increase."
The term "natural decrease" refers to population
decline resulting from more deaths than births.
 Jordan :
Growth rate 2.2
Natural growth: 2.1 ( DHS, 2012)
Rate of Natural Increase
The rate of natural increase is the rate at which
a population is increasing (or decreasing) in a
given year due to a surplus (or deficit) of births
over deaths, expressed as a percentage of the
base population.
Net migration is the number of immigrants
minus emigrants.
Growth Rate
The growth rate is the rate at which a population is
increasing (or decreasing) in a given year due to natural
increase and net migration, expressed as a percentage of
the base population.
The growth rate takes into account all components of
population growth: births, deaths, and migration.
It equals ( births – deaths )+_ net migration/ total
population X K ( 100).
It should never be confused with the birth rate, but it
sometimes is.
The Demographic Transition
 The demographic transition refers to the
change that populations undergo from high
rates of births and deaths to low rates of births
and deaths.
 High levels of births and deaths kept most
populations from growing rapidly throughout
most of time.
The Demographic Transition
The decline in mortality usually
precedes the decline in fertility, resulting
in population growth during the
transition period.
chapter 3 Demography.pptx
Population policies
National population commissions were formed in
different countries
They formulated national population policies and action
plans
One major component of the action plan deals with
reproductive health
Reproductive health in the context of population
includes reproductive rights, sexuality, family planning,
reproductive morbidity, violence against women, gender
based differences, male involvement in reproductive
health.
Summary

More Related Content

Similar to chapter 3 Demography.pptx

Indicators of development
Indicators of developmentIndicators of development
Indicators of development
Zeenia Ahmed
 
AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION - MIGRATION - 5.1 MIGRATION AS POPULATION CHANGE
AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION - MIGRATION - 5.1 MIGRATION AS POPULATION CHANGEAS GEOGRAPHY REVISION - MIGRATION - 5.1 MIGRATION AS POPULATION CHANGE
AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION - MIGRATION - 5.1 MIGRATION AS POPULATION CHANGE
George Dumitrache
 
CAMBRIDGE AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION: POPULATION - 4.1 NATURAL INCREASE
CAMBRIDGE AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION: POPULATION - 4.1 NATURAL INCREASECAMBRIDGE AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION: POPULATION - 4.1 NATURAL INCREASE
CAMBRIDGE AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION: POPULATION - 4.1 NATURAL INCREASE
George Dumitrache
 
Population and related issues
Population and related issuesPopulation and related issues
Population and related issues
neneamor
 
Demography 1 Introduction.pptx
Demography 1 Introduction.pptxDemography 1 Introduction.pptx
Demography 1 Introduction.pptx
MUHAMMAD UMAIR
 
Vital Statistical Terminologies In Medicine.pptx
Vital Statistical Terminologies In Medicine.pptxVital Statistical Terminologies In Medicine.pptx
Vital Statistical Terminologies In Medicine.pptx
maazveer3344
 
Demography ( dr.sanjeev sahu)
Demography ( dr.sanjeev sahu)Demography ( dr.sanjeev sahu)
Demography ( dr.sanjeev sahu)
dr sanjeev sahu
 
Population introduction notes
Population introduction notesPopulation introduction notes
Population introduction notes
Moses Lutta
 
Fertility and mortality...
Fertility and mortality...  Fertility and mortality...
Fertility and mortality...
Bangladesh University of Professionals
 
Demography.
Demography.Demography.
Demography.
Sridevi Ravi
 
Demography and Family Planning lE01.pptx
Demography and Family Planning lE01.pptxDemography and Family Planning lE01.pptx
Demography and Family Planning lE01.pptx
AbdirahmanWaseem
 
demography OBG
demography OBGdemography OBG
demography OBG
Amandeep Jhinjar
 
Demography and Family Plannining Lecture
Demography   and Family Plannining Lecture Demography   and Family Plannining Lecture
Demography and Family Plannining Lecture
Dr.Farhana Yasmin
 
Demography
DemographyDemography
Demography
papefons Fons
 
Demography,unit 5
Demography,unit 5Demography,unit 5
Demography,unit 5
MohitShrestha7
 
Demography lecture ppt
Demography lecture pptDemography lecture ppt
Demography lecture ppt
Dr.Farhana Yasmin
 
DEMOGRAPHY.pptx
DEMOGRAPHY.pptxDEMOGRAPHY.pptx
DEMOGRAPHY.pptx
osmanconteh4
 
1 - The_Human Population.pdf
1 - The_Human Population.pdf1 - The_Human Population.pdf
1 - The_Human Population.pdf
MariaCristinaLacasa1
 
1 - The_Human Population.pdf
1 - The_Human Population.pdf1 - The_Human Population.pdf
1 - The_Human Population.pdf
MariaCristinaLacasa
 
Lecture-8 (Demographic Studies and Health Services Statistics).ppt
Lecture-8 (Demographic Studies and Health Services Statistics).pptLecture-8 (Demographic Studies and Health Services Statistics).ppt
Lecture-8 (Demographic Studies and Health Services Statistics).ppt
habtamu biazin
 

Similar to chapter 3 Demography.pptx (20)

Indicators of development
Indicators of developmentIndicators of development
Indicators of development
 
AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION - MIGRATION - 5.1 MIGRATION AS POPULATION CHANGE
AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION - MIGRATION - 5.1 MIGRATION AS POPULATION CHANGEAS GEOGRAPHY REVISION - MIGRATION - 5.1 MIGRATION AS POPULATION CHANGE
AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION - MIGRATION - 5.1 MIGRATION AS POPULATION CHANGE
 
CAMBRIDGE AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION: POPULATION - 4.1 NATURAL INCREASE
CAMBRIDGE AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION: POPULATION - 4.1 NATURAL INCREASECAMBRIDGE AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION: POPULATION - 4.1 NATURAL INCREASE
CAMBRIDGE AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION: POPULATION - 4.1 NATURAL INCREASE
 
Population and related issues
Population and related issuesPopulation and related issues
Population and related issues
 
Demography 1 Introduction.pptx
Demography 1 Introduction.pptxDemography 1 Introduction.pptx
Demography 1 Introduction.pptx
 
Vital Statistical Terminologies In Medicine.pptx
Vital Statistical Terminologies In Medicine.pptxVital Statistical Terminologies In Medicine.pptx
Vital Statistical Terminologies In Medicine.pptx
 
Demography ( dr.sanjeev sahu)
Demography ( dr.sanjeev sahu)Demography ( dr.sanjeev sahu)
Demography ( dr.sanjeev sahu)
 
Population introduction notes
Population introduction notesPopulation introduction notes
Population introduction notes
 
Fertility and mortality...
Fertility and mortality...  Fertility and mortality...
Fertility and mortality...
 
Demography.
Demography.Demography.
Demography.
 
Demography and Family Planning lE01.pptx
Demography and Family Planning lE01.pptxDemography and Family Planning lE01.pptx
Demography and Family Planning lE01.pptx
 
demography OBG
demography OBGdemography OBG
demography OBG
 
Demography and Family Plannining Lecture
Demography   and Family Plannining Lecture Demography   and Family Plannining Lecture
Demography and Family Plannining Lecture
 
Demography
DemographyDemography
Demography
 
Demography,unit 5
Demography,unit 5Demography,unit 5
Demography,unit 5
 
Demography lecture ppt
Demography lecture pptDemography lecture ppt
Demography lecture ppt
 
DEMOGRAPHY.pptx
DEMOGRAPHY.pptxDEMOGRAPHY.pptx
DEMOGRAPHY.pptx
 
1 - The_Human Population.pdf
1 - The_Human Population.pdf1 - The_Human Population.pdf
1 - The_Human Population.pdf
 
1 - The_Human Population.pdf
1 - The_Human Population.pdf1 - The_Human Population.pdf
1 - The_Human Population.pdf
 
Lecture-8 (Demographic Studies and Health Services Statistics).ppt
Lecture-8 (Demographic Studies and Health Services Statistics).pptLecture-8 (Demographic Studies and Health Services Statistics).ppt
Lecture-8 (Demographic Studies and Health Services Statistics).ppt
 

More from NadiirMahamoud

2 endodontic-diagnosis-and-treatment-planning-slides.pptx
2 endodontic-diagnosis-and-treatment-planning-slides.pptx2 endodontic-diagnosis-and-treatment-planning-slides.pptx
2 endodontic-diagnosis-and-treatment-planning-slides.pptx
NadiirMahamoud
 
3 endodontic-instruments-oral health rct pptx
3 endodontic-instruments-oral health rct pptx3 endodontic-instruments-oral health rct pptx
3 endodontic-instruments-oral health rct pptx
NadiirMahamoud
 
chapter one research methodology dentistry
chapter one research methodology dentistrychapter one research methodology dentistry
chapter one research methodology dentistry
NadiirMahamoud
 
pathology-environmentalnutritionaldisease-101201075746-phpapp02.pdf
pathology-environmentalnutritionaldisease-101201075746-phpapp02.pdfpathology-environmentalnutritionaldisease-101201075746-phpapp02.pdf
pathology-environmentalnutritionaldisease-101201075746-phpapp02.pdf
NadiirMahamoud
 
adnan1-181227181537.pdf
adnan1-181227181537.pdfadnan1-181227181537.pdf
adnan1-181227181537.pdf
NadiirMahamoud
 
cell adaptation and cell injury - Copy-4 copy.pptx
cell adaptation and cell injury - Copy-4 copy.pptxcell adaptation and cell injury - Copy-4 copy.pptx
cell adaptation and cell injury - Copy-4 copy.pptx
NadiirMahamoud
 
epidemilology of dental caries 2 copy.pptx
epidemilology of dental caries 2 copy.pptxepidemilology of dental caries 2 copy.pptx
epidemilology of dental caries 2 copy.pptx
NadiirMahamoud
 
Antibiotics DR. JAMA chep 1.pptx
Antibiotics DR. JAMA chep 1.pptxAntibiotics DR. JAMA chep 1.pptx
Antibiotics DR. JAMA chep 1.pptx
NadiirMahamoud
 
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DR. JAMA copy.pptx
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DR. JAMA copy.pptxAUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DR. JAMA copy.pptx
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DR. JAMA copy.pptx
NadiirMahamoud
 
Head and neck chapter 13 copy.pptx
Head and neck chapter 13 copy.pptxHead and neck chapter 13 copy.pptx
Head and neck chapter 13 copy.pptx
NadiirMahamoud
 
immunodeficiencyppt-170409084703.pptx
immunodeficiencyppt-170409084703.pptximmunodeficiencyppt-170409084703.pptx
immunodeficiencyppt-170409084703.pptx
NadiirMahamoud
 
immundeficiencydiseases-160925065412.pdf
immundeficiencydiseases-160925065412.pdfimmundeficiencydiseases-160925065412.pdf
immundeficiencydiseases-160925065412.pdf
NadiirMahamoud
 
chapter2basicimmunologypptsdz20102-190704152355.pdf
chapter2basicimmunologypptsdz20102-190704152355.pdfchapter2basicimmunologypptsdz20102-190704152355.pdf
chapter2basicimmunologypptsdz20102-190704152355.pdf
NadiirMahamoud
 
emotionandmoods-191007041300.pptx
emotionandmoods-191007041300.pptxemotionandmoods-191007041300.pptx
emotionandmoods-191007041300.pptx
NadiirMahamoud
 
FLUORIDE copy.pptx
FLUORIDE copy.pptxFLUORIDE copy.pptx
FLUORIDE copy.pptx
NadiirMahamoud
 
chapter one copy.pptx
chapter one copy.pptxchapter one copy.pptx
chapter one copy.pptx
NadiirMahamoud
 

More from NadiirMahamoud (16)

2 endodontic-diagnosis-and-treatment-planning-slides.pptx
2 endodontic-diagnosis-and-treatment-planning-slides.pptx2 endodontic-diagnosis-and-treatment-planning-slides.pptx
2 endodontic-diagnosis-and-treatment-planning-slides.pptx
 
3 endodontic-instruments-oral health rct pptx
3 endodontic-instruments-oral health rct pptx3 endodontic-instruments-oral health rct pptx
3 endodontic-instruments-oral health rct pptx
 
chapter one research methodology dentistry
chapter one research methodology dentistrychapter one research methodology dentistry
chapter one research methodology dentistry
 
pathology-environmentalnutritionaldisease-101201075746-phpapp02.pdf
pathology-environmentalnutritionaldisease-101201075746-phpapp02.pdfpathology-environmentalnutritionaldisease-101201075746-phpapp02.pdf
pathology-environmentalnutritionaldisease-101201075746-phpapp02.pdf
 
adnan1-181227181537.pdf
adnan1-181227181537.pdfadnan1-181227181537.pdf
adnan1-181227181537.pdf
 
cell adaptation and cell injury - Copy-4 copy.pptx
cell adaptation and cell injury - Copy-4 copy.pptxcell adaptation and cell injury - Copy-4 copy.pptx
cell adaptation and cell injury - Copy-4 copy.pptx
 
epidemilology of dental caries 2 copy.pptx
epidemilology of dental caries 2 copy.pptxepidemilology of dental caries 2 copy.pptx
epidemilology of dental caries 2 copy.pptx
 
Antibiotics DR. JAMA chep 1.pptx
Antibiotics DR. JAMA chep 1.pptxAntibiotics DR. JAMA chep 1.pptx
Antibiotics DR. JAMA chep 1.pptx
 
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DR. JAMA copy.pptx
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DR. JAMA copy.pptxAUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DR. JAMA copy.pptx
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DR. JAMA copy.pptx
 
Head and neck chapter 13 copy.pptx
Head and neck chapter 13 copy.pptxHead and neck chapter 13 copy.pptx
Head and neck chapter 13 copy.pptx
 
immunodeficiencyppt-170409084703.pptx
immunodeficiencyppt-170409084703.pptximmunodeficiencyppt-170409084703.pptx
immunodeficiencyppt-170409084703.pptx
 
immundeficiencydiseases-160925065412.pdf
immundeficiencydiseases-160925065412.pdfimmundeficiencydiseases-160925065412.pdf
immundeficiencydiseases-160925065412.pdf
 
chapter2basicimmunologypptsdz20102-190704152355.pdf
chapter2basicimmunologypptsdz20102-190704152355.pdfchapter2basicimmunologypptsdz20102-190704152355.pdf
chapter2basicimmunologypptsdz20102-190704152355.pdf
 
emotionandmoods-191007041300.pptx
emotionandmoods-191007041300.pptxemotionandmoods-191007041300.pptx
emotionandmoods-191007041300.pptx
 
FLUORIDE copy.pptx
FLUORIDE copy.pptxFLUORIDE copy.pptx
FLUORIDE copy.pptx
 
chapter one copy.pptx
chapter one copy.pptxchapter one copy.pptx
chapter one copy.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Trading Strategy for London silver bullet
Trading Strategy for London silver bulletTrading Strategy for London silver bullet
Trading Strategy for London silver bullet
OkgatoSemadi1
 
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaipromAWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
ธนาพัฒน์ ลิ้มสายพรหม
 
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
Zsolt Nemeth
 
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptxCorporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
byubyu7
 
Iot-Internet-of-Things_Industrial revolution 4.0-ppt.pptx
Iot-Internet-of-Things_Industrial revolution 4.0-ppt.pptxIot-Internet-of-Things_Industrial revolution 4.0-ppt.pptx
Iot-Internet-of-Things_Industrial revolution 4.0-ppt.pptx
DeepakKumar862274
 
How-to-Diagnose-Hard-Drives-by-DFL-DDP-2024.pdf
How-to-Diagnose-Hard-Drives-by-DFL-DDP-2024.pdfHow-to-Diagnose-Hard-Drives-by-DFL-DDP-2024.pdf
How-to-Diagnose-Hard-Drives-by-DFL-DDP-2024.pdf
Dolphin Data Lab
 
6 Reasons to Use a VPN | 3S VPN Server App
6 Reasons to Use a VPN | 3S VPN Server App6 Reasons to Use a VPN | 3S VPN Server App
6 Reasons to Use a VPN | 3S VPN Server App
VPN Server
 
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
shamrisumri
 
Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaipromInformation Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
TanapatLimsaiprom1
 
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAEWhy Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
adelewhite125
 
Top 50 Telephone Conversation Sample Examples For IT Industries.pdf
Top 50 Telephone Conversation Sample Examples For IT Industries.pdfTop 50 Telephone Conversation Sample Examples For IT Industries.pdf
Top 50 Telephone Conversation Sample Examples For IT Industries.pdf
Krishna L
 
Web development Platform Constraints.pptx
Web development Platform Constraints.pptxWeb development Platform Constraints.pptx
Web development Platform Constraints.pptx
ssuser2f6682
 
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdfworkbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
anya2024forgya
 
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai AvailableChennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
shamrisumri
 
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show caseDewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
DEWANSTUDIO.COM
 
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5 hot nhất
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5  hot nhấtBai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5  hot nhất
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5 hot nhất
Thiên Đường Tình Yêu
 
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdfCyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
RohitRoshanBengROHIT
 
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
mahigarg2024#G05
 
Megalive99 Situs Betting Online Gacor Terpercaya
Megalive99 Situs Betting Online Gacor TerpercayaMegalive99 Situs Betting Online Gacor Terpercaya
Megalive99 Situs Betting Online Gacor Terpercaya
Megalive99
 
High Profile Girls Call ServiCe Chennai XX00XXX00X Tanisha Best High Class Ch...
High Profile Girls Call ServiCe Chennai XX00XXX00X Tanisha Best High Class Ch...High Profile Girls Call ServiCe Chennai XX00XXX00X Tanisha Best High Class Ch...
High Profile Girls Call ServiCe Chennai XX00XXX00X Tanisha Best High Class Ch...
shamrisumri
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Trading Strategy for London silver bullet
Trading Strategy for London silver bulletTrading Strategy for London silver bullet
Trading Strategy for London silver bullet
 
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaipromAWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
 
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
 
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptxCorporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
 
Iot-Internet-of-Things_Industrial revolution 4.0-ppt.pptx
Iot-Internet-of-Things_Industrial revolution 4.0-ppt.pptxIot-Internet-of-Things_Industrial revolution 4.0-ppt.pptx
Iot-Internet-of-Things_Industrial revolution 4.0-ppt.pptx
 
How-to-Diagnose-Hard-Drives-by-DFL-DDP-2024.pdf
How-to-Diagnose-Hard-Drives-by-DFL-DDP-2024.pdfHow-to-Diagnose-Hard-Drives-by-DFL-DDP-2024.pdf
How-to-Diagnose-Hard-Drives-by-DFL-DDP-2024.pdf
 
6 Reasons to Use a VPN | 3S VPN Server App
6 Reasons to Use a VPN | 3S VPN Server App6 Reasons to Use a VPN | 3S VPN Server App
6 Reasons to Use a VPN | 3S VPN Server App
 
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
 
Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaipromInformation Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
 
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAEWhy Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
 
Top 50 Telephone Conversation Sample Examples For IT Industries.pdf
Top 50 Telephone Conversation Sample Examples For IT Industries.pdfTop 50 Telephone Conversation Sample Examples For IT Industries.pdf
Top 50 Telephone Conversation Sample Examples For IT Industries.pdf
 
Web development Platform Constraints.pptx
Web development Platform Constraints.pptxWeb development Platform Constraints.pptx
Web development Platform Constraints.pptx
 
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdfworkbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
 
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai AvailableChennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
 
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show caseDewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
 
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5 hot nhất
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5  hot nhấtBai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5  hot nhất
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5 hot nhất
 
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdfCyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
 
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
 
Megalive99 Situs Betting Online Gacor Terpercaya
Megalive99 Situs Betting Online Gacor TerpercayaMegalive99 Situs Betting Online Gacor Terpercaya
Megalive99 Situs Betting Online Gacor Terpercaya
 
High Profile Girls Call ServiCe Chennai XX00XXX00X Tanisha Best High Class Ch...
High Profile Girls Call ServiCe Chennai XX00XXX00X Tanisha Best High Class Ch...High Profile Girls Call ServiCe Chennai XX00XXX00X Tanisha Best High Class Ch...
High Profile Girls Call ServiCe Chennai XX00XXX00X Tanisha Best High Class Ch...
 

chapter 3 Demography.pptx

  • 2. Lecture Objectives  Present the need for population studies ( demography)  Source of demographic data  Introduce the components of population dynamics ( births, deaths, migration)  Introduce the basics of fertility and mortality and their measures  Discuss determinants of fertility  Describe population composition  Describe types of population profiles  Introduce basics of population change  Introduce basics of population transition
  • 3. Demography DEMOGRAPHY ( POPULATION STUDIES): IS THE STUDY OF HUMAN POPULATIONS: THEIR SIZE, COMPOSITION, AND DISTRIBUTION AS WELL AS THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CHANGES IN THESE CHARACTERISTICS.
  • 4. Demography  Everyone of us is a member of a population.  Population factors have an impact on many facets of life— from where we live to the prices we pay for goods and services.  The need for health care preoccupies the political leaders of the industrialized countries whose populations are “aging,” while the need for classrooms, employment opportunities, and housing preoccupies the leaders of countries that are still growing rapidly.
  • 5. Demography  Demography is the scientific study of population.  Demographers seek to know the levels and trends in population size and its components. They search for explanations of demographic change and their implications for societies.  They use censuses, birth and death records, surveys, visa records, even motor vehicle and school registrations. They shape these data into manageable forms such as simple counts, rates, or ratios.  Most of the principal measures used in demography (counts, rates, ratios, and proportions) will be defined in these lectures, together with recent examples of their use.
  • 6. 6 Sources of Demographic Data 1. Complete enumerations ( census) and sample surveys 2. Recording vital events as they occur over a period of time. The census a nation-wide periodic counting of population.  De jure: - the enumeration (or count) is done according to the usual or legal place of residence. excludes temporary residents and visitors, but includes permanent residents who are temporarily away.  De facto: - The enumeration is done according to the actual place of residence on the day of the census.
  • 7. 7 Information to be collected • Sex, • age, • marital status, • educational characteristics, • economic characteristics, • place of birth, language, • Fertility, mortality , citizenship ( nationality), • living conditions (e.g. house-ownership, type of housing and the like), religion, etc..
  • 8. 8 Common errors in census data  Omission and over enumeration.  Miss reporting of age (memory lapse, preference of terminal digits, over/under estimation).  Overstating of the status within the occupation.  Under reporting of births due to problem of reference period and memory lapse.  Under reporting of deaths due to memory lapse and tendency not to report on deaths ( particularly on infant deaths).
  • 9. 9 Sample Survey:  Is a technique based on sampling methods.  Made at a given moment, in a specific territory; sporadically and without periodicity for the deep study of a problem.  The sampled population is representative of the total reference population.
  • 10. 10 Registration of vital events Is a system by which all  Births,  Deaths,  Marriages,  Migrations,  Separation, etc. occurring nationwide are registered, reported to a control body and compiled centrally.  Counting of births and deaths (vital records) is a continuous process.
  • 11. 11 Measures of Vital Statistics Ratio: the magnitude of one occurrence or condition in relation to another. Eg - Sex ratio: SR = x 100 - Somaliland females are 52.1 and males are 47.9 (SHDS 2020) Child-Woman-Ratio (CWR): CWR = P0-4 / Pf15-49 x 1000 per 1000 women in the child bearing age. - Dependency Ratio (DR): It is useful in economic studies. F M 100 P P 100 P P 100 P P P DR 64 - 15 65 64 15 14 0 64 15 65 14 - 0            
  • 12. The Tools of Demography  COUNT: The absolute number of a population or any demographic event occurring in a specified area in a specified time period. (For example, 2,027,000 live births occurred in Egypt in 2010.).  RATE: The frequency of demographic events in a population during a specified time period (usually a year) divided by the population “at risk” of the event occurring during that time period. Rates tell how common it is for a given event to occur. (For example, in 2008 in Zambia the death rate was 16 per 1,000 population.) Most rates are expressed per 1,000 population. Crude rates are rates computed for an entire population and Specific rates are computed for a subgroup, usually the population more nearly approximating the population “at risk” of the event (age-specific, sex-specific, race-specific, occupation-specific)
  • 13. The Tools of Demography  RATIO: The relation of one population subgroup to or to another subgroup; that is, one subgroup divided by another. (For example, the sex ratio in France in 2010 was 94 males per 100 females.)  PROPORTION: The relation of a population subgroup to the entire population; that is, a population subgroup divided by the entire population. (For example, the proportion of Vietnam’s population in 2008 classified as urban was 29 percent.)
  • 14. Demography: Population Dynamics Three major factors determine the dynamics of a population:  Births ( fertility)  Deaths ( mortality)  Migration If some groups within a population grow or decline faster than others, the composition of the whole is altered. These three factors determine the most basic characteristics of a population, as well as its demographic future.
  • 15. Fertility Fertility is the number of live births women have.  Total Fertility Rate (TFR): is the average number of children that would be born to a woman by the time she ends childbearing.  The TFR is one of the most useful indicators of fertility because it gives the best picture of how many children women are currently having.  The average for the world it is 2.9  In somaliland total fertility rate is 5.7
  • 16. Fecundity The physiological ability of women to reproduce.  Some are infecund due to disease or genetic dysfunction.  Mothers could be infecund when they breastfeed.  For individuals, fecundity ranges between 0-30 children.
  • 17. Factors Affecting fertility What are the factors that may influence fertility? Cultural, social, economic, and health factors interfere with the process of human reproduction.  These factors operate in different societies in different ways. The relative importance of these factors varies by society.
  • 18. Factors Affecting fertility (general factors):  Cultural values e.g. ( Does the society value large or small families?)  Social roles: ( Is the wife primarily a child bearer or a child rearer ?)  Economic ( Do parents rely on children to look after them in old age?)  Health ( what is the prevalence of gonorrehea in a population ), that will impair fecundity.
  • 19. Proximate determinants of fertility Fertility is affected by cultural, social, economic, and health factors. Most of these factors operate (indirectly) through 4 other factors which explain nearly all variation in fertility levels among populations and have a direct biological effect on fertility: 1. The proportion of women in sexual union. 2. The percentage of women using contraception 3. The proportion of women who are not currently fecund (primarily because of breastfeeding). 4. The level of induced abortion.
  • 20. Proximate determinants of fertility  In US. and most developed countries contraceptive use and abortion are the most important proximate determinants. The US, Brazil, Australia, and few East and South East Asia countries have contraceptive use rates of >= 75%.  The latest figure in Jordan is 42% for modern methods use( DHS report, 2012).
  • 21. Proximate determinants of fertility Spain recorded the lowest fertility rate in a nation 1.15 births per woman of reproductive age. Basically due to 72% using contraceptives. Russia achieved low fertility rates due to having easier access to abortion.
  • 22. Proximate determinants When contraceptive and abortion prevalence rates are low, the postpartum infecundity and marriage determinants are more important. African countries: women marry early and bring more children, but they breast feed for 2-3 years, thus prolonging the period of infecundity following childbirth.
  • 23. Proximate determinants of fertility  Others abstain as long as women are breast feeding.  Polygamy and being away form home  Sexually transmitted diseases affect fecundity.
  • 24. Fertility Measurement Birth Rate (Crude Birth Rate) The birth rate (also called the crude birth rate) indicates the number of live births per 1,000 population in a given year It is the most easily obtained and most common reported fertility measure
  • 25. Fertility Measurement Crude Birth Rate  There were 24 births per 1,000 population in Kuwait in 1994 : Number of births (38,868) divided by the Total population (1,620,086 ) x K (1,000 )= 24.0  In somalia, Crude Birth Rate= 41.59 ( 2019).
  • 26. Fertility Measurement General Fertility Rate The general fertility rate GFR, (also called the fertility rate) ,is the number of live births per 1,000 women ages 15-49 in a given year. The GFR is a somewhat more refined measure than the birth rate because it relates births to the age-sex group at risk of giving birth (usually defined as women ages 15-49).
  • 27. General Fertility Rate  Yemen’s general fertility rate in the early 1990s was 238 live births per 1,000 women ages 15-49—one of the highest in the world.  The Czech Republic’s, it was very low at a rate of 34 per 1,000 women aged 15-49 in 1996.
  • 28. Replacement level fertility  The level of fertility at which a couple has only enough children to replace themselves, or about two children per couple.  This pop will eventually stop growing.  It needs a TFR slightly higher than 2  In US it is 2.1 because death rate is not too high  In Sierra Leone , Repl. Level Fert. would be greater than 3 because death rate is too high.
  • 29. Mortality Death Rate  The death rate (also called the crude death rate) is the number of deaths per 1,000 population in a given year.  In the early 1990s, the death rate in Turkey was 6.6 per 1,000 population. Number of deaths (405,000 )/ Total population (61,644,000) x K (1,000) = 6.6  In the early 1990s, Guinea’s death rate was 20 per 1,000 population, while Singapore’s was 5 per 1,000.
  • 30. Death rates: Age-Specific death rate Cause-specific death rate Sex-specific death rate
  • 31. In Somaliland The death rate among reproductive-age women is highest with 9.4 deaths per 1,000 population.
  • 32. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1,000 live births in a given year. The infant mortality rate is considered a good indicator of the health status of a population.  Latest figure about IMR in Jordan is 17/1000 live births ( DHS /2012)
  • 33. Maternal Mortality Ratio  The maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die as a result of complications of pregnancy or childbearing in a given year per 100,000 live births in that year.  Deaths due to complications of spontaneous or induced abortions are included.  a maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.
  • 34. Maternal Mortality Ratio This measure is sometimes referred to as the maternal mortality rate Number of maternal deaths (185 )x Total live births (1,408,159 )x K (100,000 )= 13.1 In Jordan MMR 19.1 (Maternal Mortality Study – Jordan 2007-2008- Higher Population Council, 2009)  Somaliland’s Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) has fallen to 396 maternal deaths per 100,000
  • 35. Morbidity Morbidity refers to disease and illness, injury and disability, in a population. Data about the frequency and distribution of a disease can aid in controlling its spread, and in some cases, may lead to identification of it causes.
  • 36. Morbidity : Incidence Rate Incidence: The incidence rate is the number of people contracting a disease during a given time period per 1,000 population at risk. The incidence rate and other morbidity rates vary so widely in magnitude that any constant may be used that expresses the rate in a clear manner (from “per 100” or “percent” to “per 100,000”). Number of people developing tuberculosis during a given time period x K = 252,316 x 100,000 = 372 Population at risk 67,827,000 The incidence of tuberculosis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2009 was 372 per 100,000 population
  • 37. Morbidity (Prevalence) Prevalence: The prevalence rate is the number of people who have a particular disease at a given point in time per 1,000 population. This rate includes all known cases that have not resulted in death, cure, or remission, as well as new cases developing during the specified period. Number of people ages 15-49 with HIV/AIDS x K = 892,750 x 100 = 14.3 Total population ages 15-49 6,243,000 The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe among adults (ages 15-49) in 2009 was 14.3 per 100 population. In 2009, the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS for males ages 15-49 in Botswana was 20.6 percent and for females, 29.2. Corresponding rates in Argentina were 0.6 and 0.3, respectively.
  • 38. Morbidity Case Fatality Rate The case fatality rate is the proportion of people contracting a disease who die of that disease during a specified time period. Number of persons dying from the disease x K = 12,270 x 100,000 = 20.5 Number of persons contracting the disease 60,000,000 during a period From April 2009 to March 2010, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there were 12,270 deaths from H1N1 flu in the United States, or 21 deaths for every 100,000 cases
  • 39. Life Expectancy Life expectancy is an estimate of the average number of additional years a person could expect to live if the age-specific death rates for a given year prevailed for the rest of his or her life. Life expectancy is a hypothetical measure because it is based on current death rates and actual death rates change over the course of a person’s lifetime. Each person’s life expectancy changes as he or she grows older and as mortality trends change.
  • 40. Life Expectancy If the age-specific death rates for 1996 remain unchanged, males in Brazil born in Life expectancy for Jordanians 73 years (DHS, 2012).
  • 41. Population Composition Age and Sex Composition Age and sex are the most basic characteristics of a population. Every population has a different age and sex composition— the number and proportion of males and females in each age group— This structure can have considerable impact on the population’s social and economic situation, both present and future.
  • 42. Population Composition Age and Sex Composition Populations could be relatively young / developing countries, About 40 % <15 years e.g. Africa.. Jordan . Less than 4% are older groups. Relatively old populations ( aging), developed countries, more than 10% over 65 years e.g. Europe/ Less than 25% of pop <15 years.
  • 43. Age and Sex Composition Young and old populations have markedly different age compositions; as a consequence, they also have different proportions of the population in the labor force or in school, as well as different medical needs, consumer preferences, and even crime patterns.
  • 44. Median Age A population’s age structure has a great deal to do with how that population lives.  The median age is the age at which exactly half the population is older and half is younger.  Examples: The median age of the Costa Rican population in 1995 was 23 years. While that in Sweden was 38, signifying an older population.  In 1995, the median age in Jordan, with a young population, was 18. In 2012, median age in Jordan was 20,3 years (2012).
  • 45. Sex Ratio  The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a given population,  usually expressed as the number of males for every 100 females.  The sex ratio at birth in most countries is about 105 or 106 males per 100 females.  After birth, sex ratios vary because of different patterns of mortality and migration for males and females within the population.
  • 46. Population Pyramid A population pyramid graphically displays a population’s age and sex composition. Horizontal bars present the numbers or proportions of males and females in each age group. The sum of all the age-sex groups in the population pyramid equals 100 percent of the population.
  • 49. Population profiles  Populations of countries can differ markedly as a result of past and current patterns of fertility, mortality, and migration. However, they all tend to fall into three general profiles of age-sex composition. 1. Rapid growth is indicated by a pyramid with a large percentage of people in the younger ages. 2. Slow growth is reflected by a pyramid with a smaller proportion of the population in the younger ages. 3. Zero growth or decreasing populations are shown by roughly equal numbers of people in all age ranges, tapering off gradually at the older ages.
  • 50. Age pattern of Senegal population, 2010
  • 51. Age pattern of Italy’s population, 2010
  • 52. Age pattern of US population, 2009
  • 54. Population change Population change has three components: births, deaths, and migration. As people are born, die, or move, their total numbers in an area change.  During most of history, world population increased very slowly, but during the 20th century, this growth has accelerated.
  • 55. How do populations change? A change in population size over a given period of time equals the number of people in the population at the beginning of the period plus any births that occur during the period, minus any deaths, plus net migration during the period.
  • 56. Calculating population change over time P1+(B-D)+(I-E)= P2
  • 57. Population change The change in population size accounted for by more births in the population than deaths is referred to as "natural increase." The term "natural decrease" refers to population decline resulting from more deaths than births.  Jordan : Growth rate 2.2 Natural growth: 2.1 ( DHS, 2012)
  • 58. Rate of Natural Increase The rate of natural increase is the rate at which a population is increasing (or decreasing) in a given year due to a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths, expressed as a percentage of the base population. Net migration is the number of immigrants minus emigrants.
  • 59. Growth Rate The growth rate is the rate at which a population is increasing (or decreasing) in a given year due to natural increase and net migration, expressed as a percentage of the base population. The growth rate takes into account all components of population growth: births, deaths, and migration. It equals ( births – deaths )+_ net migration/ total population X K ( 100). It should never be confused with the birth rate, but it sometimes is.
  • 60. The Demographic Transition  The demographic transition refers to the change that populations undergo from high rates of births and deaths to low rates of births and deaths.  High levels of births and deaths kept most populations from growing rapidly throughout most of time.
  • 61. The Demographic Transition The decline in mortality usually precedes the decline in fertility, resulting in population growth during the transition period.
  • 63. Population policies National population commissions were formed in different countries They formulated national population policies and action plans One major component of the action plan deals with reproductive health Reproductive health in the context of population includes reproductive rights, sexuality, family planning, reproductive morbidity, violence against women, gender based differences, male involvement in reproductive health.